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Heroin
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(5α,6α)-7,8-didehydro- 4,5-epoxy- 17-methylmorphinan- 3,6-diol diacetate
Identifiers
CAS number 561-27-3
ATC code N02AA09
PubChem 5462328
ChemSpider 4575379
Chemical data
Formula C21H23NO5 
Mol. mass 369.41 g/mol
Synonyms Diamorphine, Diacetylmorphine, Acetomorphine, (Dual) Acetylated morphine, Morphine diacetate
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability <35% (oral), 44–61% (inhaled)[1]
Protein binding 0% (morphine metabolite 35%)
Metabolism hepatic
Half life <10 minutes [1]
Excretion 90% renal as glucuronides, rest biliary
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. Category X
Legal status .Prohibited (S9) (AU) Schedule I (CA) ?^ Prohibited (S9) ( AU ) Schedule I ( CA ) Class A ( UK ) Schedule I ( US ) .
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(UK) Schedule I (US)
Dependence Liability Extremely High
Routes Inhalation, Transmucosal, Intravenous, Oral, Intranasal, Rectal, Intramuscular
 Yes check.svgY(what is this?)  (verify)
.Heroin, or diacetylmorphine (INN), also known as diamorphine (BAN), is a semi-synthetic opioid drug synthesized from morphine, a derivative of the opium poppy.^ Heroin hydrochloride (-)-Morphine D-(-)-Morphine Diacetylmorphine hydrochloride Diamorphine hydrochloride Heroin hydrochloride Heroine hydrochloride Morphin Morphina morphine Morphine Sulfate Morphinum O,O'-Diacetylmorphine hydrochloride .
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^ Heroin is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from morphine, a derivative of the opium poppy.
  • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Heroin , or diacetylmorphine ( INN ), also known as diamorphine ( BAN ), is a semi-synthetic opioid drug synthesized from morphine , a derivative of the opium poppy .
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.It is the 3,6-diacetyl ester of morphine (di (two)-acetyl-morphine).^ It is the 3,6- diacetyl ester of morphine ( di (two)- acetyl - morphine ).
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^ Instead the experiment produced an acetylated form of morphine one and a half to two times more potent than morphine itself.
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^ Heroin, also known as diacetyl morphine is produced from acetylation of morphine derived from natural opium sources.
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.The white crystalline form is commonly the hydrochloride salt diacetylmorphine hydrochloride, though often adulterated thus dulling the sheen and consistency from that to a matte white powder, which heroin freebase typically is.^ The white crystalline form is commonly the hydrochloride salt diacetylmorphine hydrochloride , however heroin freebase may also appear as a white powder.
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^ The white crystalline form is commonly the hydrochloride salt diacetylmorphine hydrochloride.
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^ Heroin hydrochloride (-)-Morphine D-(-)-Morphine Diacetylmorphine hydrochloride Diamorphine hydrochloride Heroin hydrochloride Heroine hydrochloride Morphin Morphina morphine Morphine Sulfate Morphinum O,O'-Diacetylmorphine hydrochloride .
  • T3DB - Toxin, Toxin-Target Database 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC 129.128.185.121 [Source type: Academic]

[2]
.As with other opioids, heroin is used as both a pain-killer and a recreational drug and has an extremely high potential for abuse.^ As with other opiates, heroin is used both as a pain-killer and a recreational drug.
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^ For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation) .
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^ As with other opioids , heroin is used as both a pain-killer and a recreational drug and has an extremely high potential for abuse.
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.Frequent and regular administration is associated with tolerance, moderate physical dependence, and severe psychological dependence.^ Frequent and regular administration is associated with tolerance , moderate physical dependence , and severe psychological dependence which develops into addiction .
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^ Analgesia Tolerance Addiction (Physical Dependence) Main long-term effects of usage.
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.Internationally, heroin is controlled under Schedules I and IV of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.^ Internationally, heroin is controlled under Schedules I and IV of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.

^ Currently, heroin falls under Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act.

^ In Canada, heroin is a controlled substance under Schedule I of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA).
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[3] .It is illegal to manufacture, possess, or sell diacetylmorphine without a license in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Iran, India, the Netherlands, the United States, Australia, Canada, Ireland, Pakistan, the United Kingdom and Swaziland.^ It is illegal to manufacture, possess, or sell diacetylmorphine without a licence in Belgium , Denmark , Germany , Iran , India , the Netherlands , the United States , Australia , Canada , Ireland , Pakistan , the United Kingdom and Swaziland .
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^ Possession of heroin without a license from the Department of Health is illegal with a $1,000,000 (HKD) fine and/or 7 years of jail time.
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^ It is available for prescription to long-term addicts in the Netherlands , the United Kingdom , Switzerland , Germany and Denmark .
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Under the name diamorphine, it is a legally prescribed controlled drug in the United Kingdom. .It is available for prescription to long-term users in the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Germany and Denmark alongside psycho-social care,[4][5] and a similar program is being campaigned for by liberal political parties in Norway.^ It is available for prescription to long-term addicts in the Netherlands , the United Kingdom , Switzerland , Germany and Denmark .
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^ It is illegal to manufacture, possess, or sell diacetylmorphine without a licence in Belgium , Denmark , Germany , Iran , India , the Netherlands , the United States , Australia , Canada , Ireland , Pakistan , the United Kingdom and Swaziland .
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^ Heroin is exclusively available for prescription to long-term heroin addicts, and cannot be used to treat severe pain or other illnesses.
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Contents

Etymology

.The German drug company Bayer named its new over the counter drug "Heroin" in 1895.[6] The name was derived from the German word "heroisch" (heroic) due to its perceived "heroic" effects upon a user.^ They started using heroin and cocaine in Germany, where they were working for a relative, selling the two drugs to German "Fixer".
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^ When chasing, the user puts some heroin powder on an oblong piece of aluminum foil and heats the powder drug from underneath.
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^ Use of drugs, and heroin especially, fits well in that mindset, as heroin provides the user with a chemical sense of security, well-being and belonging.
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[6] .However it was chiefly developed as a morphine substitute for cough suppressants that did not have morphine's addictive side-effects; morphine at the time was a popular recreational drug so Bayer wanted to find a similar but non-addictive substitute to market.^ From 1898 through to 1910 diacetylmorphine was marketed under the name heroin as a non-addictive morphine substitute and cough suppressant.
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^ It was also developed as a non-addictive morphine substitute that did not have its negative side-effects.
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^ Diacetylmorphine is used as a recreational drug for the profound relaxation and intense euphoria it produces, although the latter effect diminishes with increased tolerance .
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[7] .However, contrary to Bayer's advertising as a "non-addictive morphine substitute," heroin would soon have one of the highest rates of dependence amongst its users.^ Old advertisement for Bayer Heroin.
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^ Contrary to Bayer's advertising as a non-addictive morphine substitute, its new drug, "Heroin", would cause an addiction worse than any drug ever previously known.
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^ The film Trainspotting , based on the book of the same name, revolves around a group of heroin users and the attempts of one of the group's efforts to quit.
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[8]

History

Old advertisement for Bayer Heroin.
Bayer Heroin bottle.
.The opium poppy was cultivated in lower Mesopotamia as long ago as 3400 BCE.[9] The chemical analysis of opium in the 19th century revealed that most of its activity could be ascribed to two alkaloids, codeine and morphine.^ The opium poppy was cultivated in lower Mesopotamia as long ago as 3400 BC. [ 7 ] The chemical analysis of opium in the 19th century revealed that most of its activity could be ascribed to two alkaloids , codeine and morphine .
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^ The cultivation of opium in Afghanistan reached its peak in 1999, when 225,000 acres—350 square miles—of poppies were sown.
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^ Heroin is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from morphine, a derivative of the opium poppy.
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Diacetylmorphine was first synthesized in 1874 by C. R. Alder Wright, an English chemist working at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School in London. .He had been experimenting with combining morphine with various acids.^ He had been experimenting with combining morphine with various acids.
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^ This experiment demonstrated that the cumulative pain score was reduced in animals treated with morphine in combination with an NGF antagonist, anti-NGF antibody 911, compared with treatment with morphine alone or anti-NGF antibody alone.
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^ CONSTITUENTS— Morphine, Codeine, Thebaine, Pseudo-Morphine, Narcine, Narcotine, Papaverine and twelve other alkaloids combined with Narceinic acid.
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.He boiled anhydrous morphine alkaloid with acetic anhydride for several hours and produced a more potent, acetylated form of morphine, now called diacetylmorphine.^ He boiled anhydrous morphine alkaloid with acetic anhydride for several hours and produced a more potent, acetylated form of morphine, now called diacetylmorphine .
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^ Any intravenous opioid will induce rapid, profound effects, but diacetylmorphine produces more euphoria than other opioids upon injection.
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^ Morphine and diacetylmorphine were also much more likely to produce euphoria and other positive subjective effects when compared to these other opioids.
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.The compound was sent to F. M. Pierce of Owens College in Manchester for analysis.^ The compound was sent to F. M. Pierce of Owens College in Manchester for analysis.
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Pierce told Wright:
Doses ... were subcutaneously injected into young dogs and rabbits ... with the following general results ... great prostration, fear, and sleepiness speedily following the administration, the eyes being sensitive, and pupils constrict, considerable salivation being produced in dogs, and slight tendency to vomiting in some cases, but no actual emesis. .Respiration was at first quickened, but subsequently reduced, and the heart's action was diminished, and rendered irregular.^ Respiration was at first quickened, but subsequently reduced, and the heart's action was diminished, and rendered irregular.
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  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Stimulants like cocaine increase heart rate and blood pressure, whereas opioids like heroin may slow the heart rate and reduce respiration.
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Marked want of coordinating power over the muscular movements, and loss of power in the pelvis and hind limbs, together with a diminution of temperature in the rectum of about 4°
.[10]
Wright's invention did not lead to any further developments, and diacetylmorphine only became popular after it was independently re-synthesized 23 years later by another chemist, Felix Hoffmann. .Hoffmann, working at the Aktiengesellschaft Farbenfabriken (today the Bayer pharmaceutical company) in Elberfeld, Germany, was instructed by his supervisor Heinrich Dreser to acetylate morphine with the objective of producing codeine, a constituent of the opium poppy, pharmacologically similar to morphine but less potent and less addictive.^ Heroin is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from morphine, a derivative of the opium poppy.
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^ The harvested opium is processed into morphine and other opiates for the pharmaceutical industry by "Alkaloid," a pharmaceutical company in Skopje.
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.Instead the experiment produced an acetylated form of morphine one and a half to two times more potent than morphine itself.^ Other forms of humanized antibodies have one or more CDRs (one, two, three, four, five, six) which are altered with respect to the original antibody.
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^ In other embodiments, the anti-NGF antibody comprises one or more CDR(s) of antibody E3 (such as one, two, three, four, five, or, in some embodiments, all six CDRs from E3).
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^ Threatening could come in several forms, one is surely the armed form, but is well known that the economic form can be even more effective, and actually is the reason that is behind any war.
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From 1898 through to 1910 diacetylmorphine was marketed under the name heroin as a non-addictive morphine substitute and cough suppressant. .Bayer marketed heroin as a cure for morphine addiction before it was discovered that it rapidly metabolizes into morphine.^ When taken orally, heroin undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism via deacetylation, making it a prodrug for the systemic delivery of morphine.
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As such, heroin is essentially a quicker acting form of morphine. .The company was embarrassed by the new finding, which became a historic blunder for Bayer.^ The company was embarrassed by the new finding, which became a historic blunder for Bayer.
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[11]
.In the U.S.A. the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act was passed in 1914 to control the sale and distribution of "heroin" and other opioids, which allowed the drug to be prescribed and sold for medical purposes.^ In the U.S.A. the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act was passed in 1914 to control the sale and distribution of "heroin" and other opioids, which allowed the drug to be prescribed and sold for medical purposes.
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^ While other opioids of abuse, such as codeine, produce only morphine, heroin also leaves 6-MAM, also a psycho- active metabolite .
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^ As with other opiates, heroin is used both as a pain-killer and a recreational drug.
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.In 1924 the United States Congress banned its sale, importation or manufacture.^ In 1924 the United States Congress banned its sale, importation or manufacture.
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.It is now a Schedule I substance, which makes it illegal for non-medical use in signatory nations of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs treaty, including the United States.^ It is now a Schedule I substance , which makes it illegal for non-medical use in signatory nations of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs treaty, including the United States.
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^ Internationally, heroin is controlled under Schedules I and IV of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs .
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^ In the United States, heroin is a schedule I drug according to the Controlled Substances Act of 1970, making it illegal to possess without a DEA license.
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.Later, as with Aspirin, Bayer lost some of its trademark rights to "heroin" under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles following the German defeat in World War I.^ Later, as with Aspirin , Bayer lost some of its trademark rights to "heroin" under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles following the German defeat in World War I .
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^ After World War II, the Mafia took advantage of the weakness of the postwar Italian government and set up heroin labs in Sicily.
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^ Heroin trafficking was virtually eliminated in the U.S. during World War II due to temporary trade disruptions caused by the war.
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[12]

Pharmacology

.When taken orally, diacetylmorphine undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism via deacetylation, making it a prodrug for the systemic delivery of morphine.^ When taken orally, heroin undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism via deacetylation, making it a prodrug for the systemic delivery of morphine.
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^ When taken orally, diacetylmorphine undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism via deacetylation , making it a prodrug for the systemic delivery of morphine.
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^ Orally, since diacetylmorphine is completely metabolized in vivo to morphine before crossing the blood-brain barrier the effects are the same as with oral morphine.
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[13] .When the drug is injected, however, it avoids this first-pass effect, very rapidly crossing the blood-brain barrier due to the presence of the acetyl groups, which render it much more lipid-soluble than morphine itself.^ Heroin crosses through the blood brain barrier 100 times faster than morphine since it is highly soluble in lipids.
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^ When the drug is injected, however, it avoids this first-pass effect, very rapidly crossing the blood-brain barrier due to the presence of the acetyl groups, which render it much more lipid-soluble than morphine itself.
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  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ S oon after injection (or inhalation), heroin crosses the blood-brain barrier.

[14] .Once in the brain, it then is deacetylated into 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and morphine which bind to μ-opioid receptors, resulting in the drug's euphoric, analgesic (pain relief), and anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) effects; diacetylmorphine itself exhibits relatively low affinity for the μ receptor.^ In other embodiments, the opioid analgesic is morphine.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Morphine also binds to δ - and κ -opioid receptors.
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^ Once in the brain, it then is deacetylated into 6- monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and morphine which bind to μ-opioid receptors , resulting in the drug's euphoric, analgesic (pain relief), and anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) effects; diacetylmorphine itself exhibits relatively low affinity for the μ receptor.
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[15] .Unlike hydromorphone and oxymorphone, however, administered intravenously, diacetylmorphine creates a larger histamine release, similar to morphine, resulting in the feeling of a greater subjective "body high" to some, but also instances of pruritus (itching) when they first start using.^ Histamine release by morphine and diamorphine in man.
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^ Unlike hydromorphone and oxymorphone, however, administered intravenously, diacetylmorphine creates a larger histamine release, similar to morphine, resulting in the feeling of a greater subjective "body high" to some, but also instances of pruritus (itching) when they first start using.
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^ However, this perception is not supported by the results of clinical studies comparing the physiological and subjective effects of injected diacetylmorphine and morphine in individuals formerly addicted to opioids; these subjects showed no preference for one drug over the other.
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[16]
.Both morphine and 6-MAM are μ-opioid agonists which bind to receptors present throughout the brain, spinal cord and gut of all mammals.^ Both morphine and 6-MAM are μ-opioid agonists which bind to receptors present throughout the brain , spinal cord and gut of all mammals .
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^ Morphine also binds to δ - and κ -opioid receptors.
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^ Once in the brain, it then is deacetylated into 6- monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and morphine which bind to μ-opioid receptors , resulting in the drug's euphoric, analgesic (pain relief), and anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) effects; diacetylmorphine itself exhibits relatively low affinity for the μ receptor.
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.The μ-opioid receptor also binds endogenous opioid peptides such as β-endorphin, Leu-enkephalin, and Met-enkephalin.^ The μ-opioid receptor also binds endogenous opioid peptides such as β-endorphin , Leu-enkephalin , and Met-enkephalin .
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^ Morphine also binds to δ - and κ -opioid receptors.
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^ In some embodiments, an NGF antagonist (e.g., an antibody) binds (physically interacts with) NGF, binds to an NGF receptor (such as TrkA and/or p75 receptor), and/or reduces (impedes and/or blocks) downstream NGF receptor signaling.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Repeated use of diacetylmorphine results in a number of physiological changes, including decreases in the number of μ-opioid receptors.^ Repeated use of diacetylmorphine results in a number of physiological changes, including decreases in the number of μ-opioid receptors.
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^ These physiological alterations lead to tolerance and dependence, so that cessation of diacetylmorphine use results in a set of extremely uncomfortable symptoms including pain, anxiety, muscle spasms, and insomnia called the opioid withdrawal syndrome.
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^ The methods and compositions of the present invention are useful for the treatment of pain of any etiology, including acute and chronic pain, any pain with an inflammatory component, and any pain in which an opioid analgesic is usually prescribed.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.January 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] These physiological alterations lead to tolerance and dependence, so that cessation of diacetylmorphine use results in a set of extremely uncomfortable symptoms including pain, anxiety, muscle spasms, and insomnia called the opioid withdrawal syndrome.^ These physiological alterations lead to tolerance and dependence, so that cessation of diacetylmorphine use results in a set of extremely uncomfortable symptoms including pain, anxiety, muscle spasms, and insomnia called the opioid withdrawal syndrome.
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^ Repeated use of diacetylmorphine results in a number of physiological changes, including decreases in the number of μ-opioid receptors.
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^ Once in the brain, it then is deacetylated into 6- monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and morphine which bind to μ-opioid receptors , resulting in the drug's euphoric, analgesic (pain relief), and anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) effects; diacetylmorphine itself exhibits relatively low affinity for the μ receptor.
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.Depending on usage it has an onset 4 to 24 hours after the last dose of diacetylmorphine.^ A further 1.0 mg/kg of morphine was delivered at 26 hours post surgery and resting pain again assessed starting thirty minutes after this last morphine dose.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Morphine also binds to δ- and κ-opioid receptors.^ Morphine also binds to δ - and κ -opioid receptors.
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^ There is also evidence that 6-MAM binds to a subtype of μ-opioid receptors which are also activated by the morphine metabolite morphine-6β-glucuronide but not morphine itself.
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^ The μ-opioid receptor also binds endogenous opioid peptides such as β-endorphin , Leu-enkephalin , and Met-enkephalin .
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.There is also evidence that 6-MAM binds to a subtype of μ-opioid receptors which are also activated by the morphine metabolite morphine-6β-glucuronide but not morphine itself.^ While in the brain, heroin converts to morphine and binds rapidly to opioid receptors.

^ In the brain, heroin is converted to morphine and binds rapidly to opioid receptors.
  • Effects of Heroin | Heroin Addiction | Heroin Rehabilitation Programs by Drug Rehab Experts 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ There is also evidence that 6-MAM binds to a subtype of μ-opioid receptors which are also activated by the morphine metabolite morphine-6β-glucuronide but not morphine itself.
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .The contribution of these receptors to the overall pharmacology of heroin remains unknown.^ The contribution of these receptors to the overall pharmacology of heroin remains unknown.
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^ These two medications block the effects of heroin, as well as the other opioids at the receptor site.

^ To attribute the cause of these deaths to 'heroin overdose' ignores the likely causal contribution of other drugs to the mechanism of death.
  • Fatal Heroin 'Overdose': A Review 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

.A subclass of morphine derivatives, namely the 3,6 esters of morphine, with similar effects and uses includes the clinically-used strong analgesics nicomorphine (Vilan), and dipropanoylmorphine; there is also the latter's dihydromorphine analogue, diacetyldihydromorphine (Paralaudin).^ A subclass of morphine derivatives, namely the 3,6 esters of morphine, with similar effects and uses includes the clinically-used strong analgesics nicomorphine (Vilan), and dipropanoylmorphine ; there is also the latter's dihydromorphine analogue, diacetyldihydromorphine (Paralaudin).
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^ The latter can include offering a place to somebody to use drugs and providing sterile syringes, although the latter is not enforced.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diacetylmorphine is used as a recreational drug for the profound relaxation and intense euphoria it produces, although the latter effect diminishes with increased tolerance .
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Usage and effects

.Worldwide, the UN estimates there are more than 50 million regular users of heroin, cocaine and synthetic drugs.^ Since 1990, the amount of heroin seized by the police more than tripled.
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^ They started using heroin and cocaine in Germany, where they were working for a relative, selling the two drugs to German "Fixer".
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^ When chasing, the user puts some heroin powder on an oblong piece of aluminum foil and heats the powder drug from underneath.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] Global users of heroin are estimated at between 15.16 million and 21.13 million people aged 15–64.[19]

Medical use

.Under the name diamorphine, heroin is prescribed as a strong analgesic in the United Kingdom, where it is given via subcutaneous, intramuscular, intrathecal or intravenous route.^ Accordingly, in some embodiments, the NGF antagonist, such as an anti-NGF antibody, is administered to a individual in accordance with known methods, such as intravenous administration, e.g., as a bolus or by continuous infusion over a period of time, by intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intracerebrospinal, subcutaneous, intra-articular, intrasynovial, intrathecal, oral, inhalation or topical routes.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They may inject the drug --under the skin (subcutaneously), in a muscle (intramuscularly), or in the vein (intravenously).
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.Its use includes treatment for acute pain, such as in severe physical trauma, myocardial infarction, post-surgical pain, and chronic pain, including end-stage cancer and other terminal illnesses.^ In other embodiments, the post-surgical pain comprises resting pain.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As used herein, post-surgical pain does not include pain that occurs (arises or originates) without an external physical trauma.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The second category includes morphine and related opioids which are used to treat moderate to severe pain but whose therapeutic use is limited because of undesirable effects such as constipation, sedation, confusion, respiratory depression, mental clouding, renal colic, tolerance to prolonged use and risk of addiction.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.In other countries it is more common to use morphine or other strong opioids in these situations.^ In other embodiments, the opioid analgesic is morphine.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The NGF antagonist and opioid analgesic, and compositions thereof can also be used in conjunction with other agents that serve to enhance and/or complement the effectiveness of the agents.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These experiments demonstrate that treatment with anti-NGF antibody plus morphine is more effective in reducing resting pain than morphine alone or treatment with antibody alone.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 2005, there was a shortage of diamorphine in the UK, due to a problem at the main UK manufacturers.^ In 2005, there was a shortage of diamorphine in the UK, due to a problem at the main UK manufacturers.
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^ In 2005, there was a shortage of diamorphine in the UK, due to a problem at the main UK manufacturers [ 20 ] .
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there is no longer a problem with its manufacture, many hospitals have continued to use morphine.
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[20] .Due to this, many hospitals changed to using morphine instead of diamorphine.^ Due to this, many hospitals changed to using morphine instead of diamorphine.
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^ The medical use of diamorphine (in common with other strong opioids such as morphine , fentanyl and oxycodone ) is controlled in the United Kingdom by the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 .
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^ Many times patients in UK hospitals are treated with diamorphine daily for many weeks following painful surgery without experiencing any withdrawal upon discontinuation of the drug.

.Although there is no longer a problem with the manufacturing of heroin in the UK, many hospitals there have continued to use morphine.^ The editor of the station explained that they have a close tie with their, largely adolescent, audience and see the problems brought about by heroin use at close range.
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^ Heroin use may than be initiated as a response to the stress of dealing or simply because many friends and relatives are also using the drug.
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^ There is no inflection point in the spectra of morphine HI, whereas other morphine salts show this characteristic in the region 230-240 m ?.
  • UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - 1954 Issue 3 - 005 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC css.unodc.org [Source type: Academic]

.Diamorphine continues to be widely used in palliative care in the United Kingdom, where it is commonly given by the subcutaneous route, often via a syringe driver, if patients could not easily swallow oral morphine solution.^ When IDUs share drugs, they often share the liquefied drug and use syringes to measure out doses.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of all of the opioid analgesics, morphine is the most widely used.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Distilled water was used to prepare a solution of morphine-N-oxide.
  • UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - 1954 Issue 3 - 005 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC css.unodc.org [Source type: Academic]

.The advantage of diamorphine over morphine is that diamorphine is more soluble and smaller volumes of diamorphine are needed for the same analgesic effect.^ The advantage of diamorphine over morphine is that diamorphine is more soluble and smaller volumes of diamorphine are needed for the same analgesic effect.
  • Heroin Addiction help line 1-877-354-5031 toll free 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The advantage of diamorphine over morphine is that diamorphine is more soluble, and smaller volumes of diamorphine are needed for the same analgesic effect.
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taken orally, heroin is completely metabolized in vivo into morphine before crossing the blood-brain barrier; so the effects are the same as oral morphine.
  • Heroin Addiction-Addiction-Dependence-Withdrawal-Tolerance-Effects-Heroin-Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.heroinaddiction2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both of these factors are advantageous if giving high doses of opioids via the subcutaneous route, which is often necessary in palliative care.^ The NGF antagonist and/or opioid analgesic can be administered to an individual via any suitable route.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An effective amount of an NGF antagonist also encompasses an amount of an NGF antagonist sufficient to enhance opioid treatment (therapeutic effect) of pain, as described herein, or to reduce the dose of opioid necessary for treatment or prevention of pain, as described herein.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is understood that the NGF antagonist and the opioid analgesic can be administered using the same route of administration or different routes of administration, and that different dosing regimens may change over the course of administration(s).
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.The medical use of diamorphine (in common with other strong opioids such as morphine, fentanyl and oxycodone) is controlled in the United Kingdom by the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971.^ We expect that the use of other drugs will also increase.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other embodiments, the opioid analgesic is morphine.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Such therapy generally allows a reduced dosage of opioid analgesic to effect the same amount of pain reduction and/or other forms of enhancement of opioid pain treatment.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

In the UK, it is a class A controlled drug. Registers of its use are required to be kept in hospitals.
.Heroin is also used as a maintenance drug in the treatment of heroin addicts.^ As with other opiates, heroin is used both as a pain-killer and a recreational drug.
  • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Adding PCP, heroin, or another drug to marijuana; Using inhalants .

.Though this is somewhat controversial among proponents of a zero tolerance drug policy it has proven superior to methadone in improving the social and health situation of addicts.^ We recommend to develop a drug policy based on the following Public Health objectives: 1.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dutch law enforcement does play an important role in managing the drug problem, but it is subservient to, and coordinated with, public health policy.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Drug addicted patients are often mixed with alcoholics and other psychiatric patients --an undesirable situation for all parties.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] See: Heroin prescription for addicts

Recreational use

One stamp of heroin
Chunky "No.3" heroin
.Diacetylmorphine is used as a recreational drug for the transcendent relaxation and intense euphoria it induces.^ When the drugs were bought, they would go to the apartment of one of the group members to use and relax, or sometimes, when an apartment was not available, they would use in an elevator or in a car.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As with other opiates, heroin is used both as a pain-killer and a recreational drug.
  • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cocaine use may also grow, both among recreational users --who will primarily be snorting the drug-- and among the current heroin users --who can be expected to use this drug as they use heroin, i.e.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Anthropologist Michael Agar once described heroin as "the perfect whatever drug."[22] .Tolerance quickly develops, and users need more of the drug to achieve the same effects.^ Drug treatment, drug education, and HIV prevention services aimed at drug users have either not been developed or are in their infancy.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the same period the number of drug users known to the authorities increased greatly and a growing number of people applied for help with a drug problem, the drug being heroin.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is therefore a need to develop treatment methods using lower doses of opioid analgesics such as morphine, thereby reducing the incidence of side effects and the likelihood of tolerance and dependence, and thus avoiding the major problem of drug withdrawal associated with ceasing administration.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Its popularity with recreational drug users, compared to morphine, reportedly stems from its perceived different effects.^ It is believed that heroin's popularity with recreational users, compared to morphine or other opiates, comes from its somewhat different perceived effects.
  • Heroin Addiction-Addiction-Dependence-Withdrawal-Tolerance-Effects-Heroin-Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.heroinaddiction2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its popularity with recreational drug users, compared to morphine , reportedly stems from its perceived different effects.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is thought that heroin's popularity with recreational users, compared to morphine or other opiates, comes from its somewhat different perceived effects.

[23] In particular, users report an intense rush that occurs while the diacetylmorphine is being metabolized into 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and morphine in the brain. .Diacetylmorphine produces more euphoria than other opioids upon injection.^ Other exemplary compositions comprise more than one anti-NGF antibody that recognizes the same epitope(s), different species of anti-NGF antibodies that bind to different epitopes of NGF, or different NGF inhibitory compounds.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A 32 year old Macedonian IDU knew "more than 60" other users.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some embodiments, more than one opioid analgesic may be present.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

One possible explanation is the presence of 6-monoacetylmorphine, a metabolite unique to diacetylmorphine. .While other opioids of recreational use, such as codeine, produce only morphine, heroin also leaves 6-MAM, also a psycho-active metabolite.^ In other embodiments, the opioid analgesic is morphine.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Virtually all morphine is converted to glucuronide metabolites; only a small fraction (less than 5%) of absorbed morphine is demethylated.
  • T3DB - Toxin, Toxin-Target Database 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC 129.128.185.121 [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, I can consider only the NAP to be a “moral” philosophy, since it says that force used in any other way than in response to aggression is aggression itself.
  • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, this perception is not supported by the results of clinical studies comparing the physiological and subjective effects of injected diacetylmorphine and morphine in individuals formerly addicted to opioids; these subjects showed no preference for one drug over the other.^ However, the early 1990s have shown a considerable spillover from these shipments into local distribution channels, resulting in the abundant availability of high quality heroin.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These results demonstrated that the cumulative pain score was reduced in animals treated with morphine in combination with an anti-NGF antibody, as compared with treatment with anti-NGF antibody alone or morphine alone.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ivan Tulevski, head of the out-patient drug treatment clinic (see Monday, March 13) and one of our hosts.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Equipotent injected doses had comparable action courses, with no difference in subjects' self-rated feelings of euphoria, ambition, nervousness, relaxation, drowsiness, or sleepiness.^ No animal was given more than two different morphine doses, the doses were at least two hours apart, and the higher dose was always given second.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is understood that the NGF antagonist and the opioid analgesic can be administered using the same route of administration or different routes of administration, and that different dosing regimens may change over the course of administration(s).
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

[24] .Short-term addiction studies by the same researchers demonstrated that tolerance developed at a similar rate to both diacetylmorphine and morphine.^ All were interviewed to learn what they believe to be the major drug problems and what short-term and long-term approaches could be developed.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When compared to the opioids hydromorphone, fentanyl, oxycodone, and pethidine/meperidine, former addicts showed a strong preference for diacetylmorphine and morphine, suggesting that diacetylmorphine and morphine are particularly susceptible to abuse and addiction.^ In some embodiments, the opioid analgesic is one or more of the following: morphine, codeine, dihydrocodeine, diacetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, levorphanol, oxymorphone, alfentanil, buprenorphine, butorphanol, fentanyl, sufentanyl, meperidine, methadone, nalbuphine, propoxyphene and pentazocine; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Exemplary opioid analgesics include codeine, dihydrocodeine, diacetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, levorphanol, oxymorphone, alfentanil, buprenorphine, butorphanol, fentanyl, sufentanyl, meperidine, methadone, nalbuphine, propoxyphene and pentazocine or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Exemplary salts of opioid analgesics of use in the present invention include morphine sulphate, morphine hydrochloride, morphine tartrate, codeine phosphate, codeine sulphate, dihydrocodeine bitartrate, diacetylmorphine hydrochloride, hydrocodone bitartrate, hydromorphone hydrochloride, levorphanol tartrate, oxymorphone hydrochloride, alfentanil hydrochloride, buprenorphine hydrochloride, butorphanol tartrate, fentanyl citrate, meperidine hydrochloride, methadone hydrochloride, nalbuphine hydrochloride, propoxyphene hydrochloride, propoxyphene napsylate (2-naphthalenesulphonic acid (1:1) monohydrate), and pentazocine hydrochloride.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Morphine and diacetylmorphine were also much more likely to produce euphoria and other positive subjective effects when compared to these other opioids.^ In other embodiments, the opioid analgesic is morphine.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In still other embodiments, the NGF antagonist is an anti-NGF antibody and the opioid analgesic is morphine.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is much shorter than the withdrawal effects experienced from other common painkillers such as oxycodone and hydrocodone.
  • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

[24]
.One of the most common methods of illicit heroin use is via intravenous injection (colloquially termed "slamming" or "shooting up").^ One of the most common methods of heroin use is via intravenous injection.
  • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Overall, heroin use cannot be explained by just one factor -- the availability--, but is the result of a combination of many, often intertwined, factors.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Follow-up services after detoxification or social reintegration programs for people who terminated heroin use or who are maintained on methadone are absent.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Heroin base (commonly found in the UK and Europe), when prepared for injection will only dissolve in water when mixed with an acid (most commonly citric acid powder or lemon juice) and heated.^ Drug manufacturer; mix heroin with water; heating heroin to prepare it for injection .

^ Some of the heroin users interviewed have self-prepared cocaine base and smoked the drug --a technique they learned while working in Germany.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When chasing, the user puts some heroin powder on an oblong piece of aluminum foil and heats the powder drug from underneath.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Heroin in the US is most commonly its hydrochloride salt, requiring just water to dissolve.^ The legend, " BHCl water", indicates the spectra of the salt dissolved in water.
  • UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - 1954 Issue 3 - 005 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC css.unodc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The white crystalline form is commonly the hydrochloride salt diacetylmorphine hydrochloride.
  • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

.Users tend to initially inject in the easily accessible veins in the arm, but as these veins collapse over time through damage caused by the acid, the user will often resort to injecting in other veins.^ These come daily or several times per week, often with their parents.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most users were in their early twenties and these younger users were initiated into use of heroin when they were 15 to 17 years old.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the drug is relatively cheap and of reasonable quality, users feel no pressure to initiate injecting.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recreational users may also administer the drug through snorting, or smoking by inhaling its vapors when heated; either with tobacco in a rolled cigarette or by heating the drug on aluminium foil from underneath.^ Most users snort, smoke the drug in cigarettes, or chase it from aluminum foil.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Globally, heroin injectors are outnumbered by those who ingest this drug by method of smoking or, more correctly, vapor inhalation.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment may furthermore not be very attractive to drug users, or only to certain categories of drug users.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .When heated the heroin powder changes to a thick liquid, similar in consistency to molten wax, and it will run across the foil giving off smoke which the user inhales through a tube, usually made from foil also so that any heroin that collects on the inside of the tube can be smoked afterward.^ When chasing, the user puts some heroin powder on an oblong piece of aluminum foil and heats the powder drug from underneath.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both police sources and cannabis users contacted in the field contended that marihuana is usually sold through friendship networks; a sophisticated marihuana trafficking industry is absent.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the heroin users interviewed have self-prepared cocaine base and smoked the drug --a technique they learned while working in Germany.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This method of administration is known as chasing the dragon (whereas smoking methamphetamine is known as "chasing the white dragon").^ The most common form of heroin smoking is called "chasing the dragon," or abbreviated, "chasing."
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Social Science and Medicine 1995 (forthcoming) Grund J-PC, Blanken P: From 'Chasing the Dragon' to 'Chinezen': the Diffusion of Heroin Smoking in the Netherlands.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The onset of diacetylmorphine's effects depends upon the route of administration. .Studies have shown that the subjective pleasure of drug use (the reinforcing component of addiction) is proportional to the rate at which the blood level of the drug increases.^ We expect that the use of other drugs will also increase.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While it would be premature to draw definitive conclusions about this issue, the level of drug use related HIV risk behaviors seems to be unacceptably high.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, a significant increase in drug use prevalence is anticipated and this increase will occur fairly independent of policy interventions.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .Intravenous injection provides the fastest and most intense rush[27] within 7 to 8 seconds.^ One of the most common methods of heroin use is via intravenous injection.
  • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

Intra-muscular injection produces a relatively slow onset of 5 to 8 minutes. Snorting or smoking reaches peak effects within 10 to 15 minutes.[28] If taken orally, the effects take approximately half an hour to set in, with an absence of a rush.
The diacetylmorphine dose used for recreational purposes is dependant on the frequency and level of use. .A first-time user may ingest between 5 and 20 mg of diacetylmorphine, while an addict may require several hundred mg per day.^ Put your child to work in a factory for 20 hours per day, and see who will associate with you...
  • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The compound may be administered on a regimen of up to 6 times per day (or more), 1 to 4 times per day, or it may be administered less often.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When alcohol and drug addicts are sentenced to serve prison time, their sentence may get extended to include the, so called, "Protective Measure," which is a form of compulsory treatment.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29]
.Large doses of heroin can cause fatal respiratory depression, and the drug has been used for suicide or as a murder weapon.^ Large doses of heroin can be fatal.
  • Heroin Addiction-Addiction-Dependence-Withdrawal-Tolerance-Effects-Heroin-Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.heroinaddiction2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heroin can also be used as a murder weapon.
  • Heroin Addiction-Addiction-Dependence-Withdrawal-Tolerance-Effects-Heroin-Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.heroinaddiction2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Large doses of heroin can cause fatal respiratory depression, and the drug has been used for suicide or as a murder weapon.
  • Heroin Addiction help line 1-877-354-5031 toll free 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The serial killer Dr Harold Shipman used it on his victims as did Dr John Bodkin Adams (see his victim, Edith Alice Morrell). .Because significant tolerance to respiratory depression develops quickly with continued use and is lost just as quickly during withdrawal, it is often difficult to determine whether a heroin death was an accident, suicide or murder.^ It can sometimes be difficult to determine whether a heroin death was an accident, suicide or murder.
  • Heroin Addiction-Addiction-Dependence-Withdrawal-Tolerance-Effects-Heroin-Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.heroinaddiction2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because significant tolerance to respiratory depression develops quickly with continued use and is lost just as quickly during withdrawal, it is often difficult to determine whether a heroin death was an accident, suicide or murder.
  • Heroin Addiction help line 1-877-354-5031 toll free 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The more heroin a person is using, the greater their chance of respiratory depression because while they develop tolerance to the euphoric effects of heroin, they don't develop tolerance to the respiratory depressant effects of heroin.
  • Heroin - Health & Wellbeing 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Examples include the overdose deaths of Sid Vicious, Janis Joplin, Tim Buckley, Layne Staley, Bradley Nowell, Ted Binion, and River Phoenix.[30]

Effects

.
Data from The Lancet shows heroin to be the most addictive and most harmful of 20 drugs.
^ Law enforcement data for the period of 1979 to 1983 show 40 cases of illegal drug trafficking with 60 perpetrators.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the +/- 200 prisoners in this jail 20-30 are (known) drug addicts, their primary drug being mostly heroin (within a polydrug use pattern).
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast, in most countries drug problems have increased, while the global availability of drugs such as heroin is larger than ever.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31]
Central nervous system:
Neurological:
Main long-term effects of usage.[32]
Psychological:
Main short-term effects of heroin usage.[32]
Cardiovascular & Respiratory:
Gastrointestinal:
Musculoskeletal:
Skin:
  • Itching
  • Flushing/Rash
Miscellaneous:
Diamorphine ampoules for medicinal use
Recreational uses:
Medicinal uses:
Contraindications:

Regulation

.In the Netherlands, diamorphine (heroin) is a List I drug of the Opium Law.^ Table 1 suggests that opium, marihuana and especially heroin are the main drugs on Macedonia's illicit market.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is available for prescription under tight regulation to long-term heroin addicts for whom methadone maintenance treatment has failed.^ In the Netherlands , heroin is available for prescription as the generic drug diacetylmorfine to long-term heroin addicts.
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heroin prescription for addicts .
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Swan, N. Research demonstrates long-term benefits of methadone treatment.
  • Effects of Heroin | Heroin Addiction | Heroin Rehabilitation Programs by Drug Rehab Experts 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

.Heroin is exclusively available for prescription to long-term heroin addicts, and cannot be used to treat severe pain or other illnesses.^ Reducing incidence” of pain means any of reducing severity (which can include reducing need for and/or amount of (e.g., exposure to) other drugs and/or therapies generally used for this conditions), duration, and/or frequency (including, for example, delaying or increasing time to pain in an individual).
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Frequency of scores of 2 was also calculated and used to assess the incidence of severe pain or total guarding of the paw by the animal.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Compounds useful for treating pain with fewer or no side effects are therefore needed.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the United States, heroin is a schedule I drug according to the Controlled Substances Act of 1970, making it illegal to possess without a DEA license.^ What is the scope of heroin use in the United States?

^ In the United States, heroin is a schedule I drug according to the Controlled Substances Act of 1970, making it illegal to possess without a DEA license.
  • Heroin Addiction help line 1-877-354-5031 toll free 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is now a Schedule I substance , and is thus illegal in the United States.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Possession of more than 100 grams of heroin or a mixture containing heroin is punishable with a minimum mandatory sentence of 5 years of imprisonment in a federal prison.^ Since 1990, the amount of heroin seized by the police more than tripled.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Information from police, prison and treatment centers suggests that, although ages range from 15 to 45 years, heroin users are becoming increasingly younger.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bardovci is a psychiatric hospital, built more than 20 years ago and very poorly maintained.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Canada, heroin is a controlled substance under Schedule I of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA). .Any person who seeks or obtains heroin without disclosing authorization 30 days prior to obtaining another prescription from a practitioner is guilty of an indictable offense and subject to imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years.^ Any person who seeks or obtains heroin without disclosing authorization 30 days prior to obtaining another prescription from a practitioner is guilty of an indictable offense and subject to imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years.
  • Heroin Addiction help line 1-877-354-5031 toll free 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Possession of heroin for the purpose of trafficking is guilty of an indictable offense and subject to imprisonment for life.
  • Heroin Addiction help line 1-877-354-5031 toll free 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The person that has an extension regarding his/her migratory status, according to that provided by the Law with regard to this subject, will be able to prorogate under the same terms the period to return his/her vehicles.

.Possession of heroin for the purpose of trafficking is guilty of an indictable offense and subject to imprisonment for life.^ Possession of heroin for the purpose of trafficking is guilty of an indictable offense and subject to imprisonment for life.
  • Heroin Addiction help line 1-877-354-5031 toll free 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any person who seeks or obtains heroin without disclosing authorization 30 days prior to obtaining another prescription from a practitioner is guilty of an indictable offense and subject to imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years.
  • Heroin Addiction help line 1-877-354-5031 toll free 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Possession of more than 100 grams of heroin or a mixture containing heroin is punishable with a minimum mandatory sentence of 5 years of imprisonment in a federal prison.
  • Heroin Addiction help line 1-877-354-5031 toll free 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Hong Kong, heroin is regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong's Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance.^ In Hong Kong, heroin is regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong's Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance .
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Hong Kong, heroin is regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong's Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance.
  • Heroin Addiction help line 1-877-354-5031 toll free 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Smoking heroin may be a less dangerous route of administration because the drug effect is achieved by repeated small doses rather than a single injection.
  • Fatal Heroin 'Overdose': A Review 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

It is available by prescription. .Anyone who supplies heroin without a valid prescription can be fined $10,000 (HKD).^ One respondent, who was on methadone at the time of the interview, had experienced a methadone shortage: "Three days without methadone, then you are forced to use heroin."
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The penalty for trafficking or manufacturing heroin is a $5,000,000 (HKD) fine and life imprisonment.^ The penalty for trafficking or manufacturing heroin is a $5,000,000 (HKD) fine and life imprisonment.
  • Heroin Addiction help line 1-877-354-5031 toll free 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Possession of heroin without a license from the Department of Health is illegal with a $1,000,000 (HKD) fine and/or 7 years of jail time.
  • Heroin Addiction help line 1-877-354-5031 toll free 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anyone who supplies heroin without a valid prescription can be fined $10,000 (HKD).
  • Heroin Addiction help line 1-877-354-5031 toll free 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Possession of heroin without a license from the Department of Health is illegal with a $1,000,000 (HKD) fine and/or 7 years of jail time.^ Health Department heroin pamphlet .
  • heroin coverage by Gothamist 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gothamist.com [Source type: General]

^ Possession of heroin without a license from the Department of Health is illegal with a $1,000,000 (HKD) fine and/or 7 years of jail time.
  • Heroin Addiction help line 1-877-354-5031 toll free 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heroin is a class A drug, it is illegal to supply and possess without prescription.

.In the United Kingdom, heroin is available by prescription, though it is a restricted Class A drug.^ The current restrictions on the prescription of methadone and other heroin substitutes might be relaxed, so that GPs are able to prescribe these drugs in the course of addiction treatment.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, some people use the drug intranasally (snorting), which is somewhat odd, as the heroin available in Macedonia is the brown heroin base and not well suited to nasal inhalation.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though cocaine has been reported to be increasingly available on the illicit market, only in 1990 the drug was confiscated.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to the 50th edition of the British National Formulary (BNF), diamorphine hydrochloride may be used in the treatment of acute pain, myocardial infarction, acute pulmonary oedema, and chronic pain.^ Frequency of administration may be determined and adjusted over the course of therapy, and is generally, but not necessarily, based on treatment and/or suppression and/or amelioration and/or delay of pain.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In some embodiments, the methods and compositions of the present invention are used for treatment or prevention of post-surgical pain and cancer pain.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment or prevention of pain is assessed using methods well-known in the art.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.The treatment of chronic non-malignant pain must be supervised by a specialist.^ The methods and compositions of the present invention are useful for the treatment of pain of any etiology, including acute and chronic pain, any pain with an inflammatory component, and any pain in which an opioid analgesic is usually prescribed.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.The BNF notes that all opioid analgesics cause dependence and tolerance but that this is "no deterrent in the control of pain in terminal illness". When used in the palliative care of cancer patients, heroin is often injected using a syringe driver.^ Smoking crack after injecting heroin or heroin used after smoking crack .

^ Of all of the opioid analgesics, morphine is the most widely used.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another unfortunate characteristic is the development of tolerance and physical dependence that may limit the clinical use of such compounds.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

Price

.The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction reports that the retail price of brown heroin varies from 14.5 per gram in Turkey to €110 per gram in Sweden, with most European countries reporting typical prices of €35-40 per gram.^ Current estimates of the total number of heroin users in the country vary between 2000 and 6210.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In recent times, several countries have begun implementing "Harm Reduction" drug policies, which prioritize the reduction of drug related problems above the reduction of drug use per se.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes users drive across the Bulgarian border to buy heroin in some quantity for DM 25 - 30 per gram.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The price of white heroin is reported only by a few European countries and ranged between €27 and €110 per gram.^ Only very few Albanians inject, they reportedly mainly smoke the heroin in cigarettes or chase the drug (see Intermezzo: Ali & Muhammed).
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes users drive across the Bulgarian border to buy heroin in some quantity for DM 25 - 30 per gram.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The average price of a gram of heroin is DM 70.-, but when buying in bulk or when having "good contacts" the price may go down.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33]
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime claims in its 2008 World Drug Report that typical US retail prices are US$172 per gram.[34]

Production and trafficking: The Golden Triangle

Primary worldwide producers of heroin.

Manufacturing

.Heroin, also known as diacetyl morphine is produced from acetylation of morphine derived from natural opium sources.^ Heroin is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from morphine, a derivative of the opium poppy.
  • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hybridomas that may be used as source of antibodies encompass all derivatives, progeny cells of the parent hybridomas that produce monoclonal antibodies specific for NGF, or a portion thereof.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

Numerous mechanical and chemical means are used to purify the final product. The final products have different appearance depending on purity and have different names.[35]

History of heroin traffic

.The origins of the present international illegal heroin trade can be traced back to laws passed in many countries in the early 1900s that closely regulated the production and sale of opium and its derivatives including heroin.^ The origins of the present international illegal heroin trade can be traced back to laws passed in many countries in the early 1900s that closely regulated the production and sale of opium and its derivatives including heroin.
  • Heroin 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.healthcareprescriptiondrugabuse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heroin is a pain-killing drug, which is derived from the dried milk of the opium poppy.

^ In 1924 , the production, sale, possession, and prescription of heroin was outlawed altogether.
  • Heroin@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At first, heroin flowed from countries where it was still legal into countries where it was no longer legal.^ At first, heroin flowed from countries where it was still legal into countries where it was no longer legal.
  • Heroin 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.healthcareprescriptiondrugabuse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fifth step is optional, as it only changes the heroin into a finer white powder, more easily injectable; this so-called "no.

^ The first is to substitute a longer-acting opioid such as methadone or buprenorphine for heroin or another short-acting opioid and then slowly taper the dose.
  • Heroin 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.healthcareprescriptiondrugabuse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the mid-1920s, heroin production had been made illegal in many parts of the world.^ By the mid-1920s, heroin production had been made illegal in many parts of the world.
  • Heroin 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.healthcareprescriptiondrugabuse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heroin destined for the Michigan region continues to originate from different parts of the world.
  • Heroin Addiction - Michigan Heroin Rehab - Heroin Treatment - Heroin Rehab Alternative - Heroin Crack Program - New Hampshire 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.soberforever.net [Source type: News]

^ According to U.N. sponsored survey, as of 2004, Afghanistan accounted for production of 87 percent of the world's heroin.
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An illegal trade developed at that time between heroin labs in China (mostly in Shanghai and Tianjin) and other nations.^ An illegal trade developed at that time between heroin labs in China (mostly in Shanghai and Tianjin) and other nations.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An illegal trade developed at that time between heroin labs in China (mostly in Shanghai and Tientsin) and other nations.

^ Possession of heroin without a license from the Department of Health is illegal with a $1,000,000 (HKD) fine and/or 7 years of jail time.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The weakness of government in China and conditions of civil war enabled heroin production to take root there.^ The weakness of government in China and conditions of civil war enabled heroin production to take root there.
  • Heroin 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.healthcareprescriptiondrugabuse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the second world war, the Mafia took advantage of the weakness of the postwar Italian government and set up heroin labs in Sicily.

^ Japan's war with China had cut the normal distribution routes for heroin and the war had generally disrupted the movement of opium.
  • Heroin 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.healthcareprescriptiondrugabuse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Chinese triad gangs eventually came to play a major role in the heroin trade.^ Finally, it is not clear what role (female) heroin users play in prostitution.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The French Connection route started in the 1930s.
.Heroin trafficking was virtually eliminated in the U.S. during World War II due to temporary trade disruptions caused by the war.^ Heroin trafficking was virtually eliminated in the U.S. during World War II due to temporary trade disruptions caused by the war.
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^ As with aspirin, Bayer lost some of its trademark rights to "heroin" under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles following the German defeat in World War I.[5] .
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^ "War Views: Afghan heroin trade will live on."
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.Japan's war with China had cut the normal distribution routes for heroin and the war had generally disrupted the movement of opium.^ Japan's war with China had cut the normal distribution routes for heroin and the war had generally disrupted the movement of opium.
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^ The weakness of government in China and conditions of civil war enabled heroin production to take root there.
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^ Heroin trafficking was virtually eliminated in the U.S. during World War II due to temporary trade disruptions caused by the war.
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After World War II, the Mafia took advantage of the weakness of the postwar Italian government and set up heroin labs in Sicily. .The Mafia took advantage of Sicily's location along the historic route opium took westward into Europe and the United States.^ The Mafia took advantage of Sicily's location along the historic route opium took from Iran westward into Europe and the United States.
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^ The Mafia took advantage of Sicily's location along the historic route opium took westward into Europe and the United States.
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  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the second world war, the Mafia took advantage of the weakness of the postwar Italian government and set up heroin labs in Sicily.
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[36]
.Large scale international heroin production effectively ended in China with the victory of the communists in the civil war in the late 1940s.^ Large scale international heroin production effectively ended in China with the victory of the communists in the civil war in the late 1940s.
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^ The weakness of government in China and conditions of civil war enabled heroin production to take root there.
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^ It increased international production of heroin at lower prices in the 1980s.
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[citation needed] .The elimination of Chinese production happened at the same time that Sicily's role in the trade developed.^ The elimination of Chinese production happened at the same time that Sicily's role in the trade developed.
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^ An illegal trade developed at that time between heroin labs in China (mostly in Shanghai and Tianjin) and other nations.
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^ An illegal trade developed at that time between heroin labs in China (mostly in Shanghai and Tientsin) and other nations.

.Although it remained legal in some countries until after World War II, health risks, addiction, and widespread recreational use led most western countries to declare heroin a controlled substance by the latter half of the 20th century.^ However, not all harvested opium ends up in this state controlled industry; the traditional poppy farmers often keep some aside for their own stock, which is used for medicinal or recreational purposes.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As with other opiates, heroin is used both as a pain-killer and a recreational drug.
  • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In many countries AIDS and heroin use have become inextricable "Twin Epidemics."
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In late 1960s and early 70s, the CIA supported anti-Communist Chinese Nationalists settled near Sino-Burmese border and Hmong tribesmen in Laos. This helped the development of the Golden Triangle opium production region, which supplied about one-third of heroin consumed in US after 1973 American withdrawal from Vietnam. As of 1999, Myanmar (formerly Burma), the heartland of the Golden Triangle remained the second largest producer of heroin, after Afghanistan.[37]
Soviet-Afghan war led to increased production in the Pakistani-Afghani border regions, as U.S.-backed mujaheddin militants raised money for arms from selling opium, contributing heavily to the modern Golden Crescent creation. .By 1980, 60% of heroin sold in the U.S. originated in Afghanistan.^ By 1980, 60% of heroin sold in the U.S. originated in Afghanistan.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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[37] .It increased international production of heroin at lower prices in the 1980s.^ It increased international production of heroin at lower prices in the 1980s.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Both events led to increased international production of heroin at lower prices in the 1980s.

^ Large scale international heroin production effectively ended in China with the victory of the communists in the civil war in the late 1940s.
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.The trade shifted away from Sicily in the late 1970s as various criminal organizations violently fought with each other over the trade.^ The trade shifted away from Sicily in the late 1970s as various criminal organizations violently fought with each other over the trade.
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.The fighting also led to a stepped up government law enforcement presence in Sicily.^ The fighting also led to a stepped up government law enforcement presence in Sicily.
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^ After the second world war, the Mafia took advantage of the weakness of the postwar Italian government and set up heroin labs in Sicily.

^ After World War II, the Mafia took advantage of the weakness of the postwar Italian government and set up heroin labs in Sicily.
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Trafficking

International drug routes
See also: Opium#Modern production and usage
.Traffic is heavy worldwide, with the biggest producer being Afghanistan.^ Traffic is heavy worldwide, with the biggest producer being Afghanistan.
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^ See also: Opium production Traffic is heavy worldwide, with the biggest producer being Afghanistan.
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^ See also: Opium production Asian heroin Traffic is heavy worldwide, with the biggest producer being Afghanistan.

[38] According to U.N. sponsored survey,[39] as of 2004, Afghanistan accounted for production of 87 percent of the world's heroin.[40] Afghan opium kills 100,000 people every year worldwide.[41]
The cultivation of opium in Afghanistan reached its peak in 1999, when 225,000 acres—350 square miles—of poppies were sown. .The following year the Taliban banned poppy cultivation, a move which cut production by 94 percent.^ The following year the Taliban banned poppy cultivation, a move which cut production by 94 percent.
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.By 2001 only 30 square miles of land were in use for growing opium poppies.^ By 2001 only 30 square miles of land were in use for growing opium poppies.
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^ The cultivation of opium in Afghanistan reached its peak in 1999, when 225,000 acres—350 square miles—of poppies were sown.
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  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cultivation of opium in Afghanistan reached its peak in 1999, when 225,000 acres - 350 square miles - of poppies were sown.
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.A year later, after American and British troops had removed the Taliban and installed the interim government, the land under cultivation leapt back to 285 square miles, with Afghanistan supplanting Burma to become the world's largest opium producer once more.^ A year later, after American and British troops had removed the Taliban and installed the interim government, the land under cultivation leapt back to 285 square miles, with Afghanistan supplanting Burma to become the world's largest opium producer once more.
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^ The cultivation of opium in Afghanistan reached its peak in 1999, when 225,000 acres—350 square miles—of poppies were sown.
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^ Methadone, since it is longer-acting, produces withdrawal symptoms that appear later than with heroin, but usually last considerably longer and can in some cases be more intense.
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[42] .Opium production in that country has increased rapidly since, reaching an all-time high in 2006. War in Afghanistan once again appeared as a facilitator of the trade.^ Following the epidemic model, we can expect heroin use in Macedonia to reach its peak in about 5 to 7 years, at a number of users three to four times as high as the current number.
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[43] Some 3.3 million Afghans are involved in producing opium.[44]
At present, opium poppies are mostly grown in Afghanistan, and in Southeast Asia, especially in the region known as the Golden Triangle straddling Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos and Yunnan province in the People's Republic of China. There is also cultivation of opium poppies in the Sinaloa region of Mexico and in Colombia. .The majority of the heroin consumed in the United States comes from Mexico and Colombia.^ Des Jarlais DC, Courtwright DT, Joseph H: The transition from opium smoking to heroin injection in the United States.
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^ You originally stated that it is immoral to give heroin to a young child only if you use deceit to get the child to consume the heroin.
  • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

Up until 2004, Pakistan was considered one of the biggest opium-growing countries.
.Conviction for trafficking in heroin carries the death penalty in most Southeast Asian, some East Asian and Middle Eastern countries (see Use of death penalty worldwide for details), among which Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand are the most strict.^ Macedonian politicians may blame the availability and use of heroin on Albanians, who, indeed, seem to dominate heroin trafficking.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many countries AIDS and heroin use have become inextricable "Twin Epidemics."
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They have found that many of the families in the villages in the areas of Debar, Gostivar and Tetovo are involved in trafficking and/or use of heroin.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The penalty applies even to citizens of countries where the penalty is not in place, sometimes causing controversy when foreign visitors are arrested for trafficking, for example the arrest of nine Australians in Bali, the death sentence given to Nola Blake in Thailand in 1987, or the hanging of an Australian citizen Van Tuong Nguyen in Singapore.

Risks of use

Prepping Heroin
  • For intravenous users of heroin (and any other substance), the use of non-sterile needles and syringes and other related equipment leads to several serious risks:
  • Poisoning from contaminants added to "cut" or dilute heroin
  • Chronic constipation
  • Addiction and increasing tolerance
  • Physical dependence can result from prolonged use of all opioids, resulting in withdrawal symptoms on cessation of use
  • Decreased kidney function (although it is not currently known if this is due to adulterants or infectious diseases)[45]
.Many countries and local governments have begun funding programs that supply sterile needles to people who inject illegal drugs in an attempt to reduce these contingent risks and especially the contraction and spread of blood-borne diseases.^ Likewise, most heroin users do not inject, which, in terms of public health, is highly desirable, because IDUs are at great risk for contracting and spreading HIV. When a War on Drugs policy would be able to reduce the purity of the drugs on the black market, many heroin users would be pushed towards injecting.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These people have either applied for treatment of problematic drug use (which in 9 out of 10 cases concerns heroin) or have gotten into trouble with the law (who reportedly are primarily heroin addicts, but may include marihuana users).
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Their country" includes innocent people who didn't have anything to do with the slavery.
  • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Drug Policy Alliance reports that up to 75% of new AIDS cases among women and children are directly or indirectly a consequence of drug use by injection.^ The Drug Policy Alliance reports that up to 75% of new AIDS cases among women and children are directly or indirectly a consequence of drug use by injection.
  • Heroin 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.healthcareprescriptiondrugabuse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A related problem is that the level of knowledge and skills of staff regarding drug use and addiction is rather limited, while up-to-date information on the topic is unavailable.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Return to Table of Contents) The use of illegal drugs in Macedonia dates back to at least 1969, when the first cases of drug addiction became visible to the authorities.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United States federal government does not operate needle exchanges, although some state and local governments do support needle exchange programs.^ The United States federal government does not operate needle exchanges, although some state and local governments do support needle exchange programs.
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States does not support needle exchanges federally by law, and although some state and local governments do support needle exchange programs, they continue to face harassment by police in most areas.

^ Back This project is supported by Genome Alberta & Genome Canada , a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canada's national genomics strategy with $600 million in funding from the federal government.
  • T3DB - Toxin, Toxin-Target Database 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC 129.128.185.121 [Source type: Academic]

.Anthropologists Philippe Bourgois and Jeff Schonberg, who did a decade of field work among homeless heroin and crack addicts in San Francisco, reported that the African-American addicts they observed were more inclined to "direct deposit" heroin into a vein, rather than "skin-popping" their injections.^ They started using heroin and cocaine in Germany, where they were working for a relative, selling the two drugs to German "Fixer".
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Being initiated into heroin use in such a situation generally equals initiation into chasing, while the likelihood of initiation into injecting is rather small.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These people have either applied for treatment of problematic drug use (which in 9 out of 10 cases concerns heroin) or have gotten into trouble with the law (who reportedly are primarily heroin addicts, but may include marihuana users).
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(Skin-popping was a far more widespread practice among the white addicts: "By the midpoint of our fieldwork, most of the whites had given up searching for operable veins and skin-popped. They sank their needles perfunctorily, often through their clothing, into their fatty tissue.") .Bourgois and Schonberg describes how the cultural difference between the African-Americans and the whites leads to this contrasting behavior, and also points out that the two different ways to inject heroin comes with different health risks.^ Another, related, point of interest is that there may exist different pathways into heroin use for Macedonian and Albanian users.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the tours of Skopje's night life only a few female heroin users were pointed out.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their stories and answers to my questions provided support to several assumptions and testimonies, generated by the fieldwork, about the distribution of use, administration, and selling patterns in different ethnic groups, the level of HIV risk behavior among injecting heroin users, etc..
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Skin-popping more often results in abscesses, and direct injection more often leads to fatal overdose and also to hepatitis C and HIV infection.[46]
.A heroin overdose is usually treated with an opioid antagonist, such as naloxone (Narcan), or naltrexone, which has high affinity for opioid receptors but does not activate them.^ High affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor I (P12314) .
  • T3DB - Toxin, Toxin-Target Database 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC 129.128.185.121 [Source type: Academic]

^ In another embodiment, the kit comprises an NGF antagonist (such as an anti-NGF antibody), and instructions for administering the NGF antibody and an opioid analgesic simultaneously and/or sequentially, for the effective treatment of pain.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An effective amount, in the context of this invention, may also be amounts of an NGF antagonist and an opioid antagonist such that synergy is achieved.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.This reverses the effects of heroin and other opioid agonists and causes an immediate return of consciousness but may precipitate withdrawal symptoms.^ If a continual, sustained use of heroin for as little as three days is stopped abruptly, withdrawal symptoms can appear.
  • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Such therapy generally allows a reduced dosage of opioid analgesic to effect the same amount of pain reduction and/or other forms of enhancement of opioid pain treatment.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An opioid partial agonist such as nalorphine, (the N-alkyl analogue of morphine) may antagonize the analgesic effects of morphine, when given alone it can be a potent analgesic in its own right.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.The half-life of naloxone is much shorter than that of most opioid agonists, so that antagonist typically has to be administered multiple times until the opioid has been metabolized by the body.^ The NGF antagonist and/or opioid analgesic can be administered to an individual via any suitable route.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Typically the clinician will administer an NGF antagonist, such as an anti-NGF antibody, until a dosage is reached that achieves the desired result.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The instructions may comprise administration of NGF antagonist in conjunction with opioid (i.e., simultaneous administration and/or administration at different times).
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Depending on drug interactions and numerous other factors, death from overdose can take anywhere from several minutes to several hours due to anoxia because the breathing reflex is suppressed by µ-opioids.^ Depending on drug interactions and numerous other factors, death from overdose can take anywhere from several minutes to several hours due to anoxia because the breathing reflex is suppressed by µ-opioids.
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depending on drug interactions and numerous other factors, death from overdose can take anywhere from several seconds to several hours.

^ Depending on drug interactions and numerous other factors, death from overdose can take anywhere from several minutes to several hours due to anoxia because the breathing reflex is suppressed by µ-opioids.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An overdose is immediately reversible with an opioid antagonist injection.^ An overdose is immediately reversible with an opioid antagonist injection.
  • Heroin 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.healthcareprescriptiondrugabuse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This reverses the effects of heroin and other opioid agonists and causes an immediate return of consciousness but may precipitate withdrawal symptoms.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pure opioid antagonists, such as naloxone, are specific antidotes against respiratory depression which results from opioid overdose.
  • T3DB - Toxin, Toxin-Target Database 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC 129.128.185.121 [Source type: Academic]

.Heroin overdoses can occur due to an unexpected increase in the dose or purity or due to diminished opioid tolerance.^ Heroin overdoses can occur due to an unexpected increase in the dose or purity or due to diminished opioid tolerance.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heroin overdoses can occur due to an unexpected increase in the dose or purity or due to diminished opiate tolerance.

^ Most fatalities from heroin overdose occur in long-term users, usually early in their third decade of life.
  • Toxicity, Heroin: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, many fatalities reported as overdoses are probably caused by interactions with other depressant drugs like alcohol or benzodiazepines.^ Drug addicted patients are often mixed with alcoholics and other psychiatric patients --an undesirable situation for all parties.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grund) through Skopje's entertainment circles and introduced me to many (ex-) users of heroin, marihuana and other drugs.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] .It should also be noted that since heroin can cause nausea and vomiting, a significant number of deaths attributed to heroin overdose are caused by aspiration of vomit by an unconscious victim.^ It should also be noted that since heroin can cause nausea and vomiting, a significant number of deaths attributed to heroin overdose are caused by aspiration of vomit by an unconscious victim.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people may take excessive amounts of heroin to maintain this feel good factor and it can result in an overdose, coma and in some cases death.

^ It has been speculated that an unknown portion of heroin related deaths are the result of an overdose or allergic reaction to quinine , which may sometimes be used as a cutting agent.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some sources give a figure of between 75 and 375 mg for a 75 kg being fatal for 50% of opiate naive people.^ Even for a non-user, the LD 50 can be placed above 350 mg though some sources give a figure of between 75 and 375 mg for a 75 kg person.
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some sources give a figure of between 75 and 375 mg for a 75 kg being fatal for 50% of opiate naive people.
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Let's tackle some of the most common myths about the dangers of heroin usage: Heroin is so addictive that drug dealers give free samples to get people hooked.
  • Heroin@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48] .Street heroin is of widely varying and unpredictable purity.^ Street heroin is of widely varying and unpredictable purity.
  • Heroin 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.healthcareprescriptiondrugabuse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the 1990s, the purity of US street heroin increased significantly, and its price sharply dropped.
  • Toxicity, Heroin: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of these impurities and additives, street heroin may appear in various hues and colors, ranging from white to dark brown.
  • Toxicity, Heroin: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.This means that the user may prepare what they consider to be a moderate dose while actually taking far more than intended.^ This means that the user may prepare what they consider to be a moderate dose while actually taking far more than intended.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This means that an addict may prepare what they consider to be a moderate dose while actually taking far more than intended.

^ Do you mean to say that if I had oxygen, and you were drowning, and I refused to give you any, you would allow yourself to drown rather than take the oxygen?
  • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

.Also, tolerance typically decreases after a period of abstinence.^ Also, tolerance typically decreases after a period of abstinence.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, relapsing addicts after a period of abstinence have tolerances below what they were during active addiction.

^ The user's typical dose of the drug, in the face of decreased tolerance, becomes far too high and can be toxic, leading to overdose.
  • Heroin 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.healthcareprescriptiondrugabuse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If this occurs and the user takes a dose comparable to their previous use, the user may experience drug effects that are much greater than expected, potentially resulting in a dangerous overdose.^ If this occurs and the user takes a dose comparable to their previous use, the user may experience drug effects that are much greater than expected, potentially resulting in a dangerous overdose.
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a dose comparable to their previous use is taken an overdose often results.

^ Drugscope.org - overdose - Drugscope Overdose - The use of any drug in such quantities that acute adverse physical or mental effects occur This page offers information on overdose as the physical symptoms of a drug overdose vary with the different drugs taken.

.It has been speculated that an unknown portion of heroin related deaths are the result of an overdose or allergic reaction to quinine, which may sometimes be used as a cutting agent.^ Heroin-related deaths in Sydney, Australia.
  • Toxicity, Heroin: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been speculated that an unknown portion of heroin related deaths are the result of an overdose or allergic reaction to quinine , which may sometimes be used as a cutting agent.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has been speculated that an unknown portion of heroin related deaths are the result of an overdose or allergic reaction to quinine, which may sometimes be used as a cutting agent.
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]
.A final factor contributing to overdoses is place conditioning.^ A final factor contributing to overdoses is place conditioning .
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A final factor contributing to overdoses is place conditioning.
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "A case report: Pavlovian conditioning as a risk factor of heroin 'overdose' death".
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Heroin use is a highly ritualized behavior.^ Heroin use, like other drug abuse behaviors, is highly ritualized.

^ Heroin use is a highly ritualized behavior.
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boy George was caught up in using heroin which was highly publicized in the media.
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the mechanism has yet to be clearly elucidated, longtime heroin users display increased tolerance to the drug in locations where they have repeatedly administered heroin.^ While the mechanism has yet to be clearly elucidated, longtime heroin users display increased tolerance to the drug in locations where they have repeatedly administered heroin.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heroin users in Macedonia administer the drug in various ways.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the mechanism has yet to be clearly elucidated, it has been shown that longtime heroin users, immediately before injecting in a common area for heroin use, show an acute increase in metabolism and a surge in the concentration of opiate -metabolizing enzymes.

.When the user injects in a different location, this environment-conditioned tolerance does not occur, resulting in a greater drug effect.^ When the addict injects in a different location, this place-conditioned tolerance does not occur, giving the addict a much lower-than-expected ability to metabolize the drug.

^ When the user injects in a different location, this environment-conditioned tolerance does not occur, resulting in a greater drug effect.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Drugscope.org - overdose - Drugscope Overdose - The use of any drug in such quantities that acute adverse physical or mental effects occur This page offers information on overdose as the physical symptoms of a drug overdose vary with the different drugs taken.

.The user's typical dose of the drug, in the face of decreased tolerance, becomes far too high and can be toxic, leading to overdose.^ Also, tolerance typically decreases after a period of abstinence.
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The user's typical dose of the drug, in the face of decreased tolerance, becomes far too high and can be toxic, leading to overdose.
  • Heroin 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.healthcareprescriptiondrugabuse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Frequent administration has a high potential for causing addiction and may quickly lead to tolerance.
  • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

[50]
A small percentage of heroin smokers and occasionally IV users may develop symptoms of toxic leukoencephalopathy. .The cause has yet to be identified, but one speculation is that the disorder is caused by an uncommon adulterant that is only active when heated.^ Injecting is only one of several routes of heroin self-administration, yet the most direct and efficient.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51][52][53] .Symptoms include slurred speech and difficulty walking.^ Symptoms include slurred speech and difficulty walking.
  • Heroin 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.healthcareprescriptiondrugabuse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cocaine is sometimes used in combination with heroin, and is referred to as a speedball when injected or moonrocks when smoked together. Cocaine acts as a stimulant, whereas heroin acts as a depressant. .Coadministration provides an intense rush of euphoria with a high that combines both effects of the drugs, while excluding the negative effects, such as anxiety and sedation.^ Both in Skopje and Ohrid all drug users admitted to treatment are tested for HIV antibodies and all persons tested have been negative.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This will result in a high level of experimentation and, in combination with the absence of balanced and honest drug information, a considerable number of problematic users.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The effects of cocaine wear off far more quickly than heroin, thus if an overdose of heroin was used to compensate for cocaine, the end result is fatal respiratory depression.^ And it actually makes me a little depressed about the FSP that I have more in common with many liberal Democrats than some Free Staters.
  • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The pure opioid antagonists, such as naloxone, are specific antidotes against respiratory depression which results from opioid overdose.
  • T3DB - Toxin, Toxin-Target Database 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC 129.128.185.121 [Source type: Academic]

^ Since 1990, the amount of heroin seized by the police more than tripled.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Harm reduction

Modified Syringe for Rectal Administration
.Proponents of the harm reduction philosophy seek to minimize the harms that arise from the recreational use of heroin.^ Proponents of the harm reduction philosophy seek to minimize the harms that arise from the recreational use of heroin.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Harm reduction approaches to heroin Proponents of the harm reduction philosophy seek to minimize the harms that arise from the recreational use of heroin.
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Harm reduction approaches to heroin .
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Safer means of taking the drug, such as smoking or nasal, oral and rectal insertion, are encouraged, due to injection having higher risks of overdose, infections and blood-borne viruses.^ Safer means of taking the drug, such as smoking or nasal, oral and rectal insertion, are encouraged, due to injection having higher risks of overdose, infections and blood-borne viruses.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zule WA: Risk and Reciprocity: HIV and the injection drug user Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 1992; 24(3): 243-249.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This procedure, termed "Frontloading," and other drug sharing techniques puts IDUs at risk for infection with HIV and other bloodborne pathogens.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Where the strength of the drug is unknown, users are encouraged to try a small amount first to gauge the strength, to minimize the risks of overdose.^ Where the strength of the drug is unknown, users are encouraged to try a small amount first to gauge the strength, to minimize the risks of overdose.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Safer means of taking the drug, such as smoking or nasal, oral and rectal insertion, are encouraged, due to injection having higher risks of overdose, infections and blood-borne viruses.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zule WA: Risk and Reciprocity: HIV and the injection drug user Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 1992; 24(3): 243-249.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For the same reason, poly drug use (the use of two or more drugs at the same time) is discouraged.^ For the same reason, poly drug use (the use of two or more drugs at the same time) is discouraged.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The thing is all three of us are getting the same dosage even though our drugs of choice, methods we used and amounts we used were very different.

^ They started using heroin and cocaine in Germany, where they were working for a relative, selling the two drugs to German "Fixer".
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Users are also encouraged to not use heroin on their own, as others can assist in the event of an overdose.^ Users are also encouraged to not use heroin on their own, as others can assist in the event of an overdose.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has been speculated that an unknown portion of heroin related deaths are the result of an overdose or allergic reaction to quinine, which may sometimes be used as a cutting agent.
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These factors suggested that immunized human users would simply either take massive quantities of heroin, or switch to other drugs.
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Heroin users who choose to inject should always use new needles, syringes, spoons/steri-cups and filters every time they inject and not share these with other users.^ Only a minority of heroin users inject.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heroin users who choose to inject should always use new needles, syringes, spoons/steri-cups and filters every time they inject and not share these with other users.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One who injects heroin .

.Governments that support a harm reduction approach usually fund Needle & Syringe exchange programs, which supply new needles and syringes on a confidential basis, as well as education on proper filtering prior to injection, safer injection techniques, safe disposal of used injecting gear and other equipment used when preparing heroin for injection may also be supplied including citric acid sachets/vitamin C sachets, steri-cups, filters, alcohol pre-injection swabs, sterile water ampules and tourniquets (to stop use of shoe laces or belts).^ Back This project is supported by Genome Alberta & Genome Canada , a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canada's national genomics strategy with $600 million in funding from the federal government.
  • T3DB - Toxin, Toxin-Target Database 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC 129.128.185.121 [Source type: Academic]

^ Support the establishment of an outreach project, which would offer needle exchange and other HIV prevention services, low threshold medical care and social support, while simultaneously collecting systematic information on the nature and extent of drug use and HIV risk behaviors.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A kit may have a sterile access port (for example the container may be an intravenous solution bag or a vial having a stopper pierceable by a hypodermic injection needle).
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Another harm reduction measure employed for example in Switzerland and Germany are safe injection sites where users can inject heroin and cocaine under the supervision of medically trained staff.^ Only a minority of heroin users inject.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A minority of heroin users are injecting.
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^ They started using heroin and cocaine in Germany, where they were working for a relative, selling the two drugs to German "Fixer".
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those establishments also often include a cafeteria and a designated area where the sale and acquisition of small amounts of drugs among users is tolerated.^ It is made clear that knowledge about and experience with drug problems is still limited, which is reflected in the treatment approach: drug users are mixed with patients with a wide variety of psychiatric complaints and addiction treatment is often improvised and not based on established criteria.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often this leads to small groups hanging out in and around the restroom area.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Safe injection sites are low threshold and allow social services to approach problem users that would otherwise be hard to reach.^ Support the establishment of an outreach project, which would offer needle exchange and other HIV prevention services, low threshold medical care and social support, while simultaneously collecting systematic information on the nature and extent of drug use and HIV risk behaviors.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, medical care, help with social problems, psychotherapy and legal counseling, offered on a voluntary basis, would certainly improve the effectivity of treatment.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are no follow-up social reintegration programs, nor are there care and support services available for users who are unable or unwilling to stop using drugs.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54]

Withdrawal

.The withdrawal syndrome from heroin may begin within 6 to 24 hours of discontinuation of the drug; however, this time frame can fluctuate with the degree of tolerance as well as the amount of the last consumed dose.^ Black tar heroin The withdrawal syndrome from heroin may begin starting from within 6 to 24 hours of discontinuation of sustained use of the drug; however, this time frame can fluctuate with the degree of tolerance as well as the amount of the last consumed dose.

^ Black tar heroin The withdrawal syndrome from heroin may begin within 6 to 24 hours of discontinuation of the drug; however, this time frame can fluctuate with the degree of tolerance as well as the amount of the last consumed dose.

^ Depending on usage it has an onset 4 to 24 hours after the last dose of diacetylmorphine.
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Symptoms may include: sweating, malaise, anxiety, depression, priapism, extra sensitivity of the genitals in females, general feeling of heaviness, cramp-like pains in the limbs, excessive yawning or sneezing, tears, rhinorrhea, sleep difficulties (insomnia), cold sweats, chills, severe muscle and bone aches; nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, cramps, and fever.^ Symptoms of overdose include cold, clammy skin, flaccid muscles, fluid in the lungs, lowered blood pressure, "pinpoint" or dilated pupils, sleepiness leading to stupor and coma, slowed breathing, and slow pulse rate.
  • T3DB - Toxin, Toxin-Target Database 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC 129.128.185.121 [Source type: Academic]

^ For purposes of this invention, beneficial or desired clinical results include, but are not limited to, one or more of the following: lessening severity, alleviation of one or more symptoms associated with pain including any aspect of pain (such as shortening duration of pain, and/or reduction of pain sensitivity or sensation).
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

[55]

Heroin prescription for addicts

.The UK Department of Health's Rolleston Committee report in 1926 established the British approach to heroin prescription to users, which was maintained for the next 40 years: dealers were prosecuted, but doctors could prescribe heroin to users when withdrawing from it would cause harm or severe distress to the patient.^ Whether harm results would depend on numerous factors, including age, body weight, general and specific health issues, and the quantity of heroin.
  • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

.This "policing and prescribing" policy effectively controlled the perceived heroin problem in the UK until 1959 when the number of heroin addicts doubled every 16th month during a period of ten years, 1959–1968.[56] The failure changed the attitudes; in 1964 only specialized clinics and selected approved doctors were allowed to prescribe heroin to users.^ Only a minority of heroin users inject.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Current estimates of the total number of heroin users in the country vary between 2000 and 6210.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Applying this formula to the State Register would result in an estimated number of heroin users between 5100 and 8500.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The law was made more restrictive in 1968. Beginning in the 1970s, the emphasis shifted to abstinence and the use of methadone, until now only a small number of users in the UK are prescribed heroin.^ Only a minority of heroin users inject.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following the epidemic model, we can expect heroin use in Macedonia to reach its peak in about 5 to 7 years, at a number of users three to four times as high as the current number.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Risto started to use heroin when he was 16 and has been using for three and a half years now.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57]
In 1994 Switzerland began a trial heroin maintenance program for users that had failed multiple withdrawal programs. .The aim of this program is to maintain the health of the user to avoid medical problems stemming from use of illicit street heroin.^ All these users agreed that heroin use has increased tremendously in the past five years --they all started using within this period-- and that the drug is popular among the youth.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The editor of the station explained that they have a close tie with their, largely adolescent, audience and see the problems brought about by heroin use at close range.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Follow-up services after detoxification or social reintegration programs for people who terminated heroin use or who are maintained on methadone are absent.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Reducing drug-related crime and preventing overdoses were two other goals.^ Prevention of a large scale drug related HIV epidemic.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first trial in 1994 involved 340 users, although enrollment was later expanded to 1000 based on the apparent success of the program.^ The first trial in 1994 involved 340 users, although enrollment was later expanded to 1000 based on the apparent success of the program.
  • Heroin - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The success of the Swiss trials led German, Dutch, [44] and Canadian [45] cities to try out their own heroin prescription programs.

^ The success of the Swiss trials led German, Dutch, [ 45 ] and Canadian [ 46 ] cities to try out their own heroin prescription programs.
  • City Vision College | Heroin: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry | Online Courses in Urban Ministry, Missions, CFRE Fund Raising, Accounting, Nonprofit Management and Counseling 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.urbanministry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Participants are allowed to inject heroin in specially designed pharmacies for 15 Swiss francs per day.[58] A national referendum in November 2008 showed 68% of voters supported the plan,[59] introducing heroin prescription into federal law. The trials before were based on time-limited executive ordinances.
The success of the Swiss trials led German, Dutch,[60] and Canadian[61] cities to try out their own heroin prescription programs.[62] .Some Australian cities (such as Sydney) have instituted legal heroin supervised injecting centers, in line with other wider harm minimization programs.^ Being initiated into heroin use in such a situation generally equals initiation into chasing, while the likelihood of initiation into injecting is rather small.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some embodiment, the NGF antagonist binds NGF (such as hNGF) and does not significantly bind to related neurotrophins, such as NT-3, NT4/5, and/or BDNF. In other embodiments, the NGF antagonist is an anti-NGF antibody.
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In other embodiments, the anti-NGF antibody comprises one or more CDR(s) of antibody E3 (such as one, two, three, four, five, or, in some embodiments, all six CDRs from E3).
  • Methods for treating pain by administering a nerve growth factor antagonist and an opioid analgesic and compositions containing the same - Patent Application 20040131615 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

Since January 2009 Denmark has prescribed heroin to a few addicts that have tried methadone and subutex without success.[63] Beginning in February 2010, addicts in Copenhagen and Odense will be eligible to receive free heroin. Later in 2010 other cities including Århus and Esbjerg will join the scheme. In total, around 230 addicts will be able to receive free heroin.[64] .However, Danish addicts will only be able to inject heroin according to the policy set by Danish National Board of Health.^ Only a minority of heroin users inject.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only very few Albanians inject, they reportedly mainly smoke the heroin in cigarettes or chase the drug (see Intermezzo: Ali & Muhammed).
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it is at least equally important to reach (injecting) heroin users, who are presently not in treatment.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65] Of the estimated 1500 drugs users who does not benefit from the current oral substitution treatment, approximately 900 will not be in the target group for treatment with injectable heroin, either because of "massive multiple drug abuse of non-opioids" or "not wanting treatment with injectable heroin".[66]
.In July 2009, the German Bundestag passed a law allowing heroin prescription as a standard treatment for addicts; while heroin prescription was started in 2002, it was only authorized as a large-scale trial.^ "Before we went working in Germany, only few people were into using heroin, but when we returned it seemed as if everybody in Skopje was starting to use.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The current restrictions on the prescription of methadone and other heroin substitutes might be relaxed, so that GPs are able to prescribe these drugs in the course of addiction treatment.
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They started using heroin and cocaine in Germany, where they were working for a relative, selling the two drugs to German "Fixer".
  • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67]

Popular culture

Literature

  • In the 1926 novel, The Murder of Roger Ackroyd, there is a discussion between the book’s protagonist, Hercule Poirot, and the book’s narrator, Dr. James Sheppard, regarding a discovery the former made in a summer house on the estate where the novel’s titular character was murdered. .In Chapter 13, “The Goose Quill,” Poirot discovers a goose quill used by addicts to carry “snow,” as the powdered form of heroin was then known.^ Of the +/- 200 prisoners in this jail 20-30 are (known) drug addicts, their primary drug being mostly heroin (within a polydrug use pattern).
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This clue is considered integral to solving the murder.
“Yes, heroin ‘snow.’ Drug-takers carry it like this, and sniff it up the nose.”
“Diamorphine hydrochloride,” I murmured mechanically.
“This method of taking the drug is very common on the other side. Another proof, if we wanted one, that the man come from Canada or the States.”[68]
.
  • The Basketball Diaries is a 1978 book written by American author and musician Jim Carroll.^ Many "junkies" reportedly experiment with a wide variety of pharmacy drugs to either substitute or boost heroin use.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The medical center started to experience a rise in drug problems about two years ago.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Whether harm results would depend on numerous factors, including age, body weight, general and specific health issues, and the quantity of heroin.
    • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

    It is an edited collection of the diaries he kept between the ages of twelve and sixteen. .Set in New York City, they detail his daily life, sexual experiences, high school basketball career, Cold War paranoia, the counterculture movement, and, especially, his addiction to heroin, which began when he was 13. The book was made into a film under the same name in 1995 starring Leonardo DiCaprio.
  • Irvine Welsh's 1993 novel Trainspotting which was later made into a feature film under the same name explores the turbulent lives of an eccentric group of heroin users.
  • Allen Hoey's 2006 novel, Chasing the Dragon, examines the use of heroin among jazz musicians in the 1950s.
  • A 2007 book entitled The Heroin Diaries by author and musician Nikki Sixx from Mötley Crüe and Sixx:A.M. chronicles his heroin addiction in his diary between the years 1986–1987, as well as his chronic extreme hedonism, attitudes, drug use and his inevitable route to dying and coming back to life.
  • A 2008 book entitled, The Death Proclamation of Generation X: A Self-Fulfilling Prophesy of Goth, Grunge and Heroin, by researcher Maxim W. Furek, investigates the prominence of heroin in music, motion pictures, and Generation X culture.^ Heroin use, and drug use in general is generally viewed as an urban phenomenon.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Household or school surveys into the use of drugs have not been conducted.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When the drugs were bought, they would go to the apartment of one of the group members to use and relax, or sometimes, when an apartment was not available, they would use in an elevator or in a car.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Published by i-Universe. (ISBN 978-0-595-46319-0)

Musicians who have used heroin, or written about heroin use

.
  • Nikki Sixx of Mötley Crüe released diaries from his time as a heroin addict named The Heroin Diaries: A Year in the Life of a Shattered Rock Star.^ Following the epidemic model, we can expect heroin use in Macedonia to reach its peak in about 5 to 7 years, at a number of users three to four times as high as the current number.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The number of heroin users is expected to grow over the coming years to three to four times the current size of the population.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .An album was also produced based on the book.
  • Kurt Cobain (front man of the grunge band Nirvana) was addicted to heroin for a stomach problem: he said he could not get any relief from any other substance.^ Treatment of heroin addiction and other drug problems in Macedonia is still in its infancy.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .He allegedly committed suicide after taking heroin.
  • Jim Morrison reportedly died of an overdose of heroin in a bathtub in Paris.
  • The Velvet Underground song "Heroin" (from their first album The Velvet Underground and Nico) describes the use and effects of the drug, with Lou Reed singing from the perspective of a heroin addict, describing his thoughts and feelings while under the effects of the drug, while the music (led by a dissonant viola and guitar strums) is played to resemble the effects of heroin use (with rushed and calm parts interchanging).^ While reportedly mainly an urban phenomenon, some informants believe that heroin is also used among rural (Albanian) populations in the west of Macedonia.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The station is actively promoting discussion on drug use and has broadcasted pro marihuana and anti heroin messages.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Only very few Albanians inject, they reportedly mainly smoke the heroin in cigarettes or chase the drug (see Intermezzo: Ali & Muhammed).
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The song was ranked #448 on Rolling Stone Magazine's list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. .Another famous song from the album, "I'm Waiting for the Man", tells the story of a New Yorker waiting for his drug dealer, describing the city environment, and then buying and using the heroin, only to conclude singing "until tomorrow, but it's just another time".
  • Neil Young wrote a song called "The Needle and the Damage Done" about heroin.^ (Return to Table of Contents) It needs to be stressed that the information gathered in this report provides only an initial assessment of the drug use situation in Macedonia.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The station is actively promoting discussion on drug use and has broadcasted pro marihuana and anti heroin messages.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Only very few Albanians inject, they reportedly mainly smoke the heroin in cigarettes or chase the drug (see Intermezzo: Ali & Muhammed).
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The song reflected on the musicians he knew that took heroin and died from it.
  • Led Zeppelin guitar player Jimmy Page struggled with heroin from 1975 to the early 1980s.^ The current restrictions on the prescription of methadone and other heroin substitutes might be relaxed, so that GPs are able to prescribe these drugs in the course of addiction treatment.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The heroin had very serious effects on him, including hampering his guitar playing skills, and making him ultra-thin in the early 80's.
  • David Bowie's first single "Space Oddity," was seemingly about his experience with heroin, as his 1980 single "Ashes to Ashes" included the lines that refer to Major Tom as "...^ Because of their involvement in heroin trafficking, they will experience very few availability problems.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For Risto heroin use is very much a social experience.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    a junkie/strung out on heaven's high/hitting an all-time low.
    "[69]
  • .
  • Megadeth's song from Megadeth's Album Youthanasia - Addicted to Chaos, is influenced by Dave Mustaine's use of heroin previously.
  • Rozz Williams's final album before his suicide, The Whorse's Mouth, dealt with his heroin addiction.^ "Before we went working in Germany, only few people were into using heroin, but when we returned it seemed as if everybody in Skopje was starting to use.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Of the +/- 200 prisoners in this jail 20-30 are (known) drug addicts, their primary drug being mostly heroin (within a polydrug use pattern).
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [70]
  • .
  • Sid Vicious from the Sex Pistols died of a heroin overdose, and allegedly stabbed his girlfriend to death while both were strung out on heroin.^ The main causes of death in both sexes in 1993 were diseases of heart and circulatory system, and cancers.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [71]
  • Dee Dee Ramone of punk rock band The Ramones was addicted to heroin throughout most of his career. After leaving the band in 1992, he seemed to give up the substance. .However, he was found dead from a heroin overdose in 2002.
  • Hillel Slovak, founding member of the Red Hot Chili Peppers, died of a 'speedball' overdose, which includes both cocaine and heroin.^ Cocaine use may also grow, both among recreational users --who will primarily be snorting the drug-- and among the current heroin users --who can be expected to use this drug as they use heroin, i.e.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Together with band member Anthony Kiedis, he battled a heroin addiction prior to his death.
  • Brad Nowell died of a heroin overdose shortly before Sublime's first major label album came out.
  • B.G. (rapper from New Orleans) raps about his previous addiction to heroin (via injection) in numerous songs.
  • Etta James stated in her autobiography that she had many troubles with heroin addiction in the 1970s and 80s, admitting she was often in rehabilitation centers.
  • Jerry Garcia (guitarist for the Grateful Dead) was a user of heroin for many years.^ Many felt that heroin users are starting at increasingly younger ages: "...
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Applying this formula to the State Register would result in an estimated number of heroin users between 5100 and 8500.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Neuropsychiatric department of the Medical center in Ohrid admitted 40 patients for treatment of drug problems during the past two years (1993 & 1994).
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .He died in a rehabilitation facility while trying to get help for his heroin addiction.
  • Phil Anselmo of Pantera was reported to have been addicted to Heroin up until the early 2000s.
  • GG Allin, cult punk rock singer, was addicted to heroin and died of an accidental overdose in 1993, only six days after leaving prison and three days after attending the premier of the film, Hated.
  • Bad Religion bassist, Jay Bentley was a heroin addict during the late 80's/early 90's.^ If a continual, sustained use of heroin for as little as three days is stopped abruptly, withdrawal symptoms can appear.
    • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One respondent, who was on methadone at the time of the interview, had experienced a methadone shortage: "Three days without methadone, then you are forced to use heroin."
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ During the tours of Skopje's night life only a few female heroin users were pointed out.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Bad Religion guitarist, Brett Gurewitz was also known for "experimenting" with heroin. .Both entered rehab in the mid 90's and both are currently off drugs.
  • NOFX drummer, Erik Sandin was a heroin addict from the 80's to the early 90's.^ As with other opiates, heroin is used both as a pain-killer and a recreational drug.
    • Print Page - Free market in a world of unfair job 9 October 2009 6:06 UTC forum.freestateproject.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Cocaine use may also grow, both among recreational users --who will primarily be snorting the drug-- and among the current heroin users --who can be expected to use this drug as they use heroin, i.e.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The current restrictions on the prescription of methadone and other heroin substitutes might be relaxed, so that GPs are able to prescribe these drugs in the course of addiction treatment.
    • Heroin Epidemic in Macedonia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.vmacedonia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The band told him if he didn't quit doing heroin, they wouldn't allow him to play on their new album. He quit taking heroin and since then has been completely sober and has been NOFX's drummer since that period.

Film and TV

  • Quentin Tarantino's 1994 film Pulp Fiction fully depicts the steps of heroin injection by Vincent Vega (John Travolta), and subsequent near-fatal overdose by Mia Wallace (Uma Thurman) via snorting.
  • Darren Aronosfky's 2000 film Requiem for a Dream, based on the book of the same name, depicts the lives of a group of heroin addicts and the devastating results of their addiction.
  • The film Trainspotting, based on the book of the same name, revolves around a group of heroin users and the attempts of one of the group to quit.
  • The film RENT (2005), based on the musical by Jonathan Larson, includes a character, Mimi who struggles with a heroin addiction and has contracted AIDS from her usage.
  • The film Candy starring Heath Ledger focused on a couple very much in love and destroyed by heroin addiction.
  • Party Monster, a movie based on James St. James' true tales of New York City club kids in the late 1980s, shows an extreme use of heroin and other drugs such as ketamine (Special K) and cocaine.
  • The Film "Gia" based on a true story of model Gia Carangi is about her addiction and use of heroin and how it affected her.[72]
  • The film "Christiane F." portrays the troubles of young heroin users in Berlin.
  • 1971's The Panic In Needle Park starring Al Pacino revolves around Pacino's character and his girlfriend's addictions to heroin and the repercussions of it. The film features graphic scenes of users injecting the drug.
  • Season 3 of the TV series 24 depicts Kiefer Sutherland starring as Jack Bauer struggling with a heroin addiction.

See also

References

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Literature

  • Diary Of A Drug Fiend by Aleister Crowley (1922)
  • Junkie (novel) by William S. Burroughs (1953) ISBN 0142003166
  • Heroin (1998) ISBN 1-56838-153-0
  • Heroin Century (2002) ISBN 0-415-27899-6
  • This is Heroin (2002) ISBN 1-86074-424-9
  • The Heroin User's Handbook by Francis Moraes (paperback 2004) ISBN 1-55950-216-9
  • The Little Book of Heroin by Francis Moraes (paperback 2000) ISBN 0-914171-98-4
  • Heroin: A True Story of Addiction, Hope and Triumph by Julie O'Toole (paperback 2005) ISBN 1-905379-01-3
  • The Heroin Diaries: A Year in the Life of a Shattered Rockstar by Nikki Sixx (2007) ISBN 978-0743486-28-6
  • Heroin: The Myths and the Facts by Richard Ashley (1972), St. Martin's Press, Library of Congress No. 72-89417
  • "The Death Proclamation of Generation X: A Self-Fulfilling Prophesy of Goth, Grunge and Heroin" by Maxim W. Furek, M. (2008), i-Universe. ISBN 978-0-595-46319-0

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also heroin

German

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German Wikipedia has an article on:
Heroin
Wikipedia de

Noun

Heroin n.
  1. heroin

Synonyms

  • Diacetylmorphin n.
  • Diamorphin n.

Simple English

File:Bayer Heroin
When heroin was first made (around 1900), it was sold as a drug against coughing, as well as a painkiller. It was marketed in bottles such as this one

Heroin (also called Diacetylmorphine or Diamorphine) is a semi-syntheticopioid. It is an analgesic (a painkiller). It is made from the sap of the poppy plant. It is like other drugs made from the poppy plant sap, for example, opium or morphine. There is a high risk of getting addicted. Many countries consider it to be an illegal drug unless it its taken for medical purposes.

File:Heroin
Heroin in its powder form
File:Diamorphine
Heroin for clinical use in hospitals, as a painkiller. This kind is a liquid that is given with a syringe

Heroin is a white or brown powder. People smoke or inject heroin to get a calm feeling of relaxation called "being high," or "euphoria". Heroin is a very addictive drug. This means that once a person starts taking heroin, they will want to take more heroin, even if it's making them sick.

Contents

Legality

It is illegal to make, sell, and use heroin in most countries, unless a doctor has prescribed it for a person. Many people smuggle heroin and sell it illegally on the streets to make money.

Dangers of using heroin

If people use heroin, they may take too much and get sick or even die. This is called an "overdose" (taking too much). As well, when people take heroin, they get intoxicated (like being drunk on alcohol). When a person is intoxicated, they can get hurt if they drive a car or other vehicle. As well, when a person is intoxicated, they may do dangerous things, such as have unsafe sex with a person that they do not know, or get into a violent fight with a person. There is also the danger of "Withdrawal". Withdrawal is when someone quits using an opiate, like Heroin, after they've been using it for a while. A user can have withdrawal symptoms even just after 3 days of continued use. Withdrawal is one of the worst fears of a user, and they will do anything to not have to go through it. Withdrawal can make someone feel like they have the flu. Other symptoms are hot and cold sweats, chills, body aches, diarrhea, loss of appetite, and not being able to sleep.

Heroin is a very addictive drug. This means that if a person starts taking the drug, they will want to keep taking it, and it will be hard to stop, even if the drug is making a person sick (ill). Addiction means that a person will do much more than usual to get enough money to buy another dose of the drug. This means that they will sell things they have. At some point, the person has sold all their belongings. The only options left then are to work as a prostitute (that is to sell having sex for money), or to become a criminal, and do things like theft, robbery, or fraud. By making some drugs legal, the prices for those will drop, and the people addicted will have to sell less things to get another dose.

Another danger from using heroin is infection with dangerous diseases such as AIDS or Hepatitis C. When a person is injecting heroin, a person can get an AIDS or Hepatitis C infection from another person if they are sharing the same syringe (needle). As well, if a person is "high" on heroin, they could get an AIDS or Hepatitis C infection from having unsafe sex with a person that they do not know.

Street names

There are many slang street names for this drug, and they can be different from place to place. Some of them are: China White, Dope, Horse, Junk, H, Smack and some call it by its name Heroin. In the early 1970s in Harlem (NYC), drug lord Frank Lucas had 98-100% pure product from Thailand called "Blue Magic."[1]

Heroin history

Heroin was made in 1898, by the Bayer Company in Germany. It started as a cough medicine, and pain killer. People thought it would help with morphine and opium addiction. Instead it became a very addictive drug. Twelve years later doctors realized it was heroin that people became addicted to. The Harrison act of 1914, was the first of many attempts to control the use of heroin. The word heroin comes from the German word, heroisch, which means powerful and heroic.

References


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Heroin, which are similar to those in the above article.








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