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Henry VI
King of England
(first time; more...)
Reign 31 August 1422 – 4 March 1461
Coronation 6 November 1429
Predecessor Henry V of Monmouth
Successor Edward IV
Regent John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester
Henry Beaufort
Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York
King of France
Reign 21 October 1422 – October 19 1453
Coronation 16 December 1431
Predecessor Charles VI the Mad
Successor Charles VII the Victorious
King of England
(second time)
Reign 30 October 1470 – 11 April 1471
Predecessor Edward IV
Successor Edward IV
Consort Margaret of Anjou
Issue
Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales
House House of Lancaster
Father Henry V of Monmouth
Mother Catherine of Valois
Born 6 December 1421 (1421-12-06)
Windsor Castle, Berkshire
Died 21 May 1471 (1471-05-22) (aged 49)
Tower of London, London
Burial Windsor Castle, Berkshire
Signature
.Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England 14221461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and controversial King of France from 1422 to 1453.^ Henry VI was crowned king of both England and France.
  • England’s Monarchs, Henry VI 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC web.me.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry VI of England was restored to the throne.
  • HistoryMole Timeline: King Henry VI (1421-1471) 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

^ Henry 7th Tudor King of England .

.Until 1437, his realms were governed by regents.^ The last monarch of the House of Lancaster, Henry (1421-1471) ruled with a regent until his majority in 1437, then alone until he was deposed in 1461.
  • http://www.heritage-images.com/Preview/PreviewPage.aspx?id=1649583&licenseType=RM&pricing=true&from=search&back=1649583 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.heritage-images.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However he did not assume the reins of government until he was declared of age in 1437 - the year in which his mother died.

^ Henry VI ( December 6 , 1421 – May 21 / 22 , 1471 ) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437 ) and then from 1470 to 1471 .
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

.Contemporaneously, he was described as a peaceful and pious man, not suited for the harsh nature of the struggles facing him.^ Henry seems to have used religion and piety as a means of escape from the harsh world of bitter rivalries and power struggles which surrounded him at court.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

.His periods of insanity and his inherent benevolence eventually led to his own downfall, the collapse of the House of Lancaster, and the rise of the House of York.^ While you are thus employ'd, what resteth more, But that I seek occasion how to rise, And yet the king not privy to my drift, Nor any of the house of Lancaster?
  • Drama: Henry VI, Part 3 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The war between the royal Houses of Lancaster and York, the longest and most complex in British history, profoundly altered the course of the monarchy.
  • The Wars of the Roses by Alison Weir 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: General]

^ He thus united the houses of York and Lancaster, founding the Tudor royal dynasty.
  • Henry VII King of England: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • The Federation of the Wars of the Roses - History Page 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC homepages.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Child King

.Henry was the only child and heir of King Henry V of England.^ Henry 7th Tudor King of England .

^ Henry 2nd King of England .

^ Henry 2nd, King of ENGLAND .

.He was born on 6 December 1421 at Windsor, and succeeded to the throne at the age of nine months as King of England on 31 August 1422, when his father died, and King of France on 21 October 1422 upon his grandfather Charles VI's death in agreement with the Treaty of Troyes in 1420. His mother, Catherine of Valois, was then 20 years old and, as Charles VI's daughter, was viewed with considerable suspicion and prevented from having a full role in her son's upbringing.^ Charles VI of France, died, Henry was proclaimed king of France by the English, in accordance with...recognized the son of Charles VI as Charles VII .
  • Henry VII King of England: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Henry VI was crowned king of both England and France.
  • England’s Monarchs, Henry VI 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC web.me.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He became king of England in 1625, on his father James' death.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.On 28 September 1423, the nobles swore loyalty to Henry VI. They summoned Parliament in the King's name and established a regency council until the King came of age.^ King Henry VI were based.
  • Henry VI King of England: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1423, parliament was called and a regency council was appointed.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ King Henry VI Part 3 ( reference ) .

.One of Henry V's surviving brothers, John of Lancaster/Plantagenet, Duke of Bedford, was appointed senior regent of the realm and was in charge of the ongoing war in France (Battle of Cravant, Hundred Years War).^ John of Gaunt cr Duke of Lancaster .

^ Henry "de Grosmont" Plantagenet 1st Duke of Lancaster .

^ Henry de Grosment Plantagenet Duke of Lancaster .

.During his absence, the government of England was headed by Henry V's other surviving brother, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, who was appointed Protector and Defender of the Realm.^ Henry's uncle Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, is appalled at this royal rooking.
  • Henry VI, Part 2 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.wsu.edu:8001 [Source type: Original source]

^ England was ruled by a council lead by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, the youngest of Henry V's brothers.

^ During Henry's early years, England was under the protectorate of his uncles, John of Lancaster, duke of Bedford , who was regent in France, and Humphrey, duke of Gloucester .
  • Henry VI Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Henry VI 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His duties were limited to keeping the peace and summoning Parliament.^ His duties were limited to keeping the peace and summoning and dissolving Parliament.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Bishop Henry Beaufort (Cardinal after 1426), Henry V's half-uncle, had an important place on the Council.^ Cardinal Henry Beaufort : Bishop of Winchester, Self-seeking great-uncle of the king.

^ In this play he appears to be an enemy of his uncle, Cardinal Beaufort (the Bishop of Winchester).
  • FREE MonkeyNotes Study Guide Summary-Henry VI, Part 2 by William Shakespeare-ACT I, SCENE 1 SUMMARY AND NOTES-Free Booknotes Online Chapter Summary Plot Synopsis Study Guide Notes Essay Book Report 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.pinkmonkey.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (GLOUCESTER:) CARDINAL BEAUFORT Bishop of Winchester, great-uncle to the King.

.After the Duke of Bedford died in 1435, the Duke of Gloucester claimed the Regency himself, but was contested in this by the other members of the council.^ John, Duke of Bedford, had died in 1435.
  • Paul Gorman /reading/shakespeare/henry_iv/historical_background.php 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC paulgorman.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Duke Humphrey of Lancaster (Gloucester), youngest son of Henry IV and brother of Henry V, claimed the regency but had to defer to Bedford and accept the title Protector of England, which he held from 1427 to 1429.
  • FREE MonkeyNotes Study Guide Summary-Henry VI, Part 2 by William Shakespeare-ACT I, SCENE 1 SUMMARY AND NOTES-Free Booknotes Online Chapter Summary Plot Synopsis Study Guide Notes Essay Book Report 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.pinkmonkey.com [Source type: Original source]

^ England was ruled by a council lead by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, the youngest of Henry V's brothers.

.From 1428, Henry's tutor was the Richard de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, whose father had been instrumental in the opposition to Richard II's reign.^ Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick .
  • Henry VI of England, Nobility - News - Evri 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: General]

^ Henry V. had directed that Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick , should be his son's.

^ Richard II de York .

.Henry's half-brothers, Edmund and Jasper, the sons of his widowed mother's relationship with Owen Tudor, were later given earldoms.^ Son of Edmund, eldest son of Owen Tudor, by Katharine, widow of Henry V; his mother Margaret Beaufort, was great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt .
  • Kings And Queens Of England 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC chestofbooks.com [Source type: General]

^ Henry later created the eldest of these half-brothers, Edmund and Jasper Tudor, Earls of Richmond and Pembroke respectively.

^ Henry's half-brothers, Edmund and Jasper Tudor, the sons of his mother's second marriage, were later given earldoms, Edmund being the father of Henry Tudor, later King Henry VII of England.

.Edmund Tudor was the father of Henry Tudor, later to gain the throne as Henry VII of England.^ Henry 7th Tudor King of England .

^ Henry VII "King of England" 1485 - 1509 Tudor .

^ Henry (VII, King ofEngland) Tudor .

Henry was eventually crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey on 6 November 1437, a month before his sixteenth birthday, and also, in reaction to Charles VII Valois's coronation in Reims cathedral on July 17, 1429, as King of France at Notre Dame de Paris on 16 December 1431.

Assumption of government and French policies

.Henry was declared of age in 1437, the year in which his mother died, and assumed the reins of government.^ However he did not assume the reins of government until he was declared of age in 1437 - the year in which his mother died.
  • Henry VI of England - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Henry VI of England? What is Henry VI of England? Where is Henry VI of England? Definition of Henry VI of England. Meaning of Henry VI of England. 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, he did not assume the reins of government until he was declared of age in 1437 —the year in which his mother died.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His councilors continued to strengthen the Protestant state, but their plans were dashed when Edward died at 16 years of age.
  • Tudor England FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions about Tudor England 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.Henry VI immediately allowed his court to be dominated by a few noble favourites who clashed on the matter of the French war.^ In Henry VI not only are war and sport...
  • Henry VI King of England: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Henry VI and the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses .

^ A revival of French fortunes, beginning with the military victories of Joan of Arc, led to the French nobles preferring the French dauphin, who was crowned as King of France at Reims.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.After the death of Henry V, England had lost momentum while, beginning with Joan of Arc's military victories, the Valois gained ground.^ A revival of French fortunes, beginning with the military victories of Joan of Arc, led to the French nobles preferring the French dauphin, who was crowned as King of France at Reims.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result of his successes in the Hundred Years' War , Henry V had left England in possession of considerable territories in France , but the momentum was lost on his death, and, during his son's reign, most of the ground he had gained would be lost.
  • Henry VI of England - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Henry VI of England? What is Henry VI of England? Where is Henry VI of England? Definition of Henry VI of England. Meaning of Henry VI of England. 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Reign Early Years The only son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois , he became king of England when he was not yet nine months old.
  • Henry VI Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Henry VI 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The young king came to favour a policy of peace in France, and thus favoured the faction around Cardinal Beaufort and William de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, who thought likewise, while Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester and Richard, Duke of York, who argued for a continuation of the war, were ignored.^ Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester: Uncle and protector of the king.

^ Beaufort, the new Duke of Somerset (and Cardinal Beaufort's son) was sent to France to lead the war.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Richard III Plantagenet Duke of York duke .

Henry VI, aged nine months, is shown being placed in the care of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick

Marriage to Margaret of Anjou

.Cardinal Beaufort and the Earl of Suffolk persuaded the king that the best way of pursuing peace with France was through a marriage with Margaret of Anjou, the niece of the Valois King Charles VII's wife.^ Henry's marriage to Margaret of Anjou .
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was later crowned King of France by Cardinal Beaufort.
  • Biography of King Henry VI - RoyaList Online 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.royalist.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Succeeded by: Charles VII of France ( annexed ) .
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

.Henry agreed, especially when he heard reports of Margaret's stunning beauty, and sent Suffolk to negotiate with Charles, who agreed to the marriage on condition that he would not have to provide the customary dowry and instead would receive the lands of Maine and Anjou from the English.^ Henry agreed, especially when he heard reports of Margaret’s stunning beauty, and sent Suffolk to negotiate with King Charles.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles agreed to the marriage on condition that he would not have to provide the customary dowry and instead would receive the lands of Maine and Anjou from the English.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry agreed, especially when he heard reports of Margaret's stunning beauty.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.These conditions were agreed to in the Treaty of Tours, but the cession of Maine and Anjou was kept secret from parliament.^ These conditions were agreed to in the Treaty of Tours, but the cession of Maine and Anjou was kept secret from parliament.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gloucester expresses his discontent with the marriage treaty, arranged by the Duke of Suffolk, by which Anjou and Maine (part of Henry V’s conquests) will be surrendered.
  • Henry VI, Part 2 - Shakespeare in quarto 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.bl.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles agreed to the marriage on condition that he would not have to provide the customary dowry and instead would receive the lands of Maine and Anjou from the English.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was known that this would be hugely unpopular with the English populace.^ It was known that this would be hugely unpopular with the English populace.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

The marriage went ahead in 1445.
Margaret of Anjou
.Henry had wavered in yielding Maine and Anjou to Charles, knowing that the move was unpopular and would be opposed by the Dukes of Gloucester and York.^ According to the contract, Henry shall marry Lady Margaret and crown her Queen of England, and the duchy of Anjou and the county of Maine shall be released and delivered to her father (René, Duke of Anjou).
  • FREE MonkeyNotes Study Guide Summary-Henry VI, Part 2 by William Shakespeare-ACT I, SCENE 1 SUMMARY AND NOTES-Free Booknotes Online Chapter Summary Plot Synopsis Study Guide Notes Essay Book Report 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.pinkmonkey.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gloucester expresses his discontent with the marriage treaty, arranged by the Duke of Suffolk, by which Anjou and Maine (part of Henry V’s conquests) will be surrendered.
  • Henry VI, Part 2 - Shakespeare in quarto 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.bl.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles agreed to the marriage on condition that he would not have to provide the customary dowry and instead would receive the lands of Maine and Anjou from the English.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, Margaret was determined to make him see it through.^ However, Margaret was determined to make him see it through and finally it became public knowledge in 1446 .
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But failing to see through Suffolk, the king makes him a duke.

^ The war, however, continued; chiefly through the courage and energy of the Queen Margaret, but in 1466 Henry was captured and imprisoned in the Tower.
  • GENUKI: Kings of England - H 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.genuki.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.As the treaty became public knowledge in 1446, public anger focused on Suffolk, but Henry and Margaret were determined to protect him.^ However, Margaret was determined to make him see it through and finally it became public knowledge in 1446 .
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most public anger was directed at Suffolk, for having negotiated the Treaty of Tours, but Henry and Margaret were determined to protect him, knowing they were vulnerable too, having also had full knowledge of the conditions of the marriage.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The issue of Maine and Anjou finally became public knowledge in 1446.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

The ascendancy of Suffolk and Somerset

.In 1447, the King and Queen summoned the Duke of Gloucester before parliament on the charge of treason.^ In 1447 , this unpopularity took the form of a Commons campaign against the Duke of Suffolk , who was the most unpopular of all the King’s entourage and widely seen as a traitor.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1447 , the king, the queen and the group surrounding them (Suffolk, Somerset, and the ageing Cardinal Beaufort) summoned Gloucester before parliament on a charge of treason in Bury St Edmunds , and he died in captivity, whether of natural causes or foul play was not clear.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of all, however, she resents Eleanor Cobham (the Duchess of Gloucester), the wife of the kings lord protector, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester.

.This move was instigated by Gloucester's enemies, the Earl of Suffolk, the ageing Cardinal Beaufort and his nephew, Edmund Beaufort, Earl of Somerset.^ Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset .
  • Henry VI of England - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Henry VI of England? What is Henry VI of England? Where is Henry VI of England? Definition of Henry VI of England. Meaning of Henry VI of England. 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VII of England - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Henry VII of England? What is Henry VII of England? Where is Henry VII of England? Definition of Henry VII of England. Meaning of Henry VII of England. 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1447 , the king, the queen and the group surrounding them (Suffolk, Somerset, and the ageing Cardinal Beaufort) summoned Gloucester before parliament on a charge of treason in Bury St Edmunds , and he died in captivity, whether of natural causes or foul play was not clear.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And the fearful series of political executions, which had commenced with that of Edmund de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk in 1513, was terminated by that of Henry Earl of Surrey, in January, l547.
  • GENUKI: Kings of England - H 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.genuki.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Gloucester was put in custody in Bury St Edmunds, where he died, probably of a heart attack, before he could be tried.^ Charles II died in February 1685 of a heart attack.
  • The History of England 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.byfaith.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ She was born in 1429, in Lorraine, France; she died in 1482 at Château Dampierre, Anjou, and was buried at St. Maurice’s Cathedral, Angers, Anjou.
  • England’s Monarchs, Henry VI 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC web.me.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Earl of Richmond landed in 1485, Norfolk summoned his retainers to meet him at Bury St. Edmund to fight for Richard.
  • To Prove a Villain -- The Real Richard III 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.r3.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Duke of York, now Henry's heir presumptive, was excluded from the court circle and sent to govern Ireland, while his opponents, the Earls of Suffolk and Somerset were promoted to Dukes, a title normally reserved for immediate relatives of the monarch.^ Now, for a while farewell, good Duke of York.
  • Drama: Henry VI, Part 3 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The death of Gloucester left York as Henry’s heir apparent, but Henry never officially acknowledged this and York continued to be excluded from the court circle, being banished to govern Ireland , while Henry and Margaret promoted Suffolk and Edmund Beaufort to Dukedoms, (a title normally reserved for immediate relatives of the monarch).
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gloucester expresses his discontent with the marriage treaty, arranged by the Duke of Suffolk, by which Anjou and Maine (part of Henry V’s conquests) will be surrendered.
  • Henry VI, Part 2 - Shakespeare in quarto 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.bl.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The new Duke of Somerset was sent to France to lead the war.^ Beaufort, the new Duke of Somerset (and Cardinal Beaufort's son) was sent to France to lead the war.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1449 , Somerset , leading the campaign in France, reopened hostilities in Normandy , but by the autumn had been pushed back to Caen .
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He became lieutenant of France in 1447 and was created duke of Somerset in 1448.
  • The Federation of the Wars of the Roses - History Page 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC homepages.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In the later years of Henry's reign, the monarchy became increasingly unpopular, due to a breakdown in law and order, corruption, the distribution of royal land to the king's court favourites, the troubled state of the crown's finances, and the steady loss of territories in France.^ The government's increasing unpopularity was due to a breakdown in law and order, corruption, the distribution of royal land to the king's court favourites, the troubled state of the crown's finances, and the steady loss of territories in France.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The later years of Henry's reign were marked by serious health problems.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Edward Kynaston 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.gaskellfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry lost most of his French territories later in his reign.
  • KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.holylands.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1447, this unpopularity took the form of a Commons campaign against the Duke of Suffolk, who was the most unpopular of all the King's entourage and widely seen as a traitor.^ In 1447, this unpopularity took the form of a Commons campaign against the Duke of Suffolk, who was the most unpopular of all the King's favourites was widely seen as a traitor, partly because of his role in negotiating the Treaty of Tours.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ 'Against the Duke of Suffolk, for enclosing the commons of Melford.'

^ In 1447 , this unpopularity took the form of a Commons campaign against the Duke of Suffolk , who was the most unpopular of all the King’s entourage and widely seen as a traitor.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

.Henry was forced to send him into exile, but Suffolk's ship was intercepted in the English Channel.^ He was forced into exile in Flanders.

^ Henry was forced to send him into exile, but his ship was boarded in the English Channel, and he was murdered.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry was forced to send him into exile, but his ship was intercepted in the English Channel , and he was murdered.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

.His murdered body was found on the beach at Dover.^ His body was found on the beach at Dover .
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His body was found on the beach at Dover.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

English Royalty
House of Lancaster
England Arms 1422.svg
Armorial of Plantagenet
Henry VI
   Edward, Prince of Wales
.
In 1449, the Duke of Somerset, leading the campaign in France, reopened hostilities in Normandy, but by the autumn had been pushed back to Caen.
^ In 1449, the Duke of Somerset, who was leading the campaign in France, started more battles in Normandy, but by the autumn had been pushed back to England!.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1449 , Somerset , leading the campaign in France, reopened hostilities in Normandy , but by the autumn had been pushed back to Caen .
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Beaufort, the new Duke of Somerset (and Cardinal Beaufort's son) was sent to France to lead the war.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

.By 1450, the French had retaken the whole province, so hard won by Henry V. Returning troops, who had often not been paid, added to the sense of lawlessness in the southern counties of England, and Jack Cade led a rebellion in Kent in 1450, calling himself "John Mortimer" in sympathy with York and setting up residence at the White Hart Inn in Southwark (the white hart had been the symbol of the deposed Richard II).^ By 1450, the French had retaken the whole province.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry and Arundel returned to England while Richard was on a military campaign in Ireland.

^ This time their leader was called Jack Cade.
  • The Baldwin Project: Our Island Story by H. E. Marshall 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.Henry came to London with an army to crush the rebellion, but was persuaded to keep half his troops behind while the other half met Cade at Sevenoaks.^ On his accession, Henry crushed a Lollard rebellion.
  • KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.holylands.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jack Cade killed in London and rebellion crushed .
  • eHistory.com: Middle Ages: Wars of the Roses: Timeline 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry came to London with an army to crush the rebellion, but was persuaded to keep half his troops behind while the other half met Cade at Sevenoaks.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Cade triumphed and went on to occupy London.^ Cade triumphed and went on to occupy London.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the end, the rebellion achieved nothing, and London was retaken after a few days of disorder, but the rebellion showed that feelings of discontent were running high.^ In the end, the rebellion achieved nothing, and London was retaken after a few days of disorder, but the rebellion showed that feelings of discontent were running high.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And if nothing else, this run shows that at least some publishers were issuing jackets regularly and systematically by this time.

.In 1451, the Duchy of Guyenne, held since Henry II's time, was also lost.^ In 1450 , the Duchy of Aquitaine , held since Henry II 's time, was also lost, leaving Calais as England's only remaining territory in France.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1450, the Duchy of Aquitaine, held since Henry II's time, was also lost, leaving Calais as England's only remaining territory in France.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The times: By this time it is clear (as it was with Charles II) that kings held their position by grant of Parliament.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In October 1452, an English advance in Guyenne had retaken Bordeaux and was having some success but by 1453, Bordeaux was lost again, leaving Calais as England's only remaining territory on the continent.^ In the meantime, an English advance in Aquitaine had retaken Bordeaux and was having some success, and the queen announced that she was pregnant.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, the English hold on France was steadily eroded; despite a truce—as part of which Henry married (April 1445) Margaret of Anjou, a niece of the French queen—Maine and Normandy were lost and by 1453 so were the remaining English-held lands in Guyenne.
  • Henry VI (king of England) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result of his successes in the Hundred Years' War , Henry V had left England in possession of considerable territories in France , but the momentum was lost on his death, and, during his son's reign, most of the ground he had gained would be lost.
  • Henry VI of England - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Henry VI of England? What is Henry VI of England? Where is Henry VI of England? Definition of Henry VI of England. Meaning of Henry VI of England. 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]

Insanity and the ascendancy of York

.In 1452, the Duke of York was persuaded to return from Ireland, to claim his rightful place on the council and put an end to bad government.^ York returns from Ireland at the head of his army.

^ By 1452, Richard, Duke of York, who had been sidelined by being made ruler of Ireland, was persuaded to return amd claim his rightful place on the council, and put an end to bad government.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When Henry VI was deposed during the Wars of the Roses, Edward of York, claimed the crown by right of conquest and primogeniture; he succeeded to the throne in 1461 as, K .
  • England’s Monarchs, Henry VI 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC web.me.com [Source type: Original source]

His cause was a popular one, and he soon raised an army at Shrewsbury. .The court party, meanwhile, raised their own similar-sized force in London.^ The king's supporters raised their own similar-sized force in London.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Richard II was growing up, and formed a court party of his own friends.
  • THE HISTORY BEHIND THE HISTORY PLAYS 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.stjohns-chs.org [Source type: Original source]

.A stand-off took place south of London, with York presenting a list of grievances and demands to the court circle, including the arrest of the Duke of Somerset.^ One of the demands was the arrest of the Duke of Somerset.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A stand-off took place south of London, with the Duke of York giving a list of grievances and demands to the king's supporters.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His estate was at Newby-upon-Swale but he had property in Clifton and a town house now standing on the corner of St. Leonard's Place in the City of York.

.The king initially agreed, but Margaret intervened to prevent the arrest of Somerset.^ The king initially agreed, but Margaret intervened to prevent it.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The king initially agreed, but Margaret intervened to prevent the arrest of Somerset.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry agreed, especially when he heard reports of Margaret’s stunning beauty, and sent Suffolk to negotiate with King Charles.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

.By 1453, his influence had been restored, and York was again isolated.^ By 1453, the Duke of Somerset regained his influence, and the Duke of York was again isolated.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

The court party was also strengthened by the announcement that the Queen was pregnant.
.However, on hearing of the final loss of Bordeaux in August 1453, Henry slipped into a mental breakdown and became completely unaware of everything that was going on around him.^ However, English success in Aquitaine was short-lived, and on hearing the news of the English defeat in August 1453, Henry slipped into a mental breakdown and became completely unaware of everything that was going on around him.
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By the time of the birth of their first and only child, Edward Prince of Wales , in 1453 , the king had suffered a mental breakdown, and it was rumoured that the child was not his.
  • Henry VI of England - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Henry VI of England? What is Henry VI of England? Where is Henry VI of England? Definition of Henry VI of England. Meaning of Henry VI of England. 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gloucester in dismay resigns his position as Protector, which pleases Margaret, and Henry allows him to accompany his wife into banishment.
  • Henry VI, Part 2 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.wsu.edu:8001 [Source type: Original source]

.This was to last for more than a year, and Henry failed even to respond to the birth of his own son and heir, who was christened Edward.^ Firstly, it lasts for more than a hundred years- .
  • Two Crowns, One King: Henry V and the Treaty of Troyes | The National Archives 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC nationalarchives.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ This was to last for more than a year, and Henry failed even to respond to the birth of his own son and heir, who was christened Edward ( Edward of Westminster and Prince of Wales ).
  • Henry VI of England - Slider 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Reign Early Years The only son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois , he became king of England when he was not yet nine months old.
  • Henry VI Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Henry VI 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Henry possibly inherited his illness from Charles VI of France, his maternal grandfather, who coped with intermittent periods of insanity over the last thirty years of his life.^ When his grandfather, Charles VI of France, died, Henry was proclaimed king of France by...
  • Henry VI King of England: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He inherited all the mental deficiencies of his grandfather, Charles VI (The Mad) of France.
  • England’s Monarchs, Henry VI 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC web.me.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry V (1387-1422), famously defeated the French at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, but his pious and peace-loving son Henry VI (1421-1471), who inherited the throne at just one year old, was to have a much more troubled reign.
  • Eupedia : England Guide - Brief History of England 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.eupedia.com [Source type: Original source]

[1]
.The Duke of York, meanwhile, had gained a very important ally, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, one of the most influential magnates and possibly richer than York himself.^ Richard III Plantagenet Duke of York duke .

^ Richard , 3rd Duke of York Plantagenet .

^ Richard Plantagenet duke of York .

.York was named regent as Protector of the Realm in 1454. The queen was excluded completely, and Somerset was detained in the Tower of London, while many of York's supporters spread rumours that the king's child was not his, but Somerset's.^ The Duke York was named regent as Protector of the Realm in 1454, and the queen lost all her power.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Somerset was held prisoner in the Tower of London.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ York was killed at Wakefield in 1460, but his son Edward defeated the Lancastrian forces at Mortimer's Cross, entered London, and was proclaimed king as Edward IV in Feb., 1461.
  • Henry VI Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Henry VI 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Henry VI King of England: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Other than that, York's months as regent were spent tackling the problem of government overspending.^ The records for Coventry record that the company received 30s, whilst the records from York show that it received 40s, both significantly higher than most other towns that the company visited that year.
  • EMLS 5.2 (September, 1999): 1.1-18 Alarums and Defeats: Henry VI on Tour 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ England’s real problem, other than being tiny and poor, was the civil strife set off by competing claims of religion.
  • Chicago Boyz » Blog Archive » The Defeat of the English Armada, the Fall of England, and the Rise of Spain 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC chicagoboyz.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The historic Richard of York had actually subdued an uprising in Ireland; other scenes in which York figures are historical rather than topical.
  • This Star of England - Chapter 25 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.sourcetext.com [Source type: Original source]

Wars of the Roses

.On Christmas Day 1454, King Henry regained his senses.^ On Christmas Day 1454, however, Henry regained his senses.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ KING HENRY VI Go, call our uncle to our presence straight; Say we intend to try his grace to-day.
  • Henry VI, part 2: Entire Play 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When the king became temporarily insane in 1453, York was made protector, but the birth (1453) of Margaret's son, Edward (which destroyed Richard's chances of succession), and Henry's recovery of his faculties(1454), allowed Margaret to regain the ascendancy.
  • The Federation of the Wars of the Roses - History Page 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC homepages.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Disaffected nobles who had grown in power during Henry's reign (most importantly the Earls of Warwick and Salisbury) took matters into their own hands by backing the claims of the rival House of York, first to the Regency, and then to the throne itself.^ When this rebellion failed, Henry Tudor took matters into his own hands and directly confronted Richard.
  • England 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.wsu.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Medieval England 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.claymoreslinger.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was during Henry Plantagenet's reign that Ireland was first occupied by the English.
  • The Isle of Influence - England 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nobles who had grown in power during Henry's reign, but who did not like Henry's government, took matters into their own hands by backing the claims of the rival House of York, first to the regency, and then to the throne itself.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.After a violent struggle between the houses of Lancaster and York, Henry was deposed and imprisoned on 4 March 1461 by his cousin, Edward of York, who became King.^ The House of Lancaster, to which Henry VI belongs, and the House of York vie for power.

^ The violent contentions, King’s prejudice against the house of York.
  • Online Library of Liberty - XXIV: HENRY VII - The History of England, vol. 3 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward becomes King Edward IV, the first ruler in the House of York.

.By this point, Henry was suffering such a bout of madness that he was apparently laughing and singing while the Second Battle of St Albans raged, which secured his release.^ H6: 1422 (Death of Henry V) to 1445 (H6 wedding to Margaret of Anjou) 2H6: 1445 (Queen's coronation) to 1455 (First Battle of St Albans) 3H6: 1460-1461 (Battles of Second St. Albans and Wakefield) to 1471 (death of Henry VI and Yorkist victories at Tewkesbury) RIII: 1471 (death of Henry VI) to 1485 (Battle of Bosworth) .
  • Shakespeare Henry Sixth 6th Part I Summary 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.mcgoodwin.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry is defeated at St.Albans, in the south; York loses the next battle because he is isolated in the northern city of York.
  • EMLS 5.2 (September, 1999): 1.1-18 Alarums and Defeats: Henry VI on Tour 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry Jermyn, 1st Earl of St Albans (c.1604-1684) Member of Parliament, Statesman, was the third son of Sir Thomas Jermyn of Rushbrooke, Suffolk.

.But Edward was still able to take the throne, though he failed to capture Henry and his queen, who fled to Scotland.^ When Richard Neville, earl of Warwick , allied himself with Queen Margaret and invaded England in 1470, Henry was restored to the throne, but his second reign was short-lived.
  • Henry VI Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Henry VI 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry then married Jane Seymour, who died shortly after the birth of the future Edward VI. His next marriage, to Anne of Cleves, ended in divorce.
  • KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.holylands.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Richard, following the traditions set down by Henry IV, Richard, Duke of York, his father, and his brother Edward, seized the throne rapidly and efficiently.
  • England 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.wsu.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Medieval England 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.claymoreslinger.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the first period of Edward IV's reign, Lancastrian resistance continued mainly under the leadership of Queen Margaret and the few nobles still loyal to her in the northern counties of England and Wales.^ Furthermore during his reign England's first university, Oxford , was founded.

^ Edward iv King of England .

^ During the first period of Edward IV's reign, Lancastrian resistance continued mainly under the leadership of Queen Margaret and the few nobles still loyal to her in the northern counties of England and Wales.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Henry was captured by King Edward in 1465 and subsequently held captive in the Tower of London.^ Poor Henry is captured in the north of England and imprisoned in the Tower of London.

^ Somerset was held prisoner in the Tower of London.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry, and call Edward king.
  • Drama: Henry VI, Part 3 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

Return to power

.Queen Margaret, exiled in Scotland and later in France, was determined to win back the throne on behalf of her husband and son.^ Queen Margaret was exiled, first in Scotland and then in France.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, she was determined to win back for her husband and son, and with the help of King Louis XI of France she eventually allied with the Earl of Warwick, who had fallen out with Edward IV. Warwick returned to England, defeated the Yorkists in battle, set Henry VI free and restored him to the throne on 30 October 1470.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The House of Lancaster - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jasper was loyal to his half brother Henry VI, had Henry VI’s wife, Margaret of Anjou had she entrusted him with the leadership of the army she led on behalf of her husband and son, history may have been a lot different.
  • The Tudors - Henry VII - The Greatest King of England and Wales - 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.tudors.org [Source type: Original source]

By herself, there was little she could do. .However, eventually Edward IV had a falling-out with two of his main supporters: Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and his own younger brother George, Duke of Clarence.^ The Duke of Clarence, Edwards own brother, is so incensed that he joins with Warwick and agrees to marry Warwicks youngest daughter.

^ KING EDWARD IV Brothers, you muse what chat we two have had.
  • Drama: Henry VI, Part 3 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As the battle continues, Edward makes his Brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester, and his brother George, Duke of Clarence.
  • THE HISTORY BEHIND THE HISTORY PLAYS 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.stjohns-chs.org [Source type: Original source]

.At the urging of King Louis XI of France they formed a secret alliance with Margaret.^ Nevertheless, Louis XI approves the alliance.

^ LOUIS VII , king of France (Louis the Young), c.1120 1180, king of France...marriage with her annulled.
  • Henry VII King of England: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He formed an alliance with the king's brother George, duke of Clarence , to whom he married his daughter, against Edward's orders.
  • The Federation of the Wars of the Roses - History Page 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC homepages.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.After marrying his daughter to Henry and Margaret's son, Warwick returned to England, defeated the Yorkists in battle, and restored Henry VI to the throne on 30 October 1470. However, by this time, years in hiding followed by years in captivity had taken their toll on Henry.^ Henry VI was restored to the throne on 30 October 1470, but by now, the years of hiding and captivity had taken their toll, and Warwick and Clarence held all the power.
  • Kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxons - England 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.historyfiles.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ He returned with Warwick and helped to restore Henry VI in 1470.
  • To Prove a Villain -- The Real Richard III 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.r3.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the battle, Edward IV killed both Henry VI and his son.
  • The Tudors - Henry VII - The Greatest King of England and Wales - 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.tudors.org [Source type: Original source]

.Warwick and Clarence effectively ruled in his name.^ He asks Warwick and Clarence to rule jointly in his stead while he pursues a quiet life of prayer.

[2]
.Henry's return to the throne lasted less than six months.^ Henry , his only child, was born more than two months after his death.

^ He must return to France with the news that, no mistaking, King Henry is no longer the riotous Prince Hal, and will be "coming on" to claim his throne of France.
  • Henry V - Course Guide for English 332 - KU Fall 2005 - Write-On Inc., Dr. Stephen F. Evans 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC people.ku.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The action of the play over, the Chorus enters a last time to remind the audience of the historical aftermath of the events just dramatized, which is less happy than the play's conclusion.
  • Henry V - Course Guide for English 332 - KU Fall 2005 - Write-On Inc., Dr. Stephen F. Evans 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC people.ku.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Warwick soon overreached himself by declaring war on Burgundy, whose ruler responded by giving Edward IV the assistance he needed to win back his throne by force.^ In 1471 Edward IV recovered his throne.
  • Henry VII (DNB00) - Wikisource 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ York was killed at Wakefield in 1460, but his son Edward defeated the Lancastrian forces at Mortimer's Cross, entered London, and was proclaimed king as Edward IV in Feb., 1461.
  • Henry VI King of England: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Edward IV , 1461-70, 1471-83, defeats Lancastrian army at Mortimer's Cross, proclaimed king by his cousin Warwick the Kingmaker.
  • Ancient Coins - Barry & Darling Ancient Coins 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.bitsofhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

.He won a decisive victory at the Battle of Tewkesbury on 4 May 1471, where Henry's son Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales was killed.^ His son, the young child Prince Edward of Wales is savagely murdered by Richard after the battle.
  • THE HISTORY BEHIND THE HISTORY PLAYS 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.stjohns-chs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the battle, Edward IV killed both Henry VI and his son.
  • The Tudors - Henry VII - The Greatest King of England and Wales - 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.tudors.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry Henry is the Prince of Wales and son of King Henry IV in King Henry IV part 1 and in King Henry IV part II .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - The Plays of Shakespeare 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC vets.com [Source type: Original source]

Imprisonment and death

.Henry was imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he died on 21 or 22 May 1471. According to the "Arrivall," an official chronicle favourable to Edward IV, Henry died of melancholy on hearing news of the Battle of Tewkesbury and his son's death.^ The death of Prince Edward in the battle of Tewkesbury, however, sealed Henrys fate, and he was murdered in the Tower of London soon afterwards.
  • KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.holylands.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Poor Henry is captured in the north of England and imprisoned in the Tower of London.

^ After the battle, Edward IV killed both Henry VI and his son.
  • The Tudors - Henry VII - The Greatest King of England and Wales - 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.tudors.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, it is widely suspected that Edward IV in fact ordered his murder.^ The death of Prince Edward in the battle of Tewkesbury, however, sealed Henrys fate, and he was murdered in the Tower of London soon afterwards.
  • KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.holylands.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fond of a novelty, which flattered their natural propension, they overlooked the daughters of Edward IV. who stood before Warwic in the order of succession, Revolt of Ireland.
  • Online Library of Liberty - XXIV: HENRY VII - The History of England, vol. 3 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Probably Edward IV ordered Henry's death.
  • THE HISTORY BEHIND THE HISTORY PLAYS 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.stjohns-chs.org [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.William Shakespeare in both Henry VI and Richard III accuses Edward's younger brother Richard of Gloucester (later to become Richard III) of the murder.^ After the battle, Edward IV killed both Henry VI and his son.
  • The Tudors - Henry VII - The Greatest King of England and Wales - 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.tudors.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward Edward is a son of the King in King Henry VI part II and in King Henry VI part III .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - The Plays of Shakespeare 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC vets.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Richard III Edward V, 1470-83?
  • The Federation of the Wars of the Roses - History Page 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC homepages.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

King Henry VI was originally buried in Chertsey Abbey; then, in 1485, his body was moved to St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

Legacy

King's College Chapel, Cambridge
.Henry's one lasting achievement was his fostering of education; he founded both Eton College and King's College, Cambridge.^ Henry was interested in education; Eton, Kings and Cambridge colleges were founded during his reign.
  • The History of England 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.byfaith.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry also founded Cambridge University's King's College to enable Eton boys to continue their education.

^ He founded Eton College in 1440 and King's College, Cambridge in 1441.
  • MONARCHES OF ENGLAND 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.gallica.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Continuing an architectural patronage trend begun by his father, these (King's College Chapel and Eton College Chapel respectively) and most of his other architectural commissions (like his completion of his father's foundation of Syon Abbey) consisted of a single, late Gothic or Perpendicular-style church with a monastic and/or educational foundation attached.^ He completed his father's foundation of Syon Abbey, a Grand late Gothic chapel with a monastic educational establishment attached to it.

^ Both Eton and King's College continue operation today as two of England's most respected educational institutions.

^ The reign of Edward VI (1547-53) saw a continuation of the political executions which had begun in his father's reign; the young King's protector the Duke of Somerset and his confederates met their death at the Tower in 1552, falsely accused of treason.
  • Tower of London 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.castles.org [Source type: Original source]

.Each year on the anniversary of Henry VI's death, the Provosts of Eton and King's College, Cambridge lay white lilies and roses, the floral emblems of those colleges, on the spot in the Wakefield Tower at the Tower of London where the imprisoned Henry VI was, according to tradition, murdered as he knelt at prayer.^ Poor Henry is captured in the north of England and imprisoned in the Tower of London.

^ KING HENRY VI Woe above woe!
  • Drama: Henry VI, Part 3 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ KING HENRY VI Peace, thou!
  • Drama: Henry VI, Part 3 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Arms

.As Prince of Wales, Henry's arms were those of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points.^ Henry VIII's arms were the same as those used by his predecessors since Henry IV: Quarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lys Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England).
  • Henry VIII King of England - Henry VIII, Biography, History, Information. 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.famouspeople.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward, Prince of Wales : Henrys son, a smart, stout-hearted, regal young man.

^ After three winters with war in Wales, King Henry V wanted to secure peace in the outskirts of the Land of Angles.
  • Sons of the Union - An England WATKABAOI AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

[4] Upon his accession, he inherited use of the arms of the kingdom undifferenced.

Ancestry

Popular culture

Miracles were attributed to the king, and he was informally regarded as a saint. Hymns to him still exist. Until the Reformation, his hat was kept by his tomb at Windsor where pilgrims would put it on to enlist Henry's aid against migraines.[5]
.In 1590, William Shakespeare wrote a trilogy of plays about the life of Henry VI: Henry VI, part 1, Henry VI, part 2, and Henry VI, part 3.^ In Henry's reign there are indications that the Knight's Templars were already playing that part in diplomacy and finance which was so remarkable a feature of their career.

^ KING HENRY VI For my part, noble lords, I care not which; Or Somerset or York, all's one to me.
  • Henry VI, part 2: Entire Play 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ KING HENRY VI My Lord of Warwick, hear me but one word: Let me for this my life-time reign as king.
  • Drama: Henry VI, Part 3 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC www.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

He also appears as a ghost in Richard III. .In screen adaptations of these plays he has been portrayed by James Berry in the 1911 silent short Richard III, dramatising a part of Shakespeare's play, Terry Scully in the 1960 BBC series An Age of Kings, which contained all the history plays from Richard II to Richard III, Carl Wery in the 1964 West German TV version of König Richard III, David Warner in The Wars of the Roses, a 1965 filmed version of the Royal Shakespeare Company performing the three parts of Henry VI (condensed and edited into two plays, Henry VI and Edward IV) and Richard III, Peter Benson in the 1983 BBC Shakespeare versions of all three parts of Henry VI and Richard III, Paul Brennen in the 1989 film versions of the full cycle of consecutive history plays performed, for several years, by the English Shakespeare Company, Edward Jewesbury in the 1995 film version of Richard III (1995), with Ian McKellen as Richard, and James Dalesandro in the 2007 modern-day film version of Richard III.^ Sir John Somerville Sir John Somerville is a character in King Henry VI part III .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - The Plays of Shakespeare 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC vets.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pistol Pistol is a follower of Falstaff in King Henry IV part II .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - The Plays of Shakespeare 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC vets.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Silence Silence is a country justice in King Henry IV part II .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - The Plays of Shakespeare 25 January 2010 8:16 UTC vets.com [Source type: Original source]

Miles Mander portrayed him in Tower of London, a 1939 horror film loosely dramatising the rise to power of Richard III.

References

  1. ^ Charles VI, in turn, could have inherited the hereditary trait from his mother Joanna of Bourbon, who showed signs of mental illness, and her Bourbon family, where her grandfather Louis I, Duke of Bourbon, her father Peter I, Duke of Bourbon and her brother Louis II, Duke of Bourbon each had symptoms of the ailment.
  2. ^ Wolffe, Bertram (1981). Henry VI. London: Eyre Methuen. pp. 342–344.  
  3. ^ Wolffe, Bertram (1981). Henry VI. London: Eyre Methuen. pp. 347.  
  4. ^ Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family
  5. ^ The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England, C.1400-c.1580 By Eamon Duffy, p. 161
Henry VI of England
Cadet branch of the House of Plantagenet
Born: 6 December 1421 Died: 21 May 1471
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Henry V of Monmouth
King of England
Lord of Ireland

1422 – 1461
Succeeded by
Edward IV
Preceded by
Edward IV
King of England
Lord of Ireland

1470 – 1471
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Charles VI the Beloved
King of France
1422 – 1453
disputed with Charles VII
Succeeded by
Charles VII the Victorious
English royalty
Preceded by
John, 1st Duke of Bedford
Heir to the English Throne
as heir apparent
6 December 1421 – 31 August 1422
Succeeded by
John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford
French nobility
Preceded by
Henry V of Monmouth, King of England
Duke of Aquitaine
1422 – 1453
Succeeded by
Charles VII the Victorious, King of France
Preceded by
Henry V of Monmouth, King of England
Heir to the French Throne
31 August 1422 – 21 October 1422
Succeeded by
Louis XI
Peerage of England
Vacant
Title last held by
Henry of Monmouth
Duke of Cornwall
1421 – 1422
Vacant
Title next held by
Edward of Westminster

Simple English

Henry VI
By the Grace of God, King of England
and France and Lord of Ireland
[[File:|250px]]
Reign August 31,1422 - March 4,1461
and October 31,1470 - April 11,1471
Coronation November 6, 1429
Born December 6, 1421
Birthplace Windsor Castle, England
Died May 21/ May 22, 1471
Place of death Tower of London, England
Buried Windsor Castle, England
Predecessor Henry V
Successor Edward IV
Consort Margaret of Anjou (1429–1482)
Offspring Edward, Prince of Wales
(1453–1471)
Royal House Lancaster
Father Henry V (1387–1422)
Mother Catherine of Valois (1401–1437)

Henry VI (December 6, 1421 - May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and then from 1470 to 1471. He was also the King of France from 1422 to 1453.

Contents

The Child King

Henry was the only child of King Henry V of England and was his heir. He was born on December 6, 1421 at Windsor. He became king at the age of nine months on August 31, 1422, when his father died. His mother, Catherine of Valois was then only twenty years old. Because she was the daughter of King Charles VI of France she was not allowed to have a large part in raising her son.

Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, Henry IV's youngest son, was given the position of Protector and Defender of the Realm and the Church (Regent of England) until the King was old enough to rule. His job was to keep the peace and deal with Parliament. Henry IV's oldest living son, John, Duke of Bedford, was the made the Regent of France. He was in charge of running the war that was happening. Bedford also replaced Gloucester as Regent of England whenever he was in England.

Coronation

Henry was eventually made King of England at Westminster Abbey on November 6, 1429 a month before his eighth birthday. He was made King of France at Notre Dame in Paris on December 16, 1431. He did not actually take control of government until he was of age in 1437 - the year his mother died.

Henry's marriage to Margaret of Anjou

Because of his success in the Hundred Years' War, Henry V had left England with a lot of land in France. Since Henry VI was still a child, and England was ruled by a Regent, much of the land his father gained was lost. Diplomatic mistakes as well as military failures caused the loss of most of the English land in France.

Henry VI was a deeply spiritual man. He did not have the wisdom needed to rule effectively. He let his court be controlled by a few noble favorites. The people who wanted to end the war in France became more powerful, while the people supporting the war were ignored.

Henry VI was told that the best way of get peace with France was to marry Charles VII’s niece, Margaret of Anjou. Henry agreed to send people to talk with King Charles. Charles agreed to the marriage as long as he would not have to give the customary dowry and if he would get the lands of Maine and Anjou from the English. Henry V agreed, but did not let parliament know about giving away Maine and Anjou. The English people would not be happy to know the lands were given away.

The marriage happened in 1445. Margaret was much the opposite of Henry. She was ready to take decisions and lead while he was happy to be led by her. Margaret was a better ruler than Henry ever was, even though she was only sixteen at that time.

The Wars of the Roses

Death and legacy

Henry VI was imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he was murdered on May 21, 1471. Popular legend said that Richard, Duke of Gloucester was guilty of his murder, as well as the murder of Henry VI's son Edward of Westminster.

King Henry VI was originally buried in Chertsey Abbey. In 1485, his body was moved to St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

He was succeeded by Edward IV, son of Richard, Duke of York.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 09, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Henry VI of England, which are similar to those in the above article.








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