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Hepatitis
Classification and external resources

Alcoholic hepatitis evident by fatty change, cell necrosis, Mallory bodies
ICD-10 K75.9
ICD-9 573.3
DiseasesDB 20061
MeSH D006505
.Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies inflammation of the liver characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ.^ Inflammatory cells in the portal areas (“portal inflammation”) .
  • Chronic Hepatitis C: Current Disease Management 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver.
  • Hepatitis Home Remedies - Home Remedies for Hepatitis - Hepatitis Remedy 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.homemademedicine.com [Source type: General]

^ Hepatitis is a serious inflammation of the liver .
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

.The name is from the Greek hepar (ἧπαρ), the root being hepat- (ἡπατ-), meaning liver, and suffix -itis, meaning "inflammation" (c.^ Chronic hepatitis consists of persistent liver infection and inflammation that lingers long after the primary symptoms of the disease have disappeared.

^ The infection is often asymptomatic, but once established, chronic infection can cause inflammation of the liver (chronic hepatitis).

^ Chronic persistent hepatitis is mild liver inflammation that may be caused by various viruses and conditions.See also...
  • Hepatitis B | LIVESTRONG.COM 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1727)[1]. .The condition can be self-limiting (healing on its own) or can progress to fibrosis (scarring) and cirrhosis.^ This condition can progress to scarring of the liver (fibrosis), and advanced scarring (cirrhosis).

^ The condition may last less than six months (acute) or persist longer than six months (chronic), heal on its own (self limiting) or progress to scarring of liver tissues.
  • Hepatitis Treatment A, B, C, D, E | Virus Hepatitis Symptoms Cure | Jaundice Alternative Medicine | Vaccine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over time, this steady attack on the liver causes scar tissue (fibrosis), which can lead to cirrhosis if left untreated.
  • Hepatitis C: Online References For Health Concerns 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.Hepatitis may occur with limited or no symptoms (subclinically), but often leads to jaundice, anorexia (poor appetite) and malaise.^ Hepatitis A begins with symptoms such as fever, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, myalgia, and malaise.

^ Hepatitis C : Hepatitis C (HCV) is spread via blood, most commonly through shared needle use, and may lead to a chronic carrier state.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Immunoglobulin is not necessary for persons whose only exposure to a person with hepatitis A occurred > 1 week after the onset of jaundice.

.Hepatitis is acute when it lasts less than six months and chronic when it persists longer.^ If the inflammation of the liver continues at least six months or longer, it is called chronic hepatitis.
  • AGA | Patient Center | Digestive Conditions | Chronic Viral Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.gastro.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • AGA | Patient Center | Digestive Conditions | Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.gastro.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Viral Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.nymedicaldoctor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hepatitis C can also be acute or chronic.
  • The STD Hepatitis | Info on Symptoms Treatments Pictures Photo's Diagnosis and Cures of Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC yourstdhelp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment lasts six months.

.A group of viruses known as the hepatitis viruses cause most cases of hepatitis worldwide, but it can also be due to toxins (notably alcohol, certain medications and plants), other infections and autoimmune diseases.^ Noninfectious hepatitis may result from medications, toxins, and autoimmune disorders.
  • Viral Hepatitis: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus.

^ Some other diseases are thought to be related to hepatitis C infection: .
  • Chronic Hepatitis C - Medpedia 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Signs and symptoms

Acute

.Initial features are of nonspecific flu-like symptoms, common to almost all acute viral infections and may include malaise, muscle and joint aches, fever, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and headache.^ Other symptoms in this stage include nausea, vomiting, and pruritus.
  • Viral Hepatitis: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hepatitis A begins with symptoms such as fever, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, myalgia, and malaise.

^ Nausea and vomiting Tiredness Fever Weakness Abdominal pain Muscle and joint aches and pains Jaundice (yellowish eyes and skin, dark urine and pale-coloured faeces/poo).

.More specific symptoms, which can be present in acute hepatitis from any cause, are: profound loss of appetite, aversion to smoking among smokers, dark urine, yellowing of the eyes and skin (i.e., jaundice) and abdominal discomfort.^ The eyes and skin turn yellow, the urine dark, and the stool a putty-white color.
  • Hepatitis Treatments, Hepatitis Diagnosis, Hepatitis Symptoms 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC gicare.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Symptoms of illness include nausea, yellow skin, fatigue, loss of appetite, and abdominal pain.

^ Signs include a darkening of the urine and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes).
  • Hepatitis - [Alternative Medicine] 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.peacehealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

.Physical findings are usually minimal, apart from jaundice in a third and tender hepatomegaly (swelling of the liver) in about 10%.^ Physical findings can include abdominal tenderness, hepatomegaly, or splenomegaly [8].

^ Physical signs include tender hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, bradycardia, and posterior cervical lymphadenopathy.
  • Hepatitis A - June 15, 2006 - American Family Physician 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Similarly, the physical exam is likely to be normal or show only mild enlargement of the liver or tenderness.
  • Chronic Hepatitis C: Current Disease Management 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Some exhibit lymphadenopathy (enlarged lymph nodes, in 5%) or splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen, in 5%).[2]
.Acute viral hepatitis is more likely to be asymptomatic in younger people.^ N-acetylcysteine therapy in acute viral hepatitis.

^ Q. How many people have viral hepatitis?
  • FDHN.org | Digestive Disease Information | Viral Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.fdhn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Viral hepatitis can be acute or chronic.
  • Hepatitis: Overview | aidsinfonet.org | The AIDS InfoNet 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.aidsinfonet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Symptomatic individuals may present after convalescent stage of 7 to 10 days, with the total illness lasting 2 to 6 weeks.^ Jaundice lasts for 7-10 days and the whole illness lasts about 4 weeks.
  • Viral Hepatitis A 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.meddean.luc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike HIV, the hepatitis C virus can live for a long time outside the body (estimates vary between seven to 10 days to weeks or months).

^ Symptoms usually last less than 2 months, although a small number of individuals may remain ill for as long as 6 months.
  • Hepatitis A: Information on Hepatitis A food poisoning from Food Poisoning.com 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.foodpoisoning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.A small proportion of people with acute hepatitis progress to acute liver failure, in which the liver is unable to clear harmful substances from the circulation (leading to confusion and coma due to hepatic encephalopathy) and produce blood proteins (leading to peripheral edema and bleeding).^ Some people progress to chronic hepatitis.
  • Hepatitis Treatments, Hepatitis Diagnosis, Hepatitis Symptoms 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC gicare.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Once chronic hepatitis C has progressed to cirrhosis, signs and symptoms may appear that are generally caused by either decreased liver function or increased pressure in the liver circulation, a condition known as portal hypertension.
  • Hepatitis C Support Group - DailyStrength 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In approximately 0.5-1% of HBV-infected patients, the disease progresses to fulminant hepatic failure, with coagulopathy, encephalopathy, and cerebral edema.
  • Viral Hepatitis: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.This may become life-threatening and occasionally requires a liver transplant.^ (Note from Lyric: Organs MAY be donated to other people who have HepC. A HepC liver in good condition can save a life.
  • Hepatitis C Frequently asked questions 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.hepcnet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Liver transplants have become common operations worldwide.A healthy liver is usually obtained from a donor who has re...
  • Hepatitis B | LIVESTRONG.COM 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In patients with decompensating (end-stage) cirrhosis, who may not respond to interferon therapy, or who have not responded to standard hepatitis C therapy, liver transplantation is the next option.
  • Hepatitis C: Online References For Health Concerns 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

Chronic

.Chronic hepatitis often leads nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, tiredness and weakness, and often leads to no symptoms at all.^ Many people with chronic hepatitis C have no symptoms of liver disease.
  • Chronic Hepatitis C: Current Disease Management 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic Hepatitis C - Medpedia 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic HBV infection can lead to chronic hepatitis.

^ A person is classified as a carrier or chronically infected if the virus has not been cleared from the body within 6 months These people often have no signs or symptoms, however, the virus remains in blood and body fluids and can infect others People who are chronically infected should avoid all alcohol a s it may cause additional damage to your liver .

.It is commonly identified on blood tests performed either for screening or to evaluate nonspecific symptoms.^ The diagnosis of hepatitis relies on blood tests that either detect the virus in the bloodstream (viral load) or detect antibodies manufactured in response to infection.
  • Hepatitis B: Online References For Health Concerns 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Headache Diagnosis The diagnosis is made on the basis of medical history, a physical examination and blood tests to check liver functions and identify the virus causing the condition.
  • Hepatitis Treatment A, B, C, D, E | Virus Hepatitis Symptoms Cure | Jaundice Alternative Medicine | Vaccine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ June 1992, when sensitive tests for anti-HCV were introduced for blood screening .
  • Chronic Hepatitis C: Current Disease Management 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The occurrence of jaundice indicates advanced liver damage.^ The level of selenium depletion appears to correspond to disease severity: the more advanced the liver damage, the greater the degree of depletion.
  • Hepatitis C: Online References For Health Concerns 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.On physical examination there may be enlargement of the liver.^ Similarly, the physical exam is likely to be normal or show only mild enlargement of the liver or tenderness.
  • Chronic Hepatitis C: Current Disease Management 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Headache Diagnosis The diagnosis is made on the basis of medical history, a physical examination and blood tests to check liver functions and identify the virus causing the condition.
  • Hepatitis Treatment A, B, C, D, E | Virus Hepatitis Symptoms Cure | Jaundice Alternative Medicine | Vaccine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, the physical exam is likely to be normal or show only tenderness or mild enlargement of the liver.
  • Chronic Hepatitis C - Medpedia 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

[4]
Extensive damage and scarring of liver (i.e. cirrhosis) leads to weight loss, easy bruising and bleeding tendencies, peripheral edema (swelling of the legs) and accumulation of ascites (fluid in the abdominal cavity). .Eventually, cirrhosis may lead to various complications: esophageal varices (enlarged veins in the wall of the esophagus that can cause life-threatening bleeding) hepatic encephalopathy (confusion and coma) and hepatorenal syndrome (kidney dysfunction).^ In a preliminary trial, 23 three people with liver cirrhosis and esophageal varices (dilated veins in the esophagus that can rupture and cause fatal bleeding) caused by hepatitis C received a combination of Alpha lipoic acid (300 mg twice daily), silymarin (from milk thistle ; 300 mg three times daily), and selenium (selenomethionine; 200 mcg twice daily).

^ Possible signs and symptoms of liver cirrhosis include ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdomen), bruising and bleeding tendency, bone pain, varices (enlarged veins, especially in the stomach and esophagus), fatty stools (steatorrhea), jaundice, and a syndrome of cognitive impairment known as hepatic encephalopathy.

^ Over time, this steady attack on the liver causes scar tissue (fibrosis), which can lead to cirrhosis if left untreated.
  • Hepatitis C: Online References For Health Concerns 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.Acne, abnormal menstruation, lung scarring, inflammation of the thyroid gland and kidneys may be present in women with autoimmune hepatitis.^ Originally isolated from the thymus gland, thymosin alfa-1 is found in highest concentrations in the thymus but has also been detected in the spleen, lungs, kidneys, brain, blood, and a number of other tissues.
  • Hepatitis B: Online References For Health Concerns 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sho-saiko-to should not be used together with interferon drug therapy as it may increase risk of pneumonitis - a potentially dangerous inflammation in the lungs.

^ Inflammation in the kidney ( glomerulonephritis ) and porphyria cutanea tarda are some other common complications of chronic hepatitis C. .
  • Chronic Hepatitis C - Medpedia 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

[4]

Causes

Acute

Chronic

Alcoholic hepatitis

.Ethanol, mostly in alcoholic beverages, is a significant cause of hepatitis.^ Little is known about HGV but it can cause hepatitis, although it is probably not involved in a significant number of cases.

^ Alcoholic hepatitis is caused by years of excessive alcohol consumption.
  • Hepatitis Treatment A, B, C, D, E | Virus Hepatitis Symptoms Cure | Jaundice Alternative Medicine | Vaccine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alcohol abuse and chronic viral hepatitis are the most common causes of cirrhosis, but it can also be caused by medicines or by another disease (such as hemochromatosis).
  • Hepatitis B | LIVESTRONG.COM 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Usually alcoholic hepatitis comes after a period of increased alcohol consumption.^ In chronic hepatitis C, increases in the alanine and aspartate aminotransferases range from zero to 20 times (but usually less than five times) the upper limit of normal.
  • Chronic Hepatitis C: Current Disease Management 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Alcoholic hepatitis is caused by years of excessive alcohol consumption.
  • Hepatitis Treatment A, B, C, D, E | Virus Hepatitis Symptoms Cure | Jaundice Alternative Medicine | Vaccine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Large doses of niacin may further increase the already elevated liver enzymes usually seen in hepatitis .
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

.Alcoholic hepatitis is characterized by a variable constellation of symptoms, which may include feeling unwell, enlargement of the liver, development of fluid in the abdomen ascites, and modest elevation of liver blood tests.^ Early symptoms may include: .
  • Hepatitis B | LIVESTRONG.COM 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms Symptoms of hepatitis may vary from individual to individual, depending on the severity of the condition.
  • Hepatitis Treatment A, B, C, D, E | Virus Hepatitis Symptoms Cure | Jaundice Alternative Medicine | Vaccine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recent findings have shown that silymarin has the ability to block fibrosis, a process that contributes to the eventual development of cirrhosis in persons with inflammatory liver conditions secondary to alcohol abuse or hepatitis.

.Alcoholic hepatitis can vary from mild with only liver test elevation to severe liver inflammation with development of jaundice, prolonged prothrombin time, and liver failure.^ Hepatitis is a serious inflammation of the liver .
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In acute hepatitis, the inflammation develops quickly, and lasts only a short period of time.
  • Hepatitis B Treatments, Hepatitis B Diagnosis, Hepatitis B Symptoms 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC gicare.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Any type of inflammation in the liver is called hepatitis.
  • Hepatitis Treatments, Hepatitis Diagnosis, Hepatitis Symptoms 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC gicare.com [Source type: Academic]

.Severe cases are characterized by either obtundation (dulled consciousness) or the combination of elevated bilirubin levels and prolonged prothrombin time; the mortality rate in both categories is 50% within 30 days of onset.^ Prognostic indicators used to support the need for a liver transplant are age younger than 10 years or older than 40 years, jaundice lasting more than seven days before the onset of encephalopathy, increased levels of serum bilirubin (more than 17 mg per dL [291 μmol per L]), and prolonged prothrombin time (more than 25 seconds).
  • Hepatitis A - June 15, 2006 - American Family Physician 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Jaundice, dark-colored urine, or light-colored stools might be present at onset or might follow constitutional symptoms within a few days.

^ Within 24 hours to four days after the first injection, he had fever and severe fatigue for one week.
  • vaccinations and SIDS: hepatitis b vaccine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC poisonevercure.150m.com [Source type: Academic]

.Alcoholic hepatitis is distinct from cirrhosis caused by long term alcohol consumption.^ Alcoholic hepatitis is caused by years of excessive alcohol consumption.
  • Hepatitis Treatment A, B, C, D, E | Virus Hepatitis Symptoms Cure | Jaundice Alternative Medicine | Vaccine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hepatitis A virus does not cause cirrhosis.
  • Dr Sandra Cabot's Liver Doctor - Love your Liver and Live Longer 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.liverdoctor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hepatitis B, like hepatitis C , causes liver inflammation and injury that over several decades can lead to cirrhosis.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

.Alcoholic hepatitis can occur in patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic cirrhosis.^ The risk of Hepatitis A in patients with chronic liver disease has been confirmed.

^ It causes chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver cancer.
  • Hepatitis natural vitamins, herbs, supplements : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., viral hepatitis herbs for hepatitis vitamins 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ But in some people, chronic hepatitis can lead to cirrhosis of the liver.
  • Hepatitis natural vitamins, herbs, supplements : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., viral hepatitis herbs for hepatitis vitamins 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

.Alcoholic hepatitis by itself does not lead to cirrhosis, but cirrhosis is more common in patients with long term alcohol consumption.^ Treatment of long-term (chronic) hepatitis C .
  • Hepatitis C-Treatment Overview 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What happens if you have long-term hepatitis B? .
  • Hepatitis B - the facts: IDEAS - Victorian Government Health Information, Australia 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.health.vic.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long term hemodialysis patients.

.Patients who drink alcohol to excess are also more often than others found to have hepatitis C.[citation needed] The combination of hepatitis C and alcohol consumption accelerates the development of cirrhosis.^ Vitamin A is even more toxic in someone who drinks alcohol.
  • Chronic Hepatitis C - Medpedia 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent findings have shown that silymarin has the ability to block fibrosis, a process that contributes to the eventual development of cirrhosis in persons with inflammatory liver conditions secondary to alcohol abuse or hepatitis.

^ Alcoholic beverage consumption accelerates HCV associated fibrosis and cirrhosis, and makes liver cancer more likely; insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome may similarly worsen the hepatic prognosis.

Drug induced

A large number of drugs can cause hepatitis:[7]
.
.The clinical course of drug-induced hepatitis is quite variable, depending on the drug and the patient's tendency to react to the drug.^ If necessary, the patient with drug-induced hepatitis will be treated with corticosteroids.
  • Hepatitis - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.healthscout.com [Source type: Academic]

^ From this point on, patients may have quite a variable course.
  • Viral Hepatitis: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Drug induced hepatitis .
  • Hepatitis - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

For example, halothane hepatitis can range from mild to fatal as can INH-induced hepatitis. .Hormonal contraception can cause structural changes in the liver.^ Hormonal contraception can cause structural changes in the liver.

^ Oral contraceptives can cause structural changes in the liver.
  • Hepatitis - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

^ HCV causes the following changes in liver tissue: .
  • Chronic Hepatitis C: Current Disease Management 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Amiodarone hepatitis can be untreatable since the long half life of the drug (up to 60 days) means that there is no effective way to stop exposure to the drug.^ Is it hepatitis A day and no one told me?

^ Nicholas was given a hepatitis B shot at his regular check up at the pediatrician's office on the 13th day of his life.
  • vaccinations and SIDS: hepatitis b vaccine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC poisonevercure.150m.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It accounts for about 15 percent of acute viral hepatitis, 60 to 70 percent of chronic hepatitis, and up to 50 percent of cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and liver cancer.
  • Chronic Hepatitis C: Current Disease Management 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Statins can cause elevations of liver function blood tests normally without indicating an underlying hepatitis.^ Certain blood tests, however, are the best indicators of hepatitis, its causes, and its severity.
  • Hepatitis Treatments, Hepatitis Diagnosis, Hepatitis Symptoms 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC gicare.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Large doses of niacin may further increase the already elevated liver enzymes usually seen in hepatitis .
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If have chronic hepatitis B virus infection and this test is positive, this means that you have low levels of hepatitis B virus circulating in your blood and are at lower risk of liver problems due to your chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

.Lastly, human variability is such that any drug can be a cause of hepatitis.^ Lastly, human variability is such that any drug can be a cause of hepatitis.

^ Many drugs can cause hepatitis.
  • Hepatitis & Liver Cleansing 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.puristat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Toxins and drugs can cause hepatitis: .
  • Hepatitis - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

Other toxins

Other Toxins can cause hepatitis:

Metabolic disorders

.Some metabolic disorders cause different forms of hepatitis.^ Metabolic Disorders Some metabolic disorders cause different forms of hepatitis.

^ Some metabolic disorders cause different forms of hepatitis.
  • Hepatitis - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hepatitis A and hepatitis C are different diseases caused by different viruses.

.Hemochromatosis (due to iron accumulation) and Wilson's disease (copper accumulation) can cause liver inflammation and necrosis.^ Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus.

^ Metabolic diseases like Wilson's disease , which causes excessive accumulation of copper in the liver.
  • Hepatitis Treatment A, B, C, D, E | Virus Hepatitis Symptoms Cure | Jaundice Alternative Medicine | Vaccine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B and D alcoholic hepatitis nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (fatty liver) sclerosing cholangitis Wilsons disease alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-related liver disease drug-induced liver disease Treatment .
  • Chronic Hepatitis C - Medpedia 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is effectively a consequence of metabolic syndrome.

Obstructive

."Obstructive jaundice" is the term used to describe jaundice due to obstruction of the bile duct (by gallstones or external obstruction by cancer).^ Jaundice results when the yellow bile pigment, which normally flows through the bile ducts to the intestine, backs up and spills into the blood.
  • Hepatitis Treatments, Hepatitis Diagnosis, Hepatitis Symptoms 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC gicare.com [Source type: Academic]

.If longstanding, it leads to destruction and inflammation of liver tissue.^ Longstanding obstruction of the bile duct (by gallstones or external obstruction by cancer) leads to destruction and inflammation of liver tissue.
  • Hepatitis - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If longstanding it leads to destruction and inflammation of liver tissue.

^ Some chronic forms of hepatitis show very few of these signs and are only present when the longstanding inflammation has led to the replacement of liver cells by connective tissue; this disease process is referred to as cirrhosis of the liver.

Autoimmune

.Anomalous presentation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II on the surface of hepatocytes, possibly due to genetic predisposition or acute liver infection; causes a cell-mediated immune response against the body's own liver, resulting in autoimmune hepatitis.^ Most of the damage from the hepatitis B virus is due to the body's response to the infection.
  • Hepatitis B | LIVESTRONG.COM 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The system includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, which in turn causes damage to individual liver cells.
  • Hepatitis B Treatments, Hepatitis B Diagnosis, Hepatitis B Symptoms 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC gicare.com [Source type: Academic]

Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency

.In severe cases of alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1AD), the accumulated protein in the endoplasmic reticulum causes liver cell damage and inflammation.^ Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, which in turn causes damage to individual liver cells.
  • Hepatitis B Treatments, Hepatitis B Diagnosis, Hepatitis B Symptoms 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC gicare.com [Source type: Academic]

^ HCV causes inflammation and cells to die (necrosis) in several regions of the liver.
  • Chronic Hepatitis C - Medpedia 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ B and D alcoholic hepatitis nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (fatty liver) sclerosing cholangitis Wilsons disease alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-related liver disease drug-induced liver disease Treatment .
  • Chronic Hepatitis C - Medpedia 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

.Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the occurrence of fatty liver in people who have no history of alcohol use.^ Many people with chronic hepatitis C have no symptoms of liver disease.
  • Chronic Hepatitis C: Current Disease Management 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic Hepatitis C - Medpedia 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ B and D alcoholic hepatitis nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (fatty liver) sclerosing cholangitis Wilson disease alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-related liver disease drug-induced liver disease [ Top ] .
  • Chronic Hepatitis C: Current Disease Management 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ B and D alcoholic hepatitis nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (fatty liver) sclerosing cholangitis Wilsons disease alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-related liver disease drug-induced liver disease Treatment .
  • Chronic Hepatitis C - Medpedia 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is most commonly associated with obesity (80% of all obese people have fatty liver).^ Carbon tetrachloride ("tetra", a dry cleaning agent), chloroform and trichloroethylene, all chlorine-containing carbohydrates, cause steatohepatitis (hepatitis with fatty liver).
  • Hepatitis - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unfortunately, this process fails to eradicate infection in most people; in fact, it may contribute to liver inflammation and, ultimately, tissue necrosis.
  • Hepatitis C: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbon tetrachloride ("tetra", a dry cleaning agent), chloroform, and trichloroethylene, all chlorinated hydrocarbons, cause steatohepatitis (hepatitis with fatty liver).

.It is more common in women.^ NASH is more common in women and the most common cause is obesity or the metabolic syndrome.

^ This type of inflammation called autoimmune hepatitis, is more common among women than men.
  • Chronic Hepatitis: Hepatitis: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.Severe NAFLD leads to inflammation, a state referred to as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which on biopsy of the liver resembles alcoholic hepatitis (with fat droplets and inflammatory cells, but usually no Mallory bodies).^ Severe hepatitis may lead to cirrhosis and chronic liver dysfunction.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Inflammatory cells in the portal areas (“portal inflammation”) .
  • Chronic Hepatitis C: Current Disease Management 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, which in turn causes damage to individual liver cells.
  • Hepatitis B Treatments, Hepatitis B Diagnosis, Hepatitis B Symptoms 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC gicare.com [Source type: Academic]

.The diagnosis depends on medical history, physical exam, blood tests, radiological imaging and sometimes a liver biopsy.^ Headache Diagnosis The diagnosis is made on the basis of medical history, a physical examination and blood tests to check liver functions and identify the virus causing the condition.
  • Hepatitis Treatment A, B, C, D, E | Virus Hepatitis Symptoms Cure | Jaundice Alternative Medicine | Vaccine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The physician often suspects hepatitis based on the patient's medical history and physical exam.
  • Hepatitis Treatments, Hepatitis Diagnosis, Hepatitis Symptoms 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC gicare.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Similarly, the physical exam is likely to be normal or show only mild enlargement of the liver or tenderness.
  • Chronic Hepatitis C: Current Disease Management 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The initial evaluation to identify the presence of fatty infiltration of the liver is medical imaging, including such ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance (MRI).^ Additional tests, such as ultrasound (sonography), are performed to study the bile ducts, gallbladder, and liver.
  • Hepatitis Treatments, Hepatitis Diagnosis, Hepatitis Symptoms 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC gicare.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Radiographic studies such as ultrasound or CT scan do not show liver injury until it is fairly advanced.

^ Headache Diagnosis The diagnosis is made on the basis of medical history, a physical examination and blood tests to check liver functions and identify the virus causing the condition.
  • Hepatitis Treatment A, B, C, D, E | Virus Hepatitis Symptoms Cure | Jaundice Alternative Medicine | Vaccine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, imaging cannot readily identify inflammation in the liver.^ However, radio logic imaging cannot readily identify inflammation in the liver.

^ The initial evaluation to identify the presence of fatty infiltration of the liver is radio logic imaging including ultrasound, computed tomography imaging, or magnetic resonance imaging.

^ However, in some people, continued inflammation slowly damages the liver, eventually resulting in cirrhosis (severe scarring of the liver), liver failure, and sometimes liver cancer.
  • Chronic Hepatitis: Hepatitis: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.Therefore, the differentiation between steatosis and NASH often requires a liver biopsy.^ Therefore, the differentiation between steatosis and NASH often requires a liver biopsy.

^ Liver biopsy is often performed in patients with hepatitis C to determine how much damage has occurred to the liver.

^ The differential diagnosis between viral hepatitis, chronic non-viral hepatitis and alcohol induce liver disease is crucial.
  • Herbal Medicine: Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.healthy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It can also be difficult to distinguish NASH from alcoholic hepatitis when the patient has a history of alcohol consumption.^ Patients with chronic hepatitis B should avoid alcohol, because it can cause additional liver damage.
  • Hepatitis B Treatments, Hepatitis B Diagnosis, Hepatitis B Symptoms 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC gicare.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bonacini M, Puoti M. Hepatitis C in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: diagnosis, natural history, meta-analysis of sexual and vertical transmission, and therapeutic issues.
  • Coinfection with Hepatitis Viruses and HIV 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For alcohol and drug-induced hepatitis, the patient has to avoid the offending agent.
  • Hepatitis Treatments, Hepatitis Diagnosis, Hepatitis Symptoms 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC gicare.com [Source type: Academic]

.Sometimes in such cases a trial of abstinence from alcohol along with follow-up blood tests and a repeated liver biopsy are required.^ Autoimmune hepatitis is diagnosed with blood tests and a liver biopsy.
  • Autoimmune hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The liver tests, and other blood tests improve.

^ A liver biopsy is a test for liver damage.

.NASH is becoming recognized as the most important cause of liver disease second only to hepatitis C in numbers of patients going on to cirrhosis.^ C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV).
  • Hepatitis B | LIVESTRONG.COM 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Have I drunk enough to cause liver cirrhosis?
  • Hepatitis: News & Videos about Hepatitis - CNN.com 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Chronic hepatitis C can cause cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer.
  • Chronic Hepatitis C: Current Disease Management 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Ischemic hepatitis

.Ischemic hepatitis is caused by decreased circulation to the liver cells.^ Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, which in turn causes damage to individual liver cells.
  • Hepatitis B Treatments, Hepatitis B Diagnosis, Hepatitis B Symptoms 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC gicare.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The hepatitis A virus infects the liver cells and causes inflammation.
  • Hepatitis A 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Hepatitis B is a virus that causes inflammation of the liver.
  • http://www.ashastd.org/learn/learn_hepatitisB.cfm 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.ashastd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Usually this is due to decreased blood pressure (or shock), leading to the equivalent term "shock liver". Patients with ischemic hepatitis are usually very ill due to the underlying cause of shock.^ Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus.

^ Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, which in turn causes damage to individual liver cells.
  • Hepatitis B Treatments, Hepatitis B Diagnosis, Hepatitis B Symptoms 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC gicare.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, some patients who acquire hepatitis C do not have a recognized risk factor or known exposure to infected blood or to drug use.
  • Chronic Hepatitis C: Current Disease Management 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic Hepatitis C - Medpedia 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Rarely, ischemic hepatitis can be caused by local problems with the blood vessels that supply oxygen to the liver (such as thrombosis, or clotting of the hepatic artery which partially supplies blood to liver cells).^ Chronic hepatitis can cause enlarged red blood cells .
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, which in turn causes damage to individual liver cells.
  • Hepatitis B Treatments, Hepatitis B Diagnosis, Hepatitis B Symptoms 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC gicare.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus.

.Blood testing of a person with ischemic hepatitis will show very high levels of transaminase enzymes (AST and ALT), which may exceed 1000 U/L. The elevation in these blood tests is usually transient (lasting 7 to 10 days).^ Laboratory tests can be used to detect these enzymes in a blood sample.
  • Chronic Hepatitis C - Medpedia 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Routine childhood vaccination is recommended in states and communities with a consistently high incidence of hepatitis A [10].

^ Alpha lipoic acid is given in a dose of 300 mg at least twice per day for hepatitis B or C. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA), silymarin, and selenium have been used in combination with success in reducing symptoms and elevated liver enzyme levels (though the viral load was not substantially reduced).
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is rare that liver function will be affected by ischemic hepatitis.^ Hepatitis A rarely causes fulminant hepatitis, but hospitalization and evaluation for liver transplantation is necessary for patients with signs of liver failure, such as hepatic encephalopathy or coagulopathy.

^ Cordyceps has repeatedly been shown effective in clinical trials at reducing fibrosis and improving liver and immune function in people with chronic hepatitis B, including those with cirrhosis.

^ Indications for treatment include patients with proven hepatitis C virus infection and persistent abnormal liver function tests.

See also

References

  1. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
  2. ^ Ryder S, Beckingham I (2001). "ABC of diseases of liver, pancreas, and biliary system: Acute hepatitis". BMJ 322 (7279): 151–153. doi:10.1136/bmj.322.7279.151. PMID 11159575. 
  3. ^ a b V.G. Bain and M. Ma, Acute Viral Hepatitis, Chapter 14, First principle of gastroenterology (an online text book)
  4. ^ a b Chronic hepatitis at Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy Home Edition
  5. ^ Figure 7.12 (Some penis cock vaginacauses of acute parenchymal damage), Parveen, M.D. Kumar (Editor), Michael, M.d. Clark (Editor) (2005). Clinical Medicine: with STUDENT CONSULT Access. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company. ISBN 0-7020-2763-4. 
  6. ^ Scott Moses, MD, Acute Hepatitis causes, Family practice notebook.com
  7. ^ "Hepatitis as a result of chemicals and drugs". HealthAtoZ. http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/dc/caz/infc/hepa/hepres.jsp. Retrieved 2006-07-01. 
  8. ^ Lim JR, Faught PR, Chalasani NP, Molleston JP (2006). "Severe liver injury after initiating therapy with atomoxetine in two children". J. Pediatr. 148 (6): 831–4. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.01.035. PMID 16769398. 
  9. ^ Bastida G, Nos P, Aguas M, Beltrán B, Rubín A, Dasí F, Ponce J (2005). "Incidence, risk factors and clinical course of thiopurine-induced liver injury in patients with inflammatory bowel disease". Aliment Pharmacol Ther 22 (9): 775–82. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02636.x. PMID 16225485. 
  10. ^ Nadir A, Reddy D, Van Thiel DH (2000). "Cascara sagrada-induced intrahepatic cholestasis causing portal hypertension: case report and review of herbal hepatotoxicity". Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95 (12): 3634–7. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2000.03386.x. PMID 11151906. 

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

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Please help develop this page
This page was created, but so far, little content has been added. Everyone is invited to help expand and create educational content for Wikiversity. .If you need help learning how to add content, see the editing tutorial and the MediaWiki syntax reference.^ A. If you believe the vaccine is toxic or potentially dangerous, then I don't see how continuing to inject your daughter with it can be beneficial.
  • Hepatitis B Vaccines: Adverse Reactions. Thinktwice! 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.thinktwice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Check to see if your state has a vaccine tracking system and, if you do not want your baby enrolled in a tracking system, find out how you can exercise your informed consent rights.
  • vaccinations and SIDS: hepatitis b vaccine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC poisonevercure.150m.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We do not believe in constant life-long medication, and wish to see you learning from your ailments and leading happier, healthier lives.
  • Hepatitis Treatment A, B, C, D, E | Virus Hepatitis Symptoms Cure | Jaundice Alternative Medicine | Vaccine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To help you get started with content, we have automatically added references below to other Wikimedia Foundation projects.^ While there is no specific treatment for HAV (most of the treatments mentioned here are for the other types), supportive care is helpful while you fight the infection.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

.This will help you find materials such as information, media and quotations on which to base the development of "Hepatitis" as an educational resource.^ Learn about hepatitis A. Finding out more about hepatitis A can help put your fears to rest.
  • Hepatitis A 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ How this information was developed to help you make better health decisions.
  • Hepatitis - [Alternative Medicine] 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.peacehealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ You develop symptoms of hepatitis B Hepatitis B symptoms do not go away in 2 or 3 weeks, or new symptoms develop You belong to a high-risk group for hepatitis B and have not yet received the HBV vaccine .
  • Hepatitis B | LIVESTRONG.COM 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, please do not simply copy-and-paste large chunks from other projects. .You can also use the links in the blue box to help you classify this page by subject, educational level and resource type.^ While there is no specific treatment for HAV (most of the treatments mentioned here are for the other types), supportive care is helpful while you fight the infection.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Hepatitis 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

^ FAQs Guidelines & Recommendations HAV-Related Surveillance Historical U.S. Map Statistics & Surveillance Professional Resources Patient Education Resources Resources & Links Viral Hepatitis Home .
  • CDC DVH - HAV FAQs for Health Professionals 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Wikipedia-logo.png Run a search on Hepatitis at Wikipedia.
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Viral Hepatitis .
.Hepatotropic viruses are the most common cause of the viral Hepatitis around the world.^ Hepatitis C is the most common cause of liver transplant in the United States.
  • Hepatitis C: Online References For Health Concerns 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of 6 viruses (along with hepatitis A, B, D, E, and G viruses) that cause viral hepatitis.
  • Hepatitis C: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Infectious hepatitis, viral Five major hepatotropic viruses cause the majority of clinical cases of viral hepatitis.
  • Viral Hepatitis: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 15 January 2010 6:32 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

  • although in the usa the most common cause for hepatitis is Hep.C - but in developing countries, Hep.B is more common
  • Hep b spreads around and over 500 times faster than HIV. And would be soon a major pandemic of infectious disease.

Simple English

Hepatitis is a disease of the liver. There are several kinds of hepatitis, the most common are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. Most cases of Hepatitis are caused by viruses.

Hepatitis can also be caused by alcohol. About one in four people who drink more than three alcoholic drinks a day, (over a period of 10-15 days) will have some form of hepatitis caused by alcohol.

Various drugs and chemicals can also cause Hepatitis, most notably Paracetamol (overdose), yellow phosphorous, and others. Hepatitis may also be caused by other diseases.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A can be transmitted through infected food. The patient's immune system makes antibodies against hepatitis A. This will make the patient immune against future infection. People with hepatitis A should rest, drink a lot of water and avoid alcohol. A vaccine is available. It will protect against infection from hepatitis A for life. Hepatitis A can be spread through personal contact, consumption of raw sea food or by drinking contaminated water. This occurs primarily in third world countries. Strict personal hygiene and avoiding raw and unpeeled foods can help prevent an infection. Infected people excrete the hepatitis A virus with their stool two weeks before and one week after the appearance of jaundice. The time between the infection and the start of the illness can run from 15 to 45 days, and approximately 15% of sufferers may experience relapsing symptoms from six months to a year after the first diagnosis.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is not spread by food or casual contact. Instead, hepatitis B is spread by blood or body fluids from an infected person. A baby can get it from its mother during childbirth, and it can also be spread by sexual contact, use of street drugs, and unsafe medical care. Some people just have hepatitis B for a little while and then suppress the infection, but others can be infected for life usually with few or no symptoms for many years. Hepatitis B sometimes damages the liver severely, and can cause cancer. There is a vaccine that works very well to prevent hepatitis B, and there is treatment for people with serious disease cause by hepatitis B.The vaccine can be found in the clinics near you

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is not spread by food or casual contact. It is spread in ways that are similar to hepatitis B. There is no vaccine, and the treatment is somewhat unpleasant. People with hepatitis C who drink alcohol greatly increase their risk for liver damage.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 13, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Hepatitis, which are similar to those in the above article.








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