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Herman Eugene Talmadge


In office
January 3, 1957 – January 3, 1981
Preceded by Walter F. George
Succeeded by Mack F. Mattingly

In office
November 17, 1948 – January 11, 1955
Lieutenant Marvin Griffin
Preceded by Melvin E. Thompson
Succeeded by Marvin Griffin
In office
January 14 – March 18, 1947
Lieutenant Melvin E. Thompson
Preceded by Ellis Arnall
Succeeded by Melvin E. Thompson

In office
January 1971 – January 3, 1981
Preceded by Allen Ellender
Succeeded by Jesse Helms

Born August 9, 1913(1913-08-09)
McRae, Georgia
Died March 21, 2002 (aged 88)
Hampton, Georgia
Nationality American
Political party Democratic
Alma mater University of Georgia
Military service
Service/branch United States Navy
Years of service 1941-1945
Rank Lieutenant Commander
Battles/wars World War II

Herman Eugene Talmadge (August 9, 1913 – March 21, 2002) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Georgia. He served as governor of Georgia briefly in 1947 and again from 1948 to 1955. His term was marked by his segregationist policies. After leaving office Talmadge was elected to the U.S. Senate, serving from 1957 until 1981.

Talmadge was born in McRae, Georgia, the only son of Eugene Talmadge, who served as Governor of Georgia during much of the 1930s and '40s. He earned a law degree from the University of Georgia in 1936, where he had been a member of the Demosthenian Literary Society and Sigma Nu fraternity.

The younger Talmadge saw combat in the United States Navy during World War II. On his return from the South Pacific as a lieutenant commander, Herman ran his father's successful campaign for governor in 1946. Supporters of Eugene Talmadge were unsure of Eugene's chances of surviving until he was sworn in, so they did some research into the state constitution and found that if Eugene died, the Georgia General Assembly would choose between the second and third place finishers. The elder Talmadge ran unopposed, so they arranged for write-in votes for Herman as insurance. In December 1946, the elder Talmadge died.

Supporters of the deceased Governor-elect, stopped a challenge from the Lieutenant Governor-elect, Melvin E. Thompson. Thompson claimed that he should be sworn-in as Governor, in Eugene Talmadge's place. The state legislature elected Herman Talmadge to become Governor. Thompson appealed to the State supreme court. Meanwhile, Governor Ellis Arnall refused to turn over power due to the uncertainty of whom the next Governor would be, so on January 15, 1947, both men sat in the Georgia State Capitol claiming to be the Governor. The next day, Talmadge took control of the Governor's office and arranged to have the locks changed. Arnall soon relinquished his claim and supported Thompson's claim.

Soon afterwards, the Supreme Court of Georgia ruled that the legislature had violated the state Constitution by electing Talmadge governor and that Thompson was the legitimate Governor of Georgia. Talmadge soon gave in to the court decision and prepared for the special election in 1948, in which Talmadge defeated Governor Thompson. Talmadge was then elected to a full term in 1950. During his terms, Talmadge encouraged industry to move into Georgia while he was also a staunch supporter of racial segregation.

Talmadge was barred by law from seeking another full term as Governor in 1954. He was elected to the United States Senate in 1956. That same year, a "faithless elector" from Alabama cast a single Electoral College vote for Talmadge as Vice President of the United States. During his time as U.S. Senator, Talmadge remained a foe of civil rights legislation as a Senator, sponsored bills to help farmers, an important constituency, and served on the Senate Watergate Committee.

On October 11, 1979, Talmadge was "denounced" by an 81-15 vote of the Senate for "improper financial conduct" between 1973 and 1978, after accepting reimbursements of $43,435.83 for official expenses not incurred, and for improper reporting of such as campaign expenditures.[1]

Talmadge also went through a divorce and a tough primary challenge from Zell Miller in 1980. Talmadge defeated Miller but lost to Mack Mattingly in the general election, making Mattingly the first Republican to represent Georgia in the Senate since Reconstruction.

After his defeat, Talmadge retired to his home where he died at age 88. Talmadge fathered two sons, Herman E. Talmadge Jr. and Robert Shingler Talmadge.

In 2004, Herman Talmadge's grandson Herman Talmadge III ran for county commission chairman in Georgia's Henry County. He ran as a Republican but lost in the party's primary. As local media noted, the family that had once been the state's most powerful, and synonymous with the Georgia Democratic Party, had changed beyond recognition from its heyday.

External links

References

  1. ^ "Expulsion and Censure". United States Senate. http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/briefing/Expulsion_Censure.htm. Retrieved May 31, 2006.  
Political offices
Preceded by
Ellis Arnall
Governor of Georgia
1947
Succeeded by
Melvin E. Thompson
Preceded by
Melvin E. Thompson
Governor of Georgia
1948–1955
Succeeded by
Marvin Griffin
Preceded by
Allen J. Ellender
Louisiana
Chairman of Senate Agriculture Committee
1971–1981
Succeeded by
Jesse Helms
North Carolina
United States Senate
Preceded by
Walter F. George
United States Senator (Class 3) from Georgia
1957–1981
Served alongside: Richard B. Russell, Jr., David H. Gambrell, Sam Nunn
Succeeded by
Mack Mattingly

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