Heraclion: Wikis

Advertisements

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Heraklion article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Iraklion
Ηράκλειο
The Venetian fortress of Rocca al Mare (1523-1540) guards the inner harbor
The Venetian fortress of Rocca al Mare (1523-1540) guards the inner harbor
Seal of Iraklion
Location
Heraklion is located in Greece
Heraklion
Coordinates 35°20′N 25°8′E / 35.333°N 25.133°E / 35.333; 25.133Coordinates: 35°20′N 25°8′E / 35.333°N 25.133°E / 35.333; 25.133
Government
Country: Greece
Periphery: Crete
Prefecture: Heraklion
Mayor: Ioannis Kourakis
Population statistics (as of 2001[1])
City
 - Population: 137,711
 - Area: 109.026 km2 (42 sq mi)
 - Density: 1,263 /km2 (3,271 /sq mi)
Other
Time zone: EET/EEST (UTC+2/3)
Elevation (min-max): 0 - 33 m (0 - 108 ft)
Postal: 70x xx, 71x xx, 720 xx
Telephone: 2810
Auto: HK, HP
Website
www.heraklion-city.gr

Heraklion or Iraklion (Greek: Ηράκλειον /iˈɾaklio̞/; Turkish: Kandiye; Venetian: Candia), is the largest city and capital of Crete. It is also the fourth largest city in Greece. Its name is also spelled Herakleion, a transliteration of the ancient Greek and Katharevousa name, Ἡράκλειον, or Iraklio, among other variants. For centuries it was known as Candia, a Venetian adaptation of the earlier Greek name Χάνδαξ (Chandax, "moat") or Χάνδακας, which in turn came from the Arabic rabḍ al-ḫandaq. The English form Candy, derived from French Candie, meant the city of Candia or all of Crete (as in Twelfth Night 5.1). Under the Ottoman Empire, it was called Kandiye. In the local vernacular, it is often called Κάστρο (Kástro, "castle") and its inhabitants Καστρινοί (Kastrinoí, "castle dwellers").

Heraklion is the capital of Heraklion Prefecture, with an international airport named after the writer Nikos Kazantzakis. The ruins of Knossos, which were excavated and restored by Arthur Evans, are nearby.

Contents

History

The snake goddess in Heraklion Archaeological Museum

Heraklion is close to the ruins of the palace of Knossos, which in Minoan times was the largest centre of population on Crete. Though there is no archaeological evidence of it, Knossos may well have had a port at the site of Heraklion as long ago as 2000 BC.

Advertisements

Founding

The present city of Heraklion was founded in 824 AD by the Saracens who had been expelled from Al-Andalus by Emir Al-Hakam I and had taken over the island from the Byzantine Empire. They built a moat around the city for protection, and named the city ربض الخندق, rabḍ al-ḫandaq ("Castle of the Moat"). The Saracens allowed the port to be used as a safe haven for pirates who operated against Byzantine shipping and raided Byzantine territory around the Aegean.

Byzantine Era

In 961, the Byzantines, under the command of Nikephoros Phokas, later to become Byzantine Emperor, landed in Crete and attacked the city. After a prolonged siege, the city fell. The Saracen inhabitants were slaughtered, the city looted and burned to the ground. Soon rebuilt, the town of Chandax remained under Byzantine control for the next 243 years.

Venetian Era

Α part of the Venetian walls in Heraklion
The Venetian loggia (1626-28) of Heraklion

In 1204, the city was bought by the Republic of Venice as part of a complicated political deal which involved among other things, the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade restoring the deposed Byzantine emperor Isaac II Angelus to his throne. The Venetians improved on the ditch by building enormous fortifications, most of which are still in place, including a giant wall, in places up to 40 m thick, with 7 bastions, and a fortress in the harbour. Chandax was renamed to Candia in Italian and became the seat of the Duke of Candia. As a result, the Venetian administrative district of Crete became known as "Regno di Candia" (Kingdom of Candia). The city retained the name of Candia for centuries and the same name was often used to refer to the whole island of Crete as well. To secure their rule, Venetians began in 1212 to resettle families from Venice on Crete. The coexistence of two different cultures and the influence of Italian Renaissance lead to a flourishing of letters and the arts in Candia and Crete in general, that is today known as the Cretan Renaissance.

Ottoman Era

The Ottoman Vezir Mosque (1856), built on the site of the Byzantine St Titus, and now the basilica of St Titus

After the Venetians came the Ottoman Empire. During the Cretan War (1645–1669), the Ottomans besieged the city for 24 years, from 1648 to 1669, the longest siege in history. In its final phase, which lasted for 22 months, 70,000 Turks, 38,000 Cretans and slaves and 29,088 of the city's Christian defenders perished.[2]The Ottoman army under an Albanian grand vizier, Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha conquered the city in 1669. Under the Ottomans, the city was known officially as Kandiye (again also applied to the whole island of Crete) but informally in Greek as Megalo Kastro (Μεγάλο Κάστρο; "Big Castle"). During the Ottoman period, the harbour silted up, so most shipping shifted to Hania in the west of the island.

Modern era

An outdoor market in Herakleion

In 1898 the autonomous Cretan State was created, under Ottoman suzerainty, with Prince George of Greece as its High Commissioner and under international supervision. During the period of direct occupation of the island by the Great Powers (1898-1908), Candia was part of the British zone. At this time the city was renamed "Heraklion", after the Roman port of Heracleum ("Heracles' city"), whose exact location is unknown.

With the rest of Crete, Heraklion was incorporated into the Kingdom of Greece in 1913.

Transportation

Port

The port

Heraklion is an important shipping port and ferry dock. Travellers can take ferries and boats from Heraklion to a multitude of destinations including Santorini, Ios Island, Paros, Mykonos, and Rhodes. There are also several daily ferries to Piraeus, the port of Athens on mainland Greece.

Airport

Heraklion International Airport, or Nikos Kazantzakis Airport is located about 5 km east of the city. The airport is named after Herkalion native Nikos Kazantzakis, a Greek writer and philosopher. It is the second busiest airport of Greece, mostly due to the fact that Crete is a major destination for tourists during summer. There are regular domestic flights to and from Athens, Thessaloniki and Rhodes with Aegean Airlines and Olympic Air. Also flying to and from Athens is Athens Airways, whereas Cyprus Airways and Aegean Airlines fly to Larnaca, Cyprus. Furthermore, Sky Express operates direct flights to Aegean islands such as Rhodes, Santorini, Samos, Kos, Mytilini and Ikaria. During the summer period, traffic is intense and the flight destinations are from all over Europe (mostly Germany, UK, Italy and Russia). The airfield is shared with the 126 Combat Group of the Hellenic Air Force. Take-offs in a westerly direction pass directly over the town of Heraklion, making it a very noisy city.

Highway Network

European route E75 runs through the city and connects Heraklion with the three other major cities of Crete: Agios Nikolaos, Chania, and Rethymno.

Public transit

There are a number of buses serving the city and connecting it to many major destinations in Crete.

Climate

Crete has a warm Mediterranean climate. Summers in the lowlands are hot and dry with clear skies. Dry hot days are often relieved by seasonal breezes. The mountain areas are much cooler, with considerable rain in the winter. Winters are mild in the lowlands with rare frost and snow. Because Heraklion is further south than Athens, it has a milder climate.

Climate data for Heraklion
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 14
(57)
14
(57)
16
(61)
19
(66)
22
(72)
26
(79)
28
(82)
27
(81)
26
(79)
23
(73)
18
(64)
16
(61)
21
(70)
Daily mean °C (°F) 11
(52)
12
(54)
13
(55)
16
(61)
18
(64)
22
(72)
25
(77)
25
(77)
22
(72)
20
(68)
16
(61)
13
(55)
18
(64)
Average low °C (°F) 8
(46)
8
(46)
10
(50)
12
(54)
15
(59)
18
(64)
22
(72)
21
(70)
19
(66)
16
(61)
13
(55)
10
(50)
15
(59)
Precipitation cm (inches) 9
(3.5)
6
(2.4)
4
(1.6)
2
(0.8)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
5
(2)
6
(2.4)
8
(3.1)
49
(19.3)
Source: Weatherbase[3]

Colleges and universities

Culture

Museums

Sports

The city hosts three football clubs:

Famous natives

Heraklion has been the home town of some of Greece's most significant spirits, including the novelist Nikos Kazantzakis, the poet and Nobel Prize winner Odysseas Elytis and the world-famous Greek painter Domenicos Theotokopoulos (El Greco).

Nicholas Kalliakis (1645-1707) Heraklion born Greek Scholar and philosopher.[4]

Literature

Scientists and Scholars

Painting

Film industry

Music

Sports

Business

Politics

Law

Clergy

Fashion

Local TV stations

International relations

Twin towns — sister cities

Heraklion is twinned with:

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ "Δείτε τη Διοικητική Διαίρεση" (in Greek). Hellenic Interior Ministry. www.ypes.gr. http://www.ypes.gr/UserFiles/f0ff9297-f516-40ff-a70e-eca84e2ec9b9/D_diairesi.xls. Retrieved 2009-09-09. 
  2. ^ The War for Candia
  3. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Heraklion". http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=45761&refer=&units=metric. 
  4. ^ Lathrop C. Harper (1886). Catalogue / Harper (Lathrop C.) inc., New York, Issue 232. Lathrop C. Harper, Inc. p. 36. OCLC 11558801. "Calliachius (1645-1707) was born on Crete and went to Italy at an early age, where he soon became one of the outstanding teachers of Greek and Latin." 
  5. ^ Rose, Hugh James; Rose, Henry John; Wright, Thomas (1857). A new general biographical dictionary, Volume 5. T. Fellowes. p. 425. OCLC 309809847. "CALLIACHI, (Nicholas,) a native of Candia, where he was born in 1645. He studied at Rome for ten years, at the end of which time he was made doctor of philosophy and theology. In 1666 he was invited to Venice, to take the chair of professor of the Greek and Latin languages, and of the Aristotelic philosophy; and in 1677 he was appointed professor of belles-lettres at Padua, where he died in 1707. His works on antiquities are valuable, and have been published by the marquis Poloni in the third volume of his Supplement to the Thesaurus Antiquitatum." 

External links


Simple English

File:Heraklion le
Heraclion's port

Heraclion is the biggest city of Crete. Its population is 132,000 inhabitants, according to the 2001 census. Heraclion is located in the north of Crete. Heraclion is near Knosos, the ancient capital of Crete and the center of Minoan civilization. Heraclion has a big harbor which it connects Heraclion with continental Greece.

Places of interest

File:Morozini Fountain
The Venetian fountain in the center of Heraclion

The most interest sight of Heraclion is the Venetian square with the fountain from marble. The Venetian rule, between in 13th and 16th century, has left many important monuments. The medieval fortification of the town is another important sight. The fortification had been constructed by Arabians, Byzantines and Venetians which they had passed from Heraclion in the past.


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message