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Herceg Novi
Херцег Нови

Coat of arms
Herceg Novi is located in Montenegro
Herceg Novi
Location of Herceg Novi in Montenegro
Coordinates: 42°27′10.62″N 18°31′52.33″E / 42.45295°N 18.5312028°E / 42.45295; 18.5312028Coordinates: 42°27′10.62″N 18°31′52.33″E / 42.45295°N 18.5312028°E / 42.45295; 18.5312028
Country  Montenegro
Founded 1382
Settlements 27
Government
 - Mayor Dejan Mandić (SNP)
 - Ruling party SNP - SL - PP
Area
 - Total 235 km2 (90.7 sq mi)
Population (2003 census)
 - Total 12,739
 Density 140/km2 (362.6/sq mi)
 - Municipality 33,034
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 85340
Area code +382 31
ISO 3166-2 code ME-08
Car plates HN
Website www.herceg-novi.me

Herceg Novi (Serbian: Херцег Нови; Italian: Castelnuovo; Greek: Νεοκαστρον, Neòkastron) is a coastal town in Montenegro located at the entrance to the Bay of Kotor and at the foot of Mount Orjen. It is the administrative center of the Herceg-Novi municipality with around 33,000 inhabitants. Herceg Novi was known as Castelnuovo ("New castle" in Italian) (1420 - 1797). Herceg Novi has had a turbulent past, despite being one of the youngest settlements on the Adriatic. A history of varied occupations has created a blend of diverse and picturesque architectural style in the city. The City Administration is formed by a coalition of the SNP, SNS, NS and DSS political parties.

Contents

History

Herceg Novi was founded as a fortress in 1382 by Bosnian King Stjepan Tvrtko I and was called Sveti Stefan or Castelnuovo. After the death of Tvrtko, Duke Sandalj Hranić of the Herzegovinian Kosačas acquired Castelnuovo. During his reign, Herceg Novi picked up trading salt. When Hranić died, his nephew, Herzog Stjepan Vukčić Kosača, inherited Castelnuovo. Under Stjepan, Castelnuovo expanded and thus became a city, renaming it to Herceg Novi. The Turks conquered Herceg Novi in 1482, and ruled for 200 years, until 1687. However, there was a short pause between 1538 and 1539 when it was overtaken by the Spaniards.

Venice gains control of the city and is organised into one administrative unit, Albania Veneta, along with the Bay of Kotor and present-day coastal Montenegro. On 24 August 1798, Herceg Novi is annexed by Austria but is then ceded to Russia as per the Treaty of Pressburg on 26 December 1805. The Russians officially occupied Herceg Novi between 28 February 1806 and 12 August 1807.

On 7 July 1807, Herceg Novi was ceded to France as per the Treaty of Tilsit. Official French rule over Herceg Novi began on 12 August 1807, when the Russians left the city. The city was part of Dalmatia until 14 October 1809, when it was annexed to the newly-created Illyrian Provinces.

Herceg Novi in 1837

Herceg Novi, as well as the rest of the Bay of Kotor, was overtaken by Montenegrin forces in 1813. It was under control of a temporary government based in Dobrota between 11 September 1813 and 10 June 1814, which was supported by Montenegro. The appearance of Austro-Hungarian forces in 1814 caused the Prince-Bishop of Montenegro to turn over the territory to Austrian administration on June 11.

After Herceg Novi was retaken, as well as the rest of the bay, it became part of the Dalmatian crownland. The bay was under Austro-Hungarian control until 1918.

The Kingdom of Montenegro attempted to retake the Bay of Kotor during World War I, it was bombarded from Lovćen, but by 1916 Austria-Hungary defeated Montenegro. On 7 November 1918, the Serbian Army entered the bay and were greeted by the people as liberators. The bay later became a part of the self-proclaimed State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, although expressed for a direct union with Serbia rather. Within a month, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was formed, renamed to Yugoslavia in 1929. The bay was a municipality of Dalmatia until it was, like all historic entities, abolished in 1922. It was incorporated into the Zeta Oblast, from 1929 Zeta Banate.

Herceg Novi was annexed by the Italians during World War II. It became a part of the province of Dalmatia. Herceg Novi was later retaken by Yugoslav Partisan forces on 10 September 1943. Herceg Novi was later officially annexed to Yugoslavia as part of the People's Republic of Montenegro.

Population

The Herceg Novi municipality stretches from Prevlaka to the Verige strait. An almost unbroken string of towns lie along this strip of coast, accommodating the municipality's 33,034 (2003 census) residents. These include Igalo, Herceg Novi, Baošići, Đenovići, Meljine and Bijela. Due to their proximity, Herceg Novi and Igalo are usually considered one town with a combined population of 16,493. Administratively, Herceg Novi's current population is 12,739.

Population of Herceg Novi town proper including Igalo:

  • November 1, 2003 - 16,493
  • March 3, 1991 - 15,105
  • March 3, 1981 - 12,686

Ethnic groups—Current

2003 census, total of 33,971:

Ethnic groups—Historic

1991 census, total of 27,589:

1981 census, total of 23,258:

1971 census, total of 18,368:

1961 census, total of 15,157:

1948 census:

Tourism

Old town gate at night
Beach Miriste

Herceg Novi is a major Montenegrin tourist destination. It is well known as a spa and health center; nearby Igalo has an abundance of healing sea mud called "igaljsko blato" (Igalo mud) and mineral water springs called "igaljske slatine" (Igalo water springs). The most famous tourist attractions in Herceg Novi are castle Forte Mare built by the Bosnian king Tvrtko I in 1382, a clock tower built by Austrians in 19th century, the Kanli tower built by Turks, and the Serbian church St. Michael Archangel in central Belavista Square.

Whilst the city itself is not a major destination for sunbathing, with no long sandy beaches along the rest of the Boka Kotorska bay, many beaches are reachable by boat. Tourist companies organise one-day boat trips to Luštica peninsula, which lies opposite to the town. Popular Luštica peninsula beach sites include Žanjic, Mirište and Rose. Herceg Novi accounted for one-third of overnight stays in Montenegro before the Yugoslav wars, but the situation has changed since in favour of Budva, Kotor and other resorts in the northern part of the coast. The biggest issue facing tourism in Herceg Novi is a constant shortage of tap water, which is imported from Croatia. The city's inability to pay for the water from Konavle results in frequent cut-offs of water and dry taps, especially during the peak of the summer season.

Culture

Churches Sv. Đorđe & Sv. Spas (left to right) in Topla
The Fortress of 'Stari Grad'

"JUK Herceg-Fest"

This cultural events center was established on February 24, 1992. Two years later the cultural center joined with the "Orijen" movie distribution and production company. Together they have played a crucial role in enhancing the city's cultural life. Among many annual festivities are the mimosa celebration, local theatrical events, and a film and music fest.

The Herceg Novi City Archive

In 1956 the Archive was returned to Herceg Novi after being temporarily relocated to Zadar, Croatia. The Archive was relocated to Zadar by Italians during the Second World War. The original archive building, built in 1885, suffered severe damage from the 1979 earthquake. Shortly afterward, the building was renovated. Today, the Archive is 700 m² in size. The Archive features modern equipment and a library open to the public. The oldest document in the Archive originated in 1685. The library contains approximately 30,000 volumes and 1,000 periodicals.

Historical Museum

The museum was established in 1949 and officially opened in 1953. The museum building, a gift to the city from the former mayor, Mirko Komnenović (1870-1941), and his wife Olga, is at least 150 years old.

City library

The library contains at least 30,000 volumes. Among the contributors to this collection are Dušan Petković (5,000 books), Veljka Radojević (1,500), Doklestić, Daljev, Lučić, Subotić and others.

Walkway in Herceg Novi

Transport

Herceg Novi is usually the final destination of buses that come from inland Montenegro and Serbia. The Adriatic Motorway, a two-lane motorway that extends for the length of the Montenegrin coast, goes through Herceg-Novi before it merges with the Croatian road network at the Debeli Brijeg border crossing.

The ferry operates on the Kamenari - Lepetane line at Verige Strait, eliminating the need to go all the way around Boka Kotorska bay in order to reach Tivat, Kotor, Budva and inland Montenegro.

Tivat Airport is 23 km (14 mi) away (via the ferry). There are regular flights to Belgrade and Zurich, and dozens of charter planes land daily on Tivat airport during the summer season. Dubrovnik Airport in Croatia is some 30 km (19 mi) away, and it maintains regular flights to many Europenan destinations.

Climate

The area of the Bay of Kotor is characterized by a Mediterranean climate with dry and hot summers and warm winters. Herceg Novi has a specific microclimate, which is a result of southern exposition, proximity to the sea, limestone substratum and mountainous hinterland which prevents the breakthrough of cold air masses.

Herceg Novi has approximately 200 sunny days a year. In July and August there are approximately 11 sunny hours per day. Average annual temperature is 16.2 °C (61.2 °F) (similar to that of Naples and Lisbon). There are frequent slight temperature oscillations; the average daily temperature fluctuation is only 4 °C (39 °F). Average temperature from May to September is about 25 °C (77 °F), which provides a swimming season over 5 months long since the average summer sea temperature is rather high, between 22 °C (72 °F) - 26 °C (79 °F).

The annual average precipitation is 1,930 millimetres (76 in). Relative air humidity is at its highest level, 80%, in the fall. Its lowest level, 63%, comes in the summer.

Gallery

International relations

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Twin towns — Sister cities

References

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Balkans : Montenegro : Herceg Novi

Herceg Novi[1], although not the most spectacular city in Montenegro (Kotor takes that prize), Herceg Novi is probably the most pleasant and warrants a several day visit. The city is particularly a good alternative to the very touristy Dubrovnik in Croatia. The cities have similar architecture but Herceg Novi not being as grand (nor as touristy and expensive). Herceg Novi translates to English as "New Castle".

Understand

A sizeable Bosnian (Serb) refugee population flooded into Herceg Novi during the war years. Many of the camps are still around although they have been turned into more permanent (and quite nice) settlements. You can still see them on the bus as you leave the city. Also if you go for a wander up into the hills you will come into whole new areas of construction resulting from the recent property boom. The Financial Times in 2007 listed Montenegro as one of world's 10 top property hotspots and foreign buyers have been snapping up properties on the coast.

Get in

Bus is the only form of public transport in/out of Herceg Novi, and the bus station (located in the centre of town) is busy the day long with buses heading (mostly) down the Adriatic coast. There is a regular bus service to Herceg Novi (and further to other Montenegrin cities) from main bus station in Dubrovnik, which runs several times a day.

If Herceg Novi is your main destination, a pleasant alternative to bus travel is hiring a Croat cab from Dubrovnik airport (Cilipi) for about 50 euros; this trip takes about 40 minutes, including border crossings.

There is NO rail or ferry access into the town.

  • Car rent in Montenegro, [2] . Airport shuttle service from Herceg Novi to Airports Tivat, Podgorica and Dubrovnik,

Get around

By foot

See

The Herceg Novi old town is amazing. It is located on a fairly steep hill that leads all the way down to the sea. Wandering through the small stairways to the various plazas and fortresses is a many hour adventure. There are both Orthodox and Catholic churches that are well worth visiting.

  • Swimming - The city has some great pebble beaches. There is a path that leads along the beach part of the city for about 3 miles. Follow it until you find a place that is suitable for you. Many small privately owned beaches have loungers, small boats, and other gear for hire.
  • Mud therapy - At the end of the promenade is a small spa town of Igalo, renowned across Europe for healing properties of its muddy, mildly radioactive sand. A health and hospital centre complex offers mud therapy combined with other treatments, but you can do it yourself by following the locals and wading through the sand. Apply the muddy sand all over your body, or on affected parts, and combine with gentle exercise and sunbathing for best effects. This is believed to be beneficial for rheumatic complaints, skin disorders, and gynecological problems.
  • People watching - Along the promenade, the main square in the Old Town, and almost everywhere else around town, there are about hundred small cafes with tables conveniently positioned for this popular local pastime. All serve good coffee (italian style) and many also offer a selection of freshly made and delicious cakes and ice creams.
  • Hiking - Going from the bus station up towards the hills you can find some wonderful ancient stone paths that lead up to some very rural communities. The paths are not marked and not very visible but if you wander along any road for a mile or so and keep an eye on the vegetation you should find one. Either way take a 3 or 4 mile walk up into the hills (whether you find the paths or not).
  • Mountaineering - Get in touch with Herceg Novi based mountaineering society "Subra" if you are serious about mountain sports in some of the most beautiful and unspoiled mountains in Europe: Check out their website on http://subra.users.cg.yu. This website also provides basic maps of some hiking routes in vicinity of Herceg Novi, and information about local mountain huts.

Buy

Italian-made clothes in Old Town and Igalo boutiques are reasonably priced up-to-minute fashions. Not great for local arts and crafts, which are available in Kotor and Budva. Go to local market just off the main square in the Old Town on Saturday morning to buy fresh fruit (sweet and cheap), olive oil, sheep and goats cheese, dried figs, locally made wine; note that this market sells seasonal and locally produced goods, so what you find depends on the time of your visit.

Eat

Go to small eateries around the promenade for fresh local food, grilled seafood and meat dishes, and international cuisine. If you order pizza, which is usually well-made. Follow the locals; Montenegrins are usually more picky than foreign tourists when it comes to eating out.

Drink

Herceg Novi is hot in summer, and it usually stays warm late into the evenings, so cold drinks are best sellers. Iced coffee is served in tall glasses with dolops of ice cream and "slag" (low-fat whipped cream) and qualifies as a full meal. Local beer made in Niksic is good; also try "spritzer" which is a refreshing mix of chilled white wine and carbonated mineral water.

Sleep

Accommodation is plentiful, look for signs that say 'soba.' You should be able to get a room for 10 EUR per person during the summer months.

  • City guide and listing of privat accommodation, [3] . Apartments by privat owners for rent in Herceg Novi and Igalo.
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