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Henry VII
Portrait of Henry VII holding a Tudor Rose and wearing the Order of the Golden Fleece, dated 1505, attributed to Michel Sittow
King of England (more...)
Reign 22 August 1485 – 21 April 1509 (&0000000000000023.00000023 years, &0000000000000242.000000242 days)
Coronation 30 October 1485
Predecessor Richard III
Successor Henry VIII
Earl of Richmond (disputed)
Predecessor Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl
Consort Elizabeth of York (died February 1503)
Issue
Arthur, Prince of Wales
Margaret Tudor, Queen of Scots
Henry VIII
Mary Tudor, Queen of France
House House of Tudor
Father Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond
Mother Lady Margaret Beaufort
Born 28 January 1457(1457-01-28)
Pembroke Castle, Wales
Died 21 April 1509 (aged 52)
Richmond Palace, England
Burial Westminister Abbey, London
Signature
English Royalty
House of Tudor
England Arms 1405.svg
Royal Coat of Arms
Henry VII
   Arthur, Prince of Wales
   Margaret, Queen of Scots
   Henry VIII
   Mary, Queen of France
The Tudor Rose: a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York
.Henry VII (before accession known as Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond; Welsh: Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, as the first monarch of the House of Tudor.^ Henry 7th Tudor King of England .

^ Henry VII (1457–1509), ruled 1485–1509, first king of the House of Tudor, a Welsh noble family.

^ Henry VIII, king of England .
  • Henry VIII, king of England - Facts from the Encyclopedia - Yahoo! Education 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Henry won the throne when his army defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field.^ Henry Tudor crowned Henry VII after killing Richard III at Bosworth .
  • Paul Gorman /reading/shakespeare/henry_iv/historical_background.php 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC paulgorman.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry had bad relations with the Yorkists, after defeating Richard III at the battle of Bosworth in 1485 he became king by...
  • Free henry Essays | page 4 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What year was the battle in which Henry VII won the throne?
  • Henry VII - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle.^ He was the last King of England to die in battle.
  • The Life of Henry VII | Open Letters Monthly - an Arts and Literature Review 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.openlettersmonthly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The House of Lancaster retakes the throne -- Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, illegitimate heir of the Duke of Lancaster, defeats Richard's forces at the Battle of Bosworth Field, 1485.
  • Dr. Vess's World Civilization Virtual Library 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.faculty.de.gcsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Defeated and killed King Richard III at the battle of Bosworth Field, ending the War of the Roses.
  • SparkNotes: Henry VIII: Important Terms, People, and Events 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Henry was successful in restoring the power and stability of the English monarchy after the political upheavals of the Wars of the Roses.^ Henry's reasons were entirely political, to do with the succession of the monarchy.
  • Why did the church of england break away from the roman catholic church?? - Yahoo!7 Answers 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Both were later to play leading parts in the Wars of the Roses, the elder, Edmund was to become the father of King Henry VII, the founder of England's Tudor dynasty.
  • Anyone who knows anything about the reign of Henry VI please help me? - Yahoo! UK & Ireland Answers 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC uk.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Henry's father, Henry VII, had been the first to settle the long Wars of the Roses, which was fought between the Lancastrian and Yorkist families over who would inherit the English throne.
  • Why did the church of england break away from the roman catholic church?? - Yahoo!7 Answers 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.He founded a long-lasting dynasty and was peaceably succeeded by his son, Henry VIII, after a reign of 23 years.^ Her marriage to Henry VIII only lasted for three years.
  • National Monarchies, England - King Henry VIII 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC members.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Early years of Henry VIII .
  • The accession of Henry VIII 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC history.wisc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry VII succeeded by Henry VIII .
  • 1500-1600 - Icons of England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.icons.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Although Henry can be credited with the restoration of political stability in England, and a number of commendable administrative, economic and diplomatic initiatives, the latter part of his reign was characterised by a financial rapacity which stretched the bounds of legality.^ Every facet of the reign is considered including the nature of government - both at central and local level, financial policy, relations with the Church, foreign policy, economic affairs and concludes by assessing Henry as a 'new monarch'.
  • Biography of Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond (father of Henry VII) - RoyaList Online 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.royalist.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pamphlet: emphasizes the lasting political stability established during the reign demonstrates the difference between Henry's policies and those of the Yorkists shows how successors built on Henry's legacy argues that victory at Bosworth in 1485 can be seen as initiating a genunine 'Tudor revolution in government'.
  • Biography of Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond (father of Henry VII) - RoyaList Online 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.royalist.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time, Henry grew up keenly aware of the importance of securing that right over time and of bringing dynastic stability to England.
  • SparkNotes: Henry VIII: Prince Harry 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: General]

.According to the contemporary historian Polydore Vergil, simple "greed" in large part underscored the means by which royal control was over-asserted in Henry's final years.^ The reorganization in 1487 of the Star Chamber was one of several means by which Henry strengthened the royal power over the nobles.
  • Royal Genealogies Part 18 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC ftp.cac.psu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The theory that Henry suffered from syphilis was first promoted approximately 100 years after his death[ citation needed ], but has been disregarded by most serious historians.
  • Henry VIII (Pepys' Diary) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Polydore Vergil, an Italian humanist living in England who met Henry VII, praised his restoration of law and order, but caught the mood of his final years: 'For he began to treat his people with more harshness and severity than had been his custom, in order (as he himself asserted) to ensure they remained more thoroughly and entirely in obedience to him.'
  • Henry VII (of England) - ninemsn Encarta 20 November 2009 6:34 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

[1]

Contents

Ancestry and early life

Young Henry VII, by a French artist (Musée Calvet, Avignon)
.Henry VII was born at Pembroke Castle in South Wales on 28 January 1457, during the Wars of the Roses.^ First of all Henry VII was born in Pembroke Castle of noble Welsh ancestry.
  • The Tudors - Henry VII - The Greatest King of England and Wales - 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudors.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Chancellors during Henry VII's Reign.
  • Chancellors during Henry VII's Reign. 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.chaptersofdublin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Born at Pembroke Castle, Wales, 28 Jan 1457, Henry Tudor was the son of Edmund Tudor and Margaret Beaufort .
  • About Henry VII TUDOR (King of England) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

.His father was Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond and his mother was Lady Margaret Beaufort.^ Edmund , 1st Earl of Kent Plantagenet .

^ Edmund Plantagenet, 1st Earl Kent .

^ Edmund 1st Earl of Lancaster PLANTAGENET .

.Henry's paternal grandfather, Owen Tudor, originally from the Isle of Anglesey in Wales, had been a page in the court of Henry V.^ Owen Tudor (grandfather of King Henry VII) .
  • Biography of Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond (father of Henry VII) - RoyaList Online 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.royalist.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Edward IV had defeated the Lancastrian Henry VI in battle, the young Henry Tudor was taken into custody by the Earl of Pembroke at his seat, Raglan Castle in Wales.
  • Biography of Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond (father of Henry VII) - RoyaList Online 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.royalist.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lamson Library 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC library.plymouth.edu [Source type: General]

^ Red Dragon of Wales The Red Dragon was used as his badge by Henry VII’s grandfather, Sir Owen Tudor, who took it as a token of his supposed descent from Cadwalader, the last native ruler of Britain.

.He rose to become one of the "Squires to the Body to the King" after military service at Agincourt.^ For example, Henry had castles torn down which the barons had built without authorization during Stephen's reign, and by 1159, scutage, a fee paid by vassals in lieu of military service, had become a central feature of the king's military system.

^ The bloody Wars of the Roses, which had ended in Henry's father Henry VII becoming king, were still within living memory.
  • Henry VIII, King of England and his Six Wives 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.historic-uk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Legacy In modern times, Henry VIII has become one of the most popular historical kings of the English monarchy.
  • Henry VIII King of England - Henry VIII, Biography, History, Information. 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.famouspeople.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[2] .Owen is said to have secretly married the widow of Henry V, Catherine of Valois.^ Henry married Catherine of Aragon, his brother's widow in 1509.
  • A History of Christianity in England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry, to marry Catherine.

^ The treaty called for Henry V to marry Catherine de Valois (b.
  • Charles VII, King of France (1403-1461) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC xenophongroup.com [Source type: Original source]

One of their sons was Edmund Tudor, father of Henry VII. Edmund was created Earl of Richmond in 1452, and "formally declared legitimate by Parliament".[3]
.Henry's claim to the throne, however, derived from his mother through the house of Beaufort.^ Henry actually had more of a claim to the french throne through his grandmother on his Fathers side, Catherine of Valois.
  • Philippa Gregory Readers' Group :: View topic - Debate! Henry VII 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.philippagregory.com [Source type: General]

^ But then I read Joanna Denny's Anne Boleyn , in which she includes a brief intro to the Tudors, and she said that Henry hated Elizabeth because she had a greater claim to the throne then him, and he and his mother (Margaret Beaufort) made her life miserable until her death.
  • Philippa Gregory Readers' Group :: View topic - Elizabeth of York & Henry VII 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.philippagregory.com [Source type: General]

^ Upon his accession, however, Henry revoked the marquessate of his half-brother , John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset and passed further legal measures barring the Beauforts from the throne.

.Henry's mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort, was a great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, third son of Edward III, and his third wife Katherine Swynford.^ John of Gaunt cr Duke of Lancaster .

^ Henry, duke of Lancaster .

^ And in the Beaufort line, Margaret, Henry’s mother, was the sole heiress.
  • Henry VII » HistoryNet 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.historynet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Katherine was Gaunt's mistress for around 25 years; when they married in 1396, they already had four children, including Henry's great-grandfather John Beaufort.^ Great granddaughter Anne married John of Gaunt .
  • Royal lineage - The ascendancy to the throne of England. 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.barryoneoff.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Henry was the eldest son of John of Gaunt and married Mary Bohun.
  • MONARCHES OF ENGLAND 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.gallica.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ What year did Henry VII marry?
  • Henry VII - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus Henry's claim was somewhat tenuous: it was from a woman, and by illegitimate descent.^ With a very tenuous claim on the throne of England Henry marries Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV, in an effort to strengthen his claim.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: To Hold the Crown: The Story of King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York (A Novel of the Tudors) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Henry Tudor claimed royal blood through his mother's paternal descent from the illegitimate line of John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford, in addition Henry's father Edmund Tudor was the grandson of Catherine of Valois, former Queen Consort of King Henry V. .
  • Historical TIMELINE of the Tudors - The Tudors Wiki 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There was thus no possibility of Parliament’s claiming to have made Henry king by their consent, by agreeing to honour his right by conquest or descent.
  • Henry VII » HistoryNet 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.historynet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gaunt's nephew, Richard II, legitimized Gaunt's Beaufort children by Letters Patent in 1397. In 1407, Henry IV, who was Gaunt's son by his first wife, issued new Letters Patent confirming the legitimacy of his Beaufort siblings, but also declaring them ineligible for the throne.^ Richard I, the Lionheart, third legitimate son of King Henry II .

^ Henry V, son of Henry IV, 1413-22 .
  • Rulers of England and Great Britain Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Rulers of England and Great Britain 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry had a son but no wife.
  • Week 6 Tudor England Hand Outs 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: General]

[4] .Henry IV's action was of doubtful legality, as the Beauforts were previously legitimized by an Act of Parliament, but further weakened Henry's claim.^ His claim to the throne was through his mother, Margaret Beaufort , from John of Gaunt and Catherine Swynford, whose issue born before their marriage had been legitimated by parliament.
  • England Under The Tudors: King Henry VII of England (1457-1509) [Henry of Lancaster; Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond] 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.luminarium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon his accession, however, Henry revoked the marquessate of his half-brother , John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset and passed further legal measures barring the Beauforts from the throne.

^ With a very tenuous claim on the throne of England Henry marries Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV, in an effort to strengthen his claim.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: To Hold the Crown: The Story of King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York (A Novel of the Tudors) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Nonetheless, by 1483 Henry was the senior male Lancastrian claimant remaining.^ After his second cousin's revolt failed in 1483, Henry VII became the leading Lancastrian contender for the throne of England.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry was growing frustrated by his lack of a male heir, but he remained a devoted husband.
  • Catherine "of Aragon" "Queen of England" 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry was frustrated by his lack of a male heir, but remained a devoted husband -- at first.
  • Masterpiece Theatre | Henry VIII | Who's Who (text version) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: General]

.On his father's side, Henry had another claim to the throne of sorts.^ Henry IV’s descendants, the house of Lancaster, had been on the throne some half century before the weakness and bad government of his grandson Henry VI gave rise to a rival claim to the throne from another branch of the royal family, the House of York.
  • Henry VII » HistoryNet 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.historynet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry actually had more of a claim to the french throne through his grandmother on his Fathers side, Catherine of Valois.
  • Philippa Gregory Readers' Group :: View topic - Debate! Henry VII 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.philippagregory.com [Source type: General]

^ His grandfather had married the widow of Henry V, and his father had married Margaret Beaufort , who was descended illegitimately from Edward III. Henry’s only claim to the throne was his victory at Bosworth Field and his subsequent success.
  • England - MSN Encarta 20 November 2009 6:34 UTC dictionary.msn.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Owen Tudor had come from an 'Anglesey family of no great pretension': his father Meredith had been 'butler to the Bishop of Bangor'. In the 1500s, the Tudor line was supposedly traced back to 'Cadwallader himself' - that is, Cadwaladr ap Cadwallon, the 7th century king of Gwynedd, and in legend the last ancient British king.^ Owen Tudor was a staunch supporter of the King .
  • About Henry VII TUDOR (King of England) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

^ His grandfather, Sir Owen Tudor, was a Welsh knight, who married Catherine, widow of Henry V, and traced back his descent to Cadwallader and the old British kings.
  • Henry VII (DNB00) - Wikisource 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Born in Pembroke Castle, the grandson of Owen Tudor, Henry VII defeated Richard III at Bosworth field and was proclaimed rightful King of all England.
  • HALE Genealogy - Act of Union 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC halefamily.net [Source type: Original source]

[5] .In 1485, Henry flew the Welsh dragon as his personal banner.^ A large Welsh troop under the banner of Cadwalader were among the following of 5,000 with whom Henry won the Battle of Bosworth Field (Aug.
  • Henry VII – FREE Henry VII information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Henry VII research 20 November 2009 6:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry landed at Milford Haven among his Welsh allies and defeated Richard at the battle of Bosworth (August 22, 1485).
  • England Under The Tudors: King Henry VII of England (1457-1509) [Henry of Lancaster; Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond] 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.luminarium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry VII (1457–1509), ruled 1485–1509, first king of the House of Tudor, a Welsh noble family.

However, aside from its romantic appeal to Welshmen, this purported lineage had no political significance.
.In 1456, his father, Edmund Tudor, was captured while fighting for Henry VI in South Wales against the Yorkists.^ Edmund son of Henry VII Tudor .

^ Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond (father of Henry VII) .
  • Biography of King Henry VII - RoyaList Online 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.royalist.info [Source type: General]

^ Henry Tudor, born at Pembroke Castle in January 1457, was the son of Edmund Tudor and the Lady Margaret Beaufort.

.He died in Carmarthen Castle, three months before Henry was born.^ One had been born but died a month later.
  • MONARCHES OF ENGLAND 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.gallica.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In what month of what year was Henry born?
  • Henry VII - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry was born in 1387 in Monmouth Castle.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Henry's uncle, Jasper Tudor, the Earl of Pembroke and Edmund's younger brother, undertook to protect the young widow, who was 13 years old when she gave birth to Henry.^ His younger brother, Henry who is 11 years old, becomes heir apparent.
  • Historical TIMELINE of the Tudors - The Tudors Wiki 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edmund was the brother of Athelstan and was only 18 years old on his accession.
  • MONARCHES OF ENGLAND 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.gallica.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Edmund son of Henry VII Tudor .

[3][6] .When Edward IV became King in 1461, Jasper Tudor went into exile abroad.^ The accession of Edward IV. and the exile of Henry took place in 1461.
  • GENUKI: Kings of England - H 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.genuki.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward IV and the Tudor kings are such examples.
  • The Wars of the Roses: Fifteenth-century England and her Return to Statehood « Opinionatedorator's Blog 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC opinionatedorator.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward then attainted Jasper who fled into exile in Brittany.
  • The Tudors - Henry VII - The Greatest King of England and Wales - 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudors.org [Source type: Original source]

.Pembroke Castle, and later the Earldom, were granted to Yorkist William Herbert, who also assumed the guardianship of Margaret Beaufort and the young Henry.^ Pembroke Castle was seized by Lord Herbert, and Henry remained at the castle in the Herbert household.

^ Margaret, spouse to young Henry, in the ceremony.
  • Online Library of Liberty - IX: HENRY II - The History of England, vol. 1 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry Tudor, born at Pembroke Castle in January 1457, was the son of Edmund Tudor and the Lady Margaret Beaufort.

[7]
.Henry lived in the Herbert household till 1469, when Warwick, the 'Kingmaker', went over to the Lancastrians.^ Indeed, they, and Warwick 's sister, Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of Salisbury , would live on to trouble Henry VIII many years later.
  • About Henry VII TUDOR (King of England) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

^ But Jasper was a commander in the Lancastrian army, and when Henry was only four years old, a Yorkist force was sent to take the Tudor fortress at Pembroke, where the child was living.
  • About Henry VII TUDOR (King of England) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

^ Pembroke Castle was seized by Lord Herbert, and Henry remained at the castle in the Herbert household.

.Herbert was captured fighting for the Yorkists and executed by Warwick.^ In 1459when fighting broke out again, York, Salisbury, and Warwick were forced to flee the country, but in 1460 they returned and captured the king at the battle of Northampton.
  • The Federation of the Wars of the Roses - History Page 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC homepages.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ During the coup Warwick had Lord Herbert executed.

[8] .When Warwick restored Henry VI in 1470, Jasper Tudor returned from exile and brought Henry to court.^ In 1470 Edward IV was driven from his throne, and Henry VI restored.
  • Henry VII (DNB00) - Wikisource 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Warwick then restored Henry VI to the throne.
  • The Federation of the Wars of the Roses - History Page 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC homepages.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ However, she was determined to win back for her husband and son, and with the help of King Louis XI of France she eventually allied with the Earl of Warwick, who had fallen out with Edward IV. Warwick returned to England, defeated the Yorkists in battle, set Henry VI free and restored him to the throne on 30 October 1470.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[8] .When the Yorkist Edward IV regained the throne in 1471, Henry fled with other Lancastrians to Brittany, where he spent most of the next 14 years.^ Henry VI murdered; Edward IV restored to throne .
  • World Timelines - England - AD 1066-1500 Late medieval 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.worldtimelines.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry VI deposed by Edward IV .
  • 1300-1500 - Icons of England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.icons.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward IV deposed by Henry VI .
  • 1300-1500 - Icons of England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.icons.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

Rise to the throne

Perfected and fluted armour of Henry VII
.By 1483, his mother, despite being married to a Yorkist (Lord Stanley), was actively promoting Henry as an alternative to Richard III.^ Richard III 1483 - 1485 .
  • Royal lineage - The ascendancy to the throne of England. 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.barryoneoff.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The death of Edward IV in April 1483 left the Yorkist monarchy to his 12-year-old son Edward V, soon deposed and imprisoned by his uncle, regent, and successor, Richard III. Henry attempted a Lancastrian uprising in October 1483 but was balked by bad weather and Richard's soldiers.
  • Henry VII – FREE Henry VII information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Henry VII research 20 November 2009 6:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She continued to conspire to get her son on the throne and actively suggested him as someone to replace the hated King Richard III. When her husband switched sides, unknown to Richard III, she enlisted him in her conspiracy with his brother George Stanley (Lord Strange) as well as the Dowager Queen Consort whose sons had disappeared when Richard was their regent.

.At Rennes Cathedral on Christmas Day 1483, Henry pledged to marry Edward IV's eldest daughter, Elizabeth of York, who was also Edward's heir since the presumed death of her brothers, the Princes in the Tower.^ Henry VII marries Elizabeth of York .
  • Historical TIMELINE of the Tudors - The Tudors Wiki 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward V, son of Edward IV, 1483 .
  • Rulers of England and Great Britain Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Rulers of England and Great Britain 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Death of Henry VIII , Edward the Prince of Wales succeeds him .
  • Historical TIMELINE of the Tudors - The Tudors Wiki 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: Original source]

.Henry then received the homage of his supporters.^ In 1157 Henry invaded Wales and received homage, though without conquest.
  • Henry II Plantagenet King of England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.rpi.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The King of Scotland, who supported the rebellion of the young princes, was taken prisoner at Alnwick, in 1174, but was released after a few months, on doing homage to Henry.
  • GENUKI: Kings of England - H 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.genuki.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.With money and supplies borrowed from his host Francis II, Duke of Brittany, Henry tried to land in England, but his conspiracy unravelled, resulting in the execution of his primary co-conspirator, the Duke of Buckingham.^ Henry II of england .

^ Henry Plantagenet II king of England .

^ Henry ii Curtmantle King of England .

[9] .Richard III attempted to extradite Henry from Brittany, but Henry escaped to France.^ Richard III tried to have Henry Tudor extradited back to England from Brittany.

^ The Duke of Brittany steadily refused to deliver him up when pressed to do so by Edward and by Richard III. A rising in favour of Henry was planned in 1483, and he made an attempt to invade England in October of that year, but failed, and several of the leaders, the Duke of Buckingham among them, were executed.
  • GENUKI: Kings of England - H 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.genuki.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry Tudor founded Britain's most famous royal dynasty when he defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth.
  • Bust of Henry VII, Pietro Torrigiano (c1509-11) | Culture | The Guardian 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[10] .He was welcomed by the French, who readily supplied him with troops and equipment for a second invasion.^ The duke himself, who knew the slender capacity of Suffolk, began to think that none but himself was able to encounter the present danger; and he agreed to take on him the command of the troops.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With the aid of the English refugees and a body of troops given him by the French king, Henry at length embarked at Harfleur, 1 Aug.
  • Henry VII (DNB00) - Wikisource 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The French gave him support, troops and supplies to try again to land in England and defeat Richard III. .

.Having gained the support of the Woodvilles, in-laws of the late Edward IV, he sailed with a small French and Scottish force.^ Henry then gained the support of the in-laws of the late Yorkist King Edward IV and landed with a largely French and Scottish force in Pembrokeshire, and marched into England, with his uncle, Jasper Tudor, and the experienced Earl of Oxford.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1532 Henry VIII gained the support of the French King (Francis I) to his marriage to Anne Boleyn during a conference at Calais.

^ The Scots, under James IV , having concluded a pact with their old allies the French, invaded England with 50,000 men.
  • Henry VIII@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Henry landed in Mill Bay, Pembrokeshire, close to his birthplace.^ He, Jasper Tudor, John de Vere (Earl of Oxford) and 5,000 troops landed at Mill Bay in Pembrokeshire and marched to England.

^ They actually landed at Mill Bay, inside the Sound.
  • The Tudors - Henry VII - The Greatest King of England and Wales - 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudors.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the land of Pembrokeshire where Henry had been imprisoned as a young man.
  • The Tudors - Henry VII - The Greatest King of England and Wales - 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudors.org [Source type: Original source]

.He marched towards England accompanied by his uncle Jasper and the Earl of Oxford.^ He, Jasper Tudor, John de Vere (Earl of Oxford) and 5,000 troops landed at Mill Bay in Pembrokeshire and marched to England.

^ May,1471, he fled to Brittany with his uncle Jasper, and + later, to France, where they made plans, with other Lancastrian exiles, for the + invasion of England.
  • Order of the Crown of Charlemagne In the United States of America - Person Page 84 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.charlemagne.org [Source type: Reference]

^ After the defeat of the Lancastrians at Tewkesbury, 1 May 1471, he fled to Brittany with his uncle Jasper, and later, to France, where they made plans, with other Lancastrian exiles, for the invasion of England.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10142 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: Academic]

.Wales was traditionally a Lancastrian stronghold, and Henry owed the support he gathered to his Welsh birth and ancestry, being directly descended, through his father, from Rhys ap Gruffydd.^ Through the Beaufort family, Henry was descended from Edward III, and in 1470 he was given the title of Earl of Richmond by Henry VI, last of the Lancastrian Kings.
  • Henry VII – FREE Henry VII information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Henry VII research 20 November 2009 6:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Edward IV had defeated the Lancastrian Henry VI in battle, the young Henry Tudor was taken into custody by the Earl of Pembroke at his seat, Raglan Castle in Wales.

^ Henry knighted William Gardynyr and Rhys ap Thomas on the battlefield and a number of his captains.
  • The Tudors - Henry VII - The Greatest King of England and Wales - 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudors.org [Source type: Original source]

[11]
.He amassed an army of around 5,000 soldiers.^ He arrived at Chinon on 28 April and at Poitiers on 4 May, with an army of 30,000 knights and foot soldiers.
  • The Counts of Toulouse and the Kings of England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

^ In Ulster as the English call Ulaidh General Warwick had approximatly an army of 11.000 soldiers ready to liberate Leinster from the Scots.
  • Sons of the Union - An England WATKABAOI AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth sends an army of 5-6,000 soldiers and 1,000 horses to Holland to support the Protestant Dutch in their war for independence from the Catholic Spanish.
  • Henry Hudson's Second Voyage, 1608: The Northeast Passage 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.ianchadwick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
.Henry was aware that his best chance to seize the throne was to engage Richard quickly and defeat him immediately, as Richard had reinforcements in Nottingham and Leicester.^ He ultimately bested Henry VI for the throne.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After the defeat of the conspirators at Stoke on 16 Jun (when the Earl of Lincoln was killed) Henry decided that ridicule was the best weapon and made Simnel a turnspit in the royal kitchens, later promoting him to falconer.
  • About Henry VII TUDOR (King of England) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

^ Richard II {1377 - 1399} proved a weak king, and after several uprisings, chief of which was the insurrection under Wat Tyler, Henry, Duke of Lancaster, who came to the throne as Henry IV, dethroned him.
  • History of England and its English Heritage 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.thetreemaker.com [Source type: Original source]

.Richard only needed to avoid being killed in order to keep his throne.^ Not only did it end the reign of Richard III and bring Henry to the throne, it was also the beginning of the end of the War of the Roses.

^ When a rumor spread that Richard had ordered all Jews to be killed, the people of London joined in to persecute the Jews, and a massacre began.
  • Richard I of England - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And it is important in order to establish Henry Tudor on the throne, and thereby keep the royal patroness happy.
  • Richard III: Myth, Rumor and History « Bete Comme Un Peintre 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC kwknox.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.Though outnumbered, Henry's Lancastrian forces decisively defeated Richard's Yorkist army at the Battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485. Several of Richard's key allies, such as the Earl of Northumberland and William and Thomas Stanley, crucially switched sides or left the battlefield.^ Battle of Bosworth Field - Henry Tudor defeats King Richard III & the Yorkist forces...
  • Historical TIMELINE of the Tudors - The Tudors Wiki 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The real matter was decided on the battlefield, at the Battle of Bosworth Field, in Leicestershire, on 22 Aug.
  • About Henry VII TUDOR (King of England) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

^ It is of note that neither William nor Thomas Stanley were knighted on the battle field.
  • The Tudors - Henry VII - The Greatest King of England and Wales - 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudors.org [Source type: Original source]

.Richard III's death at Bosworth Field effectively ended the Wars of the Roses, although it was not the last battle Henry had to fight.^ The battle ended the Wars of the Roses.
  • The History of England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.byfaith.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only did it end the reign of Richard III and bring Henry to the throne, it was also the beginning of the end of the War of the Roses.

^ Richard III himself died at the battle.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

Reign

.The first concern Henry had was to secure his hold on the throne.^ During his reign Henry had few military concerns other than to put down a few minor pretenders to the throne and to suppress an uprising by the Cornish.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10142 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During his + reign Henry had few military concerns other than to put down a few minor + pretenders to the throne and to suppress an uprising by the Cornish.
  • Order of the Crown of Charlemagne In the United States of America - Person Page 84 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.charlemagne.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It is difficult to imagine that the security derived from this bull could be a compensation for the defect which it betrayed in Henry's title, and for the danger of thus inviting the pope to interpose in these concerns.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.His claim to the throne being as weak as it was, he was fortunate that the majority of claimants had either died in the dynastic wars or been executed by his predecessors.^ Being the loyal man he was, notwithstanding having a claim to the throne in his own right, he escaped to Brittany with young Henry who was 14 years old at the time.
  • The Tudors - Henry VII - The Greatest King of England and Wales - 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudors.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Was Henry VIII our most important monarch ever? David Starkey thinks so... - School Gate - Times Online - WBLG 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC timesonline.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unfortunately, Henry V died while his son, Henry VI, was merely an infant, and the power struggle over control of the French throne led to renewed hostilities in the Hundred Years' War.

^ Siding with Yorkist interests in the early phases of the War of the Roses, he nevertheless manuevered to retain the helpless and inept Henry VI on the throne, a weak King being of advantage to him.
  • England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

.He honoured his pledge of December 1483 to marry Elizabeth of York.^ He had pledged to marry Elizabeth of York to cement the union of the House of York and the House of Lancaster.

^ With a very tenuous claim on the throne of England Henry marries Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV, in an effort to strengthen his claim.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: To Hold the Crown: The Story of King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York (A Novel of the Tudors) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ He married Elizabeth of York , daughter of Edward IV Plantagenet and Elizabeth Woodville , on 18 January 1486 at Westminster Abbey, London, England.
  • Order of the Crown of Charlemagne In the United States of America - Person Page 84 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.charlemagne.org [Source type: Reference]

[9] .They were third cousins, as both were great-great-grandchildren of John of Gaunt.^ Richard Neville was the son of Richard, Earl of Salisbury, and a great-grandson of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster.
  • England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were as formidable as ever, both by their numbers and spirit; and notwithstanding the small river which lay between them and the royal army, Norfolk had great reason to dread the effects of their fury.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This descent from King Edward was through his third son, John of Gaunt .
  • About Henry VII TUDOR (King of England) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

[13] .The marriage took place on 18 January 1486 at Westminster.^ Marriage: 18 January 1486 -- Westminster .
  • Henry VIII Tudor King of England and Ireland - I2346 - Individual Information - PhpGedView 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC auden.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He married Elizabeth of York , daughter of Edward IV Plantagenet and Elizabeth Woodville , on 18 January 1486 at Westminster Abbey, London, England.
  • Order of the Crown of Charlemagne In the United States of America - Person Page 84 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.charlemagne.org [Source type: Reference]

^ His marriage with Catherine of Aragon, his brother's widow, an event leading to such great and unlooked-for issues, took place in June, 1509.
  • GENUKI: Kings of England - H 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.genuki.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The marriage unified the warring houses and gave his children a stronger claim to the throne.^ His claim to the throne was through his mother, Margaret Beaufort , from John of Gaunt and Catherine Swynford, whose issue born before their marriage had been legitimated by parliament.
  • England Under The Tudors: King Henry VII of England (1457-1509) [Henry of Lancaster; Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond] 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.luminarium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Accession to the throne "Marriage is as a stratagem of war, in which a man may err but once."
  • Henry VIII@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A medallion struck to commemorate the marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York in January 1496, which unified the rival houses of York and Lancaster .
  • Life and Times of King Henry VII and VIII 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: Original source]

.The unification of the houses of York and Lancaster by this marriage is symbolized by the heraldic emblem of the Tudor rose, a combination of the white rose of York and the red rose of Lancaster.^ Hethusunited the houses of York and Lancaster, founding the Tudor royaldynasty .

^ House of York defeats the House of Lancaster.
  • 1300-1500 - Icons of England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.icons.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the setting for the oligarchical chaos and civil war known as the Wars of the Roses, which pitted the House of York with its symbol the white rose against the House of Lancaster with its red rose.
  • Tarpley B1 20 November 2009 6:34 UTC www.abjpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, Henry had Parliament repeal Titulus Regius, the statute that declared Edward IV's marriage as invalid and his children illegitimate, thus legitimizing his wife.^ Henry VI deposed by Edward IV .
  • 1300-1500 - Icons of England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.icons.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward IV deposed by Henry VI .
  • 1300-1500 - Icons of England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.icons.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ With a very tenuous claim on the throne of England Henry marries Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV, in an effort to strengthen his claim.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: To Hold the Crown: The Story of King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York (A Novel of the Tudors) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Amateur historians Bertram Fields and Sir Clements Markham have claimed that he may have been involved in the murder of the Princes in the Tower, as the repeal of Titulus Regius gave the Princes a stronger claim to the throne than his own.^ Despite keeping peace in the country and restoring the empty coffers, Henry is always fearful of conspiracies to challenge his reign with pretenders to the throne claiming to be one of the lost princes in the tower.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: To Hold the Crown: The Story of King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York (A Novel of the Tudors) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Richard III may not have been the hunch-backed murderer the later Tudor historians made him out to be, or the notable characterisation of Shakespeare's 'Richard III' by Olivier or Pacino.
  • Henry VII - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Later that year a man named Perkin Warbeck claimed be Richard, the nephew of Richard III (one of the two princes who was murdered in the Tower of London).

.Alison Weir, however, points out that the Rennes ceremony, two years earlier, was possible only if Henry and his supporters were certain that the Princes were already dead.^ Later that year a man named Perkin Warbeck claimed be Richard, the nephew of Richard III (one of the two princes who was murdered in the Tower of London).

^ It does, however, mention the poor relationship that existed between Anne and her stepdaughter Mary who was only eight years younger than Anne herself.

^ Study it as one might, the hope of education, till the arrival of the President-elect, narrowed itself to the possible influence of only two men -- Sumner and Seward.
  • The Education of Henry Adams by Henry Adams: Chapter VII. Treason (1860-1861) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

[14]
.Henry's second action was to declare himself king retroactively from the day before Bosworth Field.^ Robert the Bruce declares himself King of Scotland on this day.
  • 1300-1500 - Icons of England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.icons.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Age at death: 32 (41 days before his 33rd birthday).  House of Tudor Henry VII (whose grandfather married Henry V's widow), 1485-1509.

^ My favourite part of the whole Richard/Henry thing is that Henry VII dated his reign from the day before Bosworth Field - thus making all the nobles who'd fought for Richard 'traitors'.
  • 1066 Movie | Pajiba - Scathing Reviews for Bitchy People 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.pajiba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This meant that anyone who had fought for Richard against him would be guilty of treason.^ Henry had a way of dealing with anyone he disliked or who angered him.

^ One wrote that, after Stanley's men swarmed around him, Richard fought 'manfully in the thickest press of his enemies.'
  • The Tudors - Henry VII - The Greatest King of England and Wales - 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudors.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was also enacted, that if the king married any woman who had been incontinent, taking her for a true maid, she should be guilty of treason, if she did not previously reveal her guilt to him.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus Henry could legally execute any noble he didn't trust.^ It is difficult to imagine that the security derived from this bull could be a compensation for the defect which it betrayed in Henry's title, and for the danger of thus inviting the pope to interpose in these concerns.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If someone could not be legally executed, the king simply invented a new charge.
  • King Henry VIII: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 20 November 2009 6:34 UTC www.englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But the ministers, whom Henry most trusted and favoured, were not chosen from among the nobility, or even from among the laity.
  • Online Library of Liberty - XXIV: HENRY VII - The History of England, vol. 3 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.He spared Richard's nephew and designated heir, the Earl of Lincoln.^ He later supported Richard III, yet was favoured by Henry VII. Of his sons, the eldest was John de la Pole, earl of Lincoln, 1464-87, who was recognised by Richard III as his heir presumptive.
  • The Federation of the Wars of the Roses - History Page 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC homepages.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The treaty undermined England's relationships with the Holy Roman Empire and caused the revolt of Richard's brother John, who hoped to be proclaimed heir instead of their nephew.
  • Richard I of England - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After Warwick, Suffolk was the lineal heir to the pretensions of the house of York, and his elder brother, the Earl of Lincoln, had fought for Lambert Simnel.
  • Henry VII (DNB00) - Wikisource 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Henry secured his crown principally by dividing and undermining the power of the nobility, especially through the aggressive use of bonds and recognisances to secure loyalty.^ Henry, however, succeeded in securing his crown.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The reorganization in 1487 of the Star Chamber was one of several means by which Henry strengthened the royal power over the nobles.
  • Royal Genealogies Part 18 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC ftp.cac.psu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry killed the nobles, stole their lands and this made him wealthy and powerful.
  • Richard III: Myth, Rumor and History « Bete Comme Un Peintre 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC kwknox.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.He also enacted laws against "livery and maintenance" - the great lords' practice of having large numbers of "retainers" who wore their lord's badge or uniform and formed a potential private army.^ There scarcely passed any session during this reign without some statute against engaging retainers, and giving them badges or liveries; [v***] a practice by which they were in a manner enlisted under some great lord and were kept in readiness to assist him in all wars, insurrections, riots, violences, and even in bearing evidence for him in courts of justice.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With his usual forethought, Henry restrained his nobles' old tendencies to collect private armies; in 1487 he enacted a law against "livery and maintenance" and in 1504 codified existing statutes against "retaining", to prevent the nobles from keeping independent forces.
  • About Henry VII TUDOR (King of England) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

^ Being repulsed by that city, they were encountered in their retreat by Norfolk, who put them to flight; and having made prisoners of all their officers, except Musgrave, who escaped, he instantly put them to death by martial law, to the number of seventy persons.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Henry was threatened by several rebellions in the next few years.^ The events of Henry Tudor 's life for the next few years are uncertain.
  • About Henry VII TUDOR (King of England) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of the rebellion by the eldest son, Henry was crushed, and Eleanor was placed under house arrest for fifteen years.
  • King Henry Plantagenet Genealogy 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC hindskw.cts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Over the next few years Eleanor often travelled with her husband and was sometimes associated with him in the government of the realm.
  • William Duke of Aquitaine, Eleanor Duchess of Aquitaine. Counts of Toulouse and Kings of England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

The first was the Stafford and Lovell Rebellion of 1486, which collapsed without fighting.
.In 1487, Yorkists led by Lincoln rebelled in support of Lambert Simnel, a boy who was claimed to be the Earl of Warwick, son of Edward's brother Clarence (who was actually a prisoner in the Tower).^ In 1487 Henry crushes a revolt by the Earl of Lincoln on behalf of Lambert Simnel , who claimed to be one of the missing princes from the Tower.
  • About Henry VII TUDOR (King of England) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

^ Later that year a man named Perkin Warbeck claimed be Richard, the nephew of Richard III (one of the two princes who was murdered in the Tower of London).

^ Henry was the son of Edmund Tudor, earl of Richmond, who died before Henry was born, and Margaret Beaufort , a descendant of Edward III through John of Gaunt , duke of Lancaster.
  • Henry VII King of England: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The rebellion was defeated and Lincoln killed at the Battle of Stoke.^ Battle of Evesham: de Montford defeated and killed by Prince Edward after his escape from prison .
  • World Timelines - England - AD 1066-1500 Late medieval 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.worldtimelines.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He led an invading army from Ireland and was killed at the battle of Stoke.
  • The Federation of the Wars of the Roses - History Page 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC homepages.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Spain sent 4,000 troops to Ireland to help the Irish rebellion against the English, but they were defeated in the Battle of Kinsale.
  • Henry Hudson's Second Voyage, 1608: The Northeast Passage 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.ianchadwick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Henry made the boy Simnel a servant in the royal kitchen.^ After the defeat of the conspirators at Stoke on 16 Jun (when the Earl of Lincoln was killed) Henry decided that ridicule was the best weapon and made Simnel a turnspit in the royal kitchens, later promoting him to falconer.
  • About Henry VII TUDOR (King of England) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

^ His fate is involved in obscurity, some writers state he was made a turnspit in the royal kitchen, others that he was confined in the Tower; but this was his last appearance as a royal puppet.
  • Chancellors during Henry VII's Reign. 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.chaptersofdublin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry's desire to increase royal authority brought him into conflict with THOMAS A BECKET, whom he had made (1162) archbishop of Canterbury.
  • King Henry Plantagenet Genealogy 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC hindskw.cts.com [Source type: Original source]

[15]
.In 1490, a young Fleming, Perkin Warbeck, appeared and claimed to be Richard, the younger of the "Princes in the Tower". Warbeck won the support of Edward IV's sister Margaret of Burgundy.^ The main one was Perkin Warbeck, who pretended to be Richard, Duke of York, the younger of the Princes in the Tower.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Niece of both Edward IV and Richard III, Margaret Pole was the only woman except Anne Boleyn to hold a peerage in her own right during the 16th century.
  • Royalty.nu - Tudor Royal History - Henry VIII and His Six Wives 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.royalty.nu [Source type: General]

^ Later that year a man named Perkin Warbeck claimed be Richard, the nephew of Richard III (one of the two princes who was murdered in the Tower of London).

.He led attempted invasions of Ireland in 1491 and England in 1495, and persuaded James IV of Scotland to invade England in 1496. In 1497 Warbeck landed in Cornwall with a few thousand troops, but was soon captured and executed.^ He called himself Richard IV. He landed in Cornwall in September 1497.

^ HENRY VII , king of England 1457 1509...the Scottish king , James IV...1496) to invade England , but the next...attempted invasion of Cornwall.
  • Henry VII King of England: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ James attempted (1496) to invade England, but the next year, under pressure from Spain, he expelled Warbeck.
  • Henry VII King of England: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 1499, Henry had the Earl of Warwick executed.^ A wave of political executions, which had commenced with that of Edmund de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk in 1513, ended with Henry Earl of Surrey , in January, 1547, underlined it.
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He was imprisoned for years and finally executed by Henry VIII. RichardNeville, Earl of Warwick (1428 - 1471) from http://infoplease.lycos.com/ce5/CE054963.html Richard Neville was nicknamed the Kingmaker.
  • The Federation of the Wars of the Roses - History Page 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC homepages.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ When RichardNeville , earl of Warwick, allied himself with Queen Margaret and invaded England in 1470, Henry was restored to the throne, but his second reign was short-lived.
  • The Federation of the Wars of the Roses - History Page 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC homepages.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.However, he spared Warwick's elder sister Margaret.^ One possible line was that of Margaret Tudor, Henry VIII's elder sister, which led to Mary I, Queen of Scots.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, they, and Warwick 's sister, Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of Salisbury , would live on to trouble Henry VIII many years later.
  • About Henry VII TUDOR (King of England) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

She survived till 1541, when she was executed by Henry VIII.
.Henry married Elizabeth of York with the hope of uniting the Yorkist and Lancastrian sides of the Plantagenet dynastic disputes.^ Elizabeth Plantagenet was also known as Elizabeth of York.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10142 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Henry VII and Elizabeth of York had 7 children.

^ The mother of Queen Elizabeth Woodville was the French-born Jacquette of Luxembourg, widow of John Plantagenet, Duke of Bedford (son of the English King Henry IV) when she married the parvenu Lancastrian, later Yorkist peer, Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers (whose origin, and descent from the Beauchamps of Lillesdon, Somerset and Ryme, Dorset.

In this he was largely successful. However, a level of paranoia[citation needed] continued, so much that anyone with blood ties to the Plantagenets was suspected of coveting the throne.
HI:D

Law Enforcement and Justices of Peace

.Henry's principal problem was to restore royal authority in a realm recovering from the Wars of the Roses.^ Always uppermost in Henry's mind was the previous century and the dynastic struggles with the Houses of Lancaster and York known popularly as the War of the Roses.
  • Henry VIII and His Six Wives (1972) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

^ Henry had mastered the barons and this now allowed royal ministers to restore the royal demesne.
  • Medieval England 1066-1399 - Seminar Programmes 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry wanted a male heir, to avoid rival claims to the crown like those which had caused the Wars of the Roses before Henry's father, Henry VII , became king.
  • Henry VIII (Pepys' Diary) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]

.There were too many powerful noblemen and, as a consequence of the system of so called bastard feudalism, each had what amounted to private armies of indentured retainers (mercenaries masquerading as servants).^ Henry’s mother had raised considerable amount of funds to lure the Welsh mercenaries from various armies in Europe.
  • The Tudors - Henry VII - The Greatest King of England and Wales - 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudors.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There were many reasons which engaged the king not to proceed further at present in his enmity against France: he could hope for assistance from no power in Europe.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But there are also some callings which, though useful and even necessary in a state, bring no particular advantage or pleasure to any individual; and the supreme power is obliged to alter its conduct with regard to the retainers of those professions.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was content to allow the nobles their regional influence if they were loyal to him.^ She was quiet, demure, and charming; she was also content to allow her formidable mother-in-law, Margaret Beaufort, assume a position of unprecedented influence over the king.
  • King Henry VIII: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 20 November 2009 6:34 UTC www.englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He said, that murderers were employed by his uncle to kill him and his brother; they perpetrated the crime against his brother, but took compassion on him, and allowed him to escape.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.For instance, the Stanley family had control of Lancashire and Cheshire, upholding the peace on the condition that they stayed within the law.^ He also summoned to his aid Lord Stanley and his brother Sir William, who were powerful in Cheshire and Lancashire.
  • Henry VII (DNB00) - Wikisource 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And if any statute or statutes have been made within the said land heretofore to the contrary, that they and every of them be made void and of none effect in the law.'
  • Chancellors during Henry VII's Reign. 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.chaptersofdublin.com [Source type: Original source]

In other cases, he brought his over-powerful subjects to heel by decree. .He passed laws against 'livery' (flaunting your adherents by giving them badges and emblems) and 'maintenance' (keeping too many male 'servants').^ In the 14th and 15th centuries every magnate had his badge, which he displayed on his horse, furniture, on the hangings of his bed, on his wall and his chair of state, besides giving it as a livery to his servants and followers.
  • de la Warres of England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ During this session, a severe law was passed against riots.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For a like reason, the law enacted against enclosures, and for the keeping up of farm houses,[v] scarcely deserves the high praises bestowed on it by Lord Bacon.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.These laws were used shrewdly in levying fines upon those that he perceived as threats.^ Heavy fines were levied upon the delinquents.
  • Online Library of Liberty - XXIV: HENRY VII - The History of England, vol. 3 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She made church attendance and the use of a revised copy of Thomas Cranmer's “Book of Common Prayer” mandatory, but she also lessened the punishments for disobeying these laws.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Through this assize cases became much quicker as Henry levied fines upon those who delayed the cases.
  • Medieval England 1066-1399 - Seminar Programmes 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

.However, his principal weapon was the Court of Star Chamber.^ This prohibition, however, must be supposed to extend only to the inferior courts: for as to the king, and privy council, and star chamber, they were scarcely bound by any law.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry is also noted for starting the Court of Star Chamber.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry forms the Yeomen of the Guard and revives Court of Star Chamber , giving it powers to try nobility who break the law.
  • About Henry VII TUDOR (King of England) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

.This revived an earlier practice of using a small (and trusted) group of the Privy Council as a personal or Prerogative Court, able to cut through the cumbersome legal system and act swiftly.^ This revived an earlier practice of using a small (and trusted) group of the Privy Council as a personal court, able to cut through the red tape in the legal system and act swiftly.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1400, England had developed its own unique system of government through checks on the monarch's power and the further development of judiciary practices.
  • England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ Then, it became settled law, that there being a feoffment to uses, the person beneficially entitled could not, on violation of the trust, maintain an action at common law.
  • Chancellors during Henry VII's Reign. 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.chaptersofdublin.com [Source type: Original source]

.Serious disputes involving the use of personal power, or threats to royal authority, were thus dealt with.^ Serious disputes involving the use of personal power, or threats to royal authority, were dealt with by the Court.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This method of granting the Royal Assent had never been used before, but, in later reigns, it came to replace the traditional personal appearance of the Sovereign in Parliament.
  • Henry VIII of England - Celtopedia 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC celtopedia.druidcircle.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII King of England - Henry VIII, Biography, History, Information. 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.famouspeople.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII of England at AllExperts 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus the authority of the popes, like all exorbitant power, was ruined by the excess of its acquisitions, and by stretching its pretensions beyond what it was possible for any human principles or prepossessions to sustain.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

[16]
.Henry VII used Justices of the Peace on a large, nationwide scale.^ Henry's break with Rome incurred the threat of a large-scale French or Spanish invasion.
  • Henry VIII (Pepys' Diary) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry VII invaded France in 1492 but the French were preoccupied elsewhere and they quickly made peace.

^ Afterwards Henry VII followed a policy of peace with France.

.They were appointed for every shire and served for a year at a time.^ But they have vanished - probably because he destroyed them years later, when his love for Anne had turned to hate and he tried to eradicate every memory of her.
  • Life and Times of King Henry VII and VIII 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It may surprise you to learn that Henry VIII was married to his first wife for over 20 years, and for a long time they were happy together.
  • About Henry VIII TUDOR (King of England) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

Their chief task was to see that the laws of the country were obeyed in their area. .Their powers and numbers steadily increased during the Tudors, never more so than under Henry’s reign.^ Chancellors during Henry VII's Reign.
  • Chancellors during Henry VII's Reign. 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.chaptersofdublin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She was more than a match for young Henry.
  • Henry VIII@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During his reign Henry had few military concerns other than to put down a few minor pretenders to the throne and to suppress an uprising by the Cornish.
  • MONARCHES OF ENGLAND 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.gallica.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[17]
.Despite this, Henry was keen to constrain their power and influence, applying the same principles to the Justices of the Peace as he did to the nobility: a similar system of bonds and recognisances to which applied to both the gentry (Justices of the Peace) as well as the nobles who tried to exert their elevated influence over these local officials.^ Gloucester did not wield full authority, however, for much of the actual power resided in a council dominated by Henry Beaufort.
  • The Federation of the Wars of the Roses - History Page 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC homepages.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ This did not go over well with the King, and Jane never tried it again.
  • About Henry VIII TUDOR (King of England) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

^ Though Henry assiduously avoided open war, and despite a formal truce in 1497, border raiding continued unchecked on both sides.
  • About Henry VII TUDOR (King of England) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

.All Acts of Parliament were overseen by the Justices of the Peace.^ Above all, he insisted that the laws ought to be observed, that the constitution ought to be preserved inviolate, and that it was dangerous to follow the will of the sovereign, in opposition to an act of parliament.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the preamble to this act, the parliament asserts, that all the surrenders made by the abbots had been "without constraint, of their own accord, and according to due course of common law."
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The parliament rejected a bill for obliging the exiles to return under certain penalties, and another for incapacitating such as were remiss in the prosecution of heresy from being justices of peace.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.For example, Justices of the Peace could replace suspect jurors in accordance with the 1495 act preventing the corruption of juries.^ This was a usual artifice of the popes, to give allowance to what they could not prevent,[***] and afterwards pretend that princes, while they exercised their own powers, were only acting by authority from the papacy.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The judges replied, that it was a dangerous question; and that the high court of parliament ought to give the example to inferior courts, of proceeding according to justice; no inferior court could act in that arbitrary manner, and they thought that the parliament never would.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

They were also in charge of various administrative duties, such as the checking of weights and measures.
.By 1509, Justices of the Peace were key enforcers of law and order for Henry VII. They were unpaid, which, in comparison with modern standards, meant a lesser tax bill to pay for a police force.^ King Henry VII (1457-1509).
  • Life and Times of King Henry VII and VIII 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1509 Henry VII died.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Age at death: 32 (41 days before his 33rd birthday).  House of Tudor Henry VII (whose grandfather married Henry V's widow), 1485-1509.

.Local gentry saw the office as one of local influence and prestige and were therefore willing to serve.^ The only real administrators that William had relied on were the individuals filling the Anglo-Saxon office of sheriff who served as the local representative of the king.
  • England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ The Duke saw an opportunity to gain power and prestige by placing one of his family on the soon-to-be-vacant throne of the Queen of England, and brought young Katherine to Court.

^ These court offices would each serve a limited and specialized set of functions so that the office-holders would themselve become efficient administrators in that one area.
  • England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: Original source]

.Overall, this was a successful area of policy for Henry, both in terms of efficiency and as a method of reducing the corruption endemic within the nobility of the Middle Ages.^ Henry VII in middle age, painted by an unknown artist The Society of Antiqueries of London .
  • About Henry VII TUDOR (King of England) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

^ The Act of Succession 1536 declared Henry's children by Queen Jane to be next in the line of succession, and declared both the Lady Mary and the Lady Elizabeth illegitimate, thus excluding them.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII of England - Celtopedia 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC celtopedia.druidcircle.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII of England at AllExperts 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Henry V died of an illness in 1322 at the age of 35, their nine-month old child, Henry VI, became the first and only king of both England and France.
  • England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: Original source]

Later years

Late 16th century copy of a portrait of Henry VII
.In 1502, Henry VII's heir, Arthur, died suddenly at Ludlow Castle.^ In 1502, Arthur died suddenly of sweating sickness .
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1509 Henry VII died.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ However Arthur died in April 1502.

.This made Henry, Duke of York heir to the throne.^ Young Henry was now heir to the throne.
  • About Henry VIII TUDOR (King of England) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

^ On 18 February 1503/4 his creation to the Duke of York was declared void by Act of Parliament, as a result of his being the heir to the Crown.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10148 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: Reference]

^ With a very tenuous claim on the throne of England Henry marries Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV, in an effort to strengthen his claim.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: To Hold the Crown: The Story of King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York (A Novel of the Tudors) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Henry wanted to maintain the Spanish alliance.^ Henry VII was still eager to maintain the marital alliance between England and Spain through a marriage between Henry, Prince of Wales and Catherine.
  • Henry VIII King of England - Henry VIII, Biography, History, Information. 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.famouspeople.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ King Henry VII was given some of the cantarella of Borgia so that his son could marry Catherine of Aragon and maintain the Spanish alliance: .
  • Life and Times of King Henry VII and VIII 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For instance, the Bull would be void if it falsely asserted that the marriage was absolutely necessary to maintain the Anglo-Spanish alliance.
  • Henry VIII of England - Celtopedia 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC celtopedia.druidcircle.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII King of England - Henry VIII, Biography, History, Information. 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.famouspeople.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII of England at AllExperts 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.So he arranged a Papal dispensation from Pope Julius II for Prince Henry to marry his brother's widow Catherine - a relationship that precluded marriage in the Roman Catholic Church.^ Henry married Catherine of Aragon, his brother's widow in 1509.
  • A History of Christianity in England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry was the first monarch to break with the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Historical TIMELINE of the Tudors - The Tudors Wiki 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope Julius grants dispensation allowing Prince Henry to marry his brother's widow.
  • Historical TIMELINE of the Tudors - The Tudors Wiki 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1503, Henry's queen, Elizabeth of York, died in childbirth, so Henry had the dispensation also permit him to marry Catherine.^ Henry VII marries Elizabeth of York .
  • Historical TIMELINE of the Tudors - The Tudors Wiki 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry's father had previously prevented him from marrying Catherine of Aragon.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry, to marry Catherine.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.After obtaining the dispensation, Henry had second thoughts about the marriage of his son and Catherine, and did not allow it to take place during his lifetime.^ His second son, Henry, succeeded him.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ During some years, Henry had been regarded as heir to the house of Lancaster, by the party attached to that family; but the title of the house of Lancaster itself was generally thought to be very ill-founded.
  • Online Library of Liberty - XXIV: HENRY VII - The History of England, vol. 3 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry, while he punished the instruments of past tyranny, had yet such a deference to former engagements as to deliberate, immediately after his accession, concerning the celebration of his marriage with the infanta Catharine, to whom he had been affianced during his father's lifetime.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Henry made half-hearted plans to remarry and beget more heirs, but these never came to anything.^ These orders never came and Kelsey made no more inland journeys.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Henry VII himself made half-hearted plans to re-marry and get more heirs, this never came to anything.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He had made plans for a magnificent tomb to be erected for them both, but they were never carried out.
  • Royal Genealogies Part 19 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC ftp.cac.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He died on 9 May 1509 of tuberculosis, and was succeeded by his second son, Henry VIII (1509–47).^ Henry VIII, son of Henry VII, 1509-47 .
  • Rulers of England and Great Britain Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Rulers of England and Great Britain 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry VIII died.
  • Henry Hudson's Second Voyage, 1608: The Northeast Passage 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.ianchadwick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1509 Henry VII died.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.He was buried at Westminster Abbey .^ He was buried at Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England .
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10148 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Elizabeth was buried in Westminster Abbey, immediately next to her sister Mary I. King James VI was proclaimed King of England as James I a few hours after Elizabeth's death.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry died at Richmond on Sunday 22nd April 1509 and he and his wife are + buried at Westminster Abbey.
  • Order of the Crown of Charlemagne In the United States of America - Person Page 84 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.charlemagne.org [Source type: Reference]

[18]

Henry's titles

  • Up to 1485 The Earl of Richmond (disputed)
  • 22 August 1485–21 April 1509: His Highness The King of England and France, Lord of Ireland
Henry's full style as king was: Henry, by the Grace of God, King of England, France and Lord of Ireland

Arms

.Upon his succession as king, Henry became entitled to bear the arms of his kingdom.^ His victory at Bosworth, and the death of Richard III + there, enabled him to succeed in his claim to the throne, whereby he became + King of England as Henry VII in 1485.
  • Order of the Crown of Charlemagne In the United States of America - Person Page 84 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.charlemagne.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Novel about Margaret More, whose father was a friend and adviser of Henry VIII -- and later became the king's foe.
  • Royalty.nu - Tudor Royal History - Henry VIII and His Six Wives 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.royalty.nu [Source type: General]

^ Because Henry had provided the precedent for deposing a king, it soon became evident that the monarchy could be claimed through any vague connection if the claimant had sufficient arms to enforce the claim.
  • England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: Original source]

.After his marriage, he used the red-and-white rose as his emblem — this continued to be his dynasty's emblem, known as the Tudor rose.^ His emblem was the Tudor rose and the Beaufort portcullis.
  • Henry VIII of England - Celtopedia 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC celtopedia.druidcircle.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII of England at AllExperts 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII (Pepys' Diary) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The red and white stripes symbolize the bandages used during the procedure: red for the blood-stained and white for the clean bandages.
  • 15 Fascinating Facts About Medieval England - Listverse 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Edmund Tudor, the Earl of Richmond and father of Henry VII was granted a white Greyhound as a heraldic supporter 2 by his half-brother Henry VI, which is why it was known as the Greyhound of Richmond.

Issue

Henry and Elizabeth's children were:
Name Birth Death Notes
Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales 19 September 1486 2 April 1502 Married Catherine of Aragon in 1501.
Margaret Tudor 28 November 1489 18 October 1541 Married (1) James IV, King of Scotland (1473–1513) in 1503. Married (2) Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus (1489–1557) in 1514.
Henry VIII, King of England 28 June 1491 28 January 1547 Married (1) .Catherine of Aragon (1485–1536) in 1509; had issue.^ Catherine of Aragon died in 1536.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In January of 1536, Catherine of Aragon died.

^ Catherine of Aragon, Catherine of Aragon, the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, was born in 1485.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Married (2) Anne Boleyn (1501–1536) in 1533; had issue.^ Anne Boleyn was finally Crowned on June 1, 1533 and in July Pope Clement VII threatened Henry with excommunication.
  • Henry VIII@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On 25 January 1533 , Cranmer participated in the wedding of Henry and Anne Boleyn.
  • Henry VIII of England - Celtopedia 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC celtopedia.druidcircle.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII of England at AllExperts 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On 28 July 1540—the same day Lord Essex was executed—Henry married the young Catherine Howard, Anne Boleyn's first cousin.
  • Henry VIII King of England - Henry VIII, Biography, History, Information. 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.famouspeople.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Married (3) Jane Seymour (1503–1537) in 1536; had issue.^ He married, thirdly, Jane Seymour , daughter of Sir John Seymour and Margaret Wentworth , on 30 May 1536 at Whitehall Palace, Whitehall, London, England .
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10148 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: Reference]

^ But the king made the most effectual apology for her, by marrying Jane Seymour the very day after her execution.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jan 1536 Child of Henry VIII Tudor, King of England and Jane Seymour .
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10148 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: Reference]

Married (4) Anne of Cleves (1515–1557) in 1540. Married (5) Catherine Howard (1520–1542) in 1540. Married (6) Catherine Parr (1512–1548) in 1543.
Elizabeth Tudor 2 July 1492 14 September 1495 Died young.
Mary Tudor 18 March 1496 25 June 1533 Married (1) .Louis XII, King of France (1462–1515) in 1514. Married (2) Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk (1484–1545) in 1515. Mary was the grandmother of Lady Jane Grey.^ Queen Mary pardons Lady Jane Grey .
  • Historical TIMELINE of the Tudors - The Tudors Wiki 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary had Lady Jane Grey beheaded for treason, Feb.
  • Rulers of England and Great Britain 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

^ Louis XVI, king of France.
  • rulers.html 20 November 2009 6:34 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: Reference]

Edmund Tudor, Duke of Somerset 21 February 1499 19 June 1500 Died young.
Katherine Tudor 2 February 1503 2 February 1503 Died shortly after birth. Mother, Elizabeth of York, died as a result of Katherine's birth.
An illegitimate son has also been attributed to Henry by "a Breton Lady":
Name Birth Death Notes
Sir Roland de Velville or Veleville 1474 25 June 1535 He was knighted in 1497 and was Constable of Beaumaris Castle. .If de Velville was in fact Henry's son, he was born during the period of Henry's exile in France.^ But her son Edmund will marry Margaret of Beaufort out of which will be born the founder of the Tudor dynasty, and King Henry VII of England.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: The Queen's Secret: A Novel (A Queens of England Novel) 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ In May 1420 Charles VI of France recognised Henry as heir to the French throne and as Regent during Charles lifetime.
  • MONARCHES OF ENGLAND 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.gallica.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Other Children: Matilda born about 1250 in Warwick, England who married Peter de Montfort, II. Descending son: Roger.
  • de la Warres of England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: Original source]

Roland de Velville's descendants included Katheryn of Berain, hence she is sometimes referred to as "Katherine Tudor".[19]

Further descendants

.Henry VII's elder surviving daughter Margaret was married first to James IV of Scotland (1488–1513).^ Henry VII marries Elizabeth of York .
  • Historical TIMELINE of the Tudors - The Tudors Wiki 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Youngest surviving child of Henry VII .
  • Historical TIMELINE of the Tudors - The Tudors Wiki 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CHAPTER XXV. HENRY VII. {1488.
  • The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.I., Part C. From Henry VII. to Mary / Hume, David, 1711-1776 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Their son became James V of Scotland (1513–42), whose daughter became Mary, Queen of Scots.^ Queen of Scots Mary Biography - Biography.com .
  • rulers.html 20 November 2009 6:34 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Mary, Queen of Scots, had to suffer her own troubles in Scotland.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary, Queen of Scots@Everything2.com .
  • rulers.html 20 November 2009 6:34 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: Reference]

.Margaret Tudor's second marriage was to Archibald Douglas; their grandson, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley married Mary, Queen of Scots.^ Queen of Scots Mary Biography - Biography.com .
  • rulers.html 20 November 2009 6:34 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Mary, Queen of Scots@Everything2.com .
  • rulers.html 20 November 2009 6:34 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A short biography of Mary Queen of Scots .
  • rulers.html 20 November 2009 6:34 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: Reference]

.Their son, James VI of Scotland (1567–1625), inherited the throne of England as James I (1603–25) after the death of Elizabeth I.^ Charles I, son of James I, 1625-49 .
  • Rulers of England and Great Britain Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Rulers of England and Great Britain 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ James VI (1603-1625) James VI of Scotland was declared as rightful heir.
  • The History of England 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.byfaith.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ James I (James VI of Scotland), descendant of Henry VII, 1603-25 .
  • Rulers of England and Great Britain Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Rulers of England and Great Britain 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Henry VII's other surviving daughter, Mary first married King Louis XII of France (1498–1515), who died after only about three months of marriage.^ Henry VII marries Elizabeth of York .
  • Historical TIMELINE of the Tudors - The Tudors Wiki 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He married Mary of England , daughter of Henry VII Tudor and Elizabeth of York , on 3 March 1515 at Paris, France.
  • Order of the Crown of Charlemagne In the United States of America - Person Page 84 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.charlemagne.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Mary Boleyn was the sister of Anne Boleyn who later married Henry.
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]

.She then married the Duke of Suffolk without the permission of her brother, now King Henry VIII. Their daughter Frances married Henry Grey, and her children included Lady Jane Grey, in whose name her parents and in-laws tried to seize the throne after Edward VI of England (1537–53) died.^ Henry VIII had suggested that his son Edward should marry the king of Scotland's daughter Mary.

^ Edward VI, son of Henry VIII, 1547-53 .
  • Rulers of England and Great Britain Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Rulers of England and Great Britain 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry VIII, king of England : Lots of good information.
  • rulers.html 20 November 2009 6:34 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: Reference]

Ancestry

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Guy, John (1988), "The Tudor Age (1485-1603)", The Oxford History of Britain, pp. 272-273 
  2. ^ Kendall, Paul Murray. Richard the Third. p. 13. 
  3. ^ a b Williams, Neville. The Life and Times of Henry VII. p. 17. 
  4. ^ Kendall, Paul Murray. Richard the Third. p. 156. 
  5. ^ Kendall, Paul Murray. Richard the Third. pp. 156-157. 
  6. ^ Starkey, David. Monarchy: From the Middle Ages to Modernity. p. 4. 
  7. ^ EnglishHistory.net
  8. ^ a b Williams, Neville. The Life and Times of Henry VII. p. 19. 
  9. ^ a b Williams, Neville. The Life and Times of Henry VII. p. 25. 
  10. ^ Kendall, Paul Murray. Richard the Third. p. 297. 
  11. ^ Henry's return to Wales was regarded by some as the fulfilment of a Messianic prophecy. Rees, David (1985). The Son of Prophecy: Henry Tudor's Road to Bosworth. London: Black Raven Press. ISBN 0-85159-005-5. 
  12. ^ Kendall, Paul Murray. Richard the Third. p. 361.  Estimates of the size of Henry's army at Bosworth vary. Williams, Neville. The Life and Times of Henry VII. p. 31. , gives a figure of 'perhaps' 6,000.
  13. ^ Genealogical tables in Morgan, Kenneth O.. The Oxford History of Britain. p. 709. 
  14. ^ Weir, Alison (1995). The Princes in the Tower. New York: Ballantine. p. 190. ISBN 0-345-39178-0. 
  15. ^ Williams, Neville. The Life and Times of Henry VII. p. 62. 
  16. ^ Williams, Neville. The Life and Times of Henry VII. p. 178. 
  17. ^ MacCulloch, Diarmaid (1996), "The Consolidation of England 1485-1603", The Oxford Illustrated History of Tudor and Stuart Britain, pp. 39-42 
  18. ^ Weir, Alison. .Henry VIII: King and Court.^ King Henry VIII and Queen Katherine of Aragon (along with Cardinal Thomas Wolsey ) appear before the legatine court.
    • Historical TIMELINE of the Tudors - The Tudors Wiki 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Henry VIII Stewart King of England .

    ^ King Henry VIII is angered to learn that the Pope has made Bishop Fisher, an outspoken opponent of his marriage to Anne Boleyn , a cardinal.
    • Historical TIMELINE of the Tudors - The Tudors Wiki 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: Original source]

    p. 1.
     
  19. ^ About Henry VII TUDOR (King of England)

References

  • Ashley, Mike (2002). British Kings & Queens. Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1104-3. 
  • Chrimes, Stanley B. (1972). Henry VII. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-02266-1. 
  • Cunningham, Sean (2007). Henry VII. New York: Routledge. .ISBN 0-415-26620-3. 
  • Guy, John (1988), "The Tudor Age (1485-1603)", in Morgan, Kenneth O., The Oxford History of Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-285202-7 
  • Kendall, Paul Murray (1973).^ Historical Timeline of the Events of the Tudor Era 1485-1603 Click EasyEdit to update this page!
    • Historical TIMELINE of the Tudors - The Tudors Wiki 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: Original source]

    Richard the Third. Sphere Books. .ISBN 0-351-17095-2. 
  • MacCulloch, Diarmaid (1996), "The Consolidation of England 1485-1603", in Morrill, John, The Oxford Illustrated History of Tudor and Stuart Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-289327-0 
  • Morgan, Kenneth O. (1988).^ Historical Timeline of the Events of the Tudor Era 1485-1603 Click EasyEdit to update this page!
    • Historical TIMELINE of the Tudors - The Tudors Wiki 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Henry VII Tudor King of England (1485-1509) .

    ^ Henry VII "King of England" 1485 - 1509 Tudor .

    The Oxford History of Britain. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-285202-7. 
  • Morrill, John (1996). The Oxford Illustrated History of Tudor and Stuart Britain. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. 
  • Rogers, Caroline; Turvey, Roger (2000). Henry VII. London: Hodder & Stoughton Educational. ISBN 0-340-75381-1. 
  • Starkey, David (2006). Monarchy: From the Middle Ages to Modernity. New York, NY: Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-00-724766-4. 
  • Towle, Carolyn; Hunt, Jocelyn (1998). Henry VII. New York: Longman. ISBN 0-582-29691-9. 
  • Weir, Alison (2002). .Henry VIII: King and Court.^ King Henry VIII and Queen Katherine of Aragon (along with Cardinal Thomas Wolsey ) appear before the legatine court.
    • Historical TIMELINE of the Tudors - The Tudors Wiki 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Henry VIII Stewart King of England .

    ^ King Henry VIII is angered to learn that the Pope has made Bishop Fisher, an outspoken opponent of his marriage to Anne Boleyn , a cardinal.
    • Historical TIMELINE of the Tudors - The Tudors Wiki 17 January 2010 16:23 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: Original source]

    London: Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6451-3.
     
  • Weir, Alison (1995). The Princes in the Tower. New York: Ballantine. ISBN 0-345-39178-0. 
  • Williams, Neville (1973). The Life and Times of Henry VII. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-76517-5. 

External links

Henry VII of England
Born: 28 January 1457 Died: 21 April 1509
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Richard III
King of England
Lord of Ireland

1485 – 1509
Succeeded by
Henry VIII
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Edmund Tudor
Earl of Richmond
10th creation
1478 – 1485
Merged in Crown
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Richard III
— TITULAR —
King of France
1485 – 1509
Succeeded by
Henry VIII

Simple English

Henry VII Tudor
King of England; Lord of Ireland (more...)
File:Henry Seven
Portrait of Henry, holding a red Lancastrian rose, attributed to Michel Sittow
King of England (more...)
Reign 22 August 1485 – 21 April 1509
Coronation 30 October 1485
Predecessor Richard III
Successor Henry VIII
Earl of Richmond (more...)
Predecessor Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl
Consort Elizabeth of York
Issue
Arthur, Prince of Wales
Margaret, Queen of Scots
Henry VIII
Mary, Queen of France
Titles and styles
The King
The Earl of Richmond
Royal house House of Tudor
Father Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond
Mother Lady Margaret Beaufort
Born 28 January 1457(1457-01-28)
Pembroke Castle, Wales
Died 21 April 1509 (aged 52)
Richmond Palace, England
Burial Westminster Abbey, London
File:Henry Seven
Henry VII of England

Henry the VII or Henry Tudor (January 28, 1457April 21, 1509) was king of England from 1485 to 1509. He founded the Tudor dynasty.

Biography

Henry VII was born in 1457 to Edmund Tudor and Margaret Beaufort. His father died two months before he was born, leaving his 13-year-old mother as his only parent. After Henry's birth, he spent a lot of time with his uncle Jasper Tudor. Jasper took Henry to France, where he spent most of his youth. Henry had a claim to the throne of England, but it was not a very good one, and he had to wait a long time for a chance to take the throne. In 1483, a new king came to the throne in England, called Richard III. King Richard was not popular with everyone, because it was thought that he had stolen the throne from his young nephews and had killed them. This gave Henry the chance he had been waiting for. With help from the French, he raised an army. They landed in amsterdam, close to where Henry had been born, so he was able to gather more supporters on the way. The Wars of the Roses (1455 - 1485) was a series of civil wars fought over the throne of England between supporters of the House of Lancaster and supporters of the House of York. Both houses were branches of the Plantagenet royal house, tracing their descent from King Edward III.

The main reason for the war was that King Edward III had many sons, as shown in the family tree below. His oldest son, who is known by the nickname, "The Black Prince", died first, and the throne passed to the Black Prince's son, Richard, who became King Richard II of England in 1377 at the age of only ten. He grew up to be a weak and unpopular king, and one of his actions was to send his cousin Henry into exile. Henry later returned, while Richard was away in Ireland, and took over the country. When Richard returned, Henry tricked him into giving himself up. Richard was put in prison, where he died, and Henry became King Henry IV of England.

Although Henry IV reigned until his death, and was followed by his son, King Henry V, the next king in line, King Henry VI was only a baby. While he was still growing up, the most powerful men in the kingdom started quarrelling over how to run the country, and some of them raised an army to try to take the throne. Henry VI and his family fought back, and the war between his supporters and their enemies lasted for many years, finally coming to an end when King Henry VII of England came to the throne in 1485

On August 22 1485, Henry's army defeated Richard III's army at the Battle of Bosworth. When Richard III died in this battle, Henry VII became king. There were other people who had a claim on the throne, and Henry did his best to stop them from taking it from him, either by executing them, putting them in prison, or trying to make friends of them, as he did with the Earl of Lincoln. Another step he took was to marry Elizabeth of York, the niece of King Richard III, who would herself have been the heir to the throne if she had not been a girl.

There were also people who pretended to be long-lost members of the royal family, so that they could try to take the throne. One of these was a little boy called Lambert Simnel, who looked very like Edward, Earl of Warwick. The real Earl of Warwick was Henry's prisoner, but this did not stop other people from believing that Lambert was him. The Earl of Lincoln rebelled against King Henry and raised an army to make Lambert king, thinking that he himself could rule the country. There was a battle, and the Earl of Lincoln was killed. Lambert Simnel was captured, but, because he was only a child, Henry spared his life and he became a royal servant.

Henry married Elizabeth of York, and by this action put an end to the Wars of the Roses. They had six children, but only four survived infancy:

  • Arthur Tudor (September 1486- April 2006)
  • Margaret Tudor (November 1489- October 1541)
  • Henry VIII (June 1491- January 1547)
  • Mary Tudor (March 1496- June 1533)
  • Edmund Tudor (Died young)
  • Catherine Tudor (Died young)

Death

After Henry VII died in 1509, his son became king as Henry VIII. Henry VII was buried in Westminster Abbey. He was succeeded by his son, Henry VIII on 21st April 1509.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Henry VII of England, which are similar to those in the above article.








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