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Henry VIII
King of England (more...)
Reign 21 April 1509 – 28 January 1547 (&0000000000000037.00000037 years, &0000000000000282.000000282 days)
Coronation 24 June 1509 (aged 17)
Predecessor Henry VII
Successor Edward VI
Spouse Catherine of Aragon
Anne Boleyn
Jane Seymour
Anne of Cleves
Catherine Howard
Catherine Parr
Issue
Mary I of England
Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset
Elizabeth I of England
Edward VI of England
House House of Tudor
Father Henry VII of England
Mother Elizabeth of York
Born 28 June 1491(1491-06-28)
Greenwich Palace, Greenwich
Died 28 January 1547 (aged 55)
Palace of Whitehall, London
Burial St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle
Signature
Religion Christian (Anglican,
previously Roman Catholic)
.Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death.^ Henry ll England, King of .

^ Henry 11 Plantagenet King England .

^ Henry Plantagenet ll King of England .

.He was also Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) and claimant to the Kingdom of France.^ John "Lackland" King of England PLANTAGENET Lord Of Ireland & Count Of Mortain .

.Henry was the second monarch of the House of Tudor, succeeding his father, Henry VII.^ Henry (VII, King ofEngland) Tudor .

^ Henry Tudor VII King of england .

^ Henry vii Tudor King of England .

Henry VIII was a significant figure in the history of the English monarchy. Although in the great part of his reign he brutally suppressed the influence of the Protestant Reformation in England,[1][2] a movement having some roots with John Wycliffe in the 14th century, he is more popularly known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. Henry's struggles with Rome ultimately led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and establishing himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. .He changed religious ceremonies and rituals and closed down the monasteries, while remaining a fervent believer in core Catholic theological teachings, even after his excommunication from the Roman Catholic Church following the annulment of his marriage to first wife Catherine of Aragon and the marriage to his second wife, Anne Boleyn.^ Catherine of Aragon (Wife) b.

^ Anne Boleyn (Wife) b.

[1][3] .Royal support for the English Reformation began with his heirs, the devout Edward VI and the renowned Elizabeth I, whilst daughter Mary I temporarily reinstated papal authority over England.^ Elizabeth (daughter of Edward) .

^ Elizabeth Daughter of Edward IV of England .

^ Edward VI King Of England .

Henry also oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542. He is also noted for his six wives, two of whom were beheaded.

Contents

Early years: 1491–1509

Born in Greenwich Palace, Henry VIII was the third child of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York.[4] .Of the young Henry's six siblings, only three — Arthur, Prince of Wales; Margaret; and Mary — survived infancy, the other three were Elizabeth Tudor, Edmund Tudor, Duke of Somerset and Katherine Tudor.^ Edmund son of Henry VII Tudor .

^ Arthur Tudor, Prince ofWales .

^ Hey Henry, why is the City of McDonough jumping all over the only black owned business that's been on the Square for over three years?

.In 1493, at the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.^ Endd .: M. to my lord Warden of the Cinq Portes, xxvij o Aprilis 1545.
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

In 1494, he was created Duke of York. .He was subsequently appointed Earl Marshal of England and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.^ John "Lackland" King of England PLANTAGENET Lord Of Ireland & Count Of Mortain .

^ Thomas Plantagenet Earl of Norfolk, Marshal of England, Royal Ancest .

^ Thomas de Holand , KG, Lord Woodstock, Marshal of England .

Henry was given a first-rate education from leading tutors, becoming fluent in Latin, French, and Spanish.[5] .As it was expected that the throne would pass to Prince Arthur, Henry's older brother, Henry was prepared for a life in the church.^ Hey Henry, I would like to thank the gentleman who gave my mother the sign Kindness Shows - Pass it On at the church near Warren Holder Park on November 29.

^ Hey Henry, I would like to pay tribute to Jerry Harris Brannan, born 11/3/46 and passed away 8/9/2005.

^ Hey Henry, many older folks are passing their land to their children who just wish to make money and sell to ones building homes.

[6]

Death of Arthur

.In 1502, Arthur died at the age of 15. His death thrust all his duties upon his younger brother, Henry, who then became Prince of Wales.^ Ryan Plantz Hey Henry, to all the smokers who are currently upset with the smoking ban....

^ Hey Henry, violent music - violent behavior - promoting criminal behavior and Pimp lifestyles and the Bling-Bling of it all = violent death and destruction.

^ A big round of applause to Beau Kelley and all the people who worked on Taste of Henry.

.Henry VII renewed his efforts to seal a marital alliance between England and Spain, by offering Henry, Prince of Wales, in marriage to Prince Arthur's widow, Catherine of Aragon, the youngest surviving child of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile.^ Henry 7th Tudor King of England .

^ Henry 2nd 'Curtmantle' King of England .

^ Henry II of england .

[7]
Catherine as a young widow, by Henry VII's court painter, Michael Sittow, in c.1502.
.In order for the new Prince of Wales to marry his brother's widow, a dispensation from the Pope was normally required to overrule the impediment of affinity because, as told in the book of Leviticus, "If a brother is to marry the wife of a brother they will remain childless". Catherine swore that her marriage to Prince Arthur had not been consummated.^ I was also told that they would not bother yard sale signs because they are temporary.

^ ARTHUR TUDOR Prince of Wales .

^ Arthur Prince of Wales Tudor .

Still, both the English and Spanish parties agreed that an additional papal dispensation of affinity would be prudent to remove all doubt regarding the legitimacy of the marriage.
The impatience of Catherine's mother, Queen Isabella I, induced Pope Julius II to grant dispensation in the form of a Papal bull. .So, 14 months after her young husband's death, Catherine found herself betrothed to his even younger brother, Henry.^ You print my vents on a regular basis, but it takes my husband weeks at a time, or even months to get anything in print.

^ Hey Henry, in recognition of Black History Month, I would like to honor Emily Tubman, who used her late husband's fortune to free his slaves.

Yet by 1505, Henry VII lost interest in a Spanish alliance and the younger Henry declared that his betrothal had been arranged without his consent.
.Continued diplomatic manoeuvring over the fate of the proposed marriage lingered until the death of Henry VII in 1509. Only 17 years old, Henry married Catherine on 11 June 1509 and, on 24 June 1509, the two were crowned at Westminster Abbey.^ I have a two year old and a seven year old, and a thirteen year old.

^ The building is only four years old.

^ I looked in the phone book, lo and behold; there are two places here in good old Henry County that takes both recyclable materials and trash.

Early Reign: 1509–1525

Two days after his coronation he arrested his father's two most unpopular ministers, Sir Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley. .They were groundlessly charged with high treason and were executed in 1510. This was to become Henry's primary tactic for dealing with those who stood in his way.^ Hey Henry, am I the only person who thinks those new xenon headlights are hurtful & distracting for oncoming drivers?

^ Hey Henry, to the Civil War "Expert" stating, "Confederate soldiers are not American Veterans, they were Confederate Veterans" - CSA = Confederate States of AMERICA. Hey Henry, way to go Luella High School Fine Arts Department.

^ Hey Henry, too bad there is not a dumb____ vaccine for the venter who thinks George Bush cheated his way into office!

[4]
Eighteen year-old Henry after his coronation in 1509.
Henry cultivated the image of a Renaissance Man and his court was a centre of scholarly and artistic innovation and glamorous excess, epitomised by The Field of the Cloth of Gold. He was an accomplished musician, author, and poet. .His best known musical composition is "Pastime with Good Company" or "The Kynges Ballade". He was also an avid gambler and dice player, and excelled at sports, especially jousting, hunting, and real tennis.^ Hey Henry, I sure hope the good residents of Henry County realize what an amazingly talented and professional quality theater company we have in our very own Henry Players.

^ Hey Henry, the Henry Players production of "Les Miserables" was probably the best musical I've seen in the last 10 years of HP productions.

He was also known for his strong defence of conventional Christian piety.[5]

France and the Hapsburgs

In 1511, Pope Julius II proclaimed a Holy League against France. .This new alliance rapidly grew to include not only Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, but also England.^ Isabel Empress of the Holy Roman Empire PLANTAGENET .

.Henry decided to use the occasion as an excuse to expand his holdings in northern France.^ Excuse me Henry County....To all those people who complain about how Henry " used to be".

He concluded the Treaty of Westminster, a pledge of mutual aid with Spain against France, in November 1511 and prepared for involvement in the War of the League of Cambrai. In 1513, Henry invaded France and his troops defeated a French army at the Battle of the Spurs. .His brother-in-law, James IV of Scotland, invaded England at the behest of Louis XII of France,[8] but failed to draw Henry's attention away from France.^ Henry IV af England .

^ Henry iv King of England .

^ Henry IV "King of England" 1399 - 1413 Plantagenet .

The Scots were disastrously defeated at the Battle of Flodden Field on 9 September 1513. Among the slain was the Scottish King, whose death ended Scotland's brief involvement in the war.
.On 18 February 1516, Queen Catherine bore Henry his first child to survive infancy, Princess Mary of England, who later reigned as Mary I of England.^ Eleanor England Princess of England,queen of Castile .

^ Hey Henry, congratulation to the girl's basketball team from Henry County High, who qualified for the State Tournament for the first time in 20 years.

^ Hey Henry, the 27 folks who participated in Stockbridge's first peace vigil thank you for covering this historical event.

.(A son, Henry, Duke of Cornwall, had been born in 1511 but lived only a few weeks.^ Hey Henry, in a few more weeks, we will be half-way through the year and into summer.

^ Hey Henry, a few weeks ago I called my bank three times and got no answer.

^ Am I the only one who doesn't understand what kids living in Henry County have to be so angry about?

)

Power and authority

Financially, the reign of Henry was a near-disaster. .After inheriting a prosperous economy (augmented by seizures of church lands) heavy spending and high taxes damaged the economy.^ No wonder there is so much rezoning, landowners can't afford the high taxes on their land any more so they have no choice but to sell.

[9][10]
For example, Henry expanded the Royal Navy from 5 to 53 ships. He loved palaces; he began with a dozen and died with fifty-five, in which he hung 2,000 tapestries.[11] He took pride in showing off his collection of weapons, which included exotic archery equipment, 2,250 pieces of land ordnance and 6,500 handguns.[12]
From 1514 to 1529, Thomas Wolsey (1473–1530), a Catholic cardinal, served as lord chancellor and practically controlled domestic and foreign policy for the young king. He negotiated the truce with France that was signaled by the dramatic display of amity on the Field of the Cloth of Gold (1520). .He switched England back and forth as an ally of France and the Holy Roman Empire.^ Isabel Empress of the Holy Roman Empire PLANTAGENET .

^ Charlemagne of France, Holy Roman Emperor .

Wolsey centralised the national government and extended the jurisdiction of the conciliar courts, particularly the Star Chamber. .His use of forced loans to pay for foreign wars angered the rich, who were annoyed as well by his enormous wealth and ostentatious living.^ Concerning the poor guys who have to blow the Square off using only little handheld blowers: Could the city pay for some nice backpack blowers?

^ Well stop paying on our houses and any other loans we have, go on welfare and food stamps, and stop worrying about everything.

^ Then I read where the Social Security number is issued to all Americans so our income can be taxed and used as collateral to pay off loans from the Federal Reserve.

Wolsey disappointed the king when he failed to secure a quick divorce from Queen Katherine. .The treasury was empty after years of extravagance; the peers and people were dissatisfied and Henry needed an entirely new approach; Wolsey had to be replaced.^ Hey Henry, to the person who responded to my Hey Henry about New Birth Missionary South and told me I needed to "get the plank out of my eye," this is what I have to say.

^ Hey Henry, whoever said that the columnist Julia Dahl needed to go back to New York OBVIOUSLY does not have children in Henry County schools.

^ Hey Henry, I would hate to spoil my husband's new year's resolution, will you please help my husband with his venting!

After 16 years at the top he lost power in 1529 and in 1530 was arrested on false charges of treason and died in custody. Wolsey's fall was a warning to the Pope and to the clergy of England of what might be expected for failure to comply with the king's wishes. .Henry then took full control of his government, although at court numerous complex factions continued to try to ruin and destroy each other.^ Hey Henry, I get so tired of people thinking all African-American people know each other and can in some way control their behavior.

^ Hey Henry: two more banks in Stockbridge robbed today; other robberies took place last week as well in Northern Henry County.

Elton (1962) argues there was a major Tudor revolution in government. While crediting Henry with intelligence and shrewdness, Elton finds that much of the positive action, especially the break with Rome, was the work of Thomas Cromwell and not the king. .Elton sees Henry as competent, but too lazy to take direct control of affairs for any extended period; that is, the king was an opportunist who relied on others for most of his ideas and to do most of the work.^ Does it take the same amount of time for us to find out if a child abuser is working for the Henry County school system?

^ While most may be lazy and sorry people who wont work, I know for a fact that many do want to better themselves and recover.

^ I am sure most of the other poor spelling and grammar that you see on here came as a product of the government school system too.

.Henry's marital adventures are part of Elton's chain of evidence; a man who marries six wives, Elton notes, is not someone who fully controls his own fate.^ Hey Henry, the developer on Hemphill who is willing to donate $450,000 to the county for road improvements is for his own benefit.

^ Just as the car misses the child, the bullet coming from the gun in the hands of someone who has already shot an innocent man hits the child and brings to an end an innocent life.

^ Hey Henry, the Historical Preservation Committee should have to either purchase your property or pay your yearly fees if they can control what you can do with your own property.

Elton shows that Thomas Cromwell had conceived of a commonwealth of England that included popular participation through Parliament and that this was generally expressed in the preambles to legislation. .Parliamentary consent did not mean that the king had yielded any of his authority; Henry VIII was a paternalistic ruler who did not hesitate to use his power.^ Henry (VIII, King ofEngland) Tudor .

^ Henry viii Tudor King of England .

^ Hey Henry, Hell sure will be full to the brim with the people who have roamed this planet and did nothing but served themselves.

Popular "consent" was a means to augment rather than limit royal power.[13]

Reformation

Henry never formally repudiated the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, but he declared himself supreme head of the church in England. This, combined with subsequent actions, eventually resulted in a separated church, the Church of England. The pope behaved more as an Italian prince involved in secular affairs, which often obscured his religious role. .The Church treated England as a minor stepchild, allowing it one cardinal out of fifty, and no possibility of becoming pope.^ No one around here is offering you a bail out.

^ No one expects you to just stop and let people out.

^ Hey Henry, I would like to know why Henry County High School allowed to have children playing on their football team who live out of district, and when it is reported, no one does anything.

For reasons of state it was increasingly intolerable that major decisions in England were settled by Italians. The divorce issue exemplified the problem but was not itself the cause of the problem. As long as Cardinal Wolsey dominated the government the widespread sentiment for reform could go nowhere.[14] .Henry's reformation of the English church involved more complex motives and methods than his desire for a new wife and an heir.^ Hey Henry, my new year's resolution is to get more HEY HENRY's than my wife.

^ Hey Henry, Fred Thompson is thinking about running for president, is his new wife old enough to be first lady?

^ Hey Henry, the thought of the City Manager making almost $2,000 more a year as a bonus, and his wife making the same, not to mention the City Attorney, makes Enron looked better managed than our city.

.Henry asserted that his first marriage had never been valid, but the divorce issue was only one factor in Henry's desire to reform the church.^ Hey Henry, are we the only ones not getting our mail put in our own mail boxes?

^ Hey Henry, McDonough First United Methodist Church has outdone themselves this year with a wonderful Vacation Bible School.

^ Hey Henry, am I the only one who thinks new home construction in Henry County will come to a halt if Immigration and Naturalization ever checks the papers on the construction workers?

In 1536–37, he instituted a number of statutes-the act of appeal, the act of succession, the act of supremacy and others-that dealt with the relationship between the king and the pope and the structure of the Church of England. .During these years, Henry also suppressed monasteries and pilgrimage shrines in his attempt to reform the church.^ Hey Henry, McDonough First United Methodist Church has outdone themselves this year with a wonderful Vacation Bible School.

^ Hey Henry, the music played during the Easter egg hunt at Nash farms this year was very inappropriate for children's ears!

The king was always the dominant force in the making of religious policy; his policy, which he pursued skilfully and consistently, is best characterized as a search for the middle way.[15] .Questions over what was the true faith were resolved with the adoption of the orthodox "Act of Six Articles" (1539) and a careful holding of the balance between extreme factions after 1540. Even so the era saw movement away from religious orthodoxy, the more so as the pillars of the old beliefs, especially Thomas More and John Fisher, had been unable to accept the change and had been executed in 1535 for refusing to renounce papal authority.^ There are more people begging for money and its getting old and I am running out of change!

Critical for the Henrician reformation was the new political theology of obedience to the prince that was enthusiastically adopted by the Church of England in the 1530s. It reflected was Martin Luther's new interpretation of the fourth commandment and was mediated to an English audience by William Tyndale. The founding of royal authority on the Ten Commandments, and thus on the word of God, was a particularly attractive feature of this doctrine, which became a defining feature of Henrician religion. Rival tendencies within the Church of England sought to exploit it in the pursuit of their particular agendas. .Reformers strove to preserve its connections with the broader framework of Lutheran theology, with the emphasis on faith alone and the word of God, while conservatives emphasized good works, ceremonies, and charity.^ God bless her for her good works.

.The Reformers linked royal supremacy and the word of God in order to persuade Henry to publish the "Great Bible," an English translation that was a formidable prop for his new-found dignity.^ Hey Henry, great play, great acting, and neat how the Henry Players made me think of Monty Python with their tight English Accents.

^ Hey Henry, I paid a great deal of money to live in English Oaks and my house is falling apart.

^ Then look up and read a published work by the "great" Henry Ford, Sr.

[16]

Dissolving the monasteries

England possessed numerous religious houses that owned large tracts of land worked by tenants. Henry dissolved them (1536–1540)and transferred a fifth of England's landed wealth to new hands. .The program was designed primarily to create a landed gentry beholden to the crown, which would use the lands much more efficiently.^ No wonder there is so much rezoning, landowners can't afford the high taxes on their land any more so they have no choice but to sell.

^ The money taken at the gate goes to the athletic departments because they claim they need that much and more to run their programs.

Henry made radical changes in traditional religious practices. He ordered the clergy to preach against superstitious images, relics, miracles, and pilgrimages, and to remove most candles. The catechism of 1545, called the King's Primer, left out the saints. Latin rituals gave way to English. Shrines to saints were destroyed—including the popular one of St Thomas at Canterbury; relics were ridiculed as worthless old bones. The reforms alienated pious folk who believed in the old rituals depended on the monasteries for religious devotions and helped provoke the great northern rising of 1536–1537, known as the Pilgrimage of Grace. .It was the only real threat to Henry's security on the throne in all his reign.^ Hey Henry, why is the City of McDonough jumping all over the only black owned business that's been on the Square for over three years?

^ Hey Henry, it really makes me sick that the Board of Ed is taking away all of the fine arts programs.

^ Hey Henry, we all have those few pennies laying around that we think aren't really worth much.

Some 30,000 rebels in nine groups were led by the charismatic Robert Aske, together with most of the northern nobility. Aske went to London to negotiate terms; once there he was arrested, charged with treason and executed. About 200 rebels were executed and the disturbances ended.[17] .Elsewhere the changes were accepted and welcomed, as those who clung to Catholic rites kept quiet or moved in secrecy; they would reemerge in the reign (1553–58) of Henry's daughter Mary.^ Call the Henry County Times at 770-957-6314 and they will give you my information if you would like the blanket returned.

^ Hey Henry, am I the only person who thinks those new xenon headlights are hurtful & distracting for oncoming drivers?

^ Hey Henry, those who have recently moved here complain about the traffic and those of us that have lived here forever know how to get around it by going back roads.

Mistresses

.In spite of his popular image, Henry may not have had very many affairs outside marriage and (apart from women he later married) the identities of only two mistresses are completely undisputed: Elizabeth "Bessie" Blount and Mary Boleyn (although it is unlikely that they were the only two).^ Hey Henry (and McDonough), you know what they say, Two Reeves' are better than one (that is, one Reeves and one Reeves-Hubert)!

^ Hey Henry, many thanks to an anonymous, very thoughtful gentleman who picked up the tab at a Stockbridge restaurant for our birthday luncheon!

^ Hey Henry, I thought that was so nice of the two ladies to be out there with their signs walking up and down in the cold as they supported Moye's.

[18]
Elizabeth Blount gave birth to Henry's illegitimate son, Henry FitzRoy. .The young boy was made Duke of Richmond in June 1525 in what some thought was one step on the path to legitimatising him.^ I started feeling better and one young man knew I was very nervous, so he told me to smile and that made me feel so much better.

.In 1533, FitzRoy married Mary Howard, Anne Boleyn's first cousin, but died three years later without any successors.^ Mary Ann Barnette Hey Henry, my father is 67 years old and has worked all his life.

.At the time of FitzRoy's death the king was trying to pass a law that would allow his otherwise illegitimate son to become king.^ My question is if it doesn't pass the first time or even the second how would you know it would the third?

.Mary Boleyn was Henry's mistress before her sister, Anne, became his second wife.^ Mary Ann Barnette Hey Henry, my father is 67 years old and has worked all his life.

^ I just had to say Hey Henry and let you know how much reading it means to me (Mary Ann Barnette).

^ Anne Boleyn (Wife) .

.She is thought to have been Catherine's lady-in-waiting at some point between 1519 and 1526. There has been speculation that Mary's two children, Catherine and Henry, were fathered by Henry, but this has never been proven and the King never acknowledged them, as he did Henry FitzRoy.^ Hey Henry, I thought green lights meant go, and red lights meant stop, and also I thought stop signs meant to stop; I did not know they meant to cruise right on through.

^ Mary Ann Barnette Hey Henry, my father is 67 years old and has worked all his life.

^ Hey Henry, does anyone else out there think that maybe some of the truck drivers on the roads are former pilots?

.In 1510 it was reported that Henry was conducting an affair with one of the sisters of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, either Elizabeth or Anne Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon.^ Anne PLANTAGENET, Countess of Stafford .

^ Anne Plantagenet, Countess Of Stafford .

^ Anne PLANTAGENET , Countess of Stafford .

[19] Her brother, the Duke of Buckingham, became enraged and Lord George Hastings, her husband, sent her to a convent. Eustace Chapuys wrote, "the husband of that lady went away, carried her off and placed her in a convent sixty miles from here, that no one may see her."[20]
Henry also seems to have had an affair with one of the Shelton sisters in 1535. Traditionally it has been believed that this was Margaret (nicknamed "Madge"), but recent research has led to the claim that this was actually Mary.[21]
.There are also grounds for suspecting that he had an affair with an unknown woman in 1534. Alison Weir has argued that, aside from these five affairs, there were also numerous other short-term and secret liaisons, most of them conducted in the king's river-side mansion of Jordan House.^ Being a woman myself, I want to tell all these women out there that your car is not meant to be used as a powder room.

^ There are lots of tax paying people that live down these roads that are getting their cars trashed, not to mention their houses!

[22]

The King's Great Matter: 1525–1533

The Six Wives of
Henry VIII
Catherine aragon.jpg Catherine of Aragon
Anne boleyn.jpg Anne Boleyn
Hans Holbein d. J. 032b.jpg Jane Seymour
AnneCleves.jpg Anne of Cleves
HowardCatherine02.jpeg Catherine Howard
Catherine Parr from NPG cropped.jpg Catherine Parr
Henry became impatient with what he perceived as Catherine's inability to produce the heir he desired. All of Catherine's children died in infancy except their daughter Mary.[23] .Henry wanted a male heir, to avoid rival claims to the crown like those which had caused the Wars of the Roses before Henry's father, Henry VII, became king.^ Henry (VII, King ofEngland) Tudor .

^ Henry Tudor VII King of england .

^ Henry vii Tudor King of England .

The disastrous reign of Matilda, England's only ruling Queen to that point, may also have weighed on Henry's mind.
.In 1525, as Henry grew more impatient, he became enamoured of a charismatic young woman in the Queen's entourage, Anne Boleyn.^ Hey Henry, after reading a big chunk of the blog, I realized for sure that the wonderful McDonough where I grew up is no more.

[24] Anne at first resisted his attempts to seduce her, and refused to become his mistress as her sister Mary Boleyn had. .She said "I beseech your highness most earnestly to desist, and to this my answer in good part.^ Hey Henry, I would like to thank Most of the Salvation Army staff and volunteers for making my community service there a good experience.

^ And thank you Miss Georgia Teen, Katie Conkle, for your part in showing teens that setting goals is a good thing.

^ Hey Henry, my husband's doc must be a mime, because when I ask him what the M.D. said, the answer is always nothing.

.I would rather lose my life than my honesty."^ I always get my pets from a shelter, but I would not get my pets from the liberal, better than thou, Humane Society.

^ It has gotten so rude that people in my church and neighborhood have decided that they would rather go to the McDonough Library, than to have those people be very ugly to our faces in front of our children.

^ I think I'm going to like it here, but would rather do all my business with your Welcome Center than to deal with the ones at City Hall.

[25] .This refusal made Henry even more attracted, and he pursued her relentlessly.^ If not we will have even more trailers housing the children of Henry County taxpayers.

.Eventually, Anne saw her opportunity in Henry's infatuation and determined that she would only yield to his embraces as his acknowledged queen.^ Hey Henry, only a heart of stone could be unmoved by the strength, valor and determination displayed in Kilpatricks Charge on August 20, 1864 at Nash Farm.

[1] It soon became the King's absorbing desire to annul his marriage to Catherine.[26] It is possible that the idea of annulment had suggested itself to the King much before he noticed Anne, and it was most probably motivated by his desire for a male heir.
.Henry appealed directly to the Holy See, independently from Cardinal Thomas Wolsey from whom he kept his plans for Anne secret.^ Hey Henry, The Best Kept Secret in McDonough is at Season's Bistro.

Instead, Henry's secretary, William Knight, was sent to Pope Clement VII to sue for the annulment. The grounds were that the bull of Pope Julius II was obtained by false pretences, because Catherine's brief marriage to the sickly Arthur had been consummated. .Henry also petitioned, in the event of annulment, a dispensation to marry again to any woman even in the first degree of affinity, whether the affinity was contracted by lawful or unlawful connection.^ Hey Henry, the 27 folks who participated in Stockbridge's first peace vigil thank you for covering this historical event.

This clearly had reference to Anne.[1]
Catherine of Aragon, first queen of Henry VIII.
.However, as the pope was at that time imprisoned by Emperor Charles V, Knight had difficulty in getting access to him, and so only managed to obtain the conditional dispensation for a new marriage.^ Hey Henry, each time I pick up a newspaper I read how much more space and new buildings the county has obtained.

^ The highest paid city manager in the state...he makes more than Sonny Purdue, and his wife who works for him, and keeps getting raises.

.Henry now had no choice but to put the matter into the hands of Wolsey.^ Hey Henry, I am now convinced that I did the right thing by putting my child in private school last year.

.Wolsey did all he could to secure a decision in the King's favour, going so far as to arrange an ecclesiastical court to meet in England, with a representative from the Pope.^ Hey Henry, are we going to continue to let HCBOE make all of our decisions.

[1] .Shakespeare's play, Henry VIII, accurately records Catherine of Aragon's astounding coup in that remarkable courtroom in Act II, scene iv.^ Hey Henry, great play, great acting, and neat how the Henry Players made me think of Monty Python with their tight English Accents.

She bows low to Henry, put herself at his mercy, states her case with irrefutable eloquence and then sweeps out of the courtroom, a woman both formidable and clearly wronged. However much this moment swayed those present and the rest of the world to her side, the Pope had never had any intention of empowering his legate. Charles V resisted the annulment of his aunt's marriage, but it is not clear how far this influenced the pope. But it is clear that Henry saw that the Pope was unlikely to give him an annulment from the Emperor's aunt.[27] .The pope forbade Henry to proceed to a new marriage before a decision was given in Rome, not in England.^ Hey Henry, Peeksville & South Ola - Does anyone know if they plan to put a light here before the new schools are done?

Wolsey bore the blame. .Convinced that he was treacherous, Anne Boleyn maintained pressure until Wolsey was dismissed from public office in 1529. After being dismissed, the cardinal begged her to help him return to power, but she refused.^ Hey Henry, since my City Council person Monta Brown, ignored me I will certainly return the favor on his next run for public office.

He then began a secret plot to have Anne forced into exile and began communication with Queen Catherine and the Pope to that end. When this was discovered, Henry ordered Wolsey's arrest and had it not been for his death from illness in 1530, he might have been executed for treason.[28] .His replacement, Sir Thomas More, initially cooperated with the king's new policy, denouncing Wolsey in Parliament and proclaiming the opinion of the theologians at Oxford and Cambridge that the marriage of Henry to Catherine had been unlawful.^ Norf .—Thomas duke of Norfolk, Treasurer of England, Henry earl of Surrey, Henry earl of Sussex, Sir Ric.
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Mountagu, Thomas Bromley, one of the justices of King's Bench, Sir John Seynt John.
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas duke of Norfolk, Treasurer of England, Henry earl of Surrey, Henry earl of Sussex, the mayor of Norwich, Sir [Ric] Southwell, Sir [Rog Town]esend, Sir Wm.
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.As Henry began to deny the authority of the Pope, More's qualms grew.^ Hey Henry, after reading a big chunk of the blog, I realized for sure that the wonderful McDonough where I grew up is no more.

.A year later, Queen Catherine was banished from court and her old rooms were given to Anne.^ Mary Ann Barnette Hey Henry, my father is 67 years old and has worked all his life.

With Wolsey gone, Anne now had considerable power over government appointments and political matters. She was an unusually educated and intellectual woman for her age, and was a keenly absorbed and engaged with the ideas of the Protestant Reformers. When Archbishop of Canterbury William Warham died, Anne had the Boleyn family's chaplain, Thomas Cranmer, appointed to the vacant position. Through the intervention of the King of France, this was conceded by Rome, the pallium being granted to him by Clement.[29]
The breaking of the power of Rome in England proceeded slowly. In 1532, a lawyer who was a supporter of Anne, Thomas Cromwell, brought before Parliament a number of acts including the Supplication against the Ordinaries and the Submission of the Clergy, which recognised Royal Supremacy over the church. .Following these acts, Thomas More resigned as Chancellor, leaving Cromwell as Henry's chief minister.^ Hey Henry, tell all these Bush bashers they need to look up some facts for themselves instead of following the lies of the Democrats.

^ Hey Henry, if the Chief of Police for McDonough was...more concerned about getting rid of crime, then the issue would be mass transit.

[30]

Second marriage

.Henry attended a meeting with the French king at Calais in the winter of 1532, in which he enlisted the support of Francis I of France for his new marriage.^ Hey Henry, you better start attending your Henry County Board of Commissioner's meetings unless you want your County run by a vocal minority.

^ At the Easter Egg Hunt, they had the Mr. Miss Special Henry County Queens and Kings to attend and also provided a hunt especially for people with special needs.

[31] Immediately upon returning to Dover in England, Henry and Anne went through a secret wedding service.[32] .She soon became pregnant and there was a second wedding service, which took place in London on 25 January 1533. Events now began to move quickly.^ Appears no employee there is over 25 and has no clue on how to run the place.

^ The 13 and under team took second place in a crowded field of 34 teams at the YBOA Georgia State Tournament this weekend.

On 23 May 1533, Cranmer, sitting in judgment at a special court convened at Dunstable Priory to rule on the validity of the king's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, declared the marriage of Henry and Catherine null and void. .Five days later, on 28 May 1533, Cranmer declared the marriage of Henry and Anne to be good and valid.^ Hey Henry, Speaker Pelosi talked about five-day work weeks and financial responsibility when she took over.

[33]
.Catherine was formally stripped of her title as queen, and Anne was consequently crowned queen consort on 1 June 1533. The queen gave birth slightly prematurely on 7 September 1533. Anne had given birth to a girl who was christened Elizabeth, in honour of Henry's mother, Elizabeth of York.^ Hey Henry, I would like to thank the gentleman who gave my mother the sign Kindness Shows - Pass it On at the church near Warren Holder Park on November 29.

^ Lets get smart around here, OK. Hey Henry, what is with our teenager girls who are Cheerleaders walking around with their back sides showing.

^ Hey Henry, to the person who responded to my Hey Henry about New Birth Missionary South and told me I needed to "get the plank out of my eye," this is what I have to say.

[34] Rejecting the decisions of the Pope, Parliament validated the marriage of Henry and Anne with the Act of Succession 1533. .Catherine's daughter, Lady Mary, was declared illegitimate, and Anne's issue were declared next in the line of succession.^ Paston, dec., which Sir Gilbert and Anne left issue Elizabeth, Mary, and the said Margaret.
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Most notable in this declaration was a clause repudiating "any foreign authority, prince or potentate". All adults in the Kingdom were required to acknowledge the Act's provisions by oath and those who refused were subject to imprisonment for life. Any publisher or printer of any literature alleging that the marriage was invalid was automatically guilty of high treason and could be punished by death.

Separation from Rome: 1533–1540

Anne Boleyn, Henry's second queen, a contemporary image painted when she was 25 years old.
Meanwhile, Parliament had forbidden all appeals to Rome and exacted the penalties of praemunire against all who introduced papal bulls into England. Parliament also prohibited the Church from making any regulations (canons) without the king's consent. .It was only then that Pope Clement at last took the step of launching sentences of excommunication against Henry and Thomas Cranmer,[35] declaring at the same time the archbishop's decree of annulment to be invalid and the marriage with Anne null and papal nuncio was withdrawn from England and diplomatic relations with Rome were broken off.^ Does it take the same amount of time for us to find out if a child abuser is working for the Henry County school system?

^ It took a little more effort than last time to steal this one to satisfy the Snoopy fetish you seem to have didn't it?

^ Hey Henry, if the police want to make extra money, all they have to do is sit and wait at the County high schools until the 3:35 dismissal time.

[29] Several more laws were passed in England. The Ecclesiastical Appointments Act 1534 required the clergy to elect bishops nominated by the Sovereign. .The Act of Supremacy in 1534 declared that the King was "the only Supreme Head in Earth of the Church of England" and the Treasons Act 1534 made it high treason, punishable by death, to refuse to acknowledge the King as such.^ Hey Henry, is it only on Sunday mornings at church that some 'Christians' behave, speak and act like true Christians should?

.In response to the excommunications, the Peter's Pence Act was passed in and it reiterated that England had "no superior under God, but only your Grace" and that Henry's "imperial crown" had been diminished by "the unreasonable and uncharitable usurpations and exactions" of the Pope.^ Hey Henry, the people who want to protect the environment only whine and cry because yes it might not kill you, but it will kill your children or theirs.

^ Hey Henry, to Kibbee Road - have heart and give room for our vehicles to comfortably meet and pass each other on your street!

^ Hey Henry, no, you have not been singled out because of your race.

[36]
.In defiance of the Pope the Church of England was now under Henry’s control, not Rome's.^ Italian infantry to that value, under the command of the Pope's nephew, who is now in the Court of France.
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Hey Henry, and now the church wants to use Mt.

Protestant Reformers still faced persecution, particularly over objections to Henry's annulment.[2] .Many fled abroad where they met further difficulties, including the influential William Tyndale, who was eventually burned at King Henry's behest.^ Hey Henry, isn't it sad that we have so many ignorant and lazy people in our county that they don't even stop to get the facts straight!

^ And who takes that many calls that they have to wear a blinking ear piece 18 hours a day?

^ At the Easter Egg Hunt, they had the Mr. Miss Special Henry County Queens and Kings to attend and also provided a hunt especially for people with special needs.

.Theological and practical reforms would follow only under Henry's successors (see end of section).^ Hey Henry, what would it take to get the Department of Transportation to repair a large pot hole located at the north end of Kinsey Drive in Stockbridge.

^ Hey Henry, I took my children by the Welcome Center on the Trick or Treat on the Square day, only to see a big sign that said We dont have any candy!

^ The feds have sent millions and millions to New Orleans earmarked for levee improvements, only to see it end up in some local officials pockets.

Personal troubles

The king and queen were not pleased with married life. The royal couple enjoyed periods of calm and affection, but Anne refused to play the submissive role expected of her. .The vivacity and opinionated intellect that had made her so attractive as an illicit lover made her too independent for the largely ceremonial role of a royal wife, given that Henry expected absolute obedience from those who interacted with him in an official capacity at court.^ Hey Henry, am I the only person who thinks those new xenon headlights are hurtful & distracting for oncoming drivers?

^ Hey Henry, please continue to remember those families who lost their young boys in October.

^ I'm sure this comment was made by a person who does nothing to volunteer their time to this organization which gives them absolutely no right to say a word!

It also made her many enemies. For his part, Henry disliked Anne’s constant irritability and violent temper. After a false pregnancy or miscarriage in 1534, he saw her failure to give him a son as a betrayal. .As early as Christmas 1534, Henry was discussing with Cranmer and Cromwell the chances of leaving Anne without having to return to Catherine.^ Our roads are just barely wide enough for traffic without having to dodge the green and/or black hazards they leave in the way.

^ Hey Henry, is it true that a McDonough policewoman gave a ticket to a gentleman who rides his bike all over McDonough, and has for years without bothering anyone, for not having a light on his bike.

[37]
The Tower of London, the site of many royal executions.
Opposition to Henry's religious policies was quickly suppressed in England. A number of dissenting monks were tortured and executed. .The most prominent resisters included John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, and Sir Thomas More, Henry's former Lord Chancellor, both of whom refused to take the oath to the King and were subsequently convicted of high treason and beheaded at Tower Hill, just outside the Tower of London.^ Hey Henry, both McDonough mayoral candidates showed their class, as they refused to address the attempted mud-slinging that started just before election day.

^ Hahahahaha....I just can't convince anyone outside of Henry County that I am living in a civilized place.

^ I looked in the phone book, lo and behold; there are two places here in good old Henry County that takes both recyclable materials and trash.

.These suppressions, including the Dissolution of the Lesser Monasteries Act of 1536, in turn contributed to further resistance among the English people, most notably in the Pilgrimage of Grace, a large uprising in northern England in October, 1536. Henry VIII promised the rebels he would pardon them and thanked them for raising the issues to his attention, then invited the rebel leader, Robert Aske to a royal banquet.^ These are the people I am most scared of.

^ Henry viii Tudor King of England .

^ I wish the people in Georgia would learn the English language too.

At the banquet, Henry asked Aske to write down what had happened so he could have a better idea of the problems he would "change". Aske did what the King asked, although what he had written would later be used against him as a confession. .The King's word could not be questioned (as he was held as God's chosen, and second only to God himself) so Aske told the rebels they had been successful and they could disperse and go home.^ Can you imagine; they could have shored up the levee and that dam would still have held if they had the funds.

^ Hey Henry, I heard the polite mechanic ask the manager if he should go ahead and change the oil in the lady's car....3 months but only 300 miles.

^ First they told me they're open until 4:30 - on Monday and Thursday only, mind you, which seems ridiculous.

.However, because Henry saw the rebels as traitors, he did not feel obliged to keep his promises.^ Hey Henry, how come my dog was not pet of the week, I submitted his picture a long time ago and his feelings are hurt because he hasn't been in it.

^ Hey Henry, Tim Coley promised speed bumps at Warren Holder Park, because people were acting as if this was a freeway and going top speed.

.The rebels realised that the King was not keeping his promises and rebelled again later that year, but their strength was less in the second attempt and the King ordered the rebellion crushed.^ Students may not appreciate them now, but I promise 15-20 years later, they will mean so much to them.

The leaders, including Aske, were arrested and executed for treason.

Execution of Anne Boleyn

On 8 January 1536 news reached the king and the queen that Catherine of Aragon had died. .Upon hearing the news of her death, Henry and Anne reportedly decked themselves in bright yellow clothing, yellow being the colour of mourning in Spain at the time.^ Hey Henry, to whoever stole the brand new, bright yellow cones from (a local school's) parking lot Friday night; shame on you!

^ Hey Henry, to the person in the March 1 edition who said "whats up with the new homes being built across from Publix on Hwy.

^ Hey Henry, each time I pick up a newspaper I read how much more space and new buildings the county has obtained.

Henry called for public displays of joy regarding Catherine's death. The queen was pregnant again, and she was aware of the consequences if she failed to give birth to a son. .Her life could be in danger, as with both wives dead, Henry would be free to remarry and no one could claim that the union was illegal.^ Hey Henry, if one were to examine the sign permits for the new sign on the Square in McDonough, one would find that it is probably an illegal sign.

^ Hey Henry, the McDonough city council ruled that no videotaping would be allowed at council meetings.

^ Hey Henry, I thought a person had to be dead before a park or public road could be named after them.

Later that month, the King was unhorsed in a tournament and was badly injured. It seemed for a time that the King's life was in danger. When news of this accident reached the queen she was sent into shock and miscarried a male child that was about 15 weeks old. This happened on the very day of Catherine’s funeral, 29 January 1536. For most observers, this personal loss was the beginning of the end of the royal marriage.[38]
Given the King's desperate desire for a son, the sequence of Anne's pregnancies has attracted much interest. .Author Mike Ashley speculated that Anne had two stillborn children after Elizabeth's birth and before the birth of the male child she miscarried in 1536.[39] Most sources attest only to the birth of Elizabeth in September 1533, a possible miscarriage in the summer of 1534, and the miscarriage of a male child, of almost four months gestation, in January 1536.[40] As Anne recovered from what would be her final miscarriage, Henry declared that his marriage had been the product of witchcraft.^ Hey Henry, are the Locust Grove Police waiting for a child to get hurt before they begin to enforce the helmet law?

^ Hey Henry, I would like to thank Most of the Salvation Army staff and volunteers for making my community service there a good experience.

^ Hey Henry, in response to "Cultural diversity vs. I would like to give some "white" insight to the author of that article.

The King's new mistress, Jane Seymour, was quickly moved into new quarters. This was followed by Anne's brother, George Boleyn, being refused a prestigious court honour, the Order of the Garter, which was instead given to Jane Seymour's brother.[41]
Five men, including Anne's own brother, were arrested on charges of incest and treason, accused of having sexual relationships with the queen.[42] On 2 May 1536 Anne was arrested and taken to the Tower of London. She was accused of adultery, incest and high treason.[43] Although the evidence against them was unconvincing, the accused were found guilty and condemned to death by the peers. George Boleyn and the other accused men were executed on 17 May 1536. At 8 a.m. on 19 May 1536, the queen was executed on Tower Green. She knelt upright, in the French style of executions. The execution was swift and consisted of a single stroke.[44]
Jane Seymour would become Henry's third wife.

Birth of a prince

.One day after Anne's execution in 1536 Henry became engaged to Jane Seymour, one of the Queen's ladies-in-waiting to whom the king had been showing favour for some time.^ I have dealt with some rude people in my time, but those ladies at City Hall in your lovely town, take the cake.

^ I just have one question, during the times that Henry County was on odd/even watering days, why was it okay for the businesses in the industrial parks in and around McDonough to continually water their lawns every day of the week?

^ Hey Henry, Mayor Copeland seems to be returning some political favors hiring 4 people who worked in his campaign: one being his executive assistant and one being the new city clerk.

They were married 10 days later. .At about the same time as this, his third marriage, Henry granted his assent to the Laws in Wales Act 1535, which legally annexed Wales, uniting England and Wales into one unified nation.^ Does it take the same amount of time for us to find out if a child abuser is working for the Henry County school system?

^ Hey Henry, how about those ELCA Varsity Softball players, 3-time Region 5A Champs and two time State Division A Champs!

^ Hey Henry, did you know that it cost about $7 to get into one high school football game in Henry County.

.This was followed by the Act of Succession 1536, which declared Henry's children by Queen Jane to be next in the line of succession and declared both the Lady Mary and the Lady Elizabeth illegitimate, thus excluding them from the throne.^ Hey Henry, I have been walking my dog at Heritage Park for the past two weeks and I noticed that the sewer line coming from the bathroom is overflowing next to the playground.

^ Hey Henry, standing in line at the tag office today, a lady behind me was talking on her cell and to be honest, she was loud.

The king was granted the power to further determine the line of succession in his will. In 1537, Jane gave birth to a son, Prince Edward, the future Edward VI. The birth was difficult and the queen died at Hampton Court Palace on 24 October 1537 from an infection. After Jane's death, the entire court mourned with Henry for an extended period. .Henry considered Jane to be his "true" wife, being the only one who had given him the male heir he so desperately sought.^ I thought I was the only one in this county who sees the President for what he really is.

^ Hey Henry, am I the only one who thinks new home construction in Henry County will come to a halt if Immigration and Naturalization ever checks the papers on the construction workers?

^ Hey Henry, in answer to the person who questioned why they were more houses being built in the subdivision on Racetrack Road and why they are so close together.

He was later to be buried next to her at his death.

Final years: 1540–1547

Henry around 1539 or 1540
In 1540, Henry sanctioned the destruction of shrines to saints. At this time, Henry desired to marry once again to ensure the succession. .Thomas Cromwell, created Earl of Essex, suggested Anne, the sister of the Protestant Duke of Cleves, who was seen as an important ally in case of a Roman Catholic attack on England.^ Thomas of Woodstock England Earl of Buckingham Duke of Gloucest .

^ Thomas Prince of England Plantagenet Earl of Norfolk .

^ Richard Plantagenet Earl of Cromwell And King of The Romans .

Hans Holbein the Younger was dispatched to Cleves to paint a portrait of Anne for the king. Although it has been said that he painted her in a more flattering light, it is unlikely that the portrait was highly inaccurate, since Holbein remained in favour at court. .After regarding Holbein's portrayal, and urged by the complimentary description of Anne given by his courtiers, Henry agreed to wed Anne.^ Hey Henry, I agree the GBI should investigate the McDonough city hall situation with regard to city officials James and Nan Lee.

On Anne's arrival in England, Henry is said to have found her utterly unattractive, privately calling her a "Flanders Mare".
Portrait of Anne of Cleves by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1539.
Henry wished to annul the marriage in order to marry another. .The Duke of Cleves had become engaged in a dispute with the Holy Roman Emperor, with whom Henry had no desire to quarrel.^ Hey Henry, since when does it become legal for someone to park in a handicapped space with no permit?

^ Charlemagne of France, Holy Roman Emperor .

Queen Anne was intelligent enough not to impede Henry's quest for an annulment. Upon the question of marital sex, she testified that her marriage had never been consummated. .Henry was said to have come into the room each night and merely kissed his new bride on the forehead before retiring.^ Hey Henry, if you didnt come to Hampton for their Christmas parade and tree lighting, you missed a great night.

^ Hey Henry, I drove by the Square on Friday night, so nice to see so many people come out and enjoy the events.

^ Hey Henry, am I the only one who thinks new home construction in Henry County will come to a halt if Immigration and Naturalization ever checks the papers on the construction workers?

All impediments to an annulment were thus removed.
.The marriage was subsequently dissolved and Anne received the title of "The King's Sister", and was granted Hever Castle, the former residence of the Boleyn family.^ In my opinion as a life long resident of this county, as well as a member of a long standing family of the county, is that Quinn's self-proclaimed title is misleading as well as damaging.

Cromwell, meanwhile, fell out of favour for his role in arranging the marriage and was subsequently attainted and beheaded. The office of Viceregent in Spirituals, which had been specifically created for him, was not filled.
Miniature Portrait of Catherine Howard by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1540.
.On 28 July 1540, (the same day Cromwell was executed) Henry married the young Catherine Howard (also Katherine), Anne Boleyn's first cousin and a lady-in-waiting of Anne's.^ Hey Henry, Fred Thompson is thinking about running for president, is his new wife old enough to be first lady?

^ Hey Henry, on the first day of school, I took my child and was totally disgusted at the clothes that Henry County High School kids are wearing.

^ Hey Henry, to all the young men and women from McDonough First United Methodist Church that are graduating from the different high schools in the Henry County area.

[45] He was absolutely delighted with his new queen. Soon after her marriage, however, Queen Catherine had an affair with the courtier Thomas Culpeper. She also employed Francis Dereham, who was previously informally engaged to her and had an affair with her prior to her marriage, as her secretary. Thomas Cranmer, who was opposed to the powerful Roman Catholic Howard family, brought evidence of Queen Catherine's activities to the king's notice. .Though Henry originally refused to believe the allegations, he allowed Cranmer to conduct an investigation, which resulted in Queen Catherine's implication.^ Hey, Henry, I moved away from McDonough two years ago because I refused to believe that the rest of the world was just like McDonough.

.When questioned, the queen could have admitted a prior contract to marry Dereham, which would have made her subsequent marriage to Henry invalid, but she instead claimed that Dereham had forced her to enter into an adulterous relationship.^ Thanks CVS! Hey Henry, instead of renovating the McDonough library, could the grant be used to actually put some more books in it?

^ Hey Henry, dogs don't have souls...I would hate to be the dog that belongs to the person who made such a knowledgeable comment.

^ Hey Henry, a big thank you to Food Depot for carrying apple juice made from American apples instead of concentrate from China!

Dereham, meanwhile, exposed Queen Catherine's relationship with Thomas Culpeper. As was the case with Anne Boleyn, Catherine Howard could not technically have been guilty of adultery, as the marriage was officially null and void from the beginning. Again, this point was ignored, and Catherine was executed on 13 February 1542. She was aged between 17 and 22 when she died (opinions differ as to her year of birth). That same year, England's remaining monasteries were all dissolved, and their property transferred to the Crown. .Abbots and priors lost their seats in the House of Lords; only archbishops and bishops came to comprise the ecclesiastical element of the body.^ Makerell, abbot of Barlinges, Adam Sedbarre, abbot of Jervaulx, Wm, Wood, prior of Brydlyngton, lords Darcy and Hussey, Sir Robert Conestable, Sir Fras.
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The only way we can get them to do that is for everyone to ask what the rating is prior to being seated.

The Lords Spiritual, as members of the clergy with seats in the House of Lords were known, were for the first time outnumbered by the Lords Temporal.
Catherine Parr, Henry's sixth and final wife.
Henry married his last wife, the wealthy widow Catherine Parr, in 1543. She argued with Henry over religion; she was a reformer, but Henry remained a conservative. This behaviour nearly proved her undoing, but she saved herself by a show of submissiveness. .She helped reconcile Henry with his first two daughters, the Lady Mary and the Lady Elizabeth.^ Hey Henry, Fred Thompson is thinking about running for president, is his new wife old enough to be first lady?

^ Hey Henry, how come my daughter has to pay $2 for a school locker for the year, but it cost $5 for a P.E. locker for two semesters?

^ Hey Henry, I thought that was so nice of the two ladies to be out there with their signs walking up and down in the cold as they supported Moye's.

.In 1544, an Act of Parliament put the daughters back in the line of succession after Edward, Prince of Wales, though they were still deemed illegitimate.^ Edward (prince Wales) Plantagenet .

^ They put their lives on the line everyday.

^ They spend more money putting trailers out in the back of schools and rezoning kids to other schools than they do on the kids Education.

The same act allowed Henry to determine further succession to the throne in his will.
A mnemonic for the fates of Henry's wives is "divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived". An alternative version is "King Henry the Eighth, to six wives he was wedded: One died, one survived, two divorced, two beheaded". (Or, more succinctly, "Two beheaded, one died, two divorced, one survived.") The phrase may be misleading. Firstly, Henry was never divorced from any of his wives; rather, his marriages to them were annulled by the Church of England. Secondly, four marriages — not two — ended in annulments. .The marriages to Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard were annulled shortly before their executions and, although her marriage to Henry was annulled, Anne of Cleves survived him, as did Catherine Parr, so two wives — not just one — "survived". Lastly, four wives — not just one — died during Henry's reign.^ Hey Henry, did you know that it cost about $7 to get into one high school football game in Henry County.

^ Thanks Smead, from one who thanks you for just being in Henry County.

^ I just have one question, during the times that Henry County was on odd/even watering days, why was it okay for the businesses in the industrial parks in and around McDonough to continually water their lawns every day of the week?

Catherine of Aragon died of cancer (although at the time poison was suspected), Anne Boleyn was executed by beheading, Jane Seymour died of an infection sustained from childbirth, and Catherine Howard was also executed by beheading. .Some might argue that the one wife who died as stated in the mnemonic did so by natural causes instead of by execution or murder, but we know today that Catherine of Aragon died of cancer, which is as "natural" as (or no more so than) an infection contracted during childbirth, which resulted in Seymour's death.^ Some of the have nots have more class than the richest people and some of the richest people are of the lowest class.

^ Hey Henry, To the parents of the students who attend HCHS. The Principal stated "that enforcing the dress code at the school is more important than the students education."

^ There is more than one city in Henry County!

.The cruelty and tyrannical egotism of Henry became more apparent as he advanced in years and his health began to fail.^ Hey Henry, in a few more weeks, we will be half-way through the year and into summer.

^ Hey Henry, has anyone realized that six high school volleyball teams from Henry County advanced to the state sectional competition this year, including first year school Woodland High?

^ Hey Henry, isn't bringing in a consultant team that the CFO has personally known for more than 10 years, a conflict of interest?

.A wave of political executions which had commenced with that of Edmund de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk in 1513 ended with Henry Earl of Surrey in January, 1547. Although some sources claim that according to Holinshed the number of executions in this reign amounted to 72,000, the figure referred to "great thieves, petty thieves, and rogues" and the source is not Holinshed but the English clergyman William Harrison.^ Henry de Grosment Plantagenet Duke of .

^ Henry "de Grosmont" Plantagenet 1st Duke of Lancaster .

^ Henry de Grosment Plantagenet Duke of Lancaster .

This inflated figure came from Gerolamo Cardano who in turn got it from the Roman Catholic Bishop of Lisieux.[46]

Death and succession

King Henry VIII died in the Palace of Whitehall in 1547.
.Late in life, Henry became obese (with a waist measurement of 54 inches/137 cm) and had to be moved about with the help of mechanical inventions.^ Life used to be great here in Henry that is why so many of you moved here and now it is the same as the rest of Atlanta!

^ Hey Henry, to the person complaining about Ellistown Road being a dirt road, it was dirt when you moved there.

^ Hey Henry, it's a little to LATE too be trying to do something about the GANGS NOW! They are already here.

He was covered with painful, suppurating boils and possibly suffered from gout. His obesity dates from a jousting accident in 1536 in which he suffered a leg wound. This prevented him from exercising and gradually became ulcerated. It undoubtedly hastened his death at the age of 55, which occurred on 28 January 1547 in the Palace of Whitehall, on what would have been his father's 90th birthday. He expired soon after allegedly uttering these last words: "Monks! Monks! Monks!"[47]
.The theory that Henry suffered from syphilis was first promoted approximately 100 years after his death[citation needed], but has been disregarded by most serious historians.^ Hey Henry, McDonough First United Methodist Church has outdone themselves this year with a wonderful Vacation Bible School.

^ Hey Henry, has anyone realized that six high school volleyball teams from Henry County advanced to the state sectional competition this year, including first year school Woodland High?

^ Hey Henry, congratulation to the girl's basketball team from Henry County High, who qualified for the State Tournament for the first time in 20 years.

.Syphilis was a well-known disease in Henry's time, and although his contemporary, Francis I of France was treated for it, the notes left from Henry's physicians do not indicate that the English king was.^ This is a thank you note to the Henry County Times.

^ Hey Henry, this goes out to all the citizens of Henry County who may go to a "well-known" chiropractor located in Stockbridge.

.A more recent and credible theory suggests that Henry's medical symptoms, and those of his older sister Margaret Tudor, are also characteristic of untreated Type II diabetes.^ Hey Henry, for all those who do not believe God is the answer to stopping terrorism, consider a bumper sticker that I saw recently: Guns kill terrorists.

^ Margaret (Henry) Tudor .

Meeting of Henry VIII and Maximilian.
Henry VIII was buried in St George's Chapel in Windsor Castle, next to his wife Jane Seymour. Over a hundred years later Charles I was buried in the same vault.
.Within a little more than a decade after his death, all three of his royal heirs sat on the English throne, and all three left no descendants.^ I sat there for three minutes at 11:00 the other night, waiting for the light to change with no traffic coming in either direction.

^ In all the courts I have been a juror or observer in a court, the judge and all officials were more than courteous and never used inappropriate language.

^ It took a little more effort than last time to steal this one to satisfy the Snoopy fetish you seem to have didn't it?

.Under the Act of Succession 1543, Henry's only surviving legitimate son, Edward, inherited the Crown, becoming Edward VI.^ Hey Henry, is it only on Sunday mornings at church that some 'Christians' behave, speak and act like true Christians should?

.Since Edward was only nine years old at the time, he could not exercise actual power.^ The building is only four years old.

^ Hey Henry, does anyone else miss the old First State Bank display showing only the date and time?

^ I have been living on Hwy 155 N. since I was 10 years old.

.Henry's will designated 16 executors to serve on a council of regency until Edward reached the age of 18. The executors chose Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, Jane Seymour's elder brother, to be Lord Protector of the Realm.^ Henry PLANTAGENET 1st Earl of Lancaster .

^ York, president of the Council in the North, Norfolk, Suffolk, Russell, Edward earl of Hereford ( sic ), Great Chamberlain, C. bp.
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^ Wilts.— Audeley, Norfolk, Suffolk, Henry marquis of Dorset, Russell, Edward earl of Hertforde Great Chamberlain.
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In default of heirs to Edward, the throne was to pass to Henry VIII's daughter by Catherine of Aragon, the Princess Mary and her heirs. .If Mary's issue also failed, the crown was to go to Henry's daughter by Anne Boleyn, Princess Elizabeth, and her heirs.^ Hey Henry, our deepest condolences go out to The Hodges Family on the loss of their daughter Angie.

^ VIII., in right of Anne his wife, then dec., one of the daughters and co-heirs of Wm.
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Paston, dec., which Sir Gilbert and Anne left issue Elizabeth, Mary, and the said Margaret.
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Finally, if Elizabeth's line also became extinct, the crown was to be inherited by the descendants of Henry VIII's deceased younger sister, Mary Tudor, Duchess of Suffolk.^ Henry viii Tudor King of England .

^ Henry (VIII, King ofEngland) Tudor .

^ Henry VIII "King of England" 1509 - 1547 Tudor .

.The descendants of Henry's sister Margaret Tudor – the royal family of Scotland – were therefore excluded from succession according to this act.^ Margaret Tudor , Queen of Scotland .

^ Margaret TUDOR Queen of Scotland .

^ Margaret, Queen of Scotland Tudor .

Issue

Public image and memory

.Henry worked hard to present an image of unchallengeable authority and irresistible power.^ Hey Henry, will the last hard working, law abiding citizen leaving Clayton County to come to Henry County, please close the door behind you!

^ Hey Henry, dress codes are created to present a professional image of a company, business, or city.

^ Hey Henry, congratulations to Kelsey Spinks of Eagles Landing High School for being selected as one of the High School Scholar Athletes Of The Year presented by Georgia Power.

He executed at will, beheading more English notables than any monarch before or since. .The roll of heads included two wives, one cardinal, twenty peers, four leading public servants, and six of the king's close attendants and friends, not to mention various heads of monasteries.^ I noticed Larry Stanley graced not one but two Henry County publications this week!

^ Obviously the school principal is either so close to retirement that he doesn't care or he doesn't have the nerve to replace the two head coaches.

In addition Cardinal Wolsey died in prison.
A big, strong man (over six foot tall and broad in proportion)[48], he excelled at jousting and hunting. .More than pastimes, they were political devices that served multiple goals, from enhancing his athletic royal image to impressing foreign emissaries and rulers, to conveying Henry's ability to suppress any rebellion.^ Hey Henry, it appears that the City of Morrow is more interested in preserving Historical McDonough than the McDonough Hysterical Preservation Council is.

^ Hey Henry, Why do city councilmembers get more than 5 minutes to rattle on about issues that they are addressing from a personal perspective?

^ Hey Henry, To the parents of the students who attend HCHS. The Principal stated "that enforcing the dress code at the school is more important than the students education."

Thus he arranged a jousting tournament at Greenwich in 1517, where he wore gilded armour, gilded horse trappings, and outfits of velvet, satin and cloth of gold dripping with pearls and jewels. .It suitably impressed foreign ambassadors, one of whom wrote home that, "The wealth and civilisation of the world are here, and those who call the English barbarians appear to me to render themselves such."^ What makes things so bad is that the lucky ones who survive and return home safely are treated like dirt by our V.A. and government.

^ I have met more mean spirited so called Christians who speak with such hatred and do nothing but gossip maliciously about other people.

^ Hey Henry, a lady who needed her kitchen done wrote in and expressed her frustration with the service at the Home Depot in north Henry County.

.Henry finally retired from the lists in 1536 after a heavy fall from his horse left him unconscious for two hours, but he continued to sponsor two lavish tournaments a year.^ Hey Henry, to the person who left two little starving kittens on the sidewalk in front of Subway on Fairview Rd.

^ Hey Henry, congratulation to the girl's basketball team from Henry County High, who qualified for the State Tournament for the first time in 20 years.

^ Hey Henry, I have only been a resident of Henry County for two years now but I am really impressed with Chairman Harper.

[49] .He then started adding weight and lost that trim athletic look that had made him so handsome; Henry's courtiers began dressing in heavily padded clothes to emulate—and flatter—their increasingly stout monarch.^ Hey Henry, to the person who suggested somebody starting a support group for folks who've lost their jobs, why don't you start it?

^ He has recently started looking for another job, but people look at his age and turn him away.

^ Hey Henry, to the person wanting to start a support group for those who have lost jobs.

Henry was an intellectual. .The first well-educated English king, he was thoroughly at home in his well-stocked library; he personally annotated many books and wrote and published his own book.^ Hey Henry, to the person griping about the McDonough library; A: you know nothing about grants, because it is illegal to divert a construction grant to buy books.

^ Counties that aren't in the Pines, and have their own library systems, such as Gwinnet and Dekalb, get books in as soon as they are published.

.He founded Christ Church Cathedral School, Oxford in 1546. To promote the public support for the reformation of the church, Henry had numerous pamphlets and lectures prepared.^ Hey Henry, McDonough First United Methodist Church has outdone themselves this year with a wonderful Vacation Bible School.

^ Hey Henry, to all the young men and women from McDonough First United Methodist Church that are graduating from the different high schools in the Henry County area.

^ Come out and support the Henry County High School Studio 54 Players - April 27, 28 and 29.

For example, Richard Sampson's Oratio (1534) was a legalistic argument for absolute obedience to the temporal power as vested in divine law and Christian love ("obey my commandments"). Sampson cited historical precedents (now known to be spurious) to support his claim that the English church had always been independent from Rome.[50] At the popular level theater and minstrel troupes funded by the crown traveled around the land to promote the new religious practices and ridicule the old. In the polemical plays they presented, the pope and Catholic priests and monks were mocked as foreign devils, while the glorious king was hailed as a brave and heroic defender of the true faith.[51]
Henry VIII was an avid gambler and dice player. He was also an accomplished musician, author, and poet; his best known piece of music is "Pastime with Good Company" ("The Kynges Ballade"). He is often reputed to have written "Greensleeves" but probably did not. .The King was also involved in the original construction and improvement of several significant buildings, including Nonsuch Palace, King's College Chapel, Cambridge and Westminster Abbey in London.^ Feb 1466 in Westminster,Palace,London,England .

.Many of the existing buildings Henry improved were properties confiscated from Wolsey, such as Christ Church, Oxford, Hampton Court Palace, the Palace of Whitehall, and Trinity College, Cambridge.^ It is such a shame there are inconsiderate people in Henry County that would dump their trash on someone's private property.

^ Oct 1537 in Hampton Court,Palace,England .

^ Hey Henry, many older folks are passing their land to their children who just wish to make money and sell to ones building homes.

The only surviving piece of clothing worn by Henry VIII is a cap of maintenance awarded to the Mayor of Waterford, along with a bearing sword, in 1536. It currently resides in the Waterford Museum of Treasures. A suit of Henry's armour is on display in the Tower of London. .In the centuries since his death, Henry has inspired or been mentioned in numerous artistic and cultural works.^ You would think my neighbor would know that since he works for LG PD. Hey Henry, what does an English barber do for a living?

^ Hey Henry, you are correct that you do not have to be a mortician to be a coroner; but at least morticians have a working knowledge of death related studies.

Royal finances

.Henry inherited a vast fortune from his father Henry VII who had, in contrast to his son, been frugal and careful with money.^ Edmund son of Henry VII Tudor .

^ Hey Henry, we have a son who is moderately retarded.

^ Hey Henry, many older folks are passing their land to their children who just wish to make money and sell to ones building homes.

This fortune was estimated to £1,250,000 (£375 million by today's standards).[52] .Much of this wealth was spent by Henry on maintaining his court and household, including many of the building works he undertook on royal palaces.^ Thanks so much to the expeditious and courteous Henry County policeman that stopped and changed my tire for me on Friday, May 16.

^ Hey Henry, I see the county is doing some construction work on the court house clock tower, must be getting ready to gold plate it.

^ Hey Henry, each time I pick up a newspaper I read how much more space and new buildings the county has obtained.

.Tudor monarchs had to fund all the expenses of government out of their own income.^ The New Orleans government is one of the most corrupt in the nation, a black hole for funding of all types.

This income came from the Crown lands that Henry owned as well as from customs duties like tonnage and poundage, granted by parliament to the king for life. .During Henry's reign the revenues of the Crown remained constant (around £100,000),[53] but were eroded by inflation and rising prices brought about by war.^ By the way- what about the other $100,000+ that the city has lost in 2005?

^ Hey Henry, it's sad that we're all excited that gas prices are getting down to what we used to complain about them getting up to!

^ Hey Henry, what's even worse about the ticket prices to get into the football game is that not every football related program gets a share of the money.

Indeed it was war and Henry's dynastic ambitions in Europe that meant that the surplus he had inherited from his father was exhausted by the mid-1520s. .Whereas Henry VII had not involved Parliament in his affairs very much, Henry VIII had to turn to Parliament during his reign for money, in particular for grants of subsidies to fund his wars.^ Undated Grants of 36 Henry VIII. .
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^ Hey Henry, we're spending too much SPLOST money on that Fairview area.

^ Hey Henry, thanks so very much to Brenda Nail DeLauder for her article on January 23.

.The Dissolution of the Monasteries also provided a means to replenish the treasury and as a result the Crown took possession of monastic lands worth £120,000 (£36 million) a year.^ That particular property holds more principles and meanings than the land is worth.

[54] .But Henry had to debase the coinage in 1526 and 1539 in order to solve his financial problems and despite efforts by his ministers to reduce the costs and wastage at court, Henry died in debt.^ Hey Henry, America does not have a financial problem: it has a stupidity problem.

Legacy

.Though mainly motivated by dynastic and personal concerns, and despite never really abandoning the fundamentals of the Roman Catholic Church, Henry ensured that the greatest act of his reign would be one of the most radical and decisive of any English monarch.^ Hey Henry, I would like to thank Most of the Salvation Army staff and volunteers for making my community service there a good experience.

^ Hey Henry, what is the person's motive and agenda who has written two weeks in a row about restaurant health inspection reports?

^ Hey Henry, Please tell "church lady" that wearing a cross from her neck does make her a good person.

His break with Rome in 1533–34 was an act with enormous consequences for the subsequent course of English history beyond the Tudor dynasty. Not only in making possible the transformation of England into a powerful (albeit very distinctive) nation; but also in the seizing of economic and political power from the Church by the aristocracy, chiefly through the acquisition of monastic lands and assets – a short-term strategy with long-term social consequences. .Henry's decision to entrust the regency of his son Edward's minor years to a decidedly reform-oriented regency council, dominated by Edward Seymour, most likely for the simple tactical reason that Seymour seemed likely to provide the strongest leadership for the kingdom, ensured that the English Reformation would be consolidated and even furthered during his son's reign.^ It seems like school teachers are only liked by politicians during election years.

^ Hey Henry, I would like to thank Most of the Salvation Army staff and volunteers for making my community service there a good experience.

^ During his five-week vacation in Texas, George W. was told that a terrorist attack was imminent and that New York was the most likely target.

Such ironies marked other aspects of his legacy.
Silver groat of Henry VIII, minted c. 1540. The reverse depicts the quartered arms of England and France.
He fostered humanist learning and yet was responsible for the deaths of several outstanding English humanists. During the reign of Henry VIII, as many as 72,000 people are estimated to have been executed.[55] .Obsessed with securing the succession to the throne, he left as his only heirs a young son (who died before his 16th birthday) and two daughters adhering to different religions.^ I especially liked the old crone in the audience who banished two teens talking on their cell phones before the play beganturned out she was part of the troupe.

^ They have only one player who has ever played football before and yet they play from their hearts with no complaints.

^ Of the 94 soldiers from Georgia who have died from the violence in Iraq, one of Stockbridge's sons is among them.

.The power of the state was magnified, yet so too (at least after Henry's death) were demands for increased political participation by the middle class.^ Hey Henry, you are correct that you do not have to be a mortician to be a coroner; but at least morticians have a working knowledge of death related studies.

^ I just dont understand how law states you can not discriminate against age yet everyone in Henry County does!

.Henry worked with some success to make England once again a major player on the European scene but depleted his treasury in the course of doing so, a legacy that has remained an issue for English monarchs ever since.^ Hey Henry, kudos to the Henry County Health Department for finally hiring some food inspectors who are actually doing their jobs.

^ So you actually think that the real issues, the true reality of it all, will be discussed OR will the majority remain politically correct and not say it like it is?

^ These two ladies worked hard and selflessly to make sure everything was taken care of behind the scenes so that the end result would be a great one.

.Scarisbrick (1968) concludes that Henry was a formidable, captivating man who "wore regality with a splendid conviction."^ Hey Henry, I would like to thank the man who stopped and change a tire for my pregnant daughter and grandson on Old Jackson Rd.

^ Hey Henry, to the man who made such a big fuss at the Commissioners meeting about the fire truck blocking the driveway at the school....shame on you!

.But unpredictably his overpowering charm could turn into anger and shouting, for he was high-strung and unstable; hypochondriac and possessed of a strong streak of cruelty.^ Dutchtown High is already eliminating drama next year because too few students could fit it into their schedules with all the state-required courses.

.Smith (1971) considered him an egotistical border-line neurotic given to great fits of temper and deep and dangerous suspicions, with a mechanical and conventional, but deeply-held piety, having at best "a mediocre intellect" to hold these contradictory forces in harness.^ Sounds like he is a person with road rage and might consider having someone drive him before he commits murder.

^ On his best days, he can rise to mediocrity; at all times, he listens to the poison whispered to him by his puppet masters, Rove and Cheney.

English navy

.Together with Alfred the Great and Charles II, Henry is traditionally cited as one of the founders of the Royal Navy.^ Possible Royal Line to King Henry II .

.His reign featured some naval warfare and, more significantly, large royal investment in shipbuilding (including a few spectacular great ships such as Mary Rose), dockyards (such as HMNB Portsmouth) and naval innovations (such as the use of cannon on board ship – although archers were still deployed on medieval-style forecastles and bowcastles as the ship's primary armament on large ships, or co-armament where cannons were used).^ Thanks CVS! Hey Henry, instead of renovating the McDonough library, could the grant be used to actually put some more books in it?

.However, in some ways this is a misconception since Henry did not bequeath to his immediate successors a navy in the sense of a formalised organisation with structures, ranks, and formalised munitioning structures but only in the sense of a set of ships.^ Hey Henry, I get so tired of people thinking all African-American people know each other and can in some way control their behavior.

^ Hey Henry, the intersection of Colvin and Harris Drives has to be the only place in the country where a dirt road (Harris) has the right of way across a $3 million paved road (Colvin).

^ Some of the girls that did not make the team were seniors that have been cheering since Middle School and others girls that had cheered for Varsity Competition for the past 2 years that clearly should have made the team.

Elizabeth I still had to cobble together a set of privately owned ships to fight off the Spanish Armada (which consisted of about 130 warships and converted merchant ships) and in the former, formal sense the modern British navy, the Royal Navy, is largely a product of the Anglo-Dutch naval rivalry of the seventeenth century. Still, Henry's reign marked the birth of English naval power and was a key factor in England's later victory over the Spanish Armada.
.Henry's break with Rome incurred the threat of a large-scale French or Spanish invasion.^ Hey Henry, how many more car break-ins, car thefts, home invasions, burglaries are we going to have before something is done?

To guard against this he strengthened existing coastal defence fortresses (such as Dover Castle and, also at Dover, Moat Bulwark and Archcliffe Fort which he personally visited for a few months to supervise, as is commemorated in the modern exhibition in the keep of Dover Castle). He also built a chain of new 'castles' (in fact, large bastioned and garrisoned gun batteries) along Britain's southern and eastern coasts from East Anglia to Cornwall, largely built of material gained from the demolition of monasteries. These were also known as Henry VIII's Device Forts.

Style and arms

English Royalty
House of Tudor
England Arms 1405.svg
Royal Coat of Arms
Henry VIII
   Henry, Duke of Cornwall
   Mary I
   Elizabeth I
   Edward VI
Several changes were made to the royal style during his reign. .Henry originally used the style "Henry the Eighth, by the Grace of God, King of England, France and Lord of Ireland". In 1521, pursuant to a grant from Pope Leo X rewarding a book by Henry, the Defence of the Seven Sacraments, attacking Martin Luther, the royal style became "Henry the Eighth, by the Grace of God, King of England and France, Defender of the Faith and Lord of Ireland". Following Henry's excommunication, Pope Paul III rescinded the grant of the title "Defender of the Faith", but an Act of Parliament declared that it remained valid; and it continues in royal usage to the present day.^ Henry ll England, King of .

^ Henry III Plantagenet, 23rd King of England .

^ Henry 11 Plantagenet King England .

In 1535, Henry added the "supremacy phrase" to the royal style, which became "Henry the Eighth, by the Grace of God, King of England and France, Defender of the Faith, Lord of Ireland and of the Church of England in Earth Supreme Head". In 1536, the phrase "of the Church of England" changed to "of the Church of England and also of Ireland".
Henry's shield as The Duke of York.
.In 1541, Henry had the Irish Parliament change the title "Lord of Ireland" to "King of Ireland" with the Crown of Ireland Act 1542, after being advised that many Irish people regarded the Pope as the true head of their country, with the Lord acting as a mere representative.^ John "Lackland" King of England PLANTAGENET Lord Of Ireland & Count Of Mortain .

.The reason the Irish regarded the Pope as their overlord was that Ireland had originally been given to the King Henry II of England by Pope Adrian IV in the twelfth century as a feudal territory under papal overlordship.^ Henry ll England, King of .

^ Henry 11 Plantagenet King England .

^ Henry Plantagenet ll King of England .

.The meeting of Irish Parliament that proclaimed Henry VIII as King of Ireland was the first meeting attended by the Gaelic Irish chieftains as well as the Anglo-Irish aristocrats.^ Henry viii Tudor King of England .

^ Henry (VIII, King ofEngland) Tudor .

^ Henry VIII "King of England" 1509 - 1547 Tudor .

.The style "Henry the Eighth, by the Grace of God, King of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith and of the Church of England and also of Ireland in Earth Supreme Head" remained in use until the end of Henry's reign.^ Henry ll England, King of .

^ Henry 11 Plantagenet King England .

^ Henry Plantagenet ll King of England .

Henry's motto was "Coeur Loyal" ("true heart") and he had this embroidered on his clothes in the form of a heart symbol and with the word "loyal". His emblem was the Tudor rose and the Beaufort portcullis.
As Duke of York, Henry used the arms of his father (i.e. those of the kingdom), differenced by a label of three points ermine. .As king, Henry's arms were the same as those used by his predecessors since Henry IV: Quarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lys Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England).^ Henry 7th Tudor King of England .

^ Henry 2nd 'Curtmantle' King of England .

^ Henry 111 king of England .


Current celebrations

An exhibition called Henry VIII: Man and Monarch, curated by David Starkey,[56] was held at the British Library in 2009.

Ancestry

Marriages and issue

Name Birth Death Notes
By Catherine of Aragon (married Greenwich Palace 11 June 1509; annulled 23 May 1533)
Unnamed Daughter 31 January 1510 2 February 1510
Henry, Duke of Cornwall 1 January 1511 22 February 1511
Henry, Duke of Cornwall December 1514 died within one month of birth
Queen Mary I 18 February 1516 17 November 1558 married 1554, Philip II of Spain; no issue
Unnamed Daughter November 1518 died within one week of birth
By Anne Boleyn (married Westminster Abbey 25 January 1533; annulled 17 May 1536) beheaded on 19 May 1536
Queen Elizabeth I 7 September 1533 24 March 1603 never married; no issue
Henry, Duke of Cornwall 1534 1534
Henry, Duke of Cornwall 29 January 1536 1536
By Jane Seymour (married York 30 May 1536; Jane Seymour died 24 October 1537)
King Edward VI 12 October 1537 6 July 1553 unmarried; no issue
By Anne of Cleves (married Greenwich Palace 6 January 1540; annulled 9 July 1540)
no issue
By Catherine Howard (married Oatlands Palace 28 July 1540; annulled 23 November 1541) beheaded on 13 February 1542
no issue
By Catherine Parr (married Hampton Court Palace 12 July 1543; Henry VIII died 28 January 1547)
no issue
By Elizabeth Blount
Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset 15 June 1519 23 July 1536 illegitimate; married 1533, the Lady Mary Howard; no issue
By Jane Dobson
Ethelreda Tudor c. 1520 1555 married John Harington; no issue
By Mary Boleyn
(Some writers, such as Alison Weir, question whether Henry Carey was fathered by Henry VIII.[57])
Catherine Carey, Lady Knollys c. 1524 15 January 1569 married Sir Francis Knollys; had issue
Henry Carey, Baron Hunsdon 4 March 1526 23 July 1596 married 1545, Ann Morgan; had issue
.By Mary Berkeley
(There is no evidence to prove he was Henry's son except through eye witness accounts, who claimed a resemblance to the King.
^ Hey Henry, amen to the reader who remarked that the Henry County governments claims of poverty are absurd.

^ Hey Henry, we have a son who is moderately retarded.

^ Hey Henry, just a reminder to those of you who use Iris Lake Road in McDonough as a cut through.

)
John Perrot c. 1527 3 November 1592 married 1. Anne Cheney; 2. Jane Pruet, both of whom produced issue. He also had issue with his mistress Sybil Jones.

List of Popes from Henry VIII Age 12 to Death

Arthur Tudor the older brother of Henry VIII died after 20 weeks of marriage when Henry was age 10. Elizabeth of York, his mother, died when Henry was age 11.
Pontificate Portrait Involvement with Henry VIII
Julius II
31 October 1503 – 21 February 1513
Henry VIII between ages of 12 and 21.
Henry and the Pope close allies.
09julius.jpg Granted the dispensation for Henry to marry the widow of his brother. Julius was the warrior pope. In 1511 the Holy League was formed for the purpose of delivering Italy from French rule. England joined the League on 17 November 1511.
Leo X
9 March 1513 – 1 December 1521
Henry VIII between ages of 21 and 30.
Henry and the Pope close allies.
Pope-leo10.jpg .Granted Henry VIII the title of Defender of the Faith in the last week of his life.^ Undated Grants of 36 Henry VIII. .
  • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Hey Henry, congratulations to Henry County Middle School on defeating Ola last week, 14-8 in 8th grade football!

^ The last decade of his life was spent defending his reputation.

Excommunicated Martin Luther.
Adrian VI
9 January 1522 – 14 September 1523
Henry VIII between ages of 30 and 32.
Short pontificate.
Hadrian VI.jpg Only Dutch pope. Pontificate lasted only 613 days.
Clement VII
26 November 1523 – 25 September 1534
Henry VIII between ages of 32 and 42.
Henry formed Anglican Church
Clement VII. Sebastiano del Piombo. c.1531..jpg .Henry VIII had made known to Wolsey in May, 1527, that he wished to be divorced.^ Hey Henry, this goes out to all the citizens of Henry County who may go to a "well-known" chiropractor located in Stockbridge.

He pretended that his conscience was uneasy at the marriage contracted under papal dispensation with his brother's widow. As his first act was to solicit from the Holy See contingently upon the granting of the divorce, a dispensation from the impediment of affinity in the first degree (an impediment which stood between him and any legal marriage with Anne on account of his previous carnal intercourse with Anne's sister Mary), the scruple of conscience cannot have been very sincere. Moreover, as Queen Catherine solemnly swore that the marriage between herself and Henry's elder brother Arthur had never been consummated, there had consequently never been any real affinity between her and Henry.
[58]
Paul III
13 October 1534 – 10 November 1549
Henry VIII between ages of 42 and death.
Final break from pope.
Tizian 083b.jpg Catherine of Aragon died 15 months after his election. On 17-Dec-1538, four years into his pontificate, Paul III excommunicated Henry VIII.

Depictions in literature and popular culture

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e Wikisource-logo.svg "Henry VIII" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  2. ^ a b See above, "Martyrdom of William Tyndale".
  3. ^ See above, "Second marriage".
  4. ^ a b Crofton, p.128.
  5. ^ a b Crofton, p.129
  6. ^ Churchill, p.29
  7. ^ Crofton, p.126.
  8. ^ Guicciardini, History of Italy, 280.
  9. ^ Elton (1977)
  10. ^ MacCulloch (1995)
  11. ^ Simon Thurley, "Palaces for a nouveau riche king." History Today, (June 1991), Vol. 41, #6 in Academic Search Premier
  12. ^ Jonathan Davies, "'We Do Fynde in Our Countre Great Lack of Bowes and Arrows': Tudor Military Archery and the Inventory of King Henry VIII," Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research 2005 83(333): 11–29. Issn: 0037-9700
  13. ^ G. R. Elton, The Tudor Revolution in Government: Administrative Changes in the Reign of Henry VIII (1962) online edition; Elton, Reform and Reformation: England, 1509–1558 (1977) is sharply hostile toward the king—an "ego-centric monstrosity," whose reign "owed its successes and virtues to better and greater men about him; most of its horrors and failures sprang more directly from himself." p. 43
  14. ^ A. F. Pollard, Henry VIII (1905) provides the classic statement of the Henrician position, esp. pp 230–38, noting that Spain and France stayed loyal because they controlled the papacy.
  15. ^ G. W. Bernard, The King's Reformation: Henry VIII and the Remaking of the English Church (2005)
  16. ^ Richard Rex, "The Crisis of Obedience: God's Word and Henry's Reformation." Historical Journal 1996 39(4): 863–894. Issn: 0018-246x in Jstor
  17. ^ M. L. Bush, "The Tudor Polity and the Pilgrimage of Grace." Historical Research 2007 80(207): 47–72. Issn: 0950-3471 Fulltext: Ebsco; Geoffrey Moorhouse, The Pilgrimage of Grace: The Rebellion That Shook Henry VIII's Throne (2003) excerpt and text search
  18. ^ Fraser consides that only three named mistresses are definitely known: Bessie Blount, Mary Boleyn and Madge Shelton, but even the last is now disputed. Fraser, Antonia (1994). The Wives of Henry VIII. Vintage Books. p. Page 220. ISBN 9780679730019. http://books.google.com/books?id=24UKxUPB5goC. 
  19. ^ Hart, Kelly (2009). The Mistresses of Henry VIII (First date=June 1, 2009 ed.). The History Press. p. 27. ISBN 0752448358. http://books.google.com/books?id=r6HGPAAACAAJ. 
  20. ^ PRO, E36/215 f.449
  21. ^ Weir, Alison. The Lady in the Tower. pp. 13–14,375. 
  22. ^ Weir, Henry VIII: King and Court (2002).
  23. ^ Lacey, p.70.
  24. ^ Scarisbrick, p. 154.
  25. ^ Weir, p. 160.
  26. ^ Brigden, p.114.
  27. ^ Morris, p.166.
  28. ^ Haigh p.92f
  29. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg "Clement VII" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  30. ^ Williams p. 136.
  31. ^ Williams, p.123.
  32. ^ Starkey, pp. 462–464.
  33. ^ Williams, p.124.
  34. ^ Williams, pp.128–131.
  35. ^ Historians disagree on the exact date of the excommunication; according to Winston Churchill's 'History of the English Speaking Peoples', the bull of 1533 was a draft with penalties left blank and was not made official until 1535. Others say Henry was not officially excommunicated until 1538, by Pope Paul III, brother of Cardinal Franklin de la Thomas.
  36. ^ Lehmberg.
  37. ^ Williams, p.138.
  38. ^ Williams, p.141.
  39. ^ Ashley, p.240.
  40. ^ Williams, chapter 4.
  41. ^ Williams, p.142.
  42. ^ Williams, pp.143–144.
  43. ^ Hibbert, pp.54–55.
  44. ^ Hibbert, p.60.
  45. ^ Farquhar, Michael (2001). A Treasure of Royal Scandals, p.75. Penguin Books, New York. ISBN 0739420259.
  46. ^ Harrison, William; Georges Edelen The Description of England: Classic Contemporary Account of Tudor Social Life' Dover Publications Inc.; New edition edition (Feb 1995) originally published 1557 ISBN 978-0486282756 p.193 "Bishop+of+Lisieux"+Henry+VIII+"William+Harrison"&ei=KY-ySsWdB5iwMoDIndcD#v=onepage&q=&f=false
  47. ^ Davies, p. 687.
  48. ^ People were smaller in those days. A comparable man today would be a star athlete at 6'5" and 250 pounds.
  49. ^ Steven Gunn, "Tournaments and early Tudor chivalry," History Today, (June 1991), Vol. 41, #6 in Academic Search Premier; James Williams, "Hunting and the Royal Image of Henry VIII" Sport in History 2005 25(1): 41–59. Issn: 1746-0263
  50. ^ Andrew A. Chibi, "Richard Sampson, His Oratio, and Henry VIII's Royal Supremacy." Journal of Church and State 1997 39(3): 543–560. Issn: 0021-969x Fulltext: Ebsco
  51. ^ See Thomas Betteridge, "The Henrician Reformation and Mid-Tudor Culture." Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 2005 35(1): 91–109. Issn: 1082-9636 Fulltext: Ebsco. Original documents are collected by the Centre for Research in Early English Drama at Victoria University, Toronto
  52. ^ Weir, p.13
  53. ^ Weir, p.64
  54. ^ Weir, p. 393
  55. ^ "History of the Death Penalty". Public Broadcasting Service (PBS).
  56. ^ "Henry VIII: Man and Monarch". http://www.bl.uk/henry. Retrieved 2009-07-03. 
  57. ^ Weir, p.216.
  58. ^ "Pope Clement VII Catholic Encyclopedia". http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04024a.htm. 

Sources

  • The New World by Winston Churchill (1966).
  • The Reformation Parliament, 1529–1536 by Stanford E. Lehmberg (1970).
  • Henry VIII and his Court by Neville Williams (1971).
  • The Life and Times of Henry VIII by Robert Lacey (1972).
  • The Six Wives of Henry VIII by Alison Weir (1991) ISBN 0802136834.
  • English Reformations by Christopher Haigh (1993).
  • Europe: A history by Norman Davies (1998) ISBN 978-0060974688.
  • Europe and England in the Sixteenth Century by T. A. Morris (1998).
  • New Worlds, Lost Worlds by Susan Brigden (2000).
  • Henry VIII: The King and His Court by Alison Weir (2001).
  • British Kings & Queens by Mike Ashley (2002) ISBN 0-7867-1104-3.
  • Henry VIII: The King and His Court by Alison Weir (2002) ISBN 034543708X.
  • Six Wives: The Queens of Henry VIII by David Starkey (2003) ISBN 0060005505.
  • The Kings and Queens of England by Ian Crofton (2006).

Bibliography

Biographical

  • Bowle, John. Henry VIII: A Study of Power in Action Little, Brown, 1964.
  • Erickson, Carolly. Mistress Anne: The Exceptional Life of Anne Boleyn. (1984) 464 pp. popular biography
  • Cressy, David. ."Spectacle and Power: Apollo and Solomon at the Court of Henry VIII." History Today 1982 32(oct): 16–22. Issn: 0018-2753 Fulltext: Ebsco Traces the transition of Henry from Renaissance monarch (the youthful Apollo) to Reformation patriarch (the aging Solomon) using the graphics and visual images displayed in his court, festivals, and kingdom.
  • Gardner, James.^ Thanks so much to the expeditious and courteous Henry County policeman that stopped and changed my tire for me on Friday, May 16.

    ^ Hey Henry, in recognition of Black History Month, I would like to honor Emily Tubman, who used her late husband's fortune to free his slaves.

    ."Henry VIII" in Cambridge Modern History vol 2 (1903), a brief political history online edition
  • Graves, Michael.^ A list of all Hey Henrys from the Online Edition.

    .Henry VIII (2003) 217pp, topical coverage
  • Ives, E. W. "Henry VIII (1491–1547)", in The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004), online at OUP, a good starting point
  • Pollard, A.F. Henry VIII (1905) 470 pp; the first modern biography, accurate and still valuable valueonline edition
  • Rex, Richard.^ Hey Henry, Great Escape Theatres, which started out pretty good has turned into a joke and getting progressively worse!

    ^ A list of all Hey Henrys from the Online Edition.

    Henry VIII and the English Reformation. (1993). 205 pp.
  • Ridley, Jasper. Henry VIII. (1985). 473 pp. popular biography
  • Scarisbrick, J. J. Henry VIII (1968) 592pp, a favourable scholarly biography
  • Smith, Lacey Baldwin. .Henry VIII: The Mask of Royalty (1971), a leading scholar writes the psycho-history of Henryonline edition
  • Starkey, David.^ A list of all Hey Henrys from the Online Edition.

    Six Wives: the Queens of Henry VIII (2003) excerpt and text search
  • Starkey, David. The Reign of Henry VIII: Personalities and Politics (1986). 174pp
  • Starkey, David, and Susan Doran. Henry VIII: Man and Monarch (2009) 288pp
  • Tytler, Patrick Fraser (1836), Life of King Henry the Eighth, Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd (published 1837), http://books.google.com/books?id=lWUDAAAAQAAJ, retrieved 2008-08-17 
  • Weir, Alison. Henry VIII, King and Court (2001). 640pp a flattering portrait excerpt and text search
  • Weir, Alison. The Children of Henry VIII. (1996). 400 pp.

Scholarly studies

.
  • Bernard, G. W. The King's Reformation: Henry VIII and the Remaking of the English Church. (2005).^ King Henry VIII of England .

    ^ Henry VIII Stewart King of England .

    ^ Henry Tudor, Henry, VIII, King of England .

    712 pp. excerpts and text search
  • Bernard, G. W. "The Making of Religious Policy, 1533–1546: Henry VIII and the Search for the Middle Way." Historical Journal 1998 41(2): 321–349. Issn: 0018-246x Fulltext: in Jstor
  • Bernard, G. W. War, Taxation, and Rebellion in Early Tudor England: Henry VIII, Wolsey, and the Amicable Grant of 1525. (1986). .164 pp
  • Elton, G. R. The Tudor Revolution in Government: Administrative Changes in the Reign of Henry VIII (1953; revised 1962), major interpretation online edition
    • Coleman, Christoper, and David Starkey, eds.^ Henry (VIII, King ofEngland) Tudor .

      ^ Henry viii Tudor King of England .

      ^ A list of all Hey Henrys from the Online Edition.

      .Revolution Reassessed: Revision in the History of Tudor Government and Administration (1986), evaluates Elton thesis
  • Elton, G. R. Reform and Reformation: England, 1509–1558 (1977), hostile to Henry
  • Fielder, Martha Anne.^ Henry VII "King of England" 1485 - 1509 Tudor .

    ^ Henry VIII "King of England" 1509 - 1547 Tudor .

    ^ Henry VII Tudor King of England (1485-1509) .

    ."Iconographic Themes in Portraits of Henry VIII." PhD dissertation Texas Christian U. 1985. 232 pp.^ 'Henry VIII: April 1545, 26-30', Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 20 Part 1: January-July 1545 (1905), pp.
    • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    DAI 1985 46(6): 1424-A. DA8517256 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
  • Fox, Alistair, and John Guy, eds. Reassessing the Henrician Age: Humanism, Politics and Reform 1500–1550 (1986), 242pp; advanced essays by scholars
  • Head, David M. "Henry VIII's Scottish Policy: a Reassessment." Scottish Historical Review 1982 61(1): 1–24. Issn: 0036-9241 Argues that if Henry intended to take over Scotland then his 1542 victory at Solway Moss was the opportune moment, for the French were unable to intervene, the Scottish nobility was in disarray, and the infant Mary was in line for Scotland's throne. .Instead, Henry adopted a policy similar to that in Ireland, since he could not afford outright conquest or the luxury of diplomacy.
  • Lindsey, Karen.^ Thanks CVS! Hey Henry, instead of renovating the McDonough library, could the grant be used to actually put some more books in it?

    .Divorced, Beheaded, Survived: A Feminist Reinterpretation of the Wives of Henry VIII (1995) online edition
  • Loades, David.^ A list of all Hey Henrys from the Online Edition.

    Henry VIII: Court, Church and Conflict (2007) 248pp; by a leading scholar excerpt and text search
  • MacCulloch, Diarmaid, ed. The Reign of Henry VIII: Politics, Policy, and Piety. (1995). 313 pp. essays by scholars
  • Marshall, Peter. "(Re)defining the English Reformation," Journal of British Studies July 2009, Vol. 48 Issue 3, pp 564–85,
  • Mackie, J. D. The Earlier Tudors, 1485–1558 (1952), a political survey of the era online edition
  • Moorhouse, Geoffrey. .Great Harry's Navy: How Henry VIII Gave England Seapower
  • Moorhouse, Geoffrey.^ Henry Tudor VIII of England .

    ^ King Henry VIII of England .

    ^ Henry VIII Stewart King of England .

    The Last Divine Office: Henry VIII and the Dissolution of the Monasteries (2009)
  • Slavin, Arthur J., ed. Henry VIII and the English Reformation (1968), readings by historians. online edition
  • Smith, H. Maynard. .Henry VIII and the Reformation (1948) online edition
  • Wagner, John A. (2003).^ A list of all Hey Henrys from the Online Edition.

    ."Bosworth Field to Bloody Mary: An Encyclopedia of the Early Tudors."^ Mary "Bloody Mary" TUDOR .

    ^ Mary "Bloody Mary" TUDOR Queen Of France .

    (Greenwood). ISBN 1-57356-540-7.
  • Walker, Greg. Writing under Tyranny: English Literature and the Henrician Reformation. (2005). 556 pp.

Historiography and memory

  • Head, David M. "'If a Lion Knew His Own Strength': the Image of Henry VIII and His Historians." International Social Science Review 1997 72(3–4): 94–109. Issn: 0278-2308 Fulltext: Ebsco
  • Hoak, Dale. "Politics, Religion and the English Reformation, 1533–1547: Some Problems and Issues." History Compass 2005 3 (Britain and Ireland): 7 pp Issn: 1478-0542 Fulltext: Blackwell Synergy
  • Ives, Eric. ."Will the Real Henry VIII Please Stand Up?"^ Hey Henry, do we really have nothing better to do except to complain about a few yard sale signs being up too long.

    ^ Hey Henry, please hurry up and get the recreational center built so that Henry County kids have a local place to swim.

    ^ Hey Henry, can you please tell the pet owners in the Whispering Willow Subdivision that if they are going to walk their pets to please make sure they have a clean up bag with them.

    History Today 2006 56(2): 28–36. Issn: 0018-2753 Fulltext: Ebsco
  • Rankin, Mark. .'Imagining Henry VIII: Cultural Memory and the Tudor King, 1535–1625'. PhD Dissrertation, Ohio State.^ Henry 7th Tudor King of England .

    ^ Henry (VII, King ofEngland) Tudor .

    ^ Henry VIII "King of England" 1509 - 1547 Tudor .

    U. Dissertation Abstracts International 2007 68(5): 1987-A. DA3264565, 403p.

Primary sources

  • Williams, C. M. A. H. English Historical Documents, 1485–1558 (1996) online sources

External links

Henry VIII of England
Born: 28 June 1491 Died: 28 January 1547
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Henry VII
Lord of Ireland
21 April 1509 – 28 January 1547
Declared king by an act
of the Irish Parliament
King of England
21 April 1509 – 28 January 1547
Succeeded by
Edward VI
Vacant
Title last held by
Edward Bruce
King of Ireland
1541–1547
Political offices
Preceded by
Sir William Scott
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
1493–1509
Succeeded by
Sir Edward Poyning
English royalty
Preceded by
Arthur, Prince of Wales
Heir to the English Throne
as heir apparent
2 April 1502 – 21 April 1509
Succeeded by
Margaret Tudor
Prince of Wales
1502–1509
Vacant
Title next held by
Edward VI
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Arthur
Duke of Cornwall
1502–1509
Vacant
Title next held by
Henry Tudor
New creation Duke of York
3rd creation
1494–1509
Merged in crown
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Henry VII
— TITULAR —
King of France
21 April 1509 – 28 January 1547
Succeeded by
Edward VI

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Henry VIII by Hans Holbein the Younger
Henry VIII (1498-06-281547-01-28) was king of England from 1509 to 1547.

Sourced

.
  • Well beloved subjects, wee thought that the clergie of our realme had been our subjectes wholy, but now we have well perceived that they bee but halfe our subjectes, yea, and scarce our subjectes: for all the prelates at their consecration make an othe to the pope, clene contrary to the the that they make to us, so that they seme to be his subjectes, and not ours.^ All of the volunteers and youth did an outstanding job making this a hit for our children.

    ^ We all need to take time from our busy day and thank our troops and veterans for all they have done and continue to do for us.

    ^ Most of us are young and trying to make it on our own.

    • Speech to Parliament (11 May, 1532), as quoted in Hall's Chronicle (1809), edited by Sir Henry Ellis, p. 788
    • Well-beloved subjects! we thought that the clergy of our realm had been our subjects wholly, but now, we have well perceived that they be but half our subjects; yea, and scarce our subjects, for all the prelates, at their consecration, take an oath to the .Pope clean contrary to the oath they make to us, so that they seem to be his subjects and not ours.^ We all need to take time from our busy day and thank our troops and veterans for all they have done and continue to do for us.

      ^ Most of us are young and trying to make it on our own.

      ^ Why is it that we complain about the little stuff in our life that makes us so mad?

      • As quoted in English Constitutional History from the Teutonic Conquest to the Present Time (1905) by Thomas Pitt Taswell-Langmead, p. .332
  • We be informed by our judges that we at no time stand so highly in our estate royal as in the time of Parliament, wherein we as head and you as members are conjoined and knit together into one body politic, so as whatsoever offence or injury (during that time) is offered to the meanest member of the House is to be judged as done against our person and the whole Court of Parliament.^ As a female, it is nice to go into an auto place and not feel like someone's trying to pull a fast one on you.

    ^ Hey Henry, did you know that it cost about $7 to get into one high school football game in Henry County.

    ^ The sad truth is neither one of the major politics parties actually give a damn about our rights, not these made up rights...I'm referring to the Bill of Rights.

    • Speech to Parliament on parliamentary privilege (March/April 1542), as quoted in Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland Volume III (1808), by Raphael Holinshed, p. .824.
  • Alas, how can the poor souls live in concord when you preachers sow amongst them in your sermons debate and discord?^ HeyHenry, Jason Pye...everyone knows you moved away to another county, so stop pretending you still live in Henry County on your website.

    ^ Hey Henry, How many lives have to be lost before you install a light on King Mill Road and 42Hwy.

    .They look to you for light and you bring them darkness.^ Hey Henry, it's weird when the person next to you starts talking, you look up to answer them and they've got that little thing stuck in their ear.

    ^ Take a look at some of these parents and you will see why their kids look, act and dress the way they do.

    .Amend these crimes, I exhort you, and set forth God's word truly, both by true preaching and giving a good example, or else, I, whom God has appointed his vicar and high minister here, will see these divisions extinct, and these enormities corrected...^ You both are setting a fine example for Henry County!

    ^ I am sure most of the other poor spelling and grammar that you see on here came as a product of the government school system too.

    ^ Hey Henry, you might need to get a life if the mid-week high point in your life is seeing what Publix has on sale.

    .
    • Last speech to parliament, December 24, 1545. [1]
    • See also: Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII, Great Britain.^ 'Henry VIII: April 1545, 26-30', Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 20 Part 1: January-July 1545 (1905), pp.
      • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 .
      • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Henry VIII April 1545, 26-30 .
      • Henry VIII - April 1545, 26-30 | British History Online 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

      .Public Record Office, John Sherren Brewer, Robert Henry, vol.^ Hey Henry, women should still be disallowed to vote or even hold any public office.

      ^ Hey Henry, you can disallow me to vote, and even keep me from holding any public office, but please, oh please, don't take away my right to vent.

      ^ Hey Henry, since my City Council person Monta Brown, ignored me I will certainly return the favor on his next run for public office.

      XX, part 2, p. .513. [2]
  • Be not judges yourselves of your own fantastical opinions and vain expositions; and although you be permitted to read Holy Scriptures and to have the Word of God in your mother tongue, you must understand it is licensed so to do only to inform your conscience and inform your children and families, not to make Scripture a railing and taunting stock against priests and preachers.^ If you forgot, the taxpayers are your boss, you must answer to us or you will be fired from your job.

    ^ Hey Henry, the Historical Preservation Committee should have to either purchase your property or pay your yearly fees if they can control what you can do with your own property.

    ^ Hey Henry, the people who want to protect the environment only whine and cry because yes it might not kill you, but it will kill your children or theirs.

    .I am very sorry to know and hear how irreverently that precious jewel, the Word of God, is disputed, rimed, sung, and jangled in every alehouse and tavern, contrary to the true meaning and doctrine of the same.^ Hey Henry, You really don't know how much your local law enforcement and emergency personnel mean to you until you have to rely on their expertise.

    ^ They're professional, very gentle and know how to handle sick folks.

    ^ I just had to say Hey Henry and let you know how much reading it means to me (Mary Ann Barnette).

    • Last speech to parliament, December 24, 1545.
    • English Church History from the Death of King Henry VII to the Death of Archbishop Parker, Rev. Alfred Plummer, 1905, Edinburg, T. & T. Clark, p. 85. [3]

External links

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Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010
(Redirected to Henry VIII of England (1491-1547) article)

From Familypedia

Henry VIII of England
Birth June 28, 1491
Death: January 28, 1546
Burial: February 16, 1546
Father: Henry VII of England (1457-1509)
Mother: Elizabeth of York (1465-1503)
Wife: Catherine of Aragon (1485-1536)
Wedding: June 11, 1509
Wife (2): Anne Boleyn (c1501-1536)
Wedding2: January 25, 1533
Wife (3): Jane Seymour (c1509-1537)
Wedding3: May 30, 1536
Wife (4): Anne of Cleves (1515-1557)
Wedding4: January 6, 1540
Wife (5): Catherine Howard (c1521-1542)
Wedding5: August 8, 1540
Wife (6): Catherine Parr (1512-1548)
Wedding6: July 12, 1543
Companion (8): Elizabeth Blount (c1502-bef1541)
Sex:
AFN # 9FDM-NH
Edit facts
.Henry VIII of England was born 28 June 1491 to Henry VII of England (1457-1509) and Elizabeth of York (1465-1503) and died 28 January 1546 at the age of 54 years of unspecified causes.^ Henry VIII Later years .

^ Henry VIIs visit...reign of Henry VIII .
  • Henry VIII King of England: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Henry VIII (28 June 1491'28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 22 April 1509 until his death.

.Henry married Catherine of Aragon 11 June 1509 .^ Henry had married his brother's widow, Catherine of Aragon, in 1509.
  • History of the Monarchy > The Tudors > Henry VIII 10 February 2010 10:55 UTC www.royal.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII 16 January 2010 15:015 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Catherine of Aragon was married to King Henry VIII from 1509 to 1533, when the marriage was annulled.
  • The Tudors on Showtime Story of King Henry VIII: Jonathan Rhys Meyers as Legendary Monarch of English Renaissance Era 2 February 2010 15:28 UTC prime-time-dramas.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ By Catherine of Aragon (married June 11 1509 annulled 1533; she died January 6 1536 ) .
  • Henry VIII of England at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII of England - Celtopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC celtopedia.druidcircle.net [Source type: Original source]

Children


Offspring of  Henry VIII of England and Catherine of Aragon (1485-1536)
Name Birth Death
Henry Tudor (1511-1511)
Mary I of England (1516-1558) February 8, 1516 November 17, 1558
Edit facts

Offspring of  Henry VIII of England and Anne Boleyn (c1501-1536)
Name Birth Death
Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603) September 7, 1533 March 24, 1603
Edit facts

Offspring of  Henry VIII of England and Jane Seymour (c1509-1537)
Name Birth Death
Edward VI of England (1537-1553) October 12, 1537 July 6, 1553
Edit facts

Offspring of  Henry VIII of England and Elizabeth Blount (c1502-bef1541)
Name Birth Death
Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond (1519-1536)
Edit facts

Citations and remarks

Contributors

 

This article uses material from the "Henry VIII of England (1491-1547)" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Henry VIII
King of England and Ireland (more...)
File:Henry-VIII-kingofengland
Reign 21 April 1509 – 28 January 1547
Coronation 24 June 1509
Predecessor Henry VII
Regent Queen Catherine (1513 absence in France)
Successor Edward VI
Consort Catherine of Aragon
m. 1509, ann. 1533

Anne Boleyn
m. 1533, ann. 1536
Jane Seymour
m. 1536, died 1537
Anne of Cleves
m. 1540, ann. 1540
Catherine Howard
m. 1540, ann. 1542
Catherine Parr
m. 1543, widowed 1547

Issue
Mary I
Henry FitzRoy
Elizabeth I
Edward VI
Titles and styles
His Majesty The King
His Grace The King
The Prince of Wales
The Duke of York
Prince Henry
Royal house House of Tudor
Father Henry VII
Mother Elizabeth of York
Born 28 June 1491(1491-06-28)
Greenwich Palace, Greenwich, England
Died 28 January 1547 (aged 55)
Palace of Whitehall, London, England
Burial St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, England

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was the King of England from 1509 until his death. He is best remembered for splitting with the pope and Roman Catholic Church and for having married six times.

Henry was born in Greenwich Palace on 28 June 1491 and was the second son of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York. He had one brother, who was called Arthur, Prince of Wales, and two sisters, who were called Margaret and Mary. Arthur should have been king after their father died, but Arthur died before his father, making Henry next in line for the throne. Henry ended up marrying Arthur's widow, Catherine of Aragon.

Early Years

Henry VIII was born in 1491 on the 18 of June. He was born in Greenwich Henry VII and Elizabeth of York were loving parents, although they saw little of their children. Henry was their second son. He had his own servants and minstrels, and a fool named John Goose. He even had a whipping boy who was punished for Henry when he did something wrong. Prince Henry enjoyed music and was very good at it. At the age of 10 he could play many instruments, including the fife, harp, viola and drums. Henry VIII was also a scholar, linguist, musician and athlete at his early age. He could speak fluent Latin, French and Spanish. He got tutored by the best tutors and he also had to learn jousting, archery, hunting and other military arts. Young Henry was very religious. Henry's older brother was called Arthur. Arthur married a Spanish princess, Catalina De Aragon (Henrys 1st wife) when he was fifteen. Prince Arthur died within a few months of his wedding of tuberculosis at the age of 15, but some say he died of plague or sweating sickness. After his brother died, Henry VIII bonded closely to Catalina De Aragon (Catherine of Aragon). Later on they got married. The couple had a bit of trouble getting married because it states in the book of Leviticus, ‘If a brother is to marry the wife of a brother they will remain childless’. That meant that Catherine had to swear that her marriage with Arthur had not been perfect. Young Henry VIII was now the heir to the throne. While his father was alive he was watched so closely, because the King feared for the safety of his only remaining male heir. Henry could go out only through a private door, and then he was under the supervision of specially appointed people. No one could speak to Henry. He spent most of his time in his room, which could only be entered through his dad’s bedroom. Henry never spoke in public, unless it was to answer a question from his father. Henry VIII was a very tall, athletic, handsome teenager (not fat). He kept his enthusiastic personality under control on public occasions because he feared his father's temper. He received little training for his future role as King by his father, and relied heavily on his counselors in the early years of his reign. In 1509 Henry VII died of tuberculosis as well and his son became King Henry VIII. He was 18 when he was crowned king.

Reign

The most important event that happened in England when Henry was the king was the country's change in religion from Roman Catholic to Protestant. Because his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, had only had one daughter, and they did not have any sons to be his heirs, Henry asked the Pope to give them a divorce. The Pope would not do this. Catherine's nephew was Charles V, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, and he was very powerful. Also, Catherine's family ruled Spain, which was the largest Catholic country. Henry then chose a new Archbishop of Canterbury, a man called Thomas Cranmer. Henry knew that Cranmer would do what he wanted, and Cranmer agreed that Henry could have a divorce from Catherine. The Pope was so angry that he excommunicated Henry, meaning Henry was thrown out of the church. Henry fought back. In 1534, he passed the Act of Supremacy, which meant that the king, not the pope, was the head of the church in England. He then forced all priests and bishops to accept him as the new leader. Anyone who refused was punished.

Protestants thought that monasteries, in which Roman Catholic monks and nuns lived, had more money and land than the monks and nuns needed. Henry forced the monks and nuns to move out of the monasteries. Then Henry gave their money and land to men who supported him. Most of the men who received money and land from the closed monasteries were Protestants. This event was called the Dissolution of the monasteries.

After his divorce from Catherine of Aragon, Henry VIII married Anne Boleyn, who was younger than Catherine and still able to have children. When Anne, just like Catherine, only had a daughter and no sons, Henry soon grew tired of her and started looking for another wife. Henry's most loyal official, Thomas Cromwell, helped him to find a way to get rid of Anne, by finding people who said that she had been the lover of several other men. Anne was put on trial and found guilty, and she was executed by having her head chopped off.

Henry's third wife was Jane Seymour. She soon gave birth to a son called Edward. This made Henry very happy, but, after a few days, Jane died. Henry had loved her very much and he never got over his sadness at her death. He lost interest in everything, and became very fat. He became angry with Thomas Cromwell when Cromwell suggested that he should get married again after Jane's death.

After a while, Henry changed his mind. Because he still only had one son, he realised that it might be a good idea to marry again, and he agreed to marry Anne of Cleves, a German princess. When Anne arrived, Henry did not think she was as pretty as she looked in the pictures he had seen, and he was not satisfied with her. Anne was also unhappy, and agreed to be divorced from Henry after only a few months. In the meantime, Henry had noticed a young lady at court, called Catherine Howard, and thought that she might make a good wife. Catherine Howard was a cousin of Henry's second wife, Anne Boleyn. Henry and Catherine got married in 1540, but Catherine was much younger than Henry and she soon got tired of him and started to flirt with other men. After they had been married for just over a year, Henry found out that Catherine had been having an affair with someone else. She was found guilty of treason and was executed, just like Anne Boleyn had been a few years before.

Henry's sixth and last wife was called Catherine Parr. She was a woman in her thirties who had already been married twice. Her first two husbands had been much older than her, and both had died. Henry thought that she would be more sensible and faithful than his other wives, and he turned out to be right. Catherine Parr stayed married to Henry for over three years, until he died, but they did not have any children.

After divorcing Catherine of Aragon, Henry began to suffer many different ailments, he never again regained health. He died on 28 January 1547 and was buried in Windsor Castle. Henry was the father of two queens and one king. They were Mary I of England, Elizabeth I of England and Edward VI of England. None of them had any children of their own.

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