Herpes simplex: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Herpes simplex
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 A60., B00., G05.1, P35.2
ICD-9 054.0, 054.1, 054.2, 054.3, 771.2
DiseasesDB 5841 33021
eMedicine med/1006
MeSH D006561
Herpes simplex (Ancient Greekἕρπης - herpes, lit. ."creeping") is a viral disease caused by both herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2).^ Herpes simplex virus.

^ Everyone is at risk for herpes simplex virus.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HSV-2 is the main cause of genital herpes.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Infection with the herpes virus is categorized into one of several distinct disorders based on the site of infection.^ [Herpes simplex virus infections in Algiers].
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Herpes is an infection caused by the herpes virus.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Natural Treatment for Oral Herpes & Mouth Herpes, Genital Herpes, Ayurvedic & Herbal Treatment for Herpes Virus, Herbal remedies for HSV 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fixherpes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Oral herpes, the visible symptoms of which are colloquially called cold sores, infects the face and mouth.^ Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks.
  • Natural Treatment for Oral Herpes & Mouth Herpes, Genital Herpes, Ayurvedic & Herbal Treatment for Herpes Virus, Herbal remedies for HSV 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fixherpes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generally causes cold sores around the mouth (oral herpes).
  • Natural Treatment for Oral Herpes & Mouth Herpes, Genital Herpes, Ayurvedic & Herbal Treatment for Herpes Virus, Herbal remedies for HSV 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fixherpes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oral herpes and cold sores can sometimes be confused with canker sores .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Oral herpes is the most common form of infection.^ It is easily transmitted and is the most common form of the herpes simplex virus.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the most prevalent form of HSV, and infection is most likely to occur during preschool years.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HSV Encephalitis This is usually the result of an HSV-1 infection and is the most common sporadic viral encephalitis.

.Genital herpes, commonly known simply as herpes, is the second most common form of herpes.^ It is easily transmitted and is the most common form of the herpes simplex virus.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although people with active genital herpes are well known to be at high risk for transmitting the infection, it is not clear how great a risk is posed by infected people without symptoms.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genital herpes is most commonly spread by genital-to-genital or oral-to-genital contact during the days preceding an outbreak (the prodrome period).
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other disorders such as herpetic whitlow, herpes gladiatorum, ocular herpes (keratitis), cerebral herpes infection encephalitis, Mollaret's meningitis, neonatal herpes, and possibly Bell's palsy are all caused by herpes simplex viruses.^ Central nervous system infection can cause meningitis or encephalitis.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More serious disorders are caused by these viruses when they infect the central nervous system - these include herpes encephalitis , Mollaret's meningitis , and possibly Bell's palsy .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A herpetic whitlow is an infection of the herpes virus around the fingernail.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Herpes viruses cycle between periods of active disease—presenting as blisters containing infectious virus particles—that last 2–21 days, followed by a remission period, during which the sores disappear.^ Diseases caused by Herpes Simplex Viruses .

^ The sores have disappeared in 3 days!
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Are herpes viruses responsible for neuropsychiatric diseases?
  • Psychological aspects of herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Genital herpes, however, is often asymptomatic, though viral shedding may still occur.^ However, one may still have genital herpes, even if the culture is negative.
  • Natural Treatment for Oral Herpes & Mouth Herpes, Genital Herpes, Ayurvedic & Herbal Treatment for Herpes Virus, Herbal remedies for HSV 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fixherpes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, in women the virus is often shed from skin areas around the genital area, which can have contact to skin areas in the male outside the condom.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although most effective against an active infection, acyclovir may also reduce the frequency of viral shedding.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After initial infection, the viruses move to sensory nerves, where they reside as life-long, latent viruses.^ If the primary (or initial) oral infection causes symptoms, they can be very painful, particularly in small children.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HSV 1 and 2 infections are life-long and although latency is soon set up, the infected patient can infect others as a result of recurrence.

^ Investigators are studying whether giving long-term oral acyclovir to newborns following the initial infection will improve the outcome.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Causes of recurrence are uncertain, though some potential triggers have been identified.^ Certain foods can prolong the occurrence of cold sores, while some can trigger their recurrence.
  • Cold Sores - My Home Remedies 25 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.myhomeremedies.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the experience of some physicians, short, intense exposure to sunlight may trigger a recurrence, but there is no clear evidence concerning sunlight or any other potential triggers.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the experience of some doctors, short, intense exposure to sunlight may trigger a recurrence, but there is no clear evidence concerning sunlight or any other potential triggers.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over time, episodes of active disease reduce in frequency and severity.^ Although most effective against an active infection, acyclovir may also reduce the frequency of viral shedding.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taken preventively, it reduces frequency and severity of recurring infections.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Immunocompromised indiduals may experience episodes that are longer, more frequent and more severe.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Herpes simplex is most easily transmitted by direct contact with a lesion or the body fluid of an infected individual.^ It is easily transmitted and is the most common form of the herpes simplex virus.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Herpes can be contracted through direct contact with an active lesion or body fluid of an infected person.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ HSV-1 and HSV-2 are transmitted by direct contact with a sore or body fluid of an infected individual, and can cause painful fluid-filled blisters, containing millions of infectious virus particles.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Transmission may also occur through skin-to-skin contact during periods of asymptomatic shedding.^ It then goes through a period called shedding .
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During latent periods, the virus is not transmissible.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transit times may vary, particularly during peak periods.
  • BioStick -Cold Sores,Herpes Simplex,Oral Light Therapy - eBay (item 180395320714 end time Mar-07-10 13:25:52 PST) 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC cgi.ebay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Barrier protection methods are the most reliable method of preventing transmission of herpes, but they merely reduce rather than eliminate risk.^ Recurrent outbreaks of herpes simplex virus (HSV) feature most of the same symptoms at the same sites as the primary attack, but they tend to be milder and briefer.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Risk factors for the sexual transmission of genital herpes.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Recurring herpes and a first infection that is acquired early in the pregnancy pose a much lower risk (less than 1%) to the infant.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Oral herpes is easily diagnosed if the patient presents with visible sores or ulcers.^ Other conditions that may be confused with oral herpes include herpangina (a form of the Coxsackie A virus), sore throat caused by strep or other bacteria, and infectious mononucleosis.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Common mouth ulcers ( aphthous ulcer ), also resemble intraoral herpes, but do not present a vesicular stage.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oral herpes is spread by direct contact with an active sore in an infected person, for instance, during kissing.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Early stages of orofacial herpes and genital herpes are harder to diagnose; laboratory testing is usually required.^ Laboratory testing is, therefore, often used to confirm genital herpes.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ HSV-2, which usually causes genital herpes .
  • Cold sores (facial herpes simplex) - Everybody - Health Information for New Zealanders 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.everybody.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ Links to genital herpes pictures (Hardin MD/ University of Iowa Herpes photo library at Dermnet Pictures of Orofacial Herpes (Coldsores) (VisualDxHealth) Genital Herpes Pictures [ edit ] Other .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Twenty percent of the U.S. population has antibodies to HSV-2, although not all of them have a history of genital lesions.^ Lesions develop in places other than the genital region in 10% to 18% of primary HSV-2 infections.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although 25 - 30% of pregnant women in the U.S. and Europe have a history of HSV-2 infection, the risk of transmission to the newborn is low, occurring in between one in 3,500 - 20,000 births, depending on the population group.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genital herpes, which typically affects the penis, vulva, or rectum, is usually caused by HSV-2, although the rate of HSV-1 genital infection is increasing.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
A cure for herpes has not yet been developed. .Once infected, the virus remains in the body for life.^ Even now, it is very difficult to treat and control this disease, because the virus can remain dormant within the nerve bodies.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ANY virus you ever contract stays in you system forever, whether it be a common cold (you only “catch” a cold once in your life) or HIV. .
  • Attention Whore Tia Tequila Says Rihanna Has Herpes | Bossip.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC bossip.com [Source type: General]

^ In some cases, infected people can transmit the virus and infect other parts of their own bodies (most often the hands, thighs, or buttocks).
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, after several years, some people will become perpetually asymptomatic and will no longer experience outbreaks, though they may still be contagious to others.^ Its been over a year now and there have been no outbreaks.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since there is currently no cure for herpes , some people experience negative feelings related to the condition following diagnosis, particularly if they have acquired the genital form of the disease.
  • Psychological aspects of herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some condoms come prelubricated with sperm-killing substances called spermicides, which are no longer recommended.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vaccines are in clinical trials but have not demonstrated effectiveness.^ Several protein subunit vaccines based on HSV-2 envelope glycoproteins have reached advanced-phase clinical trials.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Two similar subunit vaccines have recently completed phase III clinical trials.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ See more articles cited in this paragraph Multicentre clinical trial with herpes simplex virus vaccine in recurrent herpes infection.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Treatments can reduce viral reproduction and shedding, prevent the virus from entering the skin, and alleviate the severity of symptomatic episodes.^ Antiviral mediations, such as aciclovir and valaciclovir , taken orally, reduce viral reproduction and shedding, and some topical creams, such as Docosanol and Tromantadine prevent the virus from entering the skin.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The use of antiviral treatments, such as aciclovir, given from the 36th week of pregnancy prevents HSV recurrence and shedding during childbirth, thereby reducing the need for caesarean section.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Docosanol prevents the virus from fusing to cell membranes, thus barring the entry of the virus into the skin.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Herpes simplex should not be confused with conditions caused by other viruses in the herpesviridae family such as herpes zoster, which is a viral disease caused by varicella zoster virus.^ Human herpes virus 1 (HHV1) or herpes simplex virus 1 .
  • Natural Treatment for Oral Herpes & Mouth Herpes, Genital Herpes, Ayurvedic & Herbal Treatment for Herpes Virus, Herbal remedies for HSV 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fixherpes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Everyone is at risk for herpes simplex virus.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The virion transactivator of herpes simplex virus.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.There is also a possibility of confusion with hand, foot and mouth disease due to apparition of lesions on the skin.^ Hand, foot and mouth disease .
  • Cold sores (facial herpes simplex) - Everybody - Health Information for New Zealanders 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.everybody.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the lesions of herpes simplex virus are distinctive, they can be confused with other skin infections.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Signs and Symptoms

.HSV infection causes several distinct medical disorders.^ HSV infection has the potential to induce apoptosis by several distinct mechanisms.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is important for doctors to determine whether the genital herpes infection is caused by HSV-1 or HSV-2, as the type of herpes infection influences prognosis and treatment recommendations.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Given the serious medical sequelae of HSV-1 infection ( 292 ), administration of an active HSV-2 vaccine to HSV-seronegative persons might have clinical benefit by reducing HSV-1 infection and/or disease.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Common infection of the skin or mucosa may affect the face and mouth (orofacial herpes), genitalia (genital herpes), or hands (herpes whitlow).^ Several distinct disorders are caused by HSV infection of the skin or mucosa including those that affect the face and mouth (orofacial herpes), genitalia (genital herpes), or hands (herpes whitlow).
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Common acute hand infections.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It can also lead to infection in the genital area (genital herpes).
  • Natural Treatment for Oral Herpes & Mouth Herpes, Genital Herpes, Ayurvedic & Herbal Treatment for Herpes Virus, Herbal remedies for HSV 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fixherpes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More serious disorders occur when the virus infects and damages the eye (herpes keratitis), or invades the central nervous system, damaging the brain (herpes encephalitis).^ More serious problems arise when the virus infects and damages the eye (herpes keratitis) or invades the central nervous system to damage the brain (herpes encephalitis).
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Central nervous system infection can cause meningitis or encephalitis.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More serious disorders are caused by these viruses when they infect the central nervous system - these include herpes encephalitis , Mollaret's meningitis , and possibly Bell's palsy .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Patients with immature or suppressed immune systems, such as newborns, transplant recipients, or AIDS patients are prone to severe complications from HSV infections.^ Such patients are also at risk for more severe complications from herpes.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Individuals with HIV and transplant patients have compromised immune systems, and can develop serious HSV infections such as keratitis or encephalitis .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This includes patients infected with HIV, patients taking drugs that suppress the immune system, and transplant patients.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.HSV infection has also been associated with cognitive deficits of bipolar disorder,[2] and Alzheimer's disease,[3] although this is often dependent on the genetics of the infected person.^ Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Is Associated with Cognitive Deficits in Bipolar Disorder: Biological Psychiatry Vol 55(6) Mar 2004, 588-593.
  • Psychological aspects of herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Use of MF59 adjuvant in HSV-seronegative subjects produced neutralizing-antibody levels at or above the levels measured in HSV-2-infected persons ( 57 , 143 ).
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Comparison of Th1 (IFN-γ and interleukin-2 [IL-2]) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) responses by PBMC between HSV-1-infected persons with and without a history of symptomatic infection failed to detect statistically significant differences, although trends were present consistent with a protective effect of strong Th1 responses ( 251 ).
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.There is a single report of a systemic infection with HSV-2, where a healthy 28-year old woman with a healthy immune system died 12 days after contracting the virus.^ In about a quarter of HSV-1 encephalitis cases, the infection may be caused by a new strain of the virus.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bio 88 will remind the immune system to keep the fight up, even if the virus is dormant.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Natural Treatment for Oral Herpes & Mouth Herpes, Genital Herpes, Ayurvedic & Herbal Treatment for Herpes Virus, Herbal remedies for HSV 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fixherpes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IL-4 production during HSV infection has in vaginal and CNS infections been demonstrated on day 2 of infection and to increase for the next days [ 437 , 438 ].
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

[4]
.In all cases HSV is never removed from the body by the immune system.^ The body does mount an immune response to HSV, and in most healthy people recurring infections tend to become progressively less severe and less frequent.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is most common in infants but can appear in people of all ages, particularly those with impaired immune systems.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The immunocompromised host faces an increased risk of developing severe HSV infections and the emergence of acquired resistance compared with an individual with a fully functional immune system.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Following a primary infection, the virus enters the nerves at the site of primary infection, migrates to the cell body of the neuron, and becomes latent in the ganglion.^ Normally, the virus inhabits only 1 nerve cell in your body.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Once a primary infection has resolved, the HSV enters the nerves surrounding the primary lesion, migrates to the cell body of the neuron, and becomes latent.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The virus travels from the epidermis along the nerve paths to the trigeminal ganglion, a bundle of nerves close to the inner ear, where it lies hidden until it is reactivated.
  • Cold sores (facial herpes simplex) - Everybody - Health Information for New Zealanders 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.everybody.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

[5] .As a result of primary infection, the body produces antibodies to the particular type of HSV involved, preventing a subsequent infection of that type at a different site.^ The primary infection can progress in different ways.
  • Cold sores (facial herpes simplex) - Everybody - Health Information for New Zealanders 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.everybody.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ This usually results in loss of vision due to opacification of the cornea and is a result of an antibody responses against the viral antigen expression in the stroma following persistent infection.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The toxic effects of HSV-1 infection, in particular ICP0 ( 220 ), U S 1.5 ( 80 ), and U L 13 ( 80 ) make neurons vulnerable to damage and death.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.In HSV-1 infected individuals, seroconversion after an oral infection will prevent additional HSV-1 infections such as whitlow, genital herpes, and keratitis.^ HSV-2 is the main cause of genital herpes.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment of recurrent genital herpes simplex infections with oral acyclovir.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ (HSV-2 still causes the majority of genital herpes infections.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Prior HSV-1 seroconversion seems to reduce the symptoms of a later HSV-2 infection, although HSV-2 can still be contracted.^ Additionally, the vaccine only reduced the acquisition of HSV-2 and symptoms due to newly acquired HSV-2 among women who did not have HSV-2 infection at the time they got the vaccine.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Genital herpes, which typically affects the penis, vulva, or rectum, is usually caused by herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), although the rate of simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) genital infection is increasing.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, evidence suggests about one-third of all herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infections occur when the virus is shedding but producing no symptoms.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most indications are that an HSV-2 infection contracted prior to HSV-1 seroconversion will also immunize that person against HSV-1 infection.^ Findings of specific giant cells with many nuclei or distinctive particles that carry the virus (called inclusion bodies ) indicate HSV infection.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since foscarnet is effective against most acyclovir-resistant HSV mutants, it is the substitute of choice ( 13 , 28 , 67 ).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is the most prevalent form of HSV, and infection is most likely to occur during preschool years.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
Condition Description Illustration
Herpes labialis Infection occurs when the virus comes into contact with oral mucosa or abraded skin.
Cold sore.jpg
Herpes genitalis When symptomatic, the typical manifestation of a primary HSV-1 or HSV-2 genital infection is clusters of inflamed papules and .vesicles on the outer surface of the genitals resembling cold sores.^ An active cold sore produces fluid under the surface of the skin that is a result of reproducing viral particles.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Its used for genital herpes and cold sores and had allot of positive comments.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Fax: 020 7549 1643 Case Study Recurrent Cold Sores Cold sores which recur can be just as debilitating as genital herpes.
  • Natural Treatment for Oral Herpes & Mouth Herpes, Genital Herpes, Ayurvedic & Herbal Treatment for Herpes Virus, Herbal remedies for HSV 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fixherpes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

SOA-Herpes-genitalis-female.jpg
Herpetic whitlow Herpes whitlow is a painful infection that typically affects the fingers or thumbs. Occasionally infection occurs on the toes or on the nail cuticle.
Herpes gladiatorum Individuals that participate in contact sports such as .wrestling, rugby, and soccer sometimes acquire a condition caused by HSV-1 known as herpes gladiatorum, scrumpox, wrestler’s herpes, or mat herpes, which presents as skin ulceration on the face, ears, and neck.^ Oral herpes is usually caused by HSV-1.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Individuals that participate in contact sports such as wrestling , rugby , and soccer sometimes acquire a condition caused by HSV-1 known as herpes gladiatorum, scrumpox , wrestler’s herpes or mat herpes .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This condition is usually caused by HSV-1 and is temporary.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Symptoms include fever, headache, sore throat and swollen glands.^ This disorder may cause fever, headache, sore throat and swollen glands, and occasionally affects the eyes.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Less frequent, yet still common, symptoms include discharge from the penis or vagina , fever , headache , muscle pain ( myalgia ), swollen and enlarged lymph nodes and malaise .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other conditions that may be confused with oral herpes include herpangina (a form of the Coxsackie A virus), sore throat caused by strep or other bacteria, and infectious mononucleosis.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It occasionally affects the eyes or eyelids.^ This disorder may cause fever, headache, sore throat and swollen glands, and occasionally affects the eyes.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

Herpetic keratoconjunctivitis Primary infection typically presents as swelling of the conjunctiva and eye-lids (blepharoconjunctivitis), accompanied by small white itchy lesions on the surface of the cornea.
Herpesviral encephalitis A herpetic infection of the brain that is thought to be caused by the retrograde transmission of virus from a peripheral site on the face following .HSV-1 reactivation, along the trigeminal nerve axon, to the brain.^ Latency of BHV-1 and HSV-1 is established in sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglia, but latency can be interrupted periodically, leading to reactivation from latency and spread of infectious virus.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.HSV is the most common cause of viral encephalitis.^ In about a quarter of HSV-1 encephalitis cases, the infection may be caused by a new strain of the virus.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contact with bodily secretions of an infected person is the most common mode of viral transmission for both HSV-1 and HSV-2.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PCR identifies HSV in cerebrospinal fluid and gives a rapid diagnosis of HSV encephalitis in most cases, eliminating the need for biopsies.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When infecting the brain, the virus shows a preference for the temporal lobe.^ For unknown reasons the virus seems to target the temporal lobes of the brain.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The electrical activity of the brain (detected using EEG , CT , or MRI scans) changes as the disease progresses, first showing abnormalities in one temporal lobe of the brain, which spread to the other temporal lobe 7–10 days later.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ More serious problems arise when the virus infects and damages the eye (herpes keratitis) or invades the central nervous system to damage the brain (herpes encephalitis).
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[7].
Hsv encephalitis.jpg
Herpesviral meningitis HSV-2 is the most common cause of Mollaret's meningitis, a type of recurrent viral meningitis.
Neonatal herpes simplex .Neonatal HSV infection is a rare but serious condition, usually caused by vertical transmission of HSV (type 1 or 2) from mother to newborn.^ Newborn infection caused by a recurring HSV-2 infection in the mother.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usually caused by HSV-1.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This condition is usually caused by HSV-1 and is temporary.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

During immunodeficiency In patients with a weakened immune system, herpes simplex can cause unusual lesions in the skin. One of the most striking is the appearance of clean linear erosions in skin creases, with the appearance of a knife cut.[8]
Herpetic sycosis Herpetic sycosis is a recurrent or initial herpes simplex infection affecting primarily the hair follicle.[9]:369
Eczema herpeticum Infection with herpesvirus in patients with chronic atopic dermatitis may result in spread of herpes simples throughout the eczematous areas.[9]:373

Association with neuronal disorders

Bell's palsy

.In a mouse model, a type of facial paralysis called Bell's palsy has been linked to the presence and reactivation of latent HSV-1 inside the sensory nerves of the face (geniculate ganglia).^ A type of facial paralysis called Bell's palsy has been linked to the presence and reactivation of latent HSV-1 inside the sensory nerves of the face known as geniculate ganglia , particularly in a mouse model.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After infection of mucosal or damaged cutaneous epithelium, these neurotropic viruses establish latent infections, primarily in sensory ganglia, that, upon reactivation, lead to recurrent epidermal lesions ( 40 , 55 ).
  • Intact Microtubules Support Adenovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections -- Mabit et al. 76 (19): 9962 -- The Journal of Virology 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Portion of the face temporarily paralyzed (Bell's palsy).
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10][11] .This is supported by findings that show the presence of HSV-1 DNA in saliva at a higher frequency in patients with Bell's palsy relative to those without the condition.^ This is supported by findings that show the presence of HSV-1 DNA in saliva at a higher frequency in patients with Bell's palsy relative to those without the condition.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ [Herpes simplex virus in the saliva of peripheral Bell's palsy patients].
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bell’s palsy was linked to the HSV-1 due to its more active presence on the saliva of the person with the Bell’s palsy.

[12]
.However, since HSV can also be detected in these ganglia in large numbers of individuals that have never experienced facial paralysis, and high titers of antibodies for HSV are not found in HSV-infected individuals with Bell's palsy relative to those without, this theory has been contested.^ However, since HSV can also be detected in these ganglia in large numbers of individuals that have never experienced facial paralysis, and high titers of antibodies for HSV are not found in HSV-infected individuals with Bell's palsy relative to those without, this theory has been contested.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The large scale of these ads and their extremely close proximity to the viewer offer up more than perceived intimacy, however...

^ That's correct regardless of the circumstances since 1 out of every 4 American females is infected with HSV 2.
  • Paris Hilton probably has herpes - The Superficial - www.thesuperficial.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.thesuperficial.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .In other studies, HSV-1 DNA was not detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of Bell's palsy sufferers, raising questions whether HSV-1 is the causative agent in this type of facial paralysis.^ Other studies, which fail to detect HSV-1 DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid of Bell's palsy sufferers, also question whether HSV-1 is the causative agent in this type of facial paralysis.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fewer HSV-2 genes have been studied, and there are almost certainly type-specific effects.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cerebrospinal fluid collected on day 4 was HSV DNA positive, and HSV was isolated on day 11 from ascites.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[14][15] .The potential effect of HSV-1 in the etiology of Bell's palsy has prompted the use of antiviral medication to treat the condition.^ Antiviral medications can be used in two ways: .
  • Herpes Information and Pictures 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC herpes-coldsores.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antiviral medications are used.

^ The potential effect of HSV-1 in the etiology of Bell's palsy has prompted the use of antiviral medication to treat the condition.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The benefits of acyclovir and valacyclovir have been studied.^ The benefits of acyclovir and valacyclovir have been studied.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Few studies have compared valacyclovir or famciclovir with acyclovir for suppressive therapy, but the existing studies suggest that all have comparable clinical outcomes.
  • Genital Herpes: A Review - October 15, 2005 - American Family Physician 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent studies indicate that acyclovir (Zovirax) or valacyclovir (Valtrex) can help reduce the recurrence of genital herpes and the need for Cesarean sections.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] But the effect appears small, if at all detectable.

Alzheimer's disease

.Scientists discovered a link between HSV-1 and Alzheimer's disease in 1979.[17] In the presence of a certain gene variation (APOE-epsilon4 allele carriers), HSV-1 appears to be particularly damaging to the nervous system and increases one’s risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.^ Similarly, immuno-incompetent newborns, infected by genital herpes at birth or shortly thereafter, are at highest risk if they acquire central nervous system HSV infection that can cause brain damage or disseminated HSV which often results in liver failure and death.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although 25 - 30% of pregnant women in the U.S. and Europe have a history of HSV-2 infection, the risk of transmission to the newborn is low, occurring in between one in 3,500 - 20,000 births, depending on the population group.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is most common in infants but can appear in people of all ages, particularly those with impaired immune systems.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The virus interacts with the components and receptors of lipoproteins, which may lead to the development of Alzheimer's disease.^ Furthermore, a protein found in HSV-1 has been shown to mimic beta amyloid, a protein that is critical in the development of Alzheimer's disease.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If untreated, the virus may lead to very severe complications, notably disseminated or central nervous system infection.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Herpes simplex virus type 1 in brain and risk of Alzheimer's disease.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[18][19] .Without the presence of the gene allele, HSV type 1 does not appear to cause any neurological damage and thus increase the risk of Alzheimer’s.^ The immunocompromised host faces an increased risk of developing severe HSV infections and the emergence of acquired resistance compared with an individual with a fully functional immune system.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This is supported by findings that show the presence of HSV-1 DNA in saliva at a higher frequency in patients with Bell's palsy relative to those without the condition.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People infected with HSV have a fourfold increased risk for contracting HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Furthermore, studies have reported that between 68 - 81% of patients with HIV are also infected with HSV-2.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.A study published in The Journal of Pathology,[21] has shown a striking localization of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA within the beta-amyloid plaques that characterize Alzheimer's disease.^ Everyone is at risk for herpes simplex virus.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trends in herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 seroprevalence in the United States.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Isolation and characterisation of resistant herpes simplex virus after acyclovir therapy.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.It suggests that this virus is a major cause of the plaques and hence probably a significant aetiological factor in Alzheimer's disease.^ This means the virus can multiply rapidly, causing significant symptoms.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Herpes simplex virus type 1 (“HSV1″) generally only infects those body tissues that lie “above the waistline” and it is HSV1 that causes cold sores in the majority of cases.
  • Attention Whore Tia Tequila Says Rihanna Has Herpes | Bossip.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC bossip.com [Source type: General]

^ Further evidence for its involvement in central nervous disorders comes from epidemiological studies that suggest a link between Alzheimer's disease and HSV-1 infection ( 108 , 151 ).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

Mechanism

.Herpes is contracted through direct contact with an active lesion or body fluid of an infected person.^ To infect people, the herpes simplex viruses (both HSV-1 and HSV-2) must access the body through broken skin or a mucous membrane such as inside the mouth or on the genital area.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During shedding, the virus can infect other people through exchange of bodily fluids.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first sign of infection is fluid accumulation (edema) at the infection site, which is quickly followed by small, grouped blisters -- the characteristic herpes virus lesions.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .Herpes transmission occurs between discordant partners; a person with a history of infection (HSV seropositive) can pass the virus to an HSV seronegative person.^ Can I pass the virus to a partner if I have no symptoms?
  • Frequently asked questions 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.herpes.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ HSV = herpes simplex virus.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus: Transmission, Diagnosis, and Pregnancy Management: Abstract and Introduction 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Herpes simplex virus Type 1 (HSV-1) .

.The only way to contract Herpes simplex virus 2 is through direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected individual.^ [Herpes simplex virus infections in Algiers].
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Herpes simplex Herpes simpex virus.jpg| .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Corey L: Herpes simplex virus.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

.January 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] To infect a new individual, HSV travels through tiny breaks in the skin or mucous membranes in the mouth or genital areas.^ HSV-2 is usually acquired by touching infected genital areas.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HSV, however, can also enter through the anus, skin, and other areas.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To infect a new individual, HSV travels through tiny breaks in the skin or mucous membranes in the mouth or genital areas.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Even microscopic abrasions on mucous membranes are sufficient to allow viral entry.^ Even microscopic abrasions on mucous membranes are sufficient to allow viral entry.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, in the case of mucous membranes, even microscopic abrasions are sufficient to expose the nerve endings into which the virus splices itself.

^ After direct exposure to infectious material (ie, saliva, genital secretions), initial viral replication occurs at the entry site in the skin or mucous membrane.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.HSV asymptomatic shedding occurs at some time in most individuals infected with herpes.^ Most cases of genital herpes are asymptomatic, although shedding may still occur.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most transmission occurs during asymptomatic viral shedding, he notes.
  • The fairer sex: Managing gynecologic dermatoses requires clinical, personal skills - - Modern Medicine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.modernmedicine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HSV asymptomatic shedding occurs at some time in most individuals infected with herpes.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.It can occur more than a week before or after a symptomatic recurrence in 50% of cases.^ It can occur more than a week before or after a symptomatic recurrence in 50% of cases.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Men have more recurrences than women.
  • Genital Herpes: A Review - October 15, 2005 - American Family Physician 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Men, for example, have 20% more recurrences of genital herpes than women even though their symptoms are milder.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .Infected people that show no visible symptoms may still shed and transmit virus through their skin; asymptomatic shedding may represent the most common form of HSV-2 transmission.^ During shedding, the virus can infect other people through exchange of bodily fluids.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asymptomatic shedding is much more common with HSV-2 than with HSV-1.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most transmission occurs during asymptomatic viral shedding, he notes.
  • The fairer sex: Managing gynecologic dermatoses requires clinical, personal skills - - Modern Medicine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.modernmedicine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .Asymptomatic shedding is more frequent within the first 12 months of acquiring HSV. Concurrent infection with HIV increases the frequency and duration of asymptomatic shedding.^ Newborn infections that are confined to the skin and do not cause frequent outbreaks within the first 6 months.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During a first infection, the virus is shed for longer periods, and more viral particles are excreted.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recurring herpes and a first infection that is acquired early in the pregnancy pose a much lower risk (less than 1%) to the infant.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .There are indications that some individuals may have much lower patterns of shedding, but evidence supporting this is not fully verified; no significant differences are seen in the frequency of asymptomatic shedding when comparing persons with one to twelve annual recurrences to those who have no recurrences.^ In one study of sexually active American adolescents, 15% of the females had evidence of being infected with HSV-2, compared to none of the males.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there is some evidence these drugs may reduce shedding, they probably do not prevent it entirely.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For those who recover, nearly all suffer some impairment, ranging from very mild neurological changes to paralysis.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
.Antibodies that develop following an initial infection with a type of HSV prevents reinfection with the same virus type—a person with a history of orofacial infection caused by HSV-1 cannot contract herpes whitlow or a genital infection caused by HSV-1. In a monogamous couple, a seronegative female runs a greater than 30% per year risk of contracting an HSV infection from a seropositive male partner.^ HSV-2 is the main cause of genital herpes.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Herpes whitlow is also caused by autoinoculation of HSV into broken skin prior to an infected person having antibodies against the virus (e.g.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It cannot distinguish between the HSV types or between herpes simplex and herpes zoster.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .If an oral HSV-1 infection is contracted first, seroconversion will have occurred after 6 weeks to provide protective antibodies against a future genital HSV-1 infection.^ Protection against HSV-2 infection among HSV-seronegative women was on the order of 40%.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ If an oral HSV-1 infection is contracted first, seroconversion will have occurred after 6 weeks to provide protective antibodies against a futue genital HSV-1 infection.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ HSV-1 lies dormant in trigeminal ganglia that provide sensation to the lips, lower mouth and neck; HSV-2 resides in sacral ganglia that supply sensation to the genitals, perineum and upper legs.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

Diagnosis

.Primary orofacial herpes is readily identified by clinical examination of persons with no previous history of lesions and contact with an individual with known HSV-1 infection.^ Primary orofacial herpes is readily identified by clinical examination in persons without a previous history of lesions, and with reported contact with an individual with known HSV-1 infection.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Production of NO in early HSV infection .
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Individuals that participate in contact sports such as wrestling , rugby , and soccer sometimes acquire a condition caused by HSV-1 known as herpes gladiatorum, scrumpox , wrestler’s herpes or mat herpes .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The appearance and distribution of sores in these individuals typically presents as multiple, round, superficial oral ulcers, accompanied by acute gingivitis.^ The appearance and distribution of sores, in these individuals, typically presents as multiple, round, and superficial oral ulcers, accompanied by acute gingivitis .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Primary infection typically presents as swelling of the conjunctiva and eye-lids ( blepharoconjunctivitis ), accompanied by small white itchy lesions on the surface of the cornea , which vary from minor damage to the epithelium ( superficial punctate keratitis ) to formation of dendritic ulcers .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The absence of antibodies from a prior oral HSV-1 infection leaves these individuals susceptible to primary HSV-1 genital infections.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[26] .Adults with non-typical presentation are more difficult to diagnose.^ Adults with non-typical presentation are more difficult to diagnose.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Genital herpes is more difficult to diagnose than oral herpes since most HSV-2-infected persons have no classical signs and symptoms.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Prodromal symptoms that occur before the appearance of herpetic lesions help differentiate HSV symptoms from the similar symptoms of other disorders, such as allergic stomatitis.^ However, prodromal symptoms that occur before the appearance of herpetic lesions helps to differentiate HSV symptoms from the similar symptoms of, for example, allergic stomatitis .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other situations in which one might consider serologic testing include the presence of lesions that look herpetic, but might have another etiology, such as an autoimmune blistering disease, Dr. Nelson says.
  • The fairer sex: Managing gynecologic dermatoses requires clinical, personal skills - - Modern Medicine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.modernmedicine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some individuals, starting to take antiviral treatment when prodrome is experienced can reduce the appearance and duration of lesions.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.When lesions do not appear inside the mouth, primary orofacial herpes is sometimes mistaken for impetigo, a bacterial infection.^ Occasionally, when lesions do not appear inside the mouth, primary orofacial herpes is mistaken for a bacterial infection known as impetigo .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The role of the UL41 gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 in evasion of non-specific host defense mechanisms during primary infection.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It shows a strong effect against many bacterial, yeast and fungal infections.* Yesthimadu (Glycirhiza Glabra) Its effectiveness against the herpes virus has been proven world-wide.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Common mouth ulcers (aphthous ulcer) also resemble intraoral herpes, but do not present a vesicular stage.^ Common mouth ulcers ( aphthous ulcer ), also resemble intraoral herpes, but do not present a vesicular stage.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Common canker sores (known medically as aphthous ulcers ) are often confused with the cold sores of HSV-1.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Common canker sores (known medically as aphthous ulcers ) are often confused with the cold sores of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1).
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]
.Genital herpes can be more difficult to diagnose than oral herpes since most HSV-2-infected persons have no classical symptoms.^ HSV-2 is the main cause of genital herpes.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I had both genital and oral herpes.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oral herpes is usually caused by HSV-1.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .Further confusing diagnosis, several other conditions resemble genital herpes, including fungal infection,lichen planus, atopic dermatitis, and urethritis.^ To confuse diagnosis, several other conditions resemble genital herpes, including lichen planus , atopic dermatitis , or urethritis .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If not properly treated, lichen planus vulvovaginal syndrome can result in scarring of the vulva and vagina, including adhesions, vestibular bands and atrophy of the labia minora or prepuce, leading to changes that resemble lichen sclerosis et atrophicus, he says.
  • The fairer sex: Managing gynecologic dermatoses requires clinical, personal skills - - Modern Medicine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.modernmedicine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conditions that may be confused with HSV-2 include bacterial and yeast infections, genital warts, herpes zoster (shingles), molluscum (a virus disease which produces small rounded swellings), scabies, syphilis, and certain cancers.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .Laboratory testing is often used to confirm a diagnosis of genital herpes.^ Laboratory tests are essential for confirming herpes diagnosis.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Laboratory testing is, therefore, often used to confirm genital herpes.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For diagnosis of genital herpes, the CDC recommends the use of both skin and blood tests.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Laboratory tests include: culture of the virus, direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) studies to detect virus, skin biopsy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to test for presence of viral DNA. Although these procedures produce highly sensitive and specific diagnoses, their high costs and time constraints discourage their regular use in clinical practice.^ Although these procedures produce highly sensitive and specific diagnoses, their high costs and time constraints limit their regular use in clinical practice.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Laboratory tests include culture of the virus, direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) studies to detect virus, skin biopsy , polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to test for presence of viral DNA and serology assays to detect the presence of antibodies the blood that react against the virus.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This test can identify specific strains of the virus and asymptomatic viral shedding.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]
.Serological tests for antibodies to HSV are rarely useful to diagnosis and not routinely used in clinical practice[26], but are important in epidemiological studies.^ According to the CDC, gG serologic tests are much more accurate than other types of blood tests and are the only ones that should be used.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The greater activity of therapeutic ( 260 ) and prophylactic HSV-2 vaccines in women than in men raises the possibility that the induction of mucosal antibody responses may be clinically important.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Thousands of HSV isolates collected from worldwide clinical trials and surveillance programs for the last 20 years have been tested for susceptibility to acyclovir or penciclovir.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Serologic assays cannot differentiate between antibodies generated in response to a genital versus or an oral HSV infection, and as such cannot confirm the site of infection.^ A Tzanck test (or smear), can also be performed although this cannot differentiate between herpes simplex or herpes zoster (the causative virus of chicken pox and shingles ).
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This usually results in loss of vision due to opacification of the cornea and is a result of an antibody responses against the viral antigen expression in the stroma following persistent infection.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment of recurrent genital herpes simplex infections with oral acyclovir.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

Absence of antibody to HSV-2 does not exclude genital infection, because of the increasing incidence of genital infections caused by HSV-1.

Prevention

Barrier protection, such as a condom, can reduce the risk of herpes transmission.
.Condoms offer moderate protection against HSV-2 in both men and women, with consistent condom users having a 30% lower risk of HSV-2 acquisition compared with those who never use condoms[27] The virus cannot pass through a latex condom, but a condom's effectiveness is limited because it does not prevent skin contact or bodily fluid contact with the scrotum, anus, buttocks, upper thighs or area immediately surrounding the penis, all of which are susceptible to infection with and transmission of the virus.^ Only HSV-seronegative women were protected.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ On the other hand, less HSV is circulating, reducing the risk of those who are susceptible.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The virus, however, can also enter through the anus, skin, and other areas.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Preventing contact with these areas during sex, in addition to wearing a condom, should theoretically provide enhanced protection against herpes.^ However, in women the virus is often shed from skin areas around the genital area, which can have contact to skin areas in the male outside the condom.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genital herpes is most commonly spread by genital-to-genital or oral-to-genital contact during the days preceding an outbreak (the prodrome period).
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is almost impossible to defend against the transmission of oral herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) since it can be transmitted by very casual contact.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wearing clothing or undergarments such as boxer shorts that cover these susceptible areas but still allow access to the genitals through a small opening (such as a fly) should help prevent transmission and infection.^ To infect people, the herpes simplex viruses (both HSV-1 and HSV-2) must access the body through broken skin or a mucous membrane such as inside the mouth or on the genital area.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remember to wash you hands both before and after you touch your lips to prevent infection for you and prevent transmission to others.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Then I taped the larger opening around a hair dryer.This allowed me to focus the hot air from the hair dryer onto an area about the size of a pea.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

.The use of condoms or dental dams also limits the transmission of herpes from the genitals of one partner to the mouth of the other (or vice versa) during oral sex.^ I had both genital and oral herpes.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of condoms or dental dams also limits the transmission of herpes from the genitals of one partner to the mouth of the other (or vice versa) during oral sex .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Condom use and the prevention of genital herpes acquisition..
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.When one partner has a herpes simplex infection and the other does not, the use of antiviral medication, such as valaciclovir, in conjunction with a condom, further decreases the chances of transmission to the uninfected partner.^ As with other drugs, it does not cure herpes.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Herpes simplex virus infections in Algiers].
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When one partner has herpes simplex infection and the other does not, the use of antiviral medication, such as valaciclovir , in conjunction with a condom, further decreases the chances of transmission to the uninfected partner.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[5] .Topical microbicides which contain chemicals that directly inactivate the virus and block viral entry are being investigated.^ Topical microbicides contain chemicals that directly inactivate the virus and block viral entry are currently being investigated.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is hard to fathom this, but Cold sores are caused by a virus, and foods that contain arginine acids promote viral growth.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Tromantadine is available as a gel that inhibits entry and spreading of the virus by altering the surface composition of skin cells and inhibiting release of viral genetic material.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[5] .Vaccines for HSV are undergoing trials.^ Vaccines for HSV are currently undergoing trials.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States is currently in the midst of phase III trials of a vaccine against HSV-2, called Herpevac .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During initial trials, the vaccine did not exhibit any evidence in preventing HSV-2 in males.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Once developed, they may be used to help with prevention or minimize initial infections as well as treatment for existing infections.^ Once developed, they may be used to help with prevention or minimize initial infections as well as treatment for existing infections.

^ Vidarabine ot trifluridine may also be helpful when infection develops.
  • Herpes Simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But there are certain treatments that may help prevent and treat attacks.
  • What treatments work for cold sores? | Life and style | BMJ Group 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

[28]
.As with almost all sexually transmitted infections, women are more susceptible to acquiring genital HSV-2 than men.^ HSV-2 genital infections recur more often than HSV-1, and they tend to be more severe.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, European women are more likely to be HSV-1 seropositive than men.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Women are more susceptible to acquiring genital HSV-2 than men; in the US, 11% of men and 23% of women carry HSV-2.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[29] .On an annual basis, without the use of antivirals or condoms, the transmission risk of HSV-2 from infected male to female is approximately 8-10%.^ On an annual basis, without the use of antivirals or condoms, the transmission risk of HSV-2 from infected male to female is approximately 8-10%.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Transmission risk from infected female to male is approximately 4-5% annually.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Condom use also reduces the transmission risk by 50%.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[25][30] .This is believed to be due to the increased exposure of mucosal tissue to potential infection sites.^ This is believed to be due to the increased exposure of mucosal tissue to potential infection sites.

^ Primary infection with herpes simplex virus in susceptible (seronegative) individuals occurs after exposure of the virus to a mucosal surface or abraded skin.
  • Herpes simplex encephalitis 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.medlink.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The high rate of infarction is believed due to infection of the endothelial cells causing occlusion of the vascular lumen.
  • Case record...Herpes simplex encephalitis 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

.Transmission risk from infected female to male is approximately 4-5% annually.^ On an annual basis, without the use of antivirals or condoms, the transmission risk of HSV-2 from infected male to female is approximately 8-10%.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Transmission risk from infected female to male is approximately 4-5% annually.

^ On an annual basis, without the use of antivirals or condoms, the transmission risk from infected male to female is approximately 8-10%.

[30] .Suppressive antiviral therapy reduces these risks by 50%.^ Suppressive antiviral therapy reduces these risks by 50%.

^ Early intervention with antivirals can accelerate rash healing, reduce rash severity, and reduce the risk of some complications.
  • Herpes: Free Medical and Health Information on Herpes Treatment and Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Suppressive antiviral therapy has been shown to decrease the risk of HSV transmission in heterosexual couples.
  • Herpes: Free Medical and Health Information on Herpes Treatment and Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

[31] .Antivirals also help prevent the development of symptomatic HSV in infection scenarios—meaning the infected partner will be seropositive but symptom free—by about 50%.^ Antivirals also help prevent the development of symptomatic HSV in infection scenarios by about 50%, meaning the infected partner will be seropositive but symptom free.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Between 30%-80% of women, and from 10-50% of men in Sub-Saharan Africa are seropositive for HSV-2, representing the highest levels of HSV-2 infection in the world.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, the vaccine only reduced the acquisition of HSV-2 and symptoms due to newly acquired HSV-2 among women who did not have HSV-2 infection at the time they got the vaccine.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Condom use also reduces the transmission risk by 50%.^ Condom use also reduces the transmission risk by 50%.

^ Can using a condom prevent transmission?
  • Frequently asked questions 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.herpes.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ On an annual basis, without the use of antivirals or condoms, the transmission risk of HSV-2 from infected male to female is approximately 8-10%.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[32][33][34] .Condom use is much more effective at preventing male to female transmission than vice-versa.^ Can using a condom prevent transmission?
  • Frequently asked questions 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.herpes.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Condom use is much more effective at preventing male to female transmission than vice-versa.

^ CORRECT and CONSISTENT use of a condom will help prevent the transmission of the disease.
  • herpes 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.menstuff.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .The effects of combining antiviral and condom use is roughly additive, thus resulting in approximately a 75% combined reduction in annual transmission risk.^ On an annual basis, without the use of antivirals or condoms, the transmission risk of HSV-2 from infected male to female is approximately 8-10%.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Condom use also reduces the transmission risk by 50%.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Transmission risk from infected female to male is approximately 4-5% annually.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.May 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] These figures reflect experiences with subjects having frequently recurring genital herpes (>6 recurrences per year).^ These figures reflect experiences with subjects having frequently-recurring genital herpes (> 6 recurrences per year).
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment to prevent recurrent genital herpes.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Men, for example, have 20% more recurrences of genital herpes than women even though their symptoms are milder.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Subjects with low recurrence rates and those with no clinical manifestations were excluded from these studies.^ Subjects with low recurrence rates and those with no clinical manifestations were excluded from these studies.

^ While there were suggestions of clinical activity, especially with regard to the severity of the first postvaccination recurrence, there was no overall difference in the monthly rates of HSV recurrences between the vaccine and MF59-alone control groups.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The study showed these compounds reduce the rate, but not the extent, at which valaciclovir is converted into aciclovir.

[citation needed]
.The risk of transmission from mother to baby is highest if the mother becomes infected at around the time of delivery (transmission risk 30 to 60%),[35][36] but the risk falls to 3% if it is a recurrent infection, and is less than 1% if there are no visible lesions.^ During this time there are no symptoms.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Actual delivery time is usually less than the maximum stated above.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pregnant women who are infected with either herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) or herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) genital herpes have a higher risk for miscarriage, premature labor, retarded fetal growth, or transmission of the herpes infection to the infant while in the uterus or at the time of delivery.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] .To prevent neonatal infections, seronegative women are recommended to avoid unprotected oral-genital contact with an HSV-1 seropositive partner and conventional sex with a partner having a genital infection during the last trimester of pregnancy.^ To prevent neonatal infections, seronegative women are recommended to avoid unprotected oral-genital contact during the last trimester of pregnancy.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recurrence in women previously infected with HSV is also common during pregnancy.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Avoid using during pregnancy and lactation.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A seronegative mother that contracts HSV at this time has up to a 57% chance of conveying the infection to her baby during childbirth, since insufficient time will have occurred for the generation and transfer of protective maternal antibodies before the birth of the child, whereas a woman seropositive for both HSV-1 and HSV-2 has around a 1-3% chance of transmitting infection to her infant.^ HSV can cause serious complications in both the mother and the child.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Protection against HSV-2 infection among HSV-seronegative women was on the order of 40%.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Infants may acquire congenital herpes from a mother with an active herpes infection at the time of birth.
  • Herpes simplex 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.HSV-1 being transmitted by oral sex as HSV-2 is not very common but there is always the risk [38][39] Women that are seropositive for only one type of HSV are only half as likely to transmit HSV as infected seronegative mothers.^ Recurrence in women previously infected with HSV is also common during pregnancy.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although 25 - 30% of pregnant women in the U.S. and Europe have a history of HSV-2 infection, the risk of transmission to the newborn is low, occurring in between one in 3,500 - 20,000 births, depending on the population group.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It should be noted, however, that about 1 million pregnancies occur each year in women who have been infected with HSV-2, but complications occur in less than 4 in 1,000 infected pregnant women.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mothers infected with HSV are advised to avoid procedures that would cause trauma to the infant during birth (e.g., fetal scalp electrodes, forceps, and vacuum extractors) and, should lesions be present, to elect caesarean section to reduce exposure of the child to infected secretions in the birth canal.^ If lesions are present at the time of birth, Cesarean section is usually recommended.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HSV can cause serious complications in both the mother and the child.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pregnant women who are infected with either herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) or herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) genital herpes have a higher risk for miscarriage, premature labor, retarded fetal growth, or transmission of the herpes infection to the infant while in the uterus or at the time of delivery.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .The use of antiviral treatments, such as acyclovir, given from the 36th week of pregnancy, limits HSV recurrence and shedding during childbirth, thereby reducing the need for caesarean section.^ The use of antiviral treatments, such as aciclovir, given from the 36th week of pregnancy prevents HSV recurrence and shedding during childbirth, thereby reducing the need for caesarean section.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reduction in mortality is due to the use of antiviral treatments such as vidarabine and acyclovir .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment of recurrent genital herpes simplex infections with oral acyclovir.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[5]
.HSV-2 infected individuals are at higher risk for acquiring HIV when practicing unprotected sex with HIV-positive persons,[40] particularly during an outbreak with active lesions.^ HSV seropositive individuals practising unprotected sex with HIV positive persons pose a high risk of HIV transmission, and are even more susceptible to HIV during an outbreak with active sores.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Again, the HSV seronegative person is at highest risk of acquiring this condition.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ No increases in cytokine production were detected in HSV-infected persons.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[41]

Treatment

.There is no medical cure that can eradicate herpes virus from the body, but antiviral medications can reduce the frequency, duration, and severity of outbreaks.^ Its been over a year now and there have been no outbreaks.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No drug can cure herpes simplex virus.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Findings of specific giant cells with many nuclei or distinctive particles that carry the virus (called inclusion bodies) indicate herpes infection.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Antiviral drugs also reduce asymptomatic shedding; it is believed asymptomatic Genital HSV-2 viral shedding occurs on 20% of days per year in patients not undergoing antiviral treatment, versus 10% of days while on antiviral therapy.^ Treatment with acyclovir or penciclovir reduces but does not completely prevent virus shedding in patients with acute genital or oral HSV infection ( 44 , 90 ), as is also the case with suppressive therapy ( 44 ).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The prevalence of acyclovir-resistant HSV in these studies ranged from 0.1 to 0.7%, with a mean of 0.3%; isolates were from patients with genital herpes ( 14 ; Reyes et al., Abstr.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What clinicians need to know about antiviral drugs and viral resistance.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[23] .Non-prescription analgesics can reduce pain and fever during initial outbreaks.^ Non-prescription analgesics can reduce pain and fever during initial outbreaks.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In about 80% of initial outbreaks of genital herpes, patients develop diffuse symptoms (flu-like discomfort and fever).
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is evidence in mice that treatment with famciclovir, rather than aciclovir, during an initial outbreak can help lower the incidence of future outbreaks by reducing the amount of latent virus in the neural ganglia.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Topical anesthetic treatments such as prilocaine, lidocaine or tetracaine can also relieve itching and pain.^ Topical anesthetic treatment (such as prilocaine , lidocaine or tetracaine ) can relieve itching and pain.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Steeped tea bags usually help relieve the pain and itching temporarily, too.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of topical tetracaine in the treatment of herpes labialis.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[42][43]

Antiviral medication

The antiviral medication acyclovir
.Antiviral medications used against herpes viruses work by interfering with viral replication, effectively slowing the replication rate of the virus and providing a greater opportunity for the immune response to intervene.^ We have designed this kit to provide immediate relief to our patients.* This kit aims at restoring the vitality of the immune system itself.* It treats herpes by locating the hidden viruses and eliminating them from the body through a natural course.* The natural herpes treatments in this kit work by: Using energetic imprints of all the mutant variants of the Herpes virus to relieve symptoms and build immunity against herpetic infection.* Using ingredients with natural anti-viral action, to heal outbreaks.* Preventing the recurrence of herpes outbreaks.* This kit contains the following 3 natural products for the treatment of herpes simplex.* HRPZ Formula III, Alchemical Formula, and Monolaurin .
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inagaki-Ohara K, Iwasaki T, Watanabe D, Kurata T, Nishiyama Y: Effect of the deletion of US2 and US3 from herpes simplex virus type 2 on immune responses in the murine vagina following intravaginal infection.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The use of nosodes , such as '2LHerp' for treating Herpes, was studied by independent researchers in the UK. They found that nosodes benefited 82% of patients, and therefore, were among the most effective treatments for a virus, known to man.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All drugs in this class depend on the activity of the viral enzyme thymidine kinase to convert the drug sequentially from its prodrug form to monophosphate (with one phosphate group), diphosphate (with two phosphate groups), and finally to the triphosphate (with three phosphate groups) form which interferes with viral DNA replication.^ All drugs in this class depend on the activity of the viral thymidine kinase to convert the drug to a monophosphate form and subsequently interfere with viral DNA replication .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Acyclovir interferes with the enzymes the virus needs for replication of DNA in cells.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antiviral medications work by interfering with viral replication, effectively slowing the replication rate of the virus and providing a greater opportunity for the immune response to intervene.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[44]
.There are several prescription antiviral medications for controlling herpes simplex outbreaks, such as acyclovir (Zovirax®), valacyclovir (Valtrex®), famciclovir (Famvir®), and penciclovir (Denavir®).^ Famciclovir and penciclovir are relative newcomers to the antiviral armamentarium, and few penciclovir-resistant clinical isolates are available.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Depending on the study design, the isolates may have been obtained from patients prior to treatment, during treatment (with famciclovir, penciclovir, acyclovir, or placebo), or after treatment.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Genital Herpes, Herpes Simplex, Oral Herpes, Herpes Symptoms, Herpes Outbreak, Herpes Labial, Herpes Sores .
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Acyclovir was the original, and prototypical, member of this drug class; it is now available in generic brands at a greatly reduced cost.^ Aciclovir was the original and prototypical member of this drug class and is now available in generic brands at a greatly reduced cost.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We now also carry EXCELSA, which is a mixture of DMSO and MSM. Some patients claim that this greatly reduces scars.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The model assumes a low probability that resistance will emerge, that resistant strains have low transmissibility, and that increased use of oral acyclovir will have a beneficial effect on the spread of HSV-2 by reducing the occurrence of infection with sensitive virus at the cost of generating a low prevalence of drug resistance.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Valaciclovir and famciclovir—prodrugs of acyclovir and penciclovir, respectively—have improved solubility in water and better bioavailability when taken orally.^ Valaciclovir and famciclovir are prodrugs of aciclovir and penciclovir respectively, with improved oral bioavailability (55% vs 20% and 75% vs 5% respectively).
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The prodrugs valaciclovir and famciclovir have the advantage of improved pharmacokinetic properties compared with the parent drugs, although acyclovir may be the cheapest option.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Similarly, it is very unlikely that a patient failing to respond to therapy with acyclovir or valaciclovir will respond to famciclovir, since resistance to acyclovir and penciclovir almost always maps to mutations in the HSV TK gene with almost inevitable cross-resistance between acyclovir and penciclovir ( 10 ).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[44] .Acyclovir is the recommended antiviral for suppressive therapy for use during the last months of pregnancy to prevent transmission of herpes simplex to the neonate in cases of maternal recurrent herpes.^ Treatment of recurrent genital herpes simplex infections with oral acyclovir.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Aciclovir is the recommended antiviral for suppressive therapy in the last months of pregnancy to prevent transmission of herpes simplex to the neonate .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Isolation and characterisation of resistant herpes simplex virus after acyclovir therapy.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Benzocaine is a substance in most nonprescription drug medications that can treat cold sores and reduce the severity of the symptoms.^ Now, to the home remedies.I have found that Acyclovir (or a varioation thereof), which can be prescribed by your doctor,is most effective if taken at the first indication of a cold sore.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ For those that don't get them as severely, try putting ice on it at the first tingle of a new cold sore.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Most times my cold sores last for 5-10 days.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

[45] .The use of valaciclovir and famciclovir, while potentially improving treatment compliance and efficacy, are still undergoing safety evaluation in this context.^ The use of valaciclovir and famciclovir , while potentially improving treatment compliance and efficacy, are still undergoing safety evaluation in this context.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Famciclovir has efficacy similar to that of aciclovir (in immunocompetent or immunocompromised patients) or valaciclovir (in immunocompetent patients) in the treatment of herpes zoster, and efficacy similar to aciclovir in the treatment of first or recurrent episodes of genital herpes (in immunocompetent or immunocompromised patients).
  • Herpes: Free Medical and Health Information on Herpes Treatment and Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The prodrugs valaciclovir and famciclovir have the advantage of improved pharmacokinetic properties compared with the parent drugs, although acyclovir may be the cheapest option.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Several studies in humans and mice provide evidence that early treatment with famciclovir soon after the first infection with herpes can significantly lower the chance of future outbreaks of herpes.^ There is evidence in mice that treatment with famciclovir, rather than aciclovir, during an initial outbreak can help lower the incidence of future outbreaks by reducing the amount of latent virus in the neural ganglia.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bukowski JF, Welsh RM: The role of natural killer cells and interferon in resistance to acute infection of mice with herpes simplex virus type 1.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A multicentered study of lysine therapy in Herpes simplex infection.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Early use of famciclovir has been shown to reduce the amount of latent virus in the neural ganglia.^ There is evidence in mice that treatment with famciclovir, rather than aciclovir, during an initial outbreak can help lower the incidence of future outbreaks by reducing the amount of latent virus in the neural ganglia.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This observation is consistent with the view that HSV latent in sensory ganglia represents virus that reaches the ganglion early during primary infection (and thus is unlikely to have been influenced by therapy).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ RNA from an immediate early region of the type 1 herpes simplex virus genome is present in the trigeminal ganglia of latently infected mice.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[46][47][48] .A review of human subjects treated for five days with famciclovir 250 mg three times daily during their first herpes episode found that only 4.2 percent experienced a recurrence within six months after the first outbreak, a fivefold decrease compared to the 19 percent recurrence in acyclovir-treated patients.^ Famciclovir in the management of first episode genital herpes.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic recurrent acyclovir-resistant genital herpes in an immunocompetent patient.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recurrence rates in genital herpes after symptomatic first-episode infection.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[49] .Despite these promising results, early famciclovir treatment for herpes in this or similar dosage regimes has yet to find mainstream adoption.^ Famciclovir, a new oral antiherpes drug: results of the first controlled clinical study demonstrating its efficacy and safety in the treatment of uncomplicated herpes zoster in immunocompetent patients.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Acyclovir cream for treatment of herpes labialis: results of two randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, multicenter clinical trials.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ For best results as far as duration and healing are concerned, herpes treatment should begin at the first sign of an outbreak.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, some doctors and patients have opted for off-label use.^ This is an off-label use of the drug.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Imagine that you are an archeologist and you are using some acid to clear some stubborn fossilised mud off a priceless gold medallion.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

.One suggested regime is famciclovir at 10–20 mg/kg per day for 5–10 days, with treatment to commence as soon as possible after the first herpes infection (not the first symptoms or outbreak), and the most effective time for initiating treatment to be five days or less after the first herpes infection.^ Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most times my cold sores last for 5-10 days.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ (In 2006, famiclovir was approved as the first one-day treatment for recurrent genital herpes.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the window of opportunity for this treatment is only a few months after first infection with the virus, following this the potential effect on latency drops to zero.^ This potential effect on latency over aciclovir drops to zero a few months post-infection.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During a first infection, the virus is shed for longer periods, and more viral particles are excreted.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The problem with these types of drugs is they are the most effective the first few times you use them, the virus builds up a tolerance and they become less and less effective.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

[50]
.Antiviral medications are also available as topical creams for treating recurrent outbreaks on the lips, although their effectiveness is disputed.^ Topical antiviral creams are available for treating recurrent labial outbreaks but their effectiveness is disputed.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Topical foscarnet is effective in treating cutaneous lesions but is not commercially available.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Antiviral medications work by interfering with viral replication, effectively slowing the replication rate of the virus and providing a greater opportunity for the immune response to intervene.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[51] .Penciclovir cream has a 7-17 hour longer cellular half-life than aciclovir cream, increasing its effectiveness relative to aciclovir when topically applied.^ Penciclovir's primary advantage over aciclovir cream is that it has a far longer cellular half-life – 10 hours (HSV-1)/20 hours (HSV-2) for penciclovir versus 3 hours (HSV-1/2) for aciclovir.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When symptoms occur in newborns, they usually become apparent within 5 - 17 days of life, but they may develop as early as 24 hours or as late as 34 days.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 2-kilobase intron of the herpes simplex virus type 1 latency-associated transcript has a half-life of approximately 24 hours in SY5Y and COS-1 cells.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[52]

Topical treatments

.Docosanol, used in many cosmetics as an emollient and barrier ingredient, is also available as an over-the-counter (OTC) drug formula for the treatment of oral herpes simplex outbreaks.^ Treatment of recurrent genital herpes simplex infections with oral acyclovir.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For best results as far as duration and healing are concerned, herpes treatment should begin at the first sign of an outbreak.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recurrent outbreaks of herpes simplex virus (HSV) feature most of the same symptoms at the same sites as the primary attack, but they tend to be milder and briefer.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was thought to prevent HSV from fusing to cell membranes, but this has not been proven and it is known that docosanol also enters the cytoplasm of cells.^ Entry of HSV-1 into epithelial and other nonlymphoid cells is mediated by an unrelated membrane glycoprotein that resembles the poliovirus receptor (HveB and HveC) ( 66 ).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Docosanol prevents the virus from fusing to cell membranes, thus barring the entry of the virus into the skin.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Once a primary infection has resolved, the HSV enters the nerves surrounding the primary lesion, migrates to the cell body of the neuron, and becomes latent.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The OTC drug formulation of docosanol is marketed by Avanir Pharmaceuticals under the name Abreva.^ Marketed by Avanir Pharmaceuticals under the brand name Abreva , it was the first over-the-counter antiviral drug approved for sale in the United States and Canada .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Drug Name: ABREVA (docosanol) - approval .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Abreva was approved for use after clinical trials by the FDA in July 2000.[53] Abreva was the first over-the-counter antiviral drug approved for sale in the United States and Canada.^ The problem with these types of drugs is they are the most effective the first few times you use them, the virus builds up a tolerance and they become less and less effective.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ The trial is being conducted at more than 40 sites in the United States and Canada.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I always have used Abreva or some other over the counter medicine, but home remedies work better!
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

Research leading to the licensing of Abreva showed that the OTC formula shortened recovery time to a moderate degree. .Avanir Pharmaceuticals and GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare were the subject of a U.S. nationwide class-action suit in March, 2007 due to the misleading claim that it cut recovery times in half.^ In March, 2007 it was the subject of a US nationwide class-action suit against Avanir and GlaxoSmithKline as the claim that it cut recovery times in half was found to have been misleading in a California court.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I usually would get them for two weeks so cutting the time in half is pretty good.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Mailing address: GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare, St George's Ave., Weybridge, Surrey KT15 0DE, United Kingdom.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[54]
There is some limited research that has shown that tea tree oil may have topical anti-viral activity, especially with the Herpes virus[55]

Other drugs

.Cimetidine, a common component of heartburn medication, and probenecid have been shown to reduce the renal clearance of acyclovir.^ It and probenecid have been shown to reduce the renal clearance of aciclovir.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cimetidine , a common component of heartburn medication, has been shown to lessen the severity of herpes zoster outbreaks in several different instances, and offered some relief from herpes simplex.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some other drugs reduce herpetic symptoms by synergising with oral antiviral medication; Cimetidine and probenecid can reduce aciclovir clearance and aspirin can reduce inflammation associated with viral infection.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[56] .These compounds also reduce the rate, but not the extent, at which valaciclovir is converted into aciclovir.^ The study showed these compounds reduce the rate, but not the extent, at which valaciclovir is converted into aciclovir.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To produce the compound that has all these wonderful anti-microbial properties, you need to crush the garlic into a pulp.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

.Limited evidence suggests that low dose aspirin (125 mg daily) might be beneficial in patients with recurrent HSV infections.^ Limited evidence suggests that low dose aspirin (125 mg daily) might be beneficial in patients with recurrent HSV infections.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The failure to limit HSV replication in a timely fashion, which is a feature of infection in the immunocompromised host, can result in atypical lesions.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients not receiving prophylaxis who develop significant mucositis should be tested for HSV infection and treated accordingly.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is an non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which reduces the level of prostaglandins—naturally occurring lipid compounds—that are essential in creating inflammation.^ Glycyrrhizinic acid has anti-ulcerous, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory induction, stopping viral growth (barrier effect).
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typically occurs in immunocompromised patients or in those taking long-term steroids or other immunosuppressant drugs, but can occur in infected people with normal immune systems.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57] .A recent study in animals showed inhibition of thermal (heat) stress induced viral shedding of HSV-1 in the eye by aspirin, and a possible benefit in reducing the frequency of recurrences.^ Acetylsalicylic acid reduces viral shedding induced by thermal stress.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A recent animal study found that aspirin inhibited thermal stress-induced ocular viral shedding of HSV-1, and a possible benefit in reducing recurrences.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The study showed these compounds reduce the rate, but not the extent, at which valaciclovir is converted into aciclovir.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[58]
.Another treatment is the use of petroleum jelly.^ After I used this treatment from our local herbalist, 5 years ago, I have not had another cold sore.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Another treatment, if not very medical, is the use of vaseline, or any other type of fat.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.January 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Healing of cold sores is sped by barring water or saliva from reaching the sore.^ The cold sore will heal within the week.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Unfortunately,this is not always enough to prevent an outbreak, and I have found that once the virus reaches thesurface, the Acyclovir does not decrease healing time or prevent the virus from spreading.Ice is particularly effective at the initial swelling of a cold sore.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ I've a friend on Famvir for her cold sores so that might work for you instead.Most importantly, Cold sores take about a week to 10 days to heal.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

Alternative treatments

Many people seek benefits in natural products and dietary supplements for treatment of herpes
.Certain dietary adjustments, dietary supplements, and alternative remedies are claimed to be beneficial in the treatment of herpes, either alone, or in conjunction with prescribed antiviral therapy.^ Certain dietary supplements and alternative remedies are believed beneficial in the treatment of herpes when used in conjunction with conventional antiviral therapy.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some individuals seek benefits in natural products and dietary supplements for treatment of herpes .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.There is insufficient scientific and clinical evidence to support the effective use of many of these compounds to treat herpes in humans.^ For many years, Herbs have been used to treat lesions of herpes e.g.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are 15 millions each year affected by herpes she is human so it is possible.
  • Attention Whore Tia Tequila Says Rihanna Has Herpes | Bossip.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC bossip.com [Source type: General]

^ Antiviral drugs called nucleosides or nucleotide analogues are the main drugs used to treat genital herpes.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59]
.Lysine supplementation has been used for the prophylaxis and treatment of herpes simplex.^ Treatment of recurrent genital herpes simplex infections with oral acyclovir.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Acyclovir cream for treatment of herpes simplex labialis: results of two randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, multicenter clinical trials.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Nail polish remover is not FDA approved for use on the face, the acetone in it is carcinogenic.Herpes simplex 1 is HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS!!!
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

.Lysine shows greater effect against HSV-1 but may not be active against all virus variants.^ Results for acyclovir and penciclovir were again similar for HSV-2 strains, although the frequency of resistant mutants was about 9 x 10 -3 infectious virus particle (0.9%), suggesting that HSV-2 may have a greater propensity to generate drug-resistant mutants than HSV-1 does.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Unfortunately, evidence suggests about one-third of all herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infections occur when the virus is shedding but producing no symptoms.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Rarely, the virus may still be active in nearby tissue.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dosage is critical with less than 1 gram (1000 mg) per day ineffective and more than 8 grams (8000 mg) gaining no additional benefit.^ I take 1000 mg daily, but when I have a cold sore, I up the dosage to 2000 mg with everyt meal.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Acyclovir: 400 mg three times a day for 2 days or 800 mg twice a day for 5 days Valacyclovir: 500 mg twice a day for 3 days or 1 g once a day for 5 days Famiciclovir: 125 mg twice a day for 5 days or 1000 mg twice a day for 1 day.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I mean GONE, no outbreak, no 8 days of pain, and redness, and more pain, just simple GONE. Its a miracle and I wanted to share the FIRST remedy I have found that really really works!!!
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

.Lysine is most effective if corn based products (which contain high amounts of Arginine) such as popcorn are avoided during an outbreak.^ Using lip products like Blistex during an outbreak is not a wise idea as they simply help to spread the virus.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Probably diet is extremely important avoiding Arginine rich foods such as peanuts and lentils.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Avoid sex during both outbreaks and prodromes (the early symptoms of herpes), which include tingling, itching, or tenderness in the infected areas.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lysine treatment is somewhat body mass sensitive with higher dosage required for effective treatment as body mass increases. .It should be taken as 3 or more doses in a 24 hour period and should be started when first outbreak symptoms, such as skin numbness or itching, are detected.^ During a first infection, the virus is shed for longer periods, and more viral particles are excreted.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For best results as far as duration and healing are concerned, herpes treatment should begin at the first sign of an outbreak.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As soon as the little bumps started took a needle(sterilize it first) and popped all the bumps and broke up the skin a little then have been applying q-tips soaked with rubbing alcohol.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

[60][61][62]
.Aloe vera, available as a cream or gel, makes an affected area heal faster and may prevent recurrences.^ For about 10 minuetes I left Aloe Vera Gel on my sore and then I got another ice cube and napkin and held it in place until it melted.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Finally put Zovirax cream on the affected area.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Occasionally, the symptoms may not resemble those of the primary episode but appear as fissures and scrapes in the skin or as general inflammation around the affected area.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63]
.Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) has antiviral activity against HSV-2 in cell culture and may reduce HSV symptoms in herpes infected people.^ CD8(+) T cells can block herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) reactivation from latency in sensory neurons.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Herpes simplex virus infected cell polypeptide 4 preferentially represses Sp1-activated over basal transcription from its own promoter.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The herpes simplex virus type 1 regulatory protein ICP27 is required for the prevention of apoptosis in infected human cells.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[64][65][65]
.Carrageenans—linear sulphated polysaccharides extracted from red seaweeds—have been shown to have antiviral effects in HSV-infected cells and in mice.^ Carrageenans - linear sulphated polysaccharides extracted from red seaweeds - have been shown to have antiviral effects in HSV-infected cells.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This assay, which is a modification of the neutral red cell viability test, measures the ability of an antiviral drug to block HSV replication and thereby protect cells from virus-induced damage.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ On an annual basis, without the use of antivirals or condoms, the transmission risk of HSV-2 from infected male to female is approximately 8-10%.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[66][67]
.There is conflicting evidence on a possible benefit from extracts from the plant echinacea in treating oral[68], but not genital, herpes.^ I had both genital and oral herpes.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are conflicting reports about the effectiveness of extracts from the plant echinacea in treating herpes infections, suggesting a possible benefit for treating oral, but not genital, herpes.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment of recurrent genital herpes simplex infections with oral acyclovir.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[69]
.Resveratrol, a compound naturally produced by plants and a component of red wine, prevents HSV replication in cultured cells and reduces cutaneous HSV lesion formation in mice.^ Resveratrol , a compound in red wine, prevents HSV replication in vitro by inhibiting a protein needed by the virus to replicate.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A more recent study in mice showed the efficacy of topical resveratrol cream in preventing cutaneous HSV lesion formation.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This assay, which is a modification of the neutral red cell viability test, measures the ability of an antiviral drug to block HSV replication and thereby protect cells from virus-induced damage.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It is not considered potent enough to be an effective treatment on its own.^ Resveratrol alone is not considered potent enough to be an effective treatment.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[70][71]
.Extracts from garlic have shown antiviral activity against HSV in cell culture experiments, although the extremely high concentrations of the extracts required to produce an antiviral effect was also toxic to the cells.^ Extracts from garlic have shown antiviral activity against HSV in cell culture experiments, although the extremely high concentrations of the extracts required to produce an antiviral effect was also toxic to the cells.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), has antiviral activity against HSV-2 in cell culture.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural carrageenans (called 1T1, 1C1, 1C3) isolated from the red alga Gigartina skottsbergii inhibit the replication activity of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in mouse models and cell culture experiments, however, there is no evidence for efficacy of this compound in humans.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[72]
.The plant Prunella vulgaris, commonly known as selfheal, also prevents expression of both type 1 and type 2 herpes in cultured cells.^ Bukowski JF, Welsh RM: The role of natural killer cells and interferon in resistance to acute infection of mice with herpes simplex virus type 1.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ U(S)3 protein kinase of herpes simplex virus 1 blocks caspase 3 activation induced by the products of U(S)1.5 and U(L)13 genes and modulates expression of transduced U(S)1.5 open reading frame in a cell type-specific manner.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Premature expression of the latency-related RNA encoded by bovine herpesvirus type 1 correlates with higher levels of beta interferon RNA expression in productively infected cells.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[73]
.Lactoferrin, a component of whey protein, has been shown to have a synergistic effect with aciclovir against HSV in vitro.^ Lactoferrin , a component of whey protein, has been shown to have a synergistic effect with aciclovir against HSV in vitro .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Resveratrol , a compound in red wine, prevents HSV replication in vitro by inhibiting a protein needed by the virus to replicate.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, a protein found in HSV-1 has been shown to mimic beta amyloid, a protein that is critical in the development of Alzheimer's disease.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74]
.Some dietary supplements have been suggested to positively treat herpes.^ Some dietary supplements have been suggested to positively treat herpes.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Certain dietary supplements and alternative remedies are believed beneficial in the treatment of herpes when used in conjunction with conventional antiviral therapy.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ On the other plam, if one does some literature research, there are more studies that indicate efficacy of zinc in treating herpes simplex and other herpes infections.
  • Is there a cure for herpes? 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.simplexlove.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These include vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E, and zinc.[75][76]
.Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), commonly available as a food preservative, has been shown in cell culture and animal studies to inactivate herpes virus.^ Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), commonly available as a food preservative , has been shown in in-vitro laboratory studies to inactivate the herpes virus.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bukowski JF, Welsh RM: The role of natural killer cells and interferon in resistance to acute infection of mice with herpes simplex virus type 1.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Findings of specific giant cells with many nuclei or distinctive particles that carry the virus (called inclusion bodies) indicate herpes infection.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[77][78] .However, BHT has not been clinically tested and approved to treat herpes infections in humans.^ However BHT has not been clinically tested and approved to treat herpes infections in humans.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ [JAMA. 1999] See more articles cited in this paragraph Review Genital herpes simplex virus infections: clinical manifestations, course, and complications.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Genital herpes simplex virus infection: clinical manifestations, course, and complications.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Prognosis

.Following active infection, herpes viruses establish a latent infection in sensory and autonomic ganglia of the nervous system.^ Infection with herpes-simplex viruses 1 and 2.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Everett RD: ICP0, a regulator of herpes simplex virus during lytic and latent infection.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Central nervous system infection can cause meningitis or encephalitis.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The double-stranded DNA of the virus is incorporated into the cell physiology by infection of the nucleus of a nerve's cell body.^ The double-stranded DNA of the virus is incorporated into the cell physiology by infection of the cell nucleus of a nerve's cell body .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Normally, the virus inhabits only 1 nerve cell in your body.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Bukowski JF, Welsh RM: The role of natural killer cells and interferon in resistance to acute infection of mice with herpes simplex virus type 1.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

.HSV latency is static—no virus is produced—and is controlled by a number of viral genes, including Latency Associated Transcript (LAT).^ Herpes simplex virus latency-associated transcript is a stable intron.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HSV latency is static - no virus is produced - and is controlled by a number of viral genes including Latency Associated Transcript (LAT).
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Viral gene expression is then extinguished, with the exception of the latency-associated transcript (LAT).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[79]
.Many HSV-infected people experience recurrence within the first year of infection.^ Up to 90% of HSV-2 genital infections recur within the first year after primary infection.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In one study, 7 of 10 first recurrences at the site of a healed lesion previously associated with acyclovir-resistant HSV were acyclovir sensitive ( 68 ).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The highest incidence of first infection occurs between 6 months and 3 years of age.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] Prodrome precedes development of lesions. .Prodromal symptoms include tingling (paresthesia), itching, and pain where lumbosacral nerves innervate the skin.^ It really soothes the itch and tingle and pain.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Sometimes, there is a crack, raw area or redness, without any pain, itching or tingling.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Prodrome may occur as long as several days or as short as a few hours before lesions develop.^ The prodrome, which may be as few as 2 hours or as many as 2 days, steps when the blisters develop.
  • Herpes simplex 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Development of lesions follows prodrome - which warns of a recurrence and includes tingling ( paresthesia ), itching, and pain where lumbosacral nerves innervate the skin - by hours to days.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lesions also remain culture positive for HSV for extended periods ( 85 , 100 ), in contrast to infections in immunocompetent patients, where HSV is cleared within a few days ( 3 , 89 ).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Beginning antiviral treatment when prodrome is experienced can reduce the appearance and duration of lesions in some individuals.^ In some individuals, starting to take antiviral treatment when prodrome is experienced can reduce the appearance and duration of lesions.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some individuals seek benefits in natural products and dietary supplements for treatment of herpes .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For best results as far as duration and healing are concerned, herpes treatment should begin at the first sign of an outbreak.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During recurrence, fewer lesions are likely to develop, lesions are less painful and heal faster (within 5–10 days without antiviral treatment) than those occurring during the primary infection.^ IL-4 production during HSV infection has in vaginal and CNS infections been demonstrated on day 2 of infection and to increase for the next days [ 437 , 438 ].
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In one study, 7 of 10 first recurrences at the site of a healed lesion previously associated with acyclovir-resistant HSV were acyclovir sensitive ( 68 ).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The role of the UL41 gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 in evasion of non-specific host defense mechanisms during primary infection.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[5] .Subsequent outbreaks tend to be periodic or episodic, occurring on average four to five times a year when not using antiviral therapy.^ When I was younger I used to get them upwards of 4 times a year.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ This means that over a period of time, these viruses become resistant to the allopathic antivirals.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I used to have outbreaks more than 50% of the time.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The causes of reactivation are uncertain, but several potential triggers have been documented.^ The causes of reactivation from latency are uncertain but several potential triggers have been documented.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.A recent study (2009) showed that a protein VP16 plays a key role in reactivation of the dormant virus.^ The virus lies dormant in the ganglion of the trigeminal or fifth cranial nerve but the reason for reactivation, and its pathway to gain access to the brain, remains unclear.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies show that herpes simplex virus 1 , the virus responsible for cold sores, is found in 30 to 60 percent of children by the age of 10.
  • Cold Sore / Fever Blister Information 25 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.herbalremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once contracted, the virus remains hidden in the body in a dormant state until it is triggered to reactivate and cause a cold sore.
  • Cold Sore / Fever Blister Information 25 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.herbalremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[80] .Changes in the immune system during menstruation may play a role in HSV-1 reactivation.^ The authors concluded that resistant HSV was selected de novo during the first 7 days of acyclovir treatment and suggested that in addition to the immaturity of the immune system in preterm infants, steroid treatment may have contributed to the rapid emergence of resistance.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Productive viral gene expression during latency is probably due to incomplete reactivation events or is the result of virus-producing neurons that are quickly recognized by the immune systems.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The presence of several HSV-1 antiapoptotic genes suggests that they play specific roles following infection of humans.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[81][82] .Concurrent infections, such as viral upper respiratory tract infection or other febrile diseases, can cause outbreaks.^ Primary infection by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can cause clinical symptoms in the peripheral and central nervous system, upper respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ BHV-1 infection can cause conjunctivitis, pneumonia, genital disorders, abortions, and an upper respiratory infection referred to as shipping fever ( 258 ).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Deletion of LAT might not have a dramatic effect on apoptosis frequency during the early stages of acute infection because the other antiapoptotic viral genes are expressed.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Reactivation due to infection is the likely source of the historic terms cold sore and fever blister.^ It's like a lotion and it's specifically for cold sores.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ I'm a long time sufferer of severe cold sores/ fever blisters.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition, concurrent infections, such as viral upper respiratory tract infection or other febrile diseases, can cause outbreaks, hence the historic terms "cold sore" and "fever blister".
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Other identified triggers include: local injury to the face, lips, eyes, or mouth, trauma, surgery, radiotherapy, and exposure to wind, ultraviolet light, or sunlight.^ Local injury to the face, lips, eyes or mouth, trauma, surgery, wind, radiotherapy , ultraviolet light or sunlight are well established triggers.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recurrences can be triggered in some individuals by specific events, such as sunburn, ultraviolet light , wind, trauma, surgery, stress or other infections.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When I get cold sores, they spread from one side of my mouth to the other, I can have swollen lips for up to four weeks!
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

[83][84][85][86][87]
.The frequency and severity of recurrent outbreaks vary greatly between patients.^ The frequency and severity of recurrent outbreaks may vary greatly depending upon the individual.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If you use chap-stick, don't share and have a special tube that you use ONLY when you have outbreaks.If your sores are frequent or very severe, talk to your doctor.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

.Some individuals' outbreaks can be quite debilitating with large, painful lesions persisting for several weeks, while others will experience only minor itching or burning for a few days.^ Paste - for application on the lesions (this is indicated when there is severe pain and burning) 3.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other common symptoms include pain, itching, and burning.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Severe itching and/or burning is also common.
  • Cold Sore / Fever Blister Information 25 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.herbalremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is some evidence that genetics plays a role in the frequency of cold sore outbreaks.^ All you need to do is put some toothpaste on the blister (cold sore) and leave on there for a while and then reaply the toothpaste and it should stop the tingling and eventiually go away.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Then I put some tootpaste on the sore and let it sit there for about 3 hours.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ There are some indications that some individuals may have much lower patterns of shedding, but evidence supporting this is not fully verified - no significant differences are seen in the frequency of asymptomatic shedding when comparing persons with 1 to 12 annual recurrences to those that have no recurrences.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.An area of human chromosome 21 that includes 6 genes has been linked to frequent oral herpes outbreaks.^ In humans 13 IFN- α genes and one pseudogene and in mice 14 IFN- α genes and 3 pseudogenes have been identified, clustering on chromosome 4 in mouse and chromosome 9 in man [ 185 ].
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In one case, a homosexual man had increasingly frequent episodes of recurrent genital herpes despite receiving maximum doses of oral acyclovir ( 42 ).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Genital Herpes, Herpes Simplex, Oral Herpes, Herpes Symptoms, Herpes Outbreak, Herpes Labial, Herpes Sores .
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

An immunity to the virus is built over time. .Most infected individuals will experience fewer outbreaks and outbreak symptoms will often become less severe.^ The problem with these types of drugs is they are the most effective the first few times you use them, the virus builds up a tolerance and they become less and less effective.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Now I use just regular paste with tartar control and the red scarsaround my lips where I get outbreaks have faded and become less noticeable.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ [JAMA. 1999] Severe genital herpes infections in HIV-infected individuals with impaired herpes simplex virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.After several years, some people will become perpetually asymptomatic and will no longer experience outbreaks, though they may still be contagious to others.^ Its been over a year now and there have been no outbreaks.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I usually get cold sores twice a year, so I'm pretty lucky compared to some people.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ It may just be that I have super sensitive skin but nonetheless, BEWARE. I agree with several other submitions that OTC products such as CARAMEX, ZOVIRAX, LYPSOL, ZILACTIN and other film type lotions are a complete waste of time and money which lead to the outbreak spreading or becoming worse.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

.Immuno-compromised individuals may experience episodes that are longer, more frequent, and more severe.^ Consequently, the lesions tend to be more prolonged and more severe than in immunocompetent individuals ( 27 ).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ However, some individuals experience a symptomatic primary infection with vesicular herpetic gingivostomatitis or in adolescence more often a pharyngitis [ 107 ].
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

.Antiviral medication has been proven to shorten the frequency and duration of outbreaks.^ The human body is able to build up an immunity to the virus over time and antiviral medication has been proven to shorten the duration and/or frequency of the outbreaks.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These include the antiviral medication (dose, dose frequency, route of administration, compliance), absorption and metabolism of the antiviral, immunological response of the patient, and heterogeneity of the virus population.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[88] .Outbreaks may occur at the original site of the infection or in proximity to nerve endings that reach out from the infected ganglia.^ Outbreaks may occur at the original site of the infection or in close proximity to nerve endings that reach out from the infected ganglia.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the case of a genital infection, sores can appear near the base of the spine, the buttocks, back of the thighs, or they may appear at the original site of infection.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ HSV may spread to other target sites to cause pneumonitis, esophagitis, hepatitis, retinal necrosis, and disseminated infection when the infection becomes widespread.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the case of a genital infection, sores can appear at the original site of infection or near the base of the spine, the buttocks, or the back of the thighs.^ In the case of a genital infection, sores can appear near the base of the spine, the buttocks, back of the thighs, or they may appear at the original site of infection.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In males, the lesions occur on the shaft of the penis or other parts of the genital region, on the inner thigh, buttocks, or anus .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The number of genital herpes infections appears to be rising in New Zealand with three times more cases in 1993 compared to 1977.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

History

.Herpes has been known for at least 2,000 years.^ But those of us that get them easily recognize that special pain.I got herpes AT LEAST twice a year until I started this treatment, about 30 years ago.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ It is estimated to affect at least 1 in 500,000 individuals per year.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is said that Emperor Tiberius banned kissing in Rome for a time due to so many people having cold sores.^ She said that it appeared to be a cold sore as well.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ When I do have the bad luck of getting a cold sore I will leave it alone not pick at it and apply Releev cold sore ointment about 5 times a day.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Most times my cold sores last for 5-10 days.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

In the 16th century Romeo and Juliet, it is mentioned that there are blisters "o'er ladies' lips." In 18th century it was so common among prostitutes that it was called "a vocational disease of women."[89]
Herpes was not found to be a virus until the 1940s.[89]
.Herpes antiviral therapy began in the early 1960s with the experimental use of medication that interfered with viral replication called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) inhibitors.^ Antiviral medications work by interfering with viral replication, effectively slowing the replication rate of the virus and providing a greater opportunity for the immune response to intervene.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Complementary therapies For ages, complementary therapies have been used to treat diseases like herpes.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some herpes antiviral treatments may cause diarrhea requiring additional the use of diarrhea medication.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The original use was against normally fatal or disabilitating illness such as adult encephalitis,[90] keratitis,[91] in immunocompromised (transplant) patients,[92] or disseminated herpes zoster.^ Herpes simplex encephalitis: adolescents and adults.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An intravenous formulation of acyclovir is used for severe HSV or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections (including encephalitis and neonatal herpes), as well as for HSV or VZV infections in immunocompromised patients.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Acyclovir prophylaxis against herpes simplex virus infection in patients with leukemia.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[93] .The original compounds used were 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine, AKA idoxuridine, IUdR, or(IDU) and 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine or ara-C,[94] later marketed under the name cytosar or cytorabine.^ Marketed by Avanir Pharmaceuticals under the brand name Abreva , it was the first over-the-counter antiviral drug approved for sale in the United States and Canada .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The usage expanded to include topical treatment of herpes simplex,[95] zoster, and varicella.^ Herpes zoster:treatment with cemetidine..
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A Tzanck test (or smear), can also be performed although this cannot differentiate between herpes simplex or herpes zoster (the causative virus of chicken pox and shingles ).
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment of recurrent genital herpes simplex infections with oral acyclovir.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[96] .Some trials combined different antivirals with differing results.^ It is unclear what accounts for the differences in the results of the Chiron and GSK trials.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The effects of combining antiviral and condom use is roughly additive, thus resulting in approximately a 75% combined reduction in annual transmission risk.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[90] .The introduction of 9-β-D-arabinofuranosyladenine, AKA ara-A or vidarabine, considerably less toxic than Ara-C, in the mid 1970s, heralded the way for the beginning of regular neonatal antiviral treatment.^ This will block the inhibiting effect of IL-4 in foci of HSV replication and open up for NO production at sites where the antiviral effect is of more importance than the potential toxicity.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is no evidence from these studies that isolates from patients who had received antiviral treatment were any less susceptible to acyclovir than isolates from untreated patients ( 2 , 8 , 14 , 17 ; Reyes et al., Abstr.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Neonates have an increased risk of developing severe, disseminated herpes because some elements of the immune response function less well than in adults ( 83 ).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Vidarabine was the first systemically administered antiviral medication with activity against HSV for which therapeutic efficacy outweighed toxicity for the management of life-threatening HSV disease.^ Acyclovir and penciclovir have a similar mechanism of antiviral action against HSV (Fig.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Resting macrophages possess a high degree of intrinsic activity against HSV, generally being non-permissive to viral replication.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As outlined, it thus seems HSV has evolved several mechanisms to evade the consequences of the IFN- α / β system, which underline the importance of these cytokines in the antiviral defence.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

.Intravenous vidarabine was licensed for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1977. Other experimental antivirals of that period included: Heparin [97], trifluorothymidine (TFT)[98], Ribivarin,[99] interferon,[100] Virazole,[101] and 5-methoxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (MMUdR).^ These statements have not been evaluated by the US Food and Drug Administration.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reduction in mortality is due to the use of antiviral treatments such as vidarabine and acyclovir .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An intravenous formulation of acyclovir is used for severe HSV or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections (including encephalitis and neonatal herpes), as well as for HSV or VZV infections in immunocompromised patients.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[102] The introduction of 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine, AKA acyclovir, in the late 1970s[103] raised antiviral treatment another notch and led to vidarabine vs. acyclovir trials in the late 1980s.[104] .The lower toxicity and ease of administration over vidarabine has led to acyclovir becoming the drug of choice for herpes treatment after it was licensed by the FDA in 1998.[105] Another advantage in the treatment of neonatal herpes included greater reductions in mortality and morbidity with increased dosages, something that did not occur when compared with increased dosages of vidarabine.^ Treatment of recurrent genital herpes simplex infections with oral acyclovir.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The prodrugs valaciclovir and famciclovir have the advantage of improved pharmacokinetic properties compared with the parent drugs, although acyclovir may be the cheapest option.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although acyclovir therapy was resumed, the infant died of neonatal herpes 6 days later.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[105] .On the other side of the equation, acyclovir seems to inhibit antibody response and newborns on acyclovir antiviral treatment experienced a slower rise in antibody titer than those on vidarabine.^ Modern treatment of herpetic diseases is with antivirals like acyclovir, famicyclovir, valacyclovir, with moderate success.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since it is an oral medication it is stronger and absorbed at faster rates than those antiviral topical treatments which are absorbed at a much lower percentage rate.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ There is no evidence from these studies that isolates from patients who had received antiviral treatment were any less susceptible to acyclovir than isolates from untreated patients ( 2 , 8 , 14 , 17 ; Reyes et al., Abstr.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[105]

Society and culture

.Some people experience negative feelings related to the condition following diagnosis, particularly if they have acquired the genital form of the disease.^ However, there are many people with genital herpes, who have symptoms they don't recognize.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instructions: When most people feel a cold sore coming on they freak out right?
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ After vaginal inoculation, guinea pigs experience locally recurrent disease that mimics some features of human genital herpes.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Feelings can include depression, fear of rejection, feelings of isolation, fear of being found out, self-destructive feelings, and fear of masturbation.^ I learn to know my own inner Self so as not to fear being close to others.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[106] .These feelings usually lessen over time.^ These usually appear 4–7 days after sexual exposure to HSV for the first time, [1] and may resemble cold sores.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

Much of the hysteria and stigma surrounding herpes stems from a media campaign beginning in the late 1970s and peaking in the early 1980s. .There were multiple articles worded in fear-mongering and anxiety-provoking terminology, such as the now ubiquitous "attacks," "outbreaks," "victims," and "sufferers."^ I've suffered a lot because of these nasty outbreaks since I was very young, and now I'm actually beginning to believethat I may never have to suffer though a significant outbreak again!
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Its been over a year now and there have been no outbreaks.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At one point the term "herpetic" even entered the popular lexicon.^ And less than a day to get it to a point where no one would even know.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

The articles were published by Reader's Digest, U.S. News, and Time magazine, among others. A made-for-TV movie was named Intimate Agony. The peak was when Time magazine had 'Herpes: The New Scarlet Letter' on the cover in August 1982, forever stigmatizing the word in the public mind.[89] .The scientific reality is that most people are asymptomatic, the virus causes no real health problems for a vast majority of people, and a vast majority of the Earth's population carries HSV-1, 2, or both.^ Identification of a major regulatory sequence in the latency associated transcript (LAT) promoter of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The problem with these types of drugs is they are the most effective the first few times you use them, the virus builds up a tolerance and they become less and less effective.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ In summary, HSV-1 continues to be a significant public health problem.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed] Herpes support groups have been formed in the United States and the UK, providing information about herpes and running message forums and dating websites for "sufferers."[107]
.People with the herpes virus are often hesitant to divulge to other people, including friends and family, that they are infected.^ Herpes simplex virus infected cell polypeptide 4 preferentially represses Sp1-activated over basal transcription from its own promoter.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The herpes simplex virus type 1 regulatory protein ICP27 is required for the prevention of apoptosis in infected human cells.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Maybe it gets them drunk and they die of alcohol poisoning.Cold sores are cause by the Herpes Simplex virus.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

This is especially true of new or potential sexual partners whom they consider casual.[108] A perceived reaction is sometimes taken into account before making a decision about whether to inform new partners and at what point in the relationship. .Many people do not immediately make their condition known to new partners, but wait until a later point in the relationship.^ Instead of waiting until the ice melts make a transition from warm to coldim only 12 but im filled with knowledge about coldsores because i got them early.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ I've been reading everyone's posts and it makes me really, really sad to think of how many people get this as children.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

.Other people disclose herpes status at the beginning.^ All these factors have made people look for other herpes treatment options.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Still others choose only to date other people who already have herpes.^ However, there are many people with genital herpes, who have symptoms they don't recognize.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All these factors have made people look for other herpes treatment options.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have friends who visit your site, and I wouldnt want people to know I have genital herpes.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The premise of informing was constructed in conjunction with the emotional media coverage of the 1970s-1980s. Those infected prior to the mid- to late-1970s had never heard of informing the uninfected, or felt any need to inform. .People who are not infected generally agree it is a responsible thing to do from a health perspective, since individuals who are not infected prefer to continue that way.^ [JAMA. 1999] Severe genital herpes infections in HIV-infected individuals with impaired herpes simplex virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The surprising thing is that many people never even notice these blisters on their body, although they are infected.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Severe genital herpes infections in HIV-infected individuals with impaired HSV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.With more knowledge about a partner, an individual can make an informed decision about a health issue.^ Instead of waiting until the ice melts make a transition from warm to coldim only 12 but im filled with knowledge about coldsores because i got them early.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

Research

.The National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States is conducting phase III trials of Herpevac, a vaccine against HSV-2.[109] The vaccine has only been shown to be effective for women who have never been exposed to HSV-1. Overall, the vaccine is approximately 48% effective in preventing HSV-2 seropositivity and about 78% effective in preventing symptomatic HSV-2.[109] During initial trials, the vaccine did not exhibit any evidence of preventing HSV-2 in males.^ Over time, this leads to a state where the immune system has effectively suppressed the virus for life.* It is very similar to the principle of vaccination.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In adoptive transfer experiments, the effect of adult mouse spleen cells on the initial phase of a generalized HSV infection in suckling mice was conducted by IFN- α / β [ 360 ].
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is no evidence of any increase in the prevalence of resistant HSV in either immunocompromised or immunocompetent populations during this period.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[109] .Additionally, the vaccine only reduced the acquisition of HSV-2 and symptoms due to newly acquired HSV-2 among women who did not have HSV-2 infection at the time they got the vaccine.^ Additionally, the vaccine only reduced the acquisition of HSV-2 and symptoms due to newly acquired HSV-2 among women who did not have HSV-2 infection at the time they got the vaccine.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Only HSV-seronegative women were protected.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The vaccine has only been shown to be effective for women who have never been exposed to HSV-1.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[109] .Because about 20% of persons in the United States have HSV-2 infection, this further reduces the population for whom this vaccine might be appropriate.^ Because about 20% of persons in the United States have HSV-2 infection, this further reduces the population for whom this vaccine might be appropriate.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States is currently in the midst of phase III trials of a vaccine against HSV-2, called Herpevac .
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is therefore reasonable to carefully monitor for exacerbations of HSV-1 ocular inflammatory conditions in persons receiving highly antigenic HSV-2 vaccines.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[109]
.Researchers at the University of Florida have made a hammerhead ribozyme that targets and cleaves the mRNA of essential genes in HSV-1. The hammerhead which targets the mRNA of the UL20 gene greatly reduced the level of HSV-1 ocular infection in rabbits and reduced the viral yield in vivo.^ In general, abundant expression of viral genes that are required for productive infection does not occur.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ LAT and LR RNA are antisense to ICP0 or bICP0, viral genes that are crucial for productive infection, suggesting that LAT and LR RNA interfere with productive infection by inhibiting ICP0 or bICP0 expression.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Between 30%-80% of women, and from 10-50% of men in Sub-Saharan Africa are seropositive for HSV-2, representing the highest levels of HSV-2 infection in the world.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[110] .The gene-targeting approach uses a specially designed RNA enzyme to inhibit strains of the herpes simplex virus.^ Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Herpes simplex virus resistant to acyclovir.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Corey L: Herpes simplex virus.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

.The enzyme disables a gene responsible for producing a protein involved in the maturation and release of viral particles in an infected cell.^ An active cold sore produces fluid under the surface of the skin that is a result of reproducing viral particles.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ The vhs gene (UL41) is also involved in evasion of HLA class I-restricted responses.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ See more articles cited in this paragraph T-cell mediated rejection of gene-modified HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in HIV-infected patients.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The technique appears to be effective in experiments with mice and rabbits, but further research is required before it can be attempted in people who are infected with herpes.^ The herpes simplex virus type 1 regulatory protein ICP27 is required for the prevention of apoptosis in infected human cells.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some, but not all, research groups have reported that CD4 cells are required for the protection of immune mice from vaginal HSV-2 challenge ( 188 , 206 ).
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Mapping of low abundance latency-associated RNA in the trigeminal ganglia of mice latently infected with herpes simplex virus type 1.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[111]
More importantly, a breakthrough was made by Harvard Medical School's Higgins Professor of Microbiology, Professor David Knipe. .His laboratory developed dl5-29, a replication-defective mutant virus that has proved successful both in preventing HSV-2/HSV-1 infections, and in combating the virus in already infected hosts, in animal models.^ Remember to wash you hands both before and after you touch your lips to prevent infection for you and prevent transmission to others.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Furthermore, administration of a hematopoetic growth factor to neonatal mice increases the number of dendritic cells, B cells and NK cells, and confers resistance in a cutaneous model of HSV infection.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The failure to limit HSV replication in a timely fashion, which is a feature of infection in the immunocompromised host, can result in atypical lesions.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Specifically, Knipe's lab has already shown that the replication-defective vaccine induces strong HSV-2-specific antibody and T-cell responses; protects against challenge with a wild-type HSV-2 virus; greatly reduces the severity of recurrent disease; provides cross-protection against HSV-1, and renders the virus unable to revert to a virulent state or to become latent.^ If HSV-1 protects against HSV-2, type-common responses in HSV-1-infected persons become rational benchmarks for vaccine-induced immunity.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Protective vaccination against primary and recurrent disease caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 using a genetically disabled HSV-1.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The frequency of recurrences is regulated by specific immunity developed against the virus.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[112] His vaccine is now being researched and developed by Accambis, and is due to be applied as an Investigational New Drug in 2009.[113]
Another possibility to eradicate the HSV-1 variant is being pursued by Professor Bryan Cullen and his team at Duke University. .By figuring out how to switch all copies of the virus in the host from latency to their active stage at the same time, rather than the way the virus copies normally stagger their activity stage, leaving some dormant somewhere at all times, it is thought that conventional anti-viral drugs can kill the entire virus population completely, since they can no longer hide in the nerve cells.^ There are no symptoms during this stage, but the virus can spread during this time.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Doctors don't have a way of killing a virus.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Normally, the virus inhabits only 1 nerve cell in your body.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

One class of drugs called antagomir could serve this purpose. .These are chemically engineered oligonucleotides or short segments of RNA, that can be made to mirror their target genetic material, namely herpes microRNAs.^ In vivo behavior of genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses R7017 and R7020.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These viruses have been named as Human Herpes Virus (HHV) and they have been numbered as 1 to 8.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See more articles cited in this paragraph In vivo behavior of genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses R7017 and R7020: construction and evaluation in rodents.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.They could be engineered to attach and thus 'silence' the microRNA, thus rendering the virus incapable to keep latent in their host.^ Thus, IE genes are essential for virus growth because they regulate viral gene expression.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, NO causes damage to DNA, proteins and lipids in cells and tissues and could thus be deleterious for the host [ 427 - 430 ].
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A viral infection of an individual thus involves a conflict between the virus and the host, which could conceptually be viewed upon as a human controversy escalating to invasion and armed struggle.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

[114] .Professor Cullen believes a drug could be developed to block the microRNA whose job it is to suppress HSV-1 into latency.^ CD8(+) T cells can block herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) reactivation from latency in sensory neurons.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In this setting, it is necessary to use a drug whose mechanism does not depend on activation by HSV TK such as foscarnet, which is a pyrophosphate analog that inhibits HSV DNA polymerase.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is believed these seropositive individuals develop HSE as a consequence of HSV-1 reactivation.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[115]
Additionally, another solution may be found with regards to curing the infection. .A cross anti-viral drug called Bavituximab has already proved successful in effectively treating mice and guinea pigs infected with various enveloped viruses.^ A virus will see an anti-viral drug as a challenge and will build up a huge resistance.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Until a month ago I went to the chemist and he advised me that their is now a tablet called FAMVIR available that was recently approved as a remedy for cold soars that proved to be effective!
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ A careful examination of TG neurons for viral gene expression in latently infected mice (37 to 47 days p.i.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Herpes viruses fall within this category, and it is thought that the virus might be eradicated from the body using this drug.^ Currently, there is no treatment that can eradicate any of the herpes viruses from the body.
  • Herpes simplex - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The two types of herpes simplex virus confer the genera Simplexvirus 1 and -2 , which were formally designated by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses as Human herpesvirus (HHV) 1 and 2 [ 5 ].
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2 are old viruses, with a history of evolution shared with humans.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

[116] .The drug works by binding onto infected cells, including cancer cells, and signaling to the immune system to come and destroy the problem cells.^ Granzyme A, a noncytolytic component of CD8 + cell granules, restricts the spread of herpes simplex virus in the peripheral nervous systems of experimentally infected mice.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ I've tried everything including prescription drugs but nothing has worked until now.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ When infected with HSV macrophages (M φ ) produce several cytokines, including IL-12, which stimulate production of IFN- γ , primarily in NK cells.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

This is a novel technique in medicine and is eagerly anticipated. .It is believed that cross-protection against latent viruses such as herpes simplex, Epstein-Barr, etc., will make an important contribution to improving public health.^ Infection with herpes-simplex viruses 1 and 2.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Age distribution of latent herpes simplex virus 1 and varicella-zoster virus genome in human nervous tissue.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Regions of the herpes simplex virus type 1 latency-associated transcript that protect cells from apoptosisin vitro and protect neuronal cells in vivo.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[117]
.Vironova AB, which is a privately held Swedish biotech company, created an antiviral approach to stop viral growth by inhibiting viral structures from forming, e.g.^ Lysine inhibits viral growth.
  • Cold Sores 1 February 2010 8:26 UTC susangaer.com [Source type: General]

^ Glycyrrhizinic acid has anti-ulcerous, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory induction, stopping viral growth (barrier effect).
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Neutralizing epitopes might potentially include fusion intermediate structures formed during viral entry, as recently defined for HIV-1 ( 141 ).
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

the capsid. .Correct assembly of structural proteins is essential for the virus to survive the extracellular environment and to become infectious, and is thus a suitable drug target.^ Herpes simplex virus protein targets for CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte cytotoxicity in cultured epidermal keratinocytes treated with interferon-gamma.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The cytokine receptors are also structurally clustered in families, and functionally utilize a battery of overlapping kinases and nuclear binding proteins in their signalling pathway and thus have overlapping functions [ 178 ].
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Both essential and nonessential genes are targets for modification in whole-virus vaccine formats.
  • Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Vironova AB is dedicated to the development of antiviral therapeutics and virus diagnostics products to combat and prevent the spread of viral diseases.^ Dosage: For Adults, Administer 10 drops, 3 times daily, to counteract viral diseases, or 10 drops daily, as a preventative measure.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 6 February 2010 12:46 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The US3 protein kinase of herpes simplex virus 1 mediates the posttranslational modification of BAD and prevents BAD-induced programmed cell death in the absence of other viral proteins.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency -- Jones 16 (1): 79 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The extrinsic antiviral activity refers to the ability of macrophages to inactivate virus outside the macrophage itself or to inhibit viral replication in other cells [ 346 ].
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

[118]
Currently, a vaccine designed to prevent infection is being researched and developed by BioVex. Clinical trials are being conducted at the Chelsea & Westminster Hospital in London. It is thought that the vaccine should be ready in about 2015, if indeed the trials prove successful.[119]

See also

References

  1. ^ Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th Ed., Ch. 163, Herpes simplex viruses, Lawrence Corey
  2. ^ Dickerson FB, Boronow JJ, Stallings C, et al. (March 2004). "Infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 is associated with cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder". Biol. Psychiatry 55 (6): 588–93. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2003.10.008. PMID 15013827. 
  3. ^ Itzhaki RF, Lin WR, Shang D, Wilcock GK, Faragher B, Jamieson GA (January 1997). "Herpes simplex virus type 1 in brain and risk of Alzheimer's disease". Lancet 349 (9047): 241–4. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)10149-5. PMID 9014911. 
  4. ^ Whorton CM, Thomas DM, Denham SW (January 1983). "Fatal systemic herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in a healthy young woman". Southern Medial Journal 76(1): 81–3. PMID 6297097. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Gupta R, Warren T, Wald A (December 2007). "Genital herpes". Lancet 370 (9605): 2127–37. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61908-4. PMID 18156035. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0140-6736(07)61908-4. 
  6. ^ Brown ZA, Selke S, Zeh J, et al. (August 1997). "The acquisition of herpes simplex virus during pregnancy". N Engl J Med. 337 (8): 509–15. doi:10.1056/NEJM199708213370801. PMID 9262493. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/337/8/509. 
  7. ^ http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/341142-overview eMedicine
  8. ^ Jocelyn A. Lieb, Stacey Brisman, Sara Herman, Jennifer MacGregor, Marc E. Grossman (2008). "Linear erosive Herpes Simplex Virus infection in immunocompromised patients: the “Knife-Cut Sign”". Clin Infect Dis 47: 1440–1441. doi:10.1086/592976. 
  9. ^ a b James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. 
  10. ^ Takasu T, Furuta Y, Sato KC, Fukuda S, Inuyama Y, Nagashima K (1992). "Detection of latent herpes simplex virus DNA and RNA in human geniculate ganglia by the polymerase chain reaction". Acta Otolaryngol. jhkbjk 112 (6): 1004–11. doi:10.3109/00016489209137502. PMID 1336296. 
  11. ^ Sugita T, Murakami S, Yanagihara N, Fujiwara Y, Hirata Y, Kurata T (1995). "Facial nerve paralysis induced by herpes simplex virus in mice: an animal model of acute and transient facial paralysis". Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 104 (7): 574–81. PMID 7598372. 
  12. ^ Lazarini PR, Vianna MF, Alcantara MP, Scalia RA, Caiaffa Filho HH (2006). "Herpes simplex virus in the saliva of peripheral Bell's palsy patients" (in Portuguese). Rev Bras Otorrinolaringol (Engl Ed) 72 (1): 7–11. PMID 16917546. 
  13. ^ Linder T, Bossart W, Bodmer D (2005). "Bell's palsy and Herpes simplex virus: fact or mystery?". Otol. Neurotol. 26 (1): 109–13. doi:10.1097/00129492-200501000-00020. PMID 15699730. 
  14. ^ Kanerva M, Mannonen L, Piiparinen H, Peltomaa M, Vaheri A, Pitkäranta A (2007). "Search for Herpesviruses in cerebrospinal fluid of facial palsy patients by PCR". Acta Otolaryngol. 127 (7): 775–9. doi:10.1080/00016480601011444. PMID 17573575. 
  15. ^ Stjernquist-Desatnik A, Skoog E, Aurelius E (2006). "Detection of herpes simplex and varicella-zoster viruses in patients with Bell's palsy by the polymerase chain reaction technique". Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 115 (4): 306–11. PMID 16676828. 
  16. ^ Tiemstra JD, Khatkhate N (2007). "Bell's palsy: diagnosis and management". Am Fam Physician 76 (7): 997–1002. PMID 17956069. 
  17. ^ Middleton PJ, Peteric M, Kozak M, Rewcastle NB, McLachlan DR. (1980). "Herpes simplex viral genome and senile and presenile dementias of Alzheimer and Pick.". Lancet 315: 1038. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(80)91490-7. 
  18. ^ Dobson CB, Itzhaki RF (1999). "Herpes simplex virus type 1 and Alzheimer's disease". Neurobiol. Aging 20 (4): 457–65. doi:10.1016/S0197-4580(99)00055-X. PMID 10604441. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0197-4580(99)00055-X. 
  19. ^ This research identifies HSVs as the pathogen most clearly linked to the 2001Pyles RB (November 2001). "The association of herpes simplex virus and Alzheimer's disease: a potential synthesis of genetic and environmental factors" (PDF). Herpes 8 (3): 64–8. PMID 11867022. http://www.ihmf.com/journal/download/83pyles(64)vol864.pdf. 
  20. ^ Itzhaki RF, Lin WR, Shang D, Wilcock GK, Faragher B, Jamieson GA (January 1997). "Herpes simplex virus type 1 in brain and risk of Alzheimer's disease". Lancet 349 (9047): 241–4. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)10149-5. PMID 9014911. 
  21. ^ Wozniak MA, Mee AP, Itzhaki RF (January 2009). "Herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA is located within Alzheimer's disease amyloid plaques". J Pathol. 217 (1): 131–8. doi:10.1002/path.2449. PMID 18973185. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121411445/abstract. 
  22. ^ "AHMF: Preventing Sexual Transmission of Genital herpes". http://www.ahmf.com.au/health_professionals/guidelines/preventing_gh_transmission.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-24. 
  23. ^ a b c d Leone P (2005). "Reducing the risk of transmitting genital herpes: advances in understanding and therapy". Curr Med Res Opin 21 (10): 1577–82. doi:10.1185/030079905X61901. PMID 16238897. 
  24. ^ Kim H, Meier A, Huang M, Kuntz S, Selke S, Celum C, Corey L, Wald A (2006). "Oral herpes simplex virus type 2 reactivation in HIV-positive and -negative men.". J Infect Dis 194 (4): 420–7. doi:10.1086/505879. PMID 16845624. 
  25. ^ a b Mertz, G.J. (1993). "Epidemiology of genital herpes infections.". Infect Dis Clin North Am 7 (4): 825–39. PMID 8106731. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f Fatahzadeh M, Schwartz RA (2007). "Human herpes simplex virus infections: epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis, and management". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57 (5): 737–63; quiz 764–6. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2007.06.027. PMID 17939933. 
  27. ^ Emily T. Martin, MPH; Elizabeth Krantz, MS; Sami L. Gottlieb, MD, MSPH; Amalia S. Magaret, PhD; Andria Langenberg, MD; Lawrence Stanberry, MD, PhD; Mary Kamb, MD, MPH; Anna Wald, MD, MPH (2009). "A Pooled Analysis of the Effect of Condoms in Preventing HSV-2 Acquisition". Archives of Internal Medicine 169 (13): 1233–1240. http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/169/13/1233. 
  28. ^ Seppa, Nathan (2005-01-05). "One-Two Punch: Vaccine fights herpes with antibodies, T cells". Science News. p. 5. http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20050101/fob6.asp. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  29. ^ Carla K. Johnson (August 23, 2006). "Percentage of people with herpes drops". Associated Press. http://www.newsobserver.com/150/story/477928.html. 
  30. ^ a b Kulhanjian JA, Soroush V, Au DS, et al. (April 2, 1992). "Identification of women at unsuspected risk of primary infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 during pregnancy". N. Engl. J. Med. 326 (14): 916–20. PMID 1311799. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/326/14/916. 
  31. ^ Corey L, Wald A, Patel R, et al. (January 2004). "Once-daily valacyclovir to reduce the risk of transmission of genital herpes" (PDF). N Engl J Med. 350 (1): 11–20. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa035144. PMID 14702423. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/reprint/350/1/11.pdf. 
  32. ^ a b Wald A, Langenberg AG, Link K, Izu AE, Ashley R, Warren T, Tyring S, Douglas JM Jr, Corey L. (2001). "Effect of condoms on reducing the transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2 from men to women". JAMA 285 (24): 3100–3106. doi:10.1001/jama.285.24.3100. PMID 11427138. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/285/24/3100. 
  33. ^ Casper C, Wald A. (2002). "Condom use and the prevention of genital herpes acquisition," (PDF). Herpes 9 (1): 10–14. PMID 11916494. http://www.ihmf.org/journal/download/91casper(10)vol910.pdf. 
  34. ^ Wald A, Langenberg AG, Krantz E, et al. (November 2005). "The relationship between condom use and herpes simplex virus acquisition". Ann Intern Med. 143 (10): 707–13. PMID 16287791. http://www.annals.org/cgi/reprint/143/10/707. 
  35. ^ Brown ZA, Selke S, Zeh J et al.. The acquisition of herpes simplex virus during pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:509–515.
  36. ^ Brown ZA, Wald A, Morrow RA, Selke S, Zeh J, Corey L (2003). "Effect of serologic status and cesarean delivery on transmission rates of herpes simplex virus from mother to infant". JAMA 289: 203–209. doi:10.1001/jama.289.2.203. PMID 12517231. 
  37. ^ Brown ZA, Benedetti J, Ashley R et al. (1991). "Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection in relation to asymptomatic maternal infection at the time of labor". N Engl J Med 324: 1247. 
  38. ^ Whitley RJ, Kimberlin DW, Roizman B (1998). "Herpes simplex viruses". Clin Infect Dis 26 (3): 541–53. doi:10.1086/514600. PMID 9524821. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdf/10.1086/514600. 
  39. ^ Brown ZA, Benedetti J, Ashley R, et al. (May 1991). "Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection in relation to asymptomatic maternal infection at the time of labor". N. Engl. J. Med. 324 (18): 1247–52. PMID 1849612. 
  40. ^ Sobngwi‐Tambekou J, Taljaard D, Lissouba P, et al. (2009). "Effect of HSV‐2 Serostatus on Acquisition of HIV by Young Men: Results of a Longitudinal Study in Orange Farm, South Africa". J Infect Dis 199: 958–964. doi:10.1086/597208. 
  41. ^ Koelle DM, Corey L (2008). "Herpes Simplex: Insights on Pathogenesis and Possible Vaccines". Annu Rev Med 59: 381–395. doi:10.1146/annurev.med.59.061606.095540. PMID 18186706. 
  42. ^ "Local anesthetic creams". BMJ 297 (6661): 1468. 1988. PMID 3147021. 
  43. ^ Kaminester LH, Pariser RJ, Pariser DM, et al. (1999). "A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of topical tetracaine in the treatment of herpes labialis". J. Am. Acad. Derm 41 (6): 996–1001. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(99)70260-4. PMID 10570387. 
  44. ^ a b De Clercq E, Field HJ (2006). "Antiviral prodrugs - the development of successful prodrug strategies for antiviral chemotherapy". Br. J. Pharmacol. 147 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706446. PMID 16284630. 
  45. ^ Leung DT, Sacks SL. (2003). "Current treatment options to prevent perinatal transmission of herpes simplex virus". Expert Opin. Pharmacother. 4 (10): 1809–1819. doi:10.1517/14656566.4.10.1809. PMID 14521490. 
  46. ^ The effects of antiviral therapy on the distribution of herpes simplex virus type 1 to ganglionic neurons and its consequences during, immediately following and several months after treatment"[1]"
  47. ^ Famciclovir and Valaciclovir Differ in the Prevention of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Latency in Mice: a Quantitative Study"[2]"
  48. ^ Persistence of Infectious Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 in the Nervous System in Mice after Antiviral Chemotherapy"[3]"
  49. ^ Observation May Indicate A Possible Clinical Effect On Latency"[4]"
  50. ^ Thackray AM, Field HJ. (1996). "Differential effects of famciclovir and valaciclovir on the pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus in a murine infection model including reactivation from latency". J. Infect. Dis. 173 (2): 291–299. PMID 8568288. 
  51. ^ Worrall G (July 6, 1996). "Evidence for efficacy of topical acyclovir in recurrent herpes labialis is weak". BMJ 313 (7048): 46. PMID 8664786. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/313/7048/46/a. 
  52. ^ Spruance SL, Rea TL, Thoming C, Tucker R, Saltzman R, Boon R (1997). "Penciclovir cream for the treatment of herpes simplex labialis. A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Topical Penciclovir Collaborative Study Group". JAMA 277 (17): 1374–9. doi:10.1001/jama.277.17.1374. PMID 9134943. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/277/17/1374. 
  53. ^ "Drug Name: ABREVA (docosanol) - approval". centerwatch.com. July 2000. http://www.centerwatch.com/patient/drugs/dru627.html. Retrieved 2007-10-17. 
  54. ^ "California Court Upholds Settlement Of Class Action Over Cold Sore Medicationl". BNA Inc.. July 2000. http://subscript.bna.com/SAMPLES/plp.nsf/85256269004a991e8525611300214487/29d5bb623a50fd25852572ad0074f772?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2007-10-17. 
  55. ^ Bishop, C.D. (1995). "Anti-viral Activity of the Essential Oil of Melaleuca alternifolia". Journal of Essential Oil Research: 641–644. 
  56. ^ De Bony F, Tod M, Bidault R, On NT, Posner J, Rolan P. (2002). "Multiple interactions of cimetidine and probenecid with valaciclovir and its metabolite acyclovir". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46 (2): 458–463. doi:10.1128/AAC.46.2.458-463.2002. PMID 11796358. 
  57. ^ Karadi I, Karpati S, Romics L. (1998). "Aspirin in the management of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection". Ann. Intern. Med. 128 (8): 696–697. PMID 9537952. 
  58. ^ Gebhardt BM, Varnell ED, Kaufman HE. (2004). "Acetylsalicylic acid reduces viral shedding induced by thermal stress". Curr. Eye Res. 29 (2-3): 119–125. doi:10.1080/02713680490504588. PMID 15512958. 
  59. ^ Perfect MM, Bourne N, Ebel C, Rosenthal SL (2005). "Use of complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of genital herpes". Herpes 12 (2): 38–41. PMID 16209859. 
  60. ^ McCune MA, Perry HO, Muller SA, O'Fallon WM. (2005). "Treatment of recurrent herpes simplex infections with L-lysine monohydrochloride". Cutis. 34 (4): 366–373. PMID 6435961. 
  61. ^ Griffith RS, Walsh DE, Myrmel KH, Thompson RW, Behforooz A. (1987). "Success of L-lysine therapy in frequently recurrent herpes simplex infection. Treatment and prophylaxis". Dermatologica. 175 (4): 183–190. PMID 3115841. 
  62. ^ Griffith RS, Norins AL, Kagan C. (1978). "A multicentered study of lysine therapy in Herpes simplex infection". Dermatologica. 156 (5): 257–267. PMID 640102. 
  63. ^ Vogler BK and Ernst E.. "Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness.". British Journal of General Practice 49: 823–828. http://www.jr2.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/booth/alternat/AT125.html. 
  64. ^ Allahverdiyev A, Duran N, Ozguven M, Koltas S. (2004). "Antiviral activity of the volatile oils of Melissa officinalis L. against Herpes simplex virus type-2.". Phytomedicine. 11 (7-8): 657–661. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2003.07.014. PMID 15636181. 
  65. ^ a b Koytchev R, Alken RG, Dundarov S (1999). "Balm mint extract (Lo-701) for topical treatment of recurring herpes labialis". Phytomedicine 6 (4): 225–30. PMID 10589440. 
  66. ^ Zacharopoulos VR, Phillips DM. (1997). "Vaginal formulations of carrageenan protect mice from herpes simplex virus infection". Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 4 (4): 465–468. PMID 9220165. 
  67. ^ Carlucci MJ, Scolaro LA, Damonte EB. (1999). "Inhibitory action of natural carrageenans on Herpes simplex virus infection of mouse astrocytes". Chemotherapy 45 (6): 429–436. doi:10.1159/000007236. PMID 10567773. 
  68. ^ Binns SE, Hudson J, Merali S, Arnason JT (2002). "Antiviral activity of characterized extracts from echinacea spp. (Heliantheae: Asteraceae) against herpes simplex virus (HSV-I)". Planta Med. 68 (9): 780–3. doi:10.1055/s-2002-34397. PMID 12357386. 
  69. ^ Vonau B, Chard S, Mandalia S, Wilkinson D, Barton SE (2001). "Does the extract of the plant Echinacea purpurea influence the clinical course of recurrent genital herpes?". Int J STD AIDS 12 (3): 154–8. doi:10.1258/0956462011916947. PMID 11231867. 
  70. ^ Docherty JJ, Fu MM, Stiffler BS, Limperos RJ, Pokabla CM, DeLucia AL. (1999). "Resveratrol inhibition of herpes simplex virus replication". Antiviral Res. 43 (3): 145–155. doi:10.1016/S0166-3542(99)00042-X. PMID 10551373. 
  71. ^ Docherty JJ, Smith JS, Fu MM, Stoner T, Booth T. (2004). "Effect of topically applied resveratrol on cutaneous herpes simplex virus infections in hairless mice". Antiviral Res. 61 (1): 19–26. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2003.07.001. PMID 14670590. 
  72. ^ Weber ND, Andersen DO, North JA, Murray BK, Lawson LD, Hughes BG (1992). "In vitro virucidal effects of Allium sativum (garlic) extract and compounds". Planta Med. 58 (5): 417–23. doi:10.1055/s-2006-961504. PMID 1470664. 
  73. ^ Chiu LC, Zhub W, Oo VE (2004). "A polysaccharide fraction from medicinal herb Prunella vulgaris downregulates the expression of herpes simplex virus antigen in Vero cells". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 93 (1): 63–68. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.03.024. 
  74. ^ Andersen JH, Jenssen H, Gutteberg TJ. (2003). "Lactoferrin and lactoferricin inhibit Herpes simplex 1 and 2 infection and exhibit synergy when combined with acyclovir". Antiviral Res. 58 (3): 209–215. doi:10.1016/S0166-3542(02)00214-0. PMID 12767468. 
  75. ^ Gaby AR (2006). "Natural remedies for Herpes simplex". Altern Med Rev 11 (2): 93–101. PMID 16813459. 
  76. ^ Yazici AC, Baz K, Ikizoglu G (2006). "Recurrent herpes labialis during isotretinoin therapy: is there a role for photosensitivity?". J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 20 (1): 93–5. doi:10.1111/j.1468-3083.2005.01358.x. PMID 16405618. 
  77. ^ Snipes W, Person S, Keith A, Cupp J (April 1975). "Butylated hydroxytoluene inactivated lipid-containing viruses". Science 188 (4183): 64–6. doi:10.1126/science.163494. PMID 163494. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=163494. 
  78. ^ Richards JT, Katz ME, Kern ER (October 1985). "Topical butylated hydroxytoluene treatment of genital herpes simplex virus infections of guinea pigs". Antiviral Res. 5 (5): 281–90. doi:10.1016/0166-3542(85)90042-7. PMID 2998276. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0166-3542(85)90042-7. 
  79. ^ Stumpf MP, Laidlaw Z, Jansen VA (2002). "Herpes viruses hedge their bets". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (23): 15234–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.232546899. PMID 12409612. http://www.pnas.org/content/99/23/15234. 
  80. ^ http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/42223/title/How_herpes_re-rears_its_ugly_head_
  81. ^ Myśliwska J, Trzonkowski P, Bryl E, Lukaszuk K, Myśliwski A (2000). "Lower interleukin-2 and higher serum tumor necrosis factor-a levels are associated with perimenstrual, recurrent, facial Herpes simplex infection in young women". Eur. Cytokine Netw. 11 (3): 397–406. PMID 11022124. 
  82. ^ Segal AL, Katcher AH, Brightman VJ, Miller MF (1974). "Recurrent herpes labialis, recurrent aphthous ulcers, and the menstrual cycle". J. Dent. Res. 53 (4): 797–803. PMID 4526372. 
  83. ^ Chambers A, Perry M (2008). "Salivary mediated autoinoculation of herpes simplex virus on the face in the absence of "cold sores," after trauma". J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 66 (1): 136–8. doi:10.1016/j.joms.2006.07.019. PMID 18083428. 
  84. ^ Perna JJ, Mannix ML, Rooney JF, Notkins AL, Straus SE (1987). "Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus infection by ultraviolet light: a human model". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 17 (3): 473–8. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(87)70232-1. PMID 2821086. 
  85. ^ Rooney JF, Straus SE, Mannix ML, et al. (1992). "UV light-induced reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2 and prevention by acyclovir". J. Infect. Dis. 166 (3): 500–6. PMID 1323616. 
  86. ^ Oakley C, Epstein JB, Sherlock CH (1997). "Reactivation of oral herpes simplex virus: implications for clinical management of herpes simplex virus recurrence during radiotherapy". Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 84 (3): 272–8. doi:10.1016/S1079-2104(97)90342-5. PMID 9377190. 
  87. ^ Ichihashi M, Nagai H, Matsunaga K (2004). "Sunlight is an important causative factor of recurrent herpes simplex". Cutis 74 (5 Suppl): 14–8. PMID 15603217. 
  88. ^ Martinez V, Caumes E, Chosidow O (2008). "Treatment to prevent recurrent genital herpes". Curr Opin Infect Dis 21 (1): 42–48. doi:10.1097/QCO.0b013e3282f3d9d3. PMID 18192785. 
  89. ^ a b c John Leo (1982-08-02). "The New Scarlet Letter". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1715020,00.html. 
  90. ^ a b Chow AW, Roland A, Fiala M, et al. (March 1973). "Cytosine arabinoside therapy for herpes simplex encephalitis--clinical experience with six patients". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 3 (3): 412–7. PMID 4790599. PMC 444424. http://aac.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=4790599. 
  91. ^ Kaufman HE, Howard GM (August 1962). "Therapy of experimental herpes simplex keratitis". Invest Ophthalmol 1: 561–4. PMID 14454441. http://www.iovs.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14454441. 
  92. ^ Ch'ien LT, Whitley RJ, Alford CA, Galasso GJ (June 1976). "Adenine arabinoside for therapy of herpes zoster in immunosuppressed patients: preliminary results of a collaborative study". J. Infect. Dis. 133 Suppl: A184–91. PMID 180198. 
  93. ^ McKelvey EM, Kwaan HC (November 1969). "Cytosine arabinoside therapy for disseminated herpes zoster in a patient with IgG pyroglobulinemia". Blood 34 (5): 706–11. PMID 5352659. http://www.bloodjournal.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=5352659. 
  94. ^ Fiala M, Chow A, Guze LB (April 1972). "Susceptibility of herpesviruses to cytosine arabinoside: standardization of susceptibility test procedure and relative resistance of herpes simplex type 2 strains". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1 (4): 354–7. PMID 4364937. PMC 444221. http://aac.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=4364937. 
  95. ^ Allen LB, Hintz OJ, Wolf SM, et al. (June 1976). "Effect of 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosylhypoxanthine 5'-monophosphate on genital lesions and encephalitis induced by Herpesvirus hominis type 2 in female mice". J. Infect. Dis. 133 Suppl: A178–83. PMID 6598. 
  96. ^ Juel-Jensen BE (March 1970). "Varicella and cytosine arabinoside". Lancet 1 (7646): 572. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(70)90815-9. PMID 4190397. 
  97. ^ Nahmias AJ, Kibrick S (May 1964). "Inhibitory effect of heparin on herpes simplex virus". J. Bacteriol. 87 (5): 1060–6. PMID 4289440. PMC 277146. http://jb.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=4289440. 
  98. ^ Allen LB, Sidwell RW (September 1972). "Target-organ treatment of neurotropic virus diseases: efficacy as a chemotherapy tool and comparison of activity of adenine arabinoside, cytosine arabinoside, idoxuridine, and trifluorothymidine". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2 (3): 229–33. PMID 4790562. PMC 444296. http://aac.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=4790562. 
  99. ^ Allen LB, Wolf SM, Hintz CJ, Huffman JH, Sidwell RW (March 1977). "Effect of ribavirin on Type 2 Herpesvirus hominis (HVH/2) in vitro and in vivo". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 284: 247–53. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1977.tb21957.x. PMID 212976. 
  100. ^ Allen LB, Cochran KW (November 1972). "Target-organ treatment of neurotropic virus disease with interferon inducers". Infect. Immun. 6 (5): 819–23. PMID 4404669. PMC 422616. http://iai.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=4404669. 
  101. ^ Sidwell RW, Huffman JH, Khare GP, Allen LB, Witkowski JT, Robins RK (August 1972). "Broad-spectrum antiviral activity of Virazole: 1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide". Science (journal) 177 (50): 705–6. PMID 4340949. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=4340949. 
  102. ^ Babiuk LA, Meldrum B, Gupta VS, Rouse BT (December 1975). "Comparison of the antiviral effects of 5-methoxymethyl-deoxyuridine with 5-iododeoxyuridine, cytosine arabinoside, and adenine arabinoside". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 8 (6): 643–50. PMID 1239978. PMC 429441. http://aac.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=1239978. 
  103. ^ O'Meara A, Deasy PF, Hillary IB, Bridgen WD (December 1979). "Acyclovir for treatment of mucocutaneous herpes infection in a child with leukaemia". Lancet 2 (8153): 1196. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(79)92428-0. PMID 91931. 
  104. ^ Whitley R, Arvin A, Prober C, et al. (February 1991). "A controlled trial comparing vidarabine with acyclovir in neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group". N. Engl. J. Med. 324 (7): 444–9. PMID 1988829. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/324/7/444. 
  105. ^ a b c Kimberlin DW, Lin CY, Jacobs RF, et al. (August 2001). "Safety and efficacy of high-dose intravenous acyclovir in the management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections". Pediatrics 108 (2): 230–8. doi:10.1542/peds.108.2.230. PMID 11483782. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11483782. 
  106. ^ Vezina C, Steben M. (2001). "Genital Herpes: Psychosexual Impacts and Counselling" (PDF). The Canadian Journal of CME (June): 125–34. http://www.stacommunications.com/journals/cme/images/cmepdf/june01/hsv.pdf. 
  107. ^ Lists of support groups and events:
  108. ^ Green J, Ferrier S, Kocsis A, Shadrick J, Ukoumunne OC, Murphy S, Hetherton J. (2003). "Determinants of disclosure of genital herpes to partners.". Sex. Transm. Infect. 79 (1): 42–44. doi:10.1136/sti.79.1.42. PMID 12576613. http://sti.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/79/1/42. 
  109. ^ a b c d e "Herpevac Trial for Women". http://www.niaid.nih.gov/dmid/stds/herpevac/. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  110. ^ "Molecular Therapy - Abstract of article: 801. RNA Gene Therapy Targeting Herpes Simplex Virus". http://www.nature.com/mt/journal/v13/n1s/abs/mt2006942a.html. 
  111. ^ "Potential new herpes therapy studied". http://news.ufl.edu/2009/02/03/herpes-2/. 
  112. ^ http://www.acambis.com/default.asp-id=2052.htm
  113. ^ http://focus.hms.harvard.edu/2008/030708/licensing.shtml
  114. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/healthNews/idUSN0229815620080702?pageNumber=2&virtualBrandChannel=0
  115. ^ http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1819739,00.html
  116. ^ http://herpesisnormal.com/
  117. ^ "Release", Reuters
  118. ^ http://www.vironova.com/webpage.aspx?id=149
  119. ^ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/health/article7049246.ece

External links

General
Images
Other

Simple English

File:Herpes
Fever Blisters on the lips

The herpes simplex virus (HSV) (also known as Cold Sore, Night Fever, or Fever Blister) is a virus. It causes two common viral infections. Each infection has painful, watery blisters in the skin or mucous membranes (such as the mouth or lips) or on the genitals. The disease is contagious, particularly during an outbreak. Contagious means that it can spread from one person to another.It is incurable with present medicine. An infection on the lips is commonly known as a "cold sore" or "fever blister," though this should not be confused with a canker sore, which appears inside the mouth and is not caused by the herpes simplex virus.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 02, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Herpes simplex, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message