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Henry V
King of England (more...)
Reign 21 March 1413 – 31 August 1422 (&0000000000000009.0000009 years, &0000000000000163.000000163 days)
Coronation 9 April 1413
Predecessor Henry IV
Successor Henry VI
Spouse Catherine of Valois
Issue
Henry VI of England
House House of Lancaster
Father Henry IV of England
Mother Mary de Bohun
Born 1386–87[1]
Monmouth, Wales
Died 31 August 1422[1] (aged 35)
Chateau de Vincennes, France
Burial Westminster Abbey, London

Henry V (1386–87[1][2] – 31 August 1422) was King of England from 1413 until his death. From an unassuming start, his military successes in the Hundred Years' War, culminating with his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt, saw him come close to uniting the realms of England and France under his rule.

Contents

Early life

Henry was born in the tower above the gatehouse of Monmouth Castle, son of Henry of Bolingbroke, later Henry IV, and sixteen-year-old Mary de Bohun. Two dates are suggested: 9 August or 16 September, in either 1386 or 1387.[1][2] At the time of his birth during the reign of Richard II, Henry was not in line to succeed to the throne, preceded by the king and possibly another collateral line of heirs.

Upon the exile of Henry's father in 1398, Richard II took the boy into his own charge and treated him kindly. The young Henry accompanied King Richard to Ireland, and while in the royal service, he visited the castle at Trim in Meath, the ancient meeting place of the Irish Parliament. In 1399, the Lancastrian usurpation brought Henry's father to the throne and Henry was recalled from Ireland into prominence as heir to the kingdom of England. He was created Prince of Wales at his father's coronation. He was created Duke of Lancaster on 10 November 1399, the third person to hold the title that year. His other titles were Duke of Cornwall, Earl of Chester, and Duke of Aquitaine. A contemporary record notes that during that year Henry spent time at The Queen's College, Oxford, under the care of his uncle Henry Beaufort, the Chancellor of the university.[3]

From October 1401, the administration was conducted in his name.[citation needed] Less than three years later, Henry was in command of part of the English forces—he led his own army into Wales against Owain Glyndŵr and joined forces with his father to fight Harry Hotspur at Shrewsbury in 1403.[4] It was there that the sixteen-year-old prince was almost killed by an arrow which became stuck in his face. An ordinary soldier might have died from such a wound, but Henry had the benefit of the best possible care. Over a period of several days John Bradmore, the royal physician, treated the wound with honey to act as an antiseptic, crafted a special tool to screw into the broken arrow shaft and thus extract the arrow without doing further damage, and then flushed the wound with alcohol. The operation was successful, but it left Henry with permanent scars which would serve as evidence of his experience in battle.[5]

Role in government and conflict with Henry IV

The Welsh revolt of Owain Glyndŵr absorbed Henry's energies until 1408. Then, as a result of the king's ill-health, Henry began to take a wider share in politics. From January 1410, helped by his uncles Henry and Thomas Beaufort — legitimated sons of John of Gaunt — he had practical control of the government.

Both in foreign and domestic policy he differed from the king, who in November 1411 discharged the prince from the council. The quarrel of father and son was political only, though it is probable that the Beauforts had discussed the abdication of Henry IV, and their opponents certainly endeavoured to defame the prince. It may be to that political enmity that the tradition of Henry's riotous youth, immortalised by Shakespeare, is partly due. Henry's record of involvement in war and politics, even in his youth, disproves this tradition. The most famous incident, his quarrel with the chief justice, has no contemporary authority and was first related by Sir Thomas Elyot in 1531.

The story of Falstaff originated partly in Henry's early friendship with Sir John Oldcastle. That friendship, and the prince's political opposition to Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, perhaps encouraged Lollard hopes. If so, their disappointment may account for the statements of ecclesiastical writers, like Thomas Walsingham, that Henry on becoming king was changed suddenly into a new man.

Accession to the throne

After Henry IV died on 20 March 1413, Henry V succeeded him the next day and was crowned on 9 April 1413 at Westminster Abbey. The ceremony was marked by a terrible snow storm, but the common people were undecided as to whether it was a good or bad omen.[6] Henry was described as having been "very tall (6ft 3 in), slim, with dark hair cropped in a ring above the ears, and clean-shaven". His complexion was ruddy, the face lean with a prominent and pointed nose. Depending on his mood, his eyes "flashed from the mildness of a dove's to the brilliance of a lion's".[7]

Domestic policy

Henry tackled all of the domestic policies together, and gradually built on them a wider policy. From the first, he made it clear that he would rule England as the head of a united nation. On the one hand he let past differences be forgotten - the late Richard II was honourably reinterred; the young Mortimer was taken into favour; the heirs of those who had suffered in the last reign were restored gradually to their titles and estates. On the other hand, where Henry saw a grave domestic danger - such as the Lollard discontent - he acted firmly and ruthlessly in January 1414, including the execution by burning of Henry's old friend Sir John Oldcastle, so as to "nip the movement in the bud" and make his own position as ruler secure.

A statue to Henry V below the clock face of the Shire Hall in Monmouth. Henry V was born in Monmouth Castle on August 9, 1387 and the statue was placed on the Shire Hall in 1792

With the exception of the Southampton Plot in favour of Mortimer, involving Henry Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham and Richard, Earl of Cambridge (grandfather of the future King Edward IV) in July 1415, the rest of his reign was free from serious trouble at home. Starting in August 1417, Henry V promoted the use of the English language in government,[8] and his reign marks the appearance of Chancery Standard English as well as the adoption of English as the language of record within Government. He was the first king to use English in his personal correspondence since the Norman conquest, which occurred 350 years earlier.[9][10]

Foreign affairs

Henry could now turn his attention to foreign affairs. A writer of the next generation was the first to allege that Henry was encouraged by ecclesiastical statesmen to enter into the French war as a means of diverting attention from home troubles. This story seems to have no foundation. Old commercial disputes and the support which the French had lent to Owain Glyndŵr were used as an excuse for war, whilst the disordered state of France afforded no security for peace. The French king, Charles VI, was prone to mental illness, and his eldest son was an unpromising prospect.

Following Agincourt, Hungarian King (later Holy Roman Emperor 1433–1437) Sigismund made a visit to Henry in hopes of making peace between England and France. His goal was to persuade Henry to modify his demands against the French. Henry lavishly entertained the emperor and even had him enrolled in the Order of the Garter. Sigismund in turn inducted Henry into the Order of the Dragon.[11] Henry had intended to crusade for the order after uniting the English and French thrones, but he died before fulfilling his plans.[12][13][14] Sigismund left England several months later, having signed the Treaty of Canterbury, acknowledging English claims to France.

Campaigns in France

Henry V of England depicted in Cassell's History of England (1902)

Henry may have regarded the assertion of his own claims as part of his royal duty, but in any case, a permanent settlement of the national debate was essential to the success of his foreign policy.

1415 campaign

On 11 August 1415 Henry sailed for France, where his forces besieged the fortress at Harfleur, capturing it on 22 September. Afterwards, Henry decided to march with his army across the French countryside towards Calais, despite the warnings of his council.[15] On the 25 October 1415, on the plains near the village of Agincourt, a French army intercepted his route. Despite his men-at-arms being exhausted, outnumbered and malnourished, Henry led his men into battle, decisively defeating the French who suffered severe losses. It is often argued that the French men-at-arms were bogged down in the muddy battlefield, soaked from the previous night of heavy rain, and that this hindered the French advance, allowing them to be sitting targets for the flanking English and Welsh archers. Nevertheless, the victory is seen as Henry's greatest, ranking alongside Crécy and Poitiers.

Towards the end of the battle, with victory in sight, a third French battalion reformed and advanced upon the English army. Henry therefore made a decision that arguably tarnished his reputation. He supposedly ordered that the French prisoners taken during the battle be mercilessly put to death, including some of the most illustrious who could be used for ransom. It is widely held that Henry was concerned that the prisoners might turn on their captors when the English were busy repelling this third wave, thus jeopardising a hard-fought victory. However, the reformation of the third battalion never came to full fruition, and Henry suspended the order in progress.

The victorious conclusion of Agincourt, from the English viewpoint, was only the first step in the campaign to recover the French possessions that belonged to the English crown.

Diplomacy and command of the sea

Command of the sea was secured by driving the Genoese allies of the French out of the English Channel. While Henry was occupied with peace negotiations in 1416, a French and Genoese fleet surrounded the harbour at the English-garrisoned Harfleur. A French land force also besieged the town. To relieve Harfleur, Henry sent his brother,John of Lancaster, the Duke of Bedford, who raised a fleet and set sail from Beachy Head on 14 August. The Franco-Genoese fleet was defeated the following day after a gruelling seven hour battle, and Harfleur was relieved. Diplomacy successfully detached Emperor Sigismund from France, and the Treaty of Canterbury (1416) paved the way to end the schism in the Church.

1417 campaign

So, with those two potential enemies gone, and after two years of patient preparation following Agincourt, Henry renewed the war on a larger scale in 1417. Lower Normandy was quickly conquered, and Rouen cut off from Paris and besieged. This siege raised a darker shadow on the reputation of the king than his order to slay the French prisoners at Agincourt. Rouen, starving and unable to support the women and children of the town forced them out through the gates believing that Henry would allow them to pass through his army unmolested. Henry refused to allow this and the expelled women and children died of starvation in the ditches surrounding the town. The French were paralysed by the disputes between Burgundians and Armagnacs. Henry skilfully played them off one against the other, without relaxing his warlike approach. In January 1419, Rouen fell. Those Norman French who had resisted were severely punished: Alan Blanchard, who had hanged English prisoners from the walls of Rouen, was summarily executed; Robert de Livet, Canon of Rouen, who had excommunicated the English king, was packed off to England and imprisoned for five years.[16]

Henry's marriage to Catherine of Valois

By August, the English were outside the walls of Paris. The intrigues of the French parties culminated in the assassination of John the Fearless by the Dauphin's partisans at Montereau (10 September 1419). Philip the Good, the new Duke, and the French court threw themselves into Henry's arms. After six months of negotiation, the Treaty of Troyes recognised Henry as the heir and regent of France (see English Kings of France), and on 2 June 1420, he married Catherine of Valois, the French king's daughter. From June to July, Henry's army besieged and took the castle at Montereau. He besieged and captured Melun in November, returning to England shortly thereafter.

1421 campaign

On 10 June 1421, Henry sailed back to France for what would be his last military campaign. From July to August, Henry's forces besieged and captured Dreux, thus relieving allied forces at Chartres. That October, his forces lay siege to Meaux, capturing it on 2 May 1422. Henry V died suddenly on 31 August 1422 at the Château de Vincennes near Paris, apparently from dysentery which he had contracted during the siege of Meaux. He was 35 years old. Before his death, Henry V named his brother John, Duke of Bedford regent of France in the name of his son Henry VI, then only a few months old. Henry V did not live to be crowned King of France himself, as he might confidently have expected after the Treaty of Troyes, as ironically the sickly Charles VI, to whom he had been named heir, survived him by two months. Catherine took Henry's body to London and he was buried in Westminster Abbey on 7 November 1422.

Arms

As Prince of Wales, Henry's arms were those of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points.[17] Upon his accession, he inherited use of the arms of the kingdom undifferenced.

Marriage and ancestry

He married Catherine of Valois in 1420, and their only child was Henry, who became Henry VI of England

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Allmand, Christopher (September 2004). "Henry V (1386/7–1422)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. 
  2. ^ a b Biography of HENRY V - Archontology.org. Retrieved 28-11-2009
  3. ^ Salter, H. E.; Lobe, Mary D. (1954). "The University of Oxford". A History of the County of Oxford. Victoria County History. three. pp. 132–143. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=63877. 
  4. ^ Harriss, Gerald (2005). Shaping the Nation: England 1360-1461. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. pp. 532. ISBN 0198228163. 
  5. ^ "John Bradmore and His Book Philomena", Social History of Medicine 1992; 5: 121–130
  6. ^ TimeRef-History Timelines, retrieved on 27 May 2009
  7. ^ Allen Andrews, Kings and Queens of England and Scotland, p. 76, published by Marshall Cavendish Publications Ltd., London, 1976
  8. ^ Fisher, John. The Emergence of Standard English, The University Press of Kentucky, 1996, ISBN 9780813108520 , page 22
  9. ^ Harriss, 46
  10. ^ Mugglestone, Lydia. The Oxford History of English, Oxford University Press, 2006, ISBN 0199249318, page 101
  11. ^ Rezachevici, Constantin; Miller, Elizabeth (ed.) (1999). "From the Order of the Dragon to Dracula". Journal of Dracula Studies (Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL, Canada) 1. http://www.blooferland.com/drc/index.php?title=Journal_of_Dracula_Studies. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  12. ^ Mowat, Robert Balmain (1919). Henry V. London: John Constable. pp. 176. ISBN 1406767131. 
  13. ^ Harvey, John Hooper (1967). The Plantagents. London: Collins. 
  14. ^ Seward, Desmond (1999). The hundred years war: The English in France 1337-1453. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books. ISBN 0140283617. 
  15. ^ Barker (2005: 220)
  16. ^ Henry V, the Typical Medieval Hero, Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, C.P. Putnam's Sons, London, New York, 1901
  17. ^ Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family

See also

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Henry V. The Practice of Kinship, edited by G.L. Harris (Oxford, 1985)
  • P. Earle, The Life and times of Henry V (London, 1972)
  • H.F. Hutchinson, Henry V. A Biography (London, 1967)
  • Juliet Barker, Agincourt: Henry V and the Battle That Made England (London, 2005)
  • J.H. Fisher, The Emergence of Standard English (Lexington, 1996)
  • Ian Mortimer, 1415: Henry V's Year of Glory, (Bodley Head, London, 2009)

External links

Henry V of England
Cadet branch of the House of Plantagenet
Born: 16 September 1387 Died: 31 August 1422
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Henry IV
King of England
Lord of Ireland

1413 – 1422
Succeeded by
Henry VI
English royalty
Preceded by
Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March
Heir to the English Throne
as heir apparent
30 September 1399 – 20 March 1413
Succeeded by
Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence
Vacant
Title last held by
Richard of Bordeaux
Prince of Wales
1399 – 1413
Vacant
Title next held by
Edward of Westminster
French nobility
Preceded by
Henry of Bolingbroke
Duke of Aquitaine
1399 – 1422
Succeeded by
Henry VI, King of England
Preceded by
Isabella of Bavaria
Regent of France
1420 – 1422
Succeeded by
John, Duke of Bedford
Peerage of England
Vacant
Title last held by
Richard of Bordeaux
Duke of Cornwall
1399 – 1413
Vacant
Title next held by
Henry
Preceded by
Henry IV of Bolingbroke
Duke of Lancaster
1399 – 1413
Merged in Crown
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Sir Thomas Erpynham
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
1409 – 1412
Succeeded by
The Earl of Arundel

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

HENRY V. (1387-1422), king of England, son of Henry IV. by Mary de Bohun, was born at Monmouth, in August 1387. On his father's exile in 1398 Richard II. took the boy into his own charge, and treated him kindly. Next year the Lancastrian revolution forced Henry into precocious prominence as heir to the throne. From October 1400 the administration of Wales was conducted in his name; less than three years later he was in actual command of the English forces and fought against the Percies at Shrewsbury. The Welsh revolt absorbed his energies till 1408. Then through the king's ill-health he began to take a wider share in politics. From January 1410, helped by his uncles Henry and Thomas Beaufort, he had practical control of the government. Both in foreign and domestic policy he differed from the king, who in November 1411 discharged the prince from the council. The quarrel of father and son was political only, though it is probable that the Beauforts had discussed the abdication of Henry IV., and their opponents certainly endeavoured to defame the prince. It may be that to political enmity the tradition of Henry's riotous youth, immortalized by Shakespeare, is partly due. To that tradition Henry's strenuous life in war and politics is a sufficient general contradiction. The most famous incident, his quarrel with the chiefjustice, has no contemporary authority and was first related by Sir Thomas Elyot in 1531. The story of Falstaff originated partly in Henry's early friendship for Oldcastle (q.v.). That friendship, and the prince's political opposition to Archbishop Arundel, perhaps encouraged Lollard hopes. If so, their disappointment may account for the statements of ecclesiastical writers, like Walsingham, that Henry on becoming king was changed suddenly into a new man.

Henry succeeded his father on the 20th of March 1413. With no past to embarrass him, and with no dangerous rivals, his practical experience had full scope. He had to deal with three main problems - the restoration of domestic peace, the healing of schism in the Church and the recovery of English prestige in Europe. Henry grasped them all together, and gradually built upon them a yet wider policy. From the first he made it clear that he would rule England as the head of a united nation, and that past differences were to be forgotten. Richard II. was honourably reinterred; the young Mortimer was taken into favour; the heirs of those who had suffered in the last reign were restored gradually to their titles and estates. With Oldcastle Henry used his personal influence in vain, and the gravest domestic danger was Lollard discontent. But the king's firmness nipped the movement in the bud (Jan. 1414), and made his own position as ruler secure. Save for the abortive Scrope and Cambridge plot in favour of Mortimer in July 1415, the rest of his reign was free from serious trouble at home. Henry could now turn his attention to foreign affairs. A writer of the next generation was the first to allege that Henry was encouraged by ecclesiastical statesmen to enter on the French war as a means of diverting attention from home troubles. For this story there is no foundation. The restoration of domestic peace was the king's first care, and until it was assured he could not embark on any wider enterprise abroad. Nor was that enterprise one of idle conquest. Old commercial disputes and the support which the French had lent to Glendower gave a sufficient excuse for war, whilst the disordered state of France afforded no security for peace. Henry may have regarded the assertion of his own claims as part of his kingly duty, but in any case a permanent settlement of the national quarrel was essential to the success of his world policy. The campaign of 1415, with its brilliant conclusion at Agincourt (October 25), was only the first step. Two years of patient preparation followed. The command of the sea was secured by driving the Genoese allies of the French out of the Channel. A successful diplomacy detached the emperor Sigismund from France, and by the Treaty of Canterbury paved the way to end the schism in the Church. So in 1417 the war was renewed on a larger scale. Lower Normandy was quickly conquered, Rouen cut off from Paris and besieged. The French were paralysed by the disputes of Burgundians and Armagnacs. Henry skilfully played them off one against the other, without relaxing his warlike energy. In January 1419 Rouen fell. By August the English were outside the walls of Paris. The intrigues of the French parties culminated in the assassination of John of Burgundy by the dauphin's partisans at Montereau (September io, 1419). Philip, the new duke, and the French court threw themselves into Henry's arms. After six months' negotiation Henry was by the Treaty of Troyes recognized as heir and regent of France, and on the 2nd of June 1420 married Catherine, the king's daughter. He was now at the height of his power. His eventual success in France seemed certain. He shared with Sigismund the credit of having ended the Great Schism by obtaining the election of Pope Martin V. All the states of western Europe were being brought within the web of his diplomacy.

The headship of Christendom was in his grasp, and schemes for a new crusade began to take shape. He actually sent an envoy to collect information in the East; but his plans were cut short by death. A visit to England in 1421 was interrupted by the defeat of Clarence at Bauge. The hardships of the longer winter siege of Meaux broke down his health, and he died at Bois de Vincennes on the 31st of August 1422.

Henry's last words were a wish that he might live to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem. They are significant. His ideal was founded consciously on the models of Arthur and Godfrey as national king and leader of Christendom. So he is the typical medieval hero. For that very reason his schemes were doomed to end in disaster, since the time was come for a new departure. Yet he was not reactionary. His policy was constructive: a firm central government supported by parliament; church reform on conservative lines; commercial development; and the maintenance of national prestige. His aims in some respects anticipated those of his Tudor successors, but he would have accomplished them on medieval lines as a constitutional ruler. His success was due to the power of his personality. He could train able lieutenants, but at his death there was no one who could take his place as leader. War, diplomacy and civil administration were all dependent on his guidance. His dazzling achievements as a general have obscured his more sober qualities as a ruler, and even the sound strategy, with which he aimed to be master of the narrow seas. If he was not the founder of theEnglish navy he was one of the first to realize its true importance. Henry had so high a sense of his own rights that he was merciless to disloyalty. But he was scrupulous of the rights of others, and it was his eager desire to further the cause of justice that impressed his French contemporaries. He has been charged with cruelty as a religious persecutor; but in fact he had as prince opposed the harsh policy of Archbishop Arundel, and as king sanctioned a more moderate course. Lollard executions during his reign had more often a political than a religious reason. To be just with sternness was in his eyes a duty. So in his warfare, though he kept strict discipline and allowed no wanton violence, he treated severely all who had in his opinion transgressed. In his personal conduct he was chaste, temperate and sincerely pious. He delighted in sport and all manly exercises. At the same time he was cultured, with a taste for literature, art and music. Henry lies buried in Westminster Abbey. His tomb was stripped of its splendid adornment during the Reformation. The shield, helmet and saddle, which formed part of the original funeral equipment, still hang above it.

Of original authorities the best on the English side is the Gesta Henrici Quinti (down to 1416), printed anonymously for the English Historical Society, but probably written by Thomas Elmham, one of Henry's chaplains. Two lives edited by Thomas Hearne under the names of Elmham and Titus Livius Forojuliensis come from a common source; the longer, which Hearne ascribed incorrectly to Elmham, is perhaps the original work of Livius, who was an Italian in the service of Humphrey of Gloucester, and wrote about 1440. Other authorities are the Chronicles of Walsingham and Otterbourne, the English Chronicle or Brut, and the various London Chronicles. On the French side the most valuable are Chronicles of Monstrelet and St Remy (both Burgundian) and the Chronique du religieux de S. Denys (the official view of the French court). For documents and modern authorities see under HENRY IV. See also Sir N. H. Nicolas, Hist. of the Battle of Agincourt and the Expedition of 1415 (London, 1833); C. L. Kingsford, Henry V., the Typical Medieval Hero (New York, 1901), where a fuller bibliography will be found. (C. L. K.)


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Simple English

Henry V
King of England; Prince Regent of France; Lord of Ireland (more...)
Reign 21 March 1413 – 31 August 1422
Coronation 1413
Predecessor Henry IV
Successor Henry VI
Consort Catherine of Valois
Issue
Henry VI
Titles and styles
The King
The Prince of Wales
The Duke of Cornwall
The Duke of Lancaster
Royal house House of Lancaster
Father Henry IV
Mother Mary de Bohun
Born 9 August 1387(1387-08-09)
Monmouth, Wales
Died 31 August 1422 (aged 34)
Bois de Vincennes, France
Burial Westminster Abbey, London
[[File:|thumb|Henry V of England]]

Henry V of England (September 16, 1387 - 31 August 31, 1422) was the King of England from 1413 to 1422. He was born at Monmouth, Wales. It is not known whether he was born on 9 August 1386 or 16 September 1387.

Henry V was the son of Henry Bolingbroke, later Henry IV, and Mary de Bohun, who died before Bolingbroke became king.

During his reign, Henry increased his power as King of England and also took the title of King of France, over which English kings had been fighting for decades. He defeated the French at the famous Battle of Agincourt in 1415.








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