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Herpes simplex virus
.TEM micrograph of a herpes simplex virus.^ This infection is caused by the Herpes simplex virus.
  • Genital Herpes (HSV, Herpes simplex virus) 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.zgxl.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is caused by Herpes Simplex virus type 1.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Information 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.disabled-world.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gynecologic herpes simplex virus infections.
  • NGC - NGC Summary 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.guideline.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and in neonate: status of art of epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy and prevention 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

Virus classification
Group: Group I (dsDNA)
Family: Herpesviridae
Subfamily: Alphaherpesvirinae
Genus: Simplexvirus
Species
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HWJ-1)
Herpes simplex virus 2 (HWJ-2)
.Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as Human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and -2), are two members of the herpes virus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.^ Human herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 cause disease.
  • Herpes simplex infections- Blue Book: IDEAS - Victorian Government 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.health.vic.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

^ This infection is caused by the Herpes simplex virus.
  • Genital Herpes (HSV, Herpes simplex virus) 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.zgxl.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no known cure for herpes simplex virus.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus | Gold Skin Care 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.goldskincare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Both HSV-1 and -2 are ubiquitous and contagious.^ Both HSV 1 and HSV 2 are extremely contagious, but they can spread only through a sexual contact with an affected person.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Facts 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.amoils.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both types, HSV-1 and HSV2, can be found in either area of the body and are contagious.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus | Gold Skin Care 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.goldskincare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Introduction Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a ubiquitous viral pathogen capable of both productive and latent infections in its human host.
  • Herpes simplex virus eliminates host mitochondrial DNA 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

.They can be spread when an infected person is producing and shedding the virus.^ The herpes simplex virus can be spread by an infected but asymptomatic person.
  • herpes simplex Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about herpes simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They can also lessen the chances of spreading the virus.
  • Herpes simplex virus 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The virus can be spread even when the infected person has no symptoms.

.Symptoms of herpes simplex virus infection include watery blisters in the skin or mucous membranes of the mouth, lips or genitals.^ A prospective study on new infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2.
  • Nurse Practitioner's Guide, Herpes Simplex Virus-1 in Children: Abstract and Introduction 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment of recurrent genital herpes simplex infections with oral acyclovir.
  • Treatment of genital herpes simplex virus infection 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This infection is caused by the Herpes simplex virus.
  • Genital Herpes (HSV, Herpes simplex virus) 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.zgxl.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Lesions heal with a scab characteristic of herpetic disease.^ Lesions heal with a crudescent scab, the hallmark of herpetic disease.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus (hsv) Infection 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once these blisters burst, they form lesions, which eventually fill with fluid, burst and form scabs for healing.

^ In a few days, the lesion will dry up and scabs will form and this is the start of the healing process.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC ecarma.net [Source type: General]

.However, as neurotropic and neuroinvasive viruses, HSV-1 and -2 persist in the body for the life of the carrier by becoming latent and hiding from the immune system in the cell bodies of nerves.^ With recurrent herpes, the HSV-1 virus hides from the body’s immune system in the trigeminal ganglion.
  • Dentistry.com - Herpes Simplex Types 1 and 2 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.dentistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do you want to assist your immune system in killing the HSV viruses hiding in your body?
  • Genital herpes and Herpes Simplex Virus 1 & 2 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.gene-eden.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HSV remain in the body for life, hidden in a dormant state inside nerve cells.
  • Herpes Virus HSV-1 and HSV-2 Transmission and Transmittability, Genital Herpes Symptoms 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.healthassist.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the initial or primary infection, some infected people experience sporadic episodes of viral reactivation or outbreaks.^ Not everyone infected with the virus will have outbreaks after the initial episode.
  • Herpes -Are You At Risk? - Artipot 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.artipot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some fortunate people never experience symptoms (outbreaks) at all.
  • Herpes simplex virus - Hot Hubs 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Such latent infections are subject to reactivation whereby infectious virus can be recovered in peripheral tissue enervated by the latently infected neurons following a specific physiological stress.
  • Dr. Edward K. Wagner's Herpes Virus Research 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC darwin.bio.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In an outbreak, the virus in a nerve cell becomes active and is transported via the nerve's axon to the skin, where virus replication and shedding occur and cause new sores.^ When herpes becomes active it travels down the nerves to the skin's surface where it replicates and causes the lesions that accompany an outbreak.

^ After the first outbreak, the herpes virus stays in the nerve cells below the skin and becomes inactive.
  • Genital Herpes - Topic Overview - Health.com 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.health.com [Source type: General]

^ The Type 2 virus causes genital sores.
  • Herpes Simplex    The herpes simplex virus 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.nwgadermatology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.There is no known cure for HSV infection, but treatments can reduce the likelihood of viral shedding and spread.^ The mother had an uncomplicated pregnancy and no known history of HSV infection.
  • Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infections - March 15, 2002 - American Family Physician 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These drugs do not cure HSV infections.
  • Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes) | aidsinfonet.org | The AIDS InfoNet 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.aidsinfonet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is there a cure for HSV-1 ?
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) & Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.afterh.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Transmission

.HSV-1 and -2 are transmitted horizontally during close contact with an infected person who is shedding virus from the skin, often in saliva or in secretions from the genitals.^ In HSV-2, the infected person may have sores around the genitals or rectum.
  • Herpes simplex virus: Type 1 and Type 2 Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is transmitted.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus (hsv) Infection 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HSV-1 is transmitted through saliva.
  • Herpes simplex virus 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Herpes simplex virus - Alternative Medicine Report 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.qualityhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

.Transmission is more likely to occur when sores are present, although viral shedding and transmission can occur in the absence of visible sores[3] and most HSV-2 infections result from asymptomatic shedding.^ Viral shedding can occur even in the absence of lesions.
  • McKinley Health Center - Herpes Simplex - University of Illinois 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.mckinley.illinois.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most transmission occurs via asymptomatic viral shedding in skin or genital secretions.
  • eMJA: 10: Herpes simplex and varicella–zoster virus infections 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.mja.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Viral shedding occurs over a 1-5 day period.
  • Herpes Facts: HSV-2 Infections 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.herpesguide.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .HSV-1 is usually acquired orally during childhood, but may also be sexually transmitted.^ HSV-2 is a sexually transmitted disease.
  • Herpes simplex virus 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Herpes simplex virus - Alternative Medicine Report 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.qualityhealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Factors Predicting the Acceptance of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 - STDWEB 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC stdweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Infection is usually acquired in childhood and is transmitted by saliva.
  • Herpes Infection - Is There a Cure for Herpes Video - About.com 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC video.about.com [Source type: General]

^ It is usually transmitted sexually.
  • Herpes Simplex | LIVESTRONG.COM 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.HSV-2 is primarily a sexually transmitted infection.^ HSV-2 is a sexually transmitted disease.
  • Herpes simplex virus 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Herpes simplex virus - Alternative Medicine Report 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.qualityhealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Factors Predicting the Acceptance of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 - STDWEB 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC stdweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Drugs for sexually transmitted infections.
  • Treatment of genital herpes simplex virus infection 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sexually transmitted infections .
  • Women's Web - Herpes simplex virus I (genital herpes) 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.womensweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.Both viruses may also be transmitted vertically from mother to child before or during childbirth.^ Both viruses are transmitted by sexual contact.
  • herpes 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.menstuff.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Herpes infections can also be transmitted from a mother to her infant during childbirth.
  • (WO/2007/016239) HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS MUTANT AND USES THEREFORE 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Mothers can also infect their babies during childbirth.
  • Herpes Simplex: MedlinePlus 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Herpes Simplex - Definition, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.health-disease.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .The risk of infection is reduced if the mother has no symptoms or exposed blisters during delivery.^ Expectant mothers, to reduce the risk acquiring an infection near labor and transmitting the infection during labor.
  • HealthCheckUSA News Alert: Condoms Help Protect against Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) - Low Cost Blood Testing: The Health Check USA Blog 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC blog.healthcheckusa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • HealthCheckUSA News Alert: Condoms Help Protect against Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) - Low Cost Blood Testing: The Health Check USA Blog 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC blog.healthcheckusa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Measures to prevent infecting infants during birth vary, depending upon whether the mother's infection is active or dormant.
  • Viral Infections - Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) - Treatment - Prevention - dermatologychannel 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.dermatologychannel.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most neonatal HSV infections occur through delivery via an infected birth canal and most cases are due to asymptomatic viral shedding in the mother.
  • The diagnosis of herpes simplex viruses | Australian Herpes Management Forum 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ahmf.com.au [Source type: Academic]

.Some forms of HSV can be fatal to the infant,[6] as the developing immune system of the child is unable to defend against the virus, resulting in inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) that may cause brain damage.^ The HSV-2 virus can also cause fatal infections in infants if the mother is shedding virus at the time of delivery.

^ May follow any form of recurrent HSV. .
  • Herpes Simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Herpes simplex encephalitis is caused by a virus known as herpes simplex virus (HSV).
  • CIGNA - Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: Academic]

.Symptoms resulting from primary infection with HSV are usually more severe than subsequent outbreaks, as the body has not had a chance to produce antibodies.^ Symptoms can last for several weeks, but the first episode of herpes is usually worse than subsequent outbreaks.
  • Herpes Simplex - baby, swollen, symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms of primary oral herpes infections.
  • What causes cold sores (fever blisters / oral herpes lesions)? 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.animated-teeth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recurrent episodes seem usually to result from a primary HSV-2 infection.

.This first outbreak carries a low (≈1%) risk of developing aseptic meningitis.^ Because ICP10 PK is latency compromised, the risk of potential recombination with latent HSV-2 DNA carried by the patient is also relatively low.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Vaccines: New Ground for Optimism? -- Aurelian 11 (3): 437 -- Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC cvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fortunately, the risk of transmitting the infection to a newborn at birth is low, even for women who have long-standing, recurrent outbreaks.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.healthsquare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By being responsible about your personal hygiene and being careful during outbreaks the risk of transmitting the herpes virus to your children is very low.
  • Herpes Simplex - Genital Herpes and Your Family 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.famvir.com [Source type: General]

[1]

Microbiology

Viral structure

.Animal herpes viruses all share some common properties.^ Some common Symptoms of Herpes Simplex : .
  • Herpes Simplex - Herpes Simplex symptom, treatment, virus picture 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.health-disease.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TABLE 2 - Properties of Herpes viruses .

^ They differ in many ways, but the viruses share certain characteristics, notably the word "herpes," which is derived from a Greek word meaning "to creep."
  • Herpes Simplex - In-Depth Report - NY Times Health 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC nortonhealthcare.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Walgreens.com | Health Library | Print - Herpes simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.walgreens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex - Introduction 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC health.bwmc.umms.org [Source type: Academic]

.The structure of herpes viruses consists of a relatively large double-stranded, linear DNA genome encased within an icosahedral protein cage called the capsid, which is wrapped in a lipid bilayer called the envelope.^ HSV is a large, double stranded DNA virus.
  • Herpes Facts: What is a Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.herpesguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their genome consists of double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) within an icosahedral nucleocapsid.

^ The herpes family of viruses contain a DNA core (double-stranded linear virus) which is surrounded by a capsid and lipid envelope.
  • ORAL HERPES AND COLD SORES IN CHILDREN. Information on herpessimplex,herpes labialis,herpetic gingivostomatitis,fever blister,recurrentherpes labialis,and Abreva 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC dentalresource.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The envelope is joined to the capsid by means of a tegument.^ The cytoplasmic capsids then associate with the numerous tegument proteins of the mature virion, including -TIF and vhs, which appear to functionally interact to help final envelopment.

^ Final envelopment takes place as the mature capsids and associated tegument proteins bud into exocytotic vesicles, the membranes of which contain all the glycoproteins associated with the mature virions.
  • Dr. Edward K. Wagner's Herpes Virus Research 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.dbc.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Preventing Replication Herpes Simplex Virus 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.herpes-device-that-works.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cytoplasmic capsids then associate with the numerous tegument proteins of the mature virion, including a -TIF and vhs, which appear to functionally interact to help final envelopment.
  • Dr. Edward K. Wagner's Herpes Virus Research 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.dbc.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This complete particle is known as the virion.^ In addition, it is not known whether the tagged DNA was completely packaged into the virion.
  • Intact Microtubules Support Adenovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections -- Mabit et al. 76 (19): 9962 -- The Journal of Virology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[7] .HSV-1 and HSV-2 each contain at least 74 genes (or open-reading frames, ORFs) within their genomes,[8] although speculation over gene crowding allows as many as 84 unique protein coding genes by 94 putative ORFs.^ The location of the gene classes within the HSV genome is of interest.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.uq.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

^ The HSV genome encodes at least 74 genes [ 15 , 16 ].
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Herpes simplex virus type 2 tegument protein UL56 relocalizes ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 and has a role in transport and/or release of virions 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Since open reading frames exist on both strands of HSV DNA, complementary transcripts abound in the infected cell, leading to activation of protein kinase R (PKR), phosphorylation of the α subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2, and total shutoff of protein synthesis.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Herpes simplex viruses: is a vaccine tenable? 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

[9] .These genes encode a variety of proteins involved in forming the capsid, tegument and envelope of the virus, as well as controlling the replication and infectivity of the virus.^ Each of these genes is essential for DNA replication.
  • (WO/2007/016239) HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS MUTANT AND USES THEREFORE 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ These accessory proteins are "non-essential" for virus replication in that cellular products can substitute for their function in one or another cell type or upon replication of previously quiescent cells; however, disruptions of such genes often have a profound effect upon viral pathogenesis, and/or ability to replicate in specific cells.
  • Dr. Edward K. Wagner's Herpes Virus Research 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.dbc.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Preventing Replication Herpes Simplex Virus 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.herpes-device-that-works.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The herpes family of viruses contain a DNA core (double-stranded linear virus) which is surrounded by a capsid and lipid envelope.
  • ORAL HERPES AND COLD SORES IN CHILDREN. Information on herpessimplex,herpes labialis,herpetic gingivostomatitis,fever blister,recurrentherpes labialis,and Abreva 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC dentalresource.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These genes and their functions are summarized in the table below.
.The genomes of HSV-1 and HSV-2 are complex and contain two unique regions called the long unique region (UL) and the short unique region (US).^ The complete DNA sequence of the long unique region in the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1.
  • Herpes simplex virus type 2 UL14 gene product has heat shock protein (HSP)-like functions -- Yamauchi et al. 115 (12): 2517 -- Journal of Cell Science 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC jcs.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Desirably, an HSV-2 replication defective mutant contains at least two mutations in genes that are required for replication, at least one mutation of which renders the virus replication defective.
  • (WO/2007/016239) HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS MUTANT AND USES THEREFORE 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Two unique biologic properties of HSVs profoundly influence human disease and will need to be targeted by a successful vaccine.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Herpes simplex viruses: is a vaccine tenable? 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

.Of the 74 known ORFs, UL contains 56 viral genes, whereas US contains only 12.[8] Transcription of HSV genes is catalyzed by RNA polymerase II of the infected host.^ Regulation of viral gene expression RNA polymerase II is responsible for viral mRNA synthesis.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.uq.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Each consists of a core, which contains the viral DNA, wrapped in a protein-studded coat known as the envelope.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus - Health & Wellbeing 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • herpes virus 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.uni-stat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each consists of a core, which contains the viral DNA, wrapped in a protein-studded coat known as the envelope In fact, once a person has been infected with the herpes virus, it's in the body forever.
  • Herpes Simplex - Herpes Simplex symptom, treatment, virus picture 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.health-disease.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .Immediate early genes, which encode proteins that regulate the expression of early and late viral genes, are the first to be expressed following infection.^ Rep gene activation by HSV-1 immediate-early proteins .
  • PLoS Pathogens: Definition of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Helper Activities for Adeno-Associated Virus Early Replication Events 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Genome replication and late gene expression .
  • Dr. Edward K. Wagner's Herpes Virus Research 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.dbc.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Preventing Replication Herpes Simplex Virus 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.herpes-device-that-works.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This step is followed by transcription of immediate-early genes, which encode for the regulatory proteins, and is followed by the expression of proteins encoded by early and then late genes.
  • Cecil's Textbook of Medicine: Herpes Simplex Virus Infections: Definition 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.merckmedicus.com [Source type: Academic]

.Early gene expression follows, to allow the synthesis of enzymes involved in DNA replication and the production of certain envelope glycoproteins.^ Synthesis of early gene products turns off IE products and initiates genome replication.

^ Genome replication and late gene expression .

^ Each of these genes is essential for DNA replication.
  • (WO/2007/016239) HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS MUTANT AND USES THEREFORE 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

.Expression of late genes occurs last; this group of genes predominantly encode proteins that form the virion particle.^ Genome replication and late gene expression .
  • Dr. Edward K. Wagner's Herpes Virus Research 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.dbc.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Preventing Replication Herpes Simplex Virus 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.herpes-device-that-works.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The early DNA-binding protein, ICP8, also stimulates late gene transcription.
  • (WO/2007/016239) HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS MUTANT AND USES THEREFORE 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ There are two main groups of E3 ligases: really interesting novel genes (RING) and homologous to E6AP carboxyl terminus (HECT) proteins.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Herpes simplex virus type 2 tegument protein UL56 relocalizes ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 and has a role in transport and/or release of virions 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

[8]
Five proteins from (UL) form the viral capsid; UL6, UL18, UL35, UL38 and the major capsid protein UL19.[7]
The open reading frames (ORFs) of HSV-1[8][10]
Gene Protein Function/description Gene Protein Function/description
UL1 Glycoprotein L [1] Surface and membrane UL38 UL38; VP19C [2] Capsid assembly and DNA maturation
UL2 UL2 [3] Uracil-DNA glycosylase UL39 UL39 [4] Ribonucleotide reductase (Large subunit)
UL3 UL3 [5] unknown UL40 UL40 [6] Ribonucleotide reductase (Small subunit)
UL4 UL4 [7] unknown UL41 UL41; VHS [8] Tegument protein; Virion host shutoff[11]
UL5 UL5 [9] DNA replication UL42 UL42 [10] DNA polymerase processivity factor
UL6 UL6 [11] Processing and packaging DNA UL43 UL43 [12] Membrane protein
UL7 UL7 [13] Virion maturation UL44 Glycoprotein C [14] Surface and membrane
UL8 UL8 [15] DNA helicase/primase complex-associated protein UL45 UL45 [16] Membrane protein; C-type lectin[12]
UL9 UL9 [17] Replication origin-binding protein UL46 VP11/12 [18] Tegument proteins
UL10 Glycoprotein M [19] Surface and membrane UL47 UL47; VP13/14 [20] Tegument protein
UL11 UL11 [21] virion exit and secondary envelopment UL48 VP16 (Alpha-TIF) [22] Virion maturation; activate IEGs by interacting with the cellular transcription factors Oct-1 and HCF. Binds to the sequence 5'TAATGARAT3'.
UL12 UL12 [23] Alkaline exonuclease UL49 UL49A [24] Envelope protein
UL13 UL13 [25] Serine-threonine protein kinase UL50 UL50 [26] dUTP diphosphatase
UL14 UL14 [27] Tegument protein UL51 UL51 [28] Tegument protein
UL15 Terminase [29] Processing and packaging of DNA UL52 UL52 [30] DNA helicase/primase complex protein
UL16 UL16 [31] Tegument protein UL53 Glycoprotein K [32] Surface and membrane
UL17 UL17 [33] Processing and packaging DNA UL54 IE63; ICP27 [34] Transcriptional regulation
UL18 VP23 [35] Capsid protein UL55 UL55 [36] Unknown
UL19 VP5 [37] Major capsid protein UL56 UL56 [38] Unknown
UL20 UL20 [39] Membrane protein US1 ICP22; IE68 [40] Viral replication
UL21 UL21 [41] Tegument protein[13] US2 US2 [42] Unknown
UL22 Glycoprotein H [43] Surface and membrane US3 US3 [44] Serine/threonine-protein kinase
UL23 Thymidine kinase [45] Peripheral to DNA replication US4 Glycoprotein G [46] Surface and membrane
UL24 UL24 [47] unknown US5 Glycoprotein J [48] Surface and membrane
UL25 UL25 [49] Processing and packaging DNA US6 Glycoprotein D [50] Surface and membrane
UL26 P40; VP24; VP22A [51] Capsid protein US7 Glycoprotein I [52] Surface and membrane
UL27 Glycoprotein B [53] Surface and membrane US8 Glycoprotein E [54] Surface and membrane
UL28 ICP18.5 [55] Processing and packaging DNA US9 US9 [56] Tegument protein
UL29 UL29 [57] Major DNA-binding protein US10 US10 [58] Capsid/Tegument protein
UL30 DNA polymerase [59] DNA replication US11 US11; Vmw21 [60] Binds DNA and RNA
UL31 UL31 [61] Nuclear matrix protein US12 ICP47; IE12 [62] Inhibits MHC class I pathway by preventing binding of antigen to TAP
UL32 UL32 [63] Envelope glycoprotein RS1 ICP4; IE175 [64] Activates gene transcription
UL33 UL33 [65] Processing and packaging DNA ICP0 ICP0; IE110; α0 [66] E3 ubiquitin ligase that activates viral gene transcription and counteracts the interferon response
UL34 UL34 [67] Inner nuclear membrane protein LRP1 LRP1 [68] Latency-related protein
UL35 VP26 [69] Capsid protein LRP2 LRP2 [70] Latency-related protein
UL36 UL36 [71] Large tegument protein RL1 RL1; ICP34.5 [72] Neurovirulence factor. Antagonizes PKR by de-phosphorylating eIF4a.
UL37 UL37 [73] Capsid assembly LAT none [74] Latency-associated transcript

Cellular entry

A simplified diagram of HSV replication
.Entry of HSV into the host cell involves interactions of several glycoproteins on the surface of the enveloped virus, with receptors on the surface of the host cell.^ Specificity for gD. Several HSV glycoproteins are involved in virion entry into cells.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Can Bind to Poliovirus Receptor-Related Protein 1 or Herpesvirus Entry Mediator, Two Structurally Unrelated Mediators of Virus Entry 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The role of the adenovirus protease in virus entry into cells.
  • Intact Microtubules Support Adenovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections -- Mabit et al. 76 (19): 9962 -- The Journal of Virology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Three classes of cell surface receptors for alphaherpesvirus entry.
  • Intact Microtubules Support Adenovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections -- Mabit et al. 76 (19): 9962 -- The Journal of Virology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.The envelope covering the virus particle, when bound to specific receptors on the cell surface, will fuse with the host cell membrane and create an opening, or pore, through which the virus enters the host cell.^ It’s hard to get a handle on how big, fat viruses such as herpesviruses and poxviruses infect cells because they have so many potential virus attachment proteins on their surface and these interact with a range of cellular receptors in different...
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^ To initiate infection, HSV must attach to cell-surface receptors, fuse its envelope to the plasma membrane, and allow the de-enveloped capsid to be transported to the nuclear pores, where DNA is released into the nucleus.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Herpes simplex viruses: is a vaccine tenable? 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Findings of specific giant cells with many nuclei or distinctive particles that carry the virus (called inclusion bodies) indicate herpes infection.
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.The sequential stages of HSV entry are analogous to those of other viruses.^ As with HSV, acyclovir (or other nucleoside analogs) can be useful, particular in preventing dissemination in immunosuppressed patients.

^ In one of the studies, the partners who were free of genital herpes had never been infected with either HSV-1 nor HSV-2, while the other included those who had HSV-1 but not HSV-2.
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^ The heterologous gene or genes for the antigen or immunogen can be derived from another herpes virus, such as those enumerated above, or other infectious agents, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites.
  • (WO/2007/016239) HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS MUTANT AND USES THEREFORE 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

.At first, complementary receptors on the virus and the cell surface bring the viral and cell membranes into proximity.^ It’s hard to get a handle on how big, fat viruses such as herpesviruses and poxviruses infect cells because they have so many potential virus attachment proteins on their surface and these interact with a range of cellular receptors in different...
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^ To initiate infection, HSV must attach to cell-surface receptors, fuse its envelope to the plasma membrane, and allow the de-enveloped capsid to be transported to the nuclear pores, where DNA is released into the nucleus.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Herpes simplex viruses: is a vaccine tenable? 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During a first infection, the virus is shed for longer periods, and more viral particles are excreted.
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.In an intermediate state, the two membranes begin to merge, forming a hemifusion state. Finally, a stable entry pore is formed through which the viral envelope contents are introduced to the host cell.^ Fusion of the viral membrane with that of the host cell (gB) .

^ Fusion of viral envelope with cell plasma membrane requires gD, gB, and the gH-gL complex ( 49 ).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Can Bind to Poliovirus Receptor-Related Protein 1 or Herpesvirus Entry Mediator, Two Structurally Unrelated Mediators of Virus Entry 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Johnson D C, Burke R L, Gregory T. Soluble forms of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D bind to a limited number of cell surface receptors and inhibit virus entry into cells.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Can Bind to Poliovirus Receptor-Related Protein 1 or Herpesvirus Entry Mediator, Two Structurally Unrelated Mediators of Virus Entry 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[14] .In the case of a herpes virus, initial interactions occur when a viral envelope glycoprotein called glycoprotein C (gC) binds to a cell surface particle called heparan sulfate.^ WuDunn D, Spear P G. Initial interaction of herpes simplex virus with cells is binding to heparan sulfate.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Can Bind to Poliovirus Receptor-Related Protein 1 or Herpesvirus Entry Mediator, Two Structurally Unrelated Mediators of Virus Entry 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Role of glycoprotein B of herpes simplex virus type 1 in viral entry and cell fusion.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Can Bind to Poliovirus Receptor-Related Protein 1 or Herpesvirus Entry Mediator, Two Structurally Unrelated Mediators of Virus Entry 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Glycoprotein C-independent binding of herpes simplex virus to cells requires cell surface heparan sulphate and glycoprotein B. J Gen Virol.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Can Bind to Poliovirus Receptor-Related Protein 1 or Herpesvirus Entry Mediator, Two Structurally Unrelated Mediators of Virus Entry 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.A second glycoprotein, glycoprotein D (gD), binds specifically to a receptor called the herpesvirus entry mediator receptor (HVEM) and provides a strong, fixed attachment to the host cell.^ Specificity for gD. Several HSV glycoproteins are involved in virion entry into cells.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Can Bind to Poliovirus Receptor-Related Protein 1 or Herpesvirus Entry Mediator, Two Structurally Unrelated Mediators of Virus Entry 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Specificity of gD for different viral receptors.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Can Bind to Poliovirus Receptor-Related Protein 1 or Herpesvirus Entry Mediator, Two Structurally Unrelated Mediators of Virus Entry 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, we propose that HSV entry can be mediated by two structurally unrelated gD receptors through related but not identical binding with gD. Other Sections▼ Abstract MATERIALS AND METHODS RESULTS DISCUSSION REFERENCES The entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV) into mammalian cells consists of a chain of events involving several of the 10 viral envelope glycoproteins ( 49 , 58 ).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Can Bind to Poliovirus Receptor-Related Protein 1 or Herpesvirus Entry Mediator, Two Structurally Unrelated Mediators of Virus Entry 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.These interactions bring the membrane surfaces into mutual proximity and allow for other glycoproteins embedded in the viral envelope to interact with other cell surface molecules.^ This molecule is found on the surfaces of many cells.

^ It’s hard to get a handle on how big, fat viruses such as herpesviruses and poxviruses infect cells because they have so many potential virus attachment proteins on their surface and these interact with a range of cellular receptors in different...
  • Herpes Simplex | LIVESTRONG.COM 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To initiate infection, HSV must attach to cell-surface receptors, fuse its envelope to the plasma membrane, and allow the de-enveloped capsid to be transported to the nuclear pores, where DNA is released into the nucleus.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Herpes simplex viruses: is a vaccine tenable? 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

.Once bound to the HVEM, gD changes its conformation and interacts with viral glycoproteins H (gH) and L (gL), which form a complex.^ High-level expression and purification of secreted forms of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein gD synthesized by baculovirus-infected insect cells.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Can Bind to Poliovirus Receptor-Related Protein 1 or Herpesvirus Entry Mediator, Two Structurally Unrelated Mediators of Virus Entry 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Here we show that a truncated form of HveC directly binds to HSV glycoprotein D (gD) in solution and at the surface of virions.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Can Bind to Poliovirus Receptor-Related Protein 1 or Herpesvirus Entry Mediator, Two Structurally Unrelated Mediators of Virus Entry 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Identical aliquots of purified virions were pretreated separately with cocktails of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against gB, gC, gD, or gH-gL (lanes 3 to 6).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Can Bind to Poliovirus Receptor-Related Protein 1 or Herpesvirus Entry Mediator, Two Structurally Unrelated Mediators of Virus Entry 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The interaction of these membrane proteins results in the hemifusion state.^ These results indicated that the three HSV-1 transactivating factors were essential to induce AAV replication in association with the HP and ICP8 proteins.
  • PLoS Pathogens: Definition of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Helper Activities for Adeno-Associated Virus Early Replication Events 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These results supported the idea that the Hsp70-homologous region of UL14 protein was important for its translocational function of VP26 in coexpressing cells.
  • Herpes simplex virus type 2 UL14 gene product has heat shock protein (HSP)-like functions -- Yamauchi et al. 115 (12): 2517 -- Journal of Cell Science 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC jcs.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many of these proteins (about half) are not directly involved in the virus structure or controlling its replication but function in the interaction with the host cell or the immune response of the host.

.Afterward, gB interaction with the gH/gL complex creates an entry pore for the viral capsid.^ Identical aliquots of purified virions were pretreated separately with cocktails of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against gB, gC, gD, or gH-gL (lanes 3 to 6).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Can Bind to Poliovirus Receptor-Related Protein 1 or Herpesvirus Entry Mediator, Two Structurally Unrelated Mediators of Virus Entry 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Fusion of viral envelope with cell plasma membrane requires gD, gB, and the gH-gL complex ( 49 ).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Can Bind to Poliovirus Receptor-Related Protein 1 or Herpesvirus Entry Mediator, Two Structurally Unrelated Mediators of Virus Entry 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibodies directed against gB, gC, or gH-gL did not compete with HveCt.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Can Bind to Poliovirus Receptor-Related Protein 1 or Herpesvirus Entry Mediator, Two Structurally Unrelated Mediators of Virus Entry 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[14] .Glycoprotein B interacts with glycosaminoglycans on the surface of the host cell.^ Johnson D C, Burke R L, Gregory T. Soluble forms of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D bind to a limited number of cell surface receptors and inhibit virus entry into cells.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Can Bind to Poliovirus Receptor-Related Protein 1 or Herpesvirus Entry Mediator, Two Structurally Unrelated Mediators of Virus Entry 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Johnson D C, Ligas M W. Herpes simplex viruses lacking glycoprotein D are unable to inhibit virus penetration: quantitative evidence for virus-specific cell surface receptors.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Can Bind to Poliovirus Receptor-Related Protein 1 or Herpesvirus Entry Mediator, Two Structurally Unrelated Mediators of Virus Entry 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Glycoproteins were selected as antigenic targets for these vaccines because they are localized on the surface of infected cells and virions and because they are immunogenic (see above).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Vaccines: New Ground for Optimism? -- Aurelian 11 (3): 437 -- Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC cvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

Genetic inoculation

.After the viral capsid enters the cellular cytoplasm, it is transported to the cell nucleus.^ MTs are required for viral capsid transport.
  • Intact Microtubules Support Adenovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections -- Mabit et al. 76 (19): 9962 -- The Journal of Virology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mechanisms of viral transport in the cytoplasm.
  • Intact Microtubules Support Adenovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections -- Mabit et al. 76 (19): 9962 -- The Journal of Virology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To initiate infection, HSV must attach to cell-surface receptors, fuse its envelope to the plasma membrane, and allow the de-enveloped capsid to be transported to the nuclear pores, where DNA is released into the nucleus.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Herpes simplex viruses: is a vaccine tenable? 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

.Once attached to the nucleus at a nuclear entry pore, the capsid ejects its DNA contents via the capsid portal.^ The role of the nuclear pore complex in adenovirus DNA entry.
  • Intact Microtubules Support Adenovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections -- Mabit et al. 76 (19): 9962 -- The Journal of Virology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To initiate infection, HSV must attach to cell-surface receptors, fuse its envelope to the plasma membrane, and allow the de-enveloped capsid to be transported to the nuclear pores, where DNA is released into the nucleus.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Herpes simplex viruses: is a vaccine tenable? 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Both viruses then target their capsids to the cell nucleus, uncoat, and inject the enclosed linear double-stranded DNA genomes through the nuclear pores into the nucleoplasm for replication ( 14 , 35 , 53 ).
  • Intact Microtubules Support Adenovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections -- Mabit et al. 76 (19): 9962 -- The Journal of Virology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.The capsid portal is formed by twelve copies of portal protein, UL6, arranged as a ring; the proteins contain a leucine zipper sequence of amino acids which allow them to adhere to each other.^ By "alteration" is meant any change in a nucleic acid or amino acid sequence relative to a reference sequence.
  • (WO/2007/016239) HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS MUTANT AND USES THEREFORE 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Interestingly, HSV UL14 protein possessed an amino acid sequence that was homologous to a part of the peptide-binding domain conserved in the Hsp70 family ( Fig.
  • Herpes simplex virus type 2 UL14 gene product has heat shock protein (HSP)-like functions -- Yamauchi et al. 115 (12): 2517 -- Journal of Cell Science 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC jcs.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We decided to look into these amino acids for their association with the function of UL14 protein.
  • Herpes simplex virus type 2 UL14 gene product has heat shock protein (HSP)-like functions -- Yamauchi et al. 115 (12): 2517 -- Journal of Cell Science 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC jcs.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

[15] .Each icosahedral capsid contains a single portal, located in one vertex.^ Herpesviruses have an envelope surrounding an icosahedral capsid, approximately 100nm in diameter, which contains the dsDNA genome.

[16][17] The DNA exits the capsid in a single linear segment.[18]

Immune Evasion

.HSV evades the immune system through interference with MHC class I presentation of antigen on the cell surface.^ People with compromised immune systems, notably patients with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, are at very high risk for HSV-2.
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^ People with compromised immune systems, notably patients with HIV, are at very high risk for HSV-2.
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^ In primary HSV infection, lesions may be numerous, systemic symptoms may be present, and healing typically occurs over 2 to 3 weeks.
  • Genital Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.hivguidelines.org [Source type: Academic]

.This is achieved through blockade of the TAP transporter induced by the secretion of ICP-47[19] by HSV. TAP maintains the integrity of the MHC class I molecule before it is transported via the golgi apparatus for recognition by CD8+ CTLs on the cell surface.^ This molecule is found on the surfaces of many cells.

^ This peptide specifically binds an MHC-I molecule that is expressed on cd8(+) T cells.
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^ To initiate infection, HSV must attach to cell-surface receptors, fuse its envelope to the plasma membrane, and allow the de-enveloped capsid to be transported to the nuclear pores, where DNA is released into the nucleus.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Herpes simplex viruses: is a vaccine tenable? 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

ICP-47 disrupts this integrity, preventing the capture of cytosolic proteins for CTL recognition and thus evades CTL destruction.

Replication

Micrograph showing the viral cytopathic effect of HSV (multi-nucleation, ground glass chromatin).
.Following infection of a cell, herpes virus proteins, called immediate-early, early, and late, are produced.^ If early and late proteins are made, the cell is set on a route to lysis.

^ FIGURE 4 Herpes virus gene expression Expression of immediate early, early and late genes of herpesviruses .

^ Alpha proteins: These are the immediate-early proteins.

.Research using flow cytometry on another member of the herpes virus family, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, indicates the possibility of an additional lytic stage, delayed-late.^ Human herpes virus 8 (Kaposi's sarcoma-associate herpes virus) .

^ Findings of specific giant cells with many nuclei or distinctive particles that carry the virus (called inclusion bodies) indicate herpes infection.
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^ High-titer recombinant adeno-associated virus production utilizing a recombinant herpes simplex virus type I expressing AAV-2 rep and cap.
  • PLoS Pathogens: Definition of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Helper Activities for Adeno-Associated Virus Early Replication Events 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

[20] These stages of lytic infection, particularly late lytic, are distinct from the latency stage. .In the case of HSV-1, no protein products are detected during latency, whereas they are detected during the lytic cycle.^ During the phase known as latency, HSV produces no symptoms at all.
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^ Latency The virus particles can infect neurones and since only immediate early proteins are made, there is no cytopathic effect (although the presence of the virus can be detected by techniques such as immunofluorescence microscopy using antibodies against the immediate early proteins).

^ No mice died at later times or, for treated mice, during the period when recurrences of infectious virus were detected in neural tissues.
  • Persistence of Infectious Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 in the Nervous System in Mice after Antiviral Chemotherapy -- Thackray and Field 44 (1): 97 -- Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC aac.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.The early proteins transcribed are used in the regulation of genetic replication of the virus.^ Vaccine strains of the replication defective herpes virus can be produced that are capable of expressing either one or more proteins or glycoproteins normally expressed by an endogenous herpes virus or expressing a heterologous gene.
  • (WO/2007/016239) HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS MUTANT AND USES THEREFORE 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Herpes simplex virus (HSV) single-strand (ss)DNA-binding protein, ICP8 (infected cell protein 8) accumulates in nuclear replication domains.
  • ssDNA-dependent colocalization of adeno-associated virus Rep and herpes simplex virus ICP8 in nuclear replication domains -- Heilbronn et al. 31 (21): 6206 -- Nucleic Acids Research 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC nar.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Protein synthesis Immediate early genes are first transcribed which promote transcription of early genes.

.On entering the cell, an α-TIF protein joins the viral particle and aids in immediate-early transcription.^ Alpha proteins: These are the immediate-early proteins.

^ Rep gene activation by HSV-1 immediate-early proteins .
  • PLoS Pathogens: Definition of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Helper Activities for Adeno-Associated Virus Early Replication Events 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Protein synthesis Immediate early genes are first transcribed which promote transcription of early genes.

.The virion host shutoff protein (VHS or UL41) is very important to viral replication.^ In general, the present invention is based on the discovery that a replication defective HSV-2 virus having a mutation in UL41, the gene that encodes the virion host shut-off protein (VHS), is more effective in eliciting a host immune response than a corresponding HSV-2 virus containing a wild-type UL41 gene.
  • (WO/2007/016239) HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS MUTANT AND USES THEREFORE 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ The Rep protein of Adeno-Associated Virus type 2 interacts with single-stranded DNA-binding proteins that enhance viral replication.
  • PLoS Pathogens: Definition of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Helper Activities for Adeno-Associated Virus Early Replication Events 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HSV-I or HSV-2) having a mutation in a viral host shut-off protein and two additional mutations in genes required for viral replication.
  • (WO/2007/016239) HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS MUTANT AND USES THEREFORE 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

[11] .This enzyme shuts off protein synthesis in the host, degrades host mRNA, helps in viral replication, and regulates gene expression of viral proteins.^ HSV-I or HSV-2) having a mutation in a viral host shut-off protein and two additional mutations in genes required for viral replication.
  • (WO/2007/016239) HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS MUTANT AND USES THEREFORE 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Viral protein expression was then assayed.
  • (WO/2007/016239) HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS MUTANT AND USES THEREFORE 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ This contains virally-encoded proteins and enzymes involved in the initiation of replication .

.The viral genome immediately travels to the nucleus but the VHS protein remains in the cytoplasm.^ If UL14 was a shuttling protein that continuously moves between the nucleus and cytoplasm at 37°C, it could be that its nuclear accumulation by heat shock was due to the block of nuclear export.
  • Herpes simplex virus type 2 UL14 gene product has heat shock protein (HSP)-like functions -- Yamauchi et al. 115 (12): 2517 -- Journal of Cell Science 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC jcs.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, a tegument protein, designated virion host shutoff (vhs), induces degradation of cellular and viral RNA early in infection.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Herpes simplex viruses: is a vaccine tenable? 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Induction of Rep protein synthesis and AAVtCR genome replication by combinations of HSV-1 immediate-early and early genes.
  • PLoS Pathogens: Definition of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Helper Activities for Adeno-Associated Virus Early Replication Events 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

[21][22]
.The late proteins are used in to form the capsid and the receptors on the surface of the virus.^ The vaccine is made from a protein taken from the outer surface of the herpes virus.
  • herpes 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.menstuff.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Johnson D C, Burke R L, Gregory T. Soluble forms of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D bind to a limited number of cell surface receptors and inhibit virus entry into cells.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Can Bind to Poliovirus Receptor-Related Protein 1 or Herpesvirus Entry Mediator, Two Structurally Unrelated Mediators of Virus Entry 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The α, or immediate early, proteins regulate the reproductive cycle of the virus or block antigenic peptide presentation on the infected cell surfaces.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Herpes simplex viruses: is a vaccine tenable? 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

.Packaging of the viral particles — including the genome, core and the capsid - occurs in the nucleus of the cell.^ Both viruses then target their capsids to the cell nucleus, uncoat, and inject the enclosed linear double-stranded DNA genomes through the nuclear pores into the nucleoplasm for replication ( 14 , 35 , 53 ).
  • Intact Microtubules Support Adenovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections -- Mabit et al. 76 (19): 9962 -- The Journal of Virology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A likely explanation for this latter result is that, in infected cells, in the presence of the HSV-1 DNA polymerase, AAV competes with replicating HSV genomes in particular for the expression of its viral genes.
  • PLoS Pathogens: Definition of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Helper Activities for Adeno-Associated Virus Early Replication Events 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At least some nuclear capsids must have been genome-containing particles, since we detected viral gene expression in the presence of NOC. The reduction in the nuclear capsid signal at 420 min p.i.
  • Intact Microtubules Support Adenovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections -- Mabit et al. 76 (19): 9962 -- The Journal of Virology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Here, concatemers of the viral genome are separated by cleavage and are placed into pre-formed capsids.^ A recent study showed that the DNA genome of purified Ad2 separates from the capsid at the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and that the remainder of the capsid tends to form aggregates or becomes undetectable ( 53 ).
  • Intact Microtubules Support Adenovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections -- Mabit et al. 76 (19): 9962 -- The Journal of Virology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The plasmid is cotransfected into cells, such as animal cells, that contain the herpes viral genome into which the mutation is to be inserted.
  • (WO/2007/016239) HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS MUTANT AND USES THEREFORE 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ During this phase, the viral genome is maintained in an episomal or integrated form and is transcriptionally silent.
  • PLoS Pathogens: Definition of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Helper Activities for Adeno-Associated Virus Early Replication Events 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

HSV-1 undergoes a process of primary and secondary envelopment. .The primary envelope is acquired by budding into the inner nuclear membrane of the cell.^ To initiate infection, HSV must attach to cell-surface receptors, fuse its envelope to the plasma membrane, and allow the de-enveloped capsid to be transported to the nuclear pores, where DNA is released into the nucleus.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Herpes simplex viruses: is a vaccine tenable? 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Newly synthesized HSV nucleocapsids exit from the nucleus by budding at the inner nuclear membrane and subsequently translocate into the cytoplasm by fusion of the primary envelope with the outer nuclear membrane.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Herpes simplex virus type 2 tegument protein UL56 relocalizes ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 and has a role in transport and/or release of virions 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fusion of viral envelope with cell plasma membrane requires gD, gB, and the gH-gL complex ( 49 ).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Can Bind to Poliovirus Receptor-Related Protein 1 or Herpesvirus Entry Mediator, Two Structurally Unrelated Mediators of Virus Entry 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This then fuses with the outer nuclear membrane releasing a naked capsid into the cytoplasm.^ To initiate infection, HSV must attach to cell-surface receptors, fuse its envelope to the plasma membrane, and allow the de-enveloped capsid to be transported to the nuclear pores, where DNA is released into the nucleus.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Herpes simplex viruses: is a vaccine tenable? 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nucleocapsid enters cytoplasm: The tegument-surrounded nucleocapsid is carried to the nuclear membrane where the nucleocapsid binds.

^ These data suggest that UL56 regulates Nedd4 and functions to facilitate the cytoplasmic transport of virions from TGN to the plasma membrane and/or release of virions from the cell surface.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Herpes simplex virus type 2 tegument protein UL56 relocalizes ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 and has a role in transport and/or release of virions 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

.The virus acquires its final envelope by budding into cytoplasmic vesicles.^ In the cytoplasm, nucleocapsids acquire additional teguments and then obtain their final envelope by budding into cytoplasmic vesicles [ 54 ].
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Herpes simplex virus type 2 tegument protein UL56 relocalizes ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 and has a role in transport and/or release of virions 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After exit from the nucleus, nucleocapsids in the cytoplasm acquire additional teguments and obtain the final envelope by budding into trans-Golgi network (TGN).
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Herpes simplex virus type 2 tegument protein UL56 relocalizes ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 and has a role in transport and/or release of virions 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Crump CM, Yates C, Minson T: Herpes simplex virus type 1 cytoplasmic envelopment requires functional Vps4.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Herpes simplex virus type 2 tegument protein UL56 relocalizes ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 and has a role in transport and/or release of virions 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

[23]

Latent infection

.HSVs may persist in a quiescent but persistent form known as latent infection, notably in neural ganglia.^ May follow any form of recurrent HSV. .
  • Herpes Simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In about a quarter of HSV-1 encephalitis cases, the infection may be caused by a new strain of the virus.
  • Herpes simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recent studies have suggested that male circumcision may help reduce the risk of HSV-2, as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV infections.
  • Herpes Simplex - In-Depth Report - NY Times Health 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC nortonhealthcare.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .HSV-1 often infects the trigeminal ganglia, while HSV-2 infects the sacral ganglion, but this separation is not absolute.^ Latent virus can be retrieved from the trigeminal, sacral, and vagal ganglia of humans either unilaterally or bilaterally ( 6 ).
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Herpes simplex viruses: is a vaccine tenable? 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the case of herpes infections of the oral mucosa, the virus goes to the trigeminal ganglia whereas infections of the genital mucosa lead the virus entering the sacral ganglia.

^ Herpes simplex virus Pathogenesis and epidemiology Herpes simplex virus (HSV; Box 1 ) infects the skin and neurones of the dorsal root ganglia, where it causes lifelong latent infection.
  • eMJA: 10: Herpes simplex and varicella–zoster virus infections 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.mja.com.au [Source type: Academic]

.During latent infection of a cell, HSVs express Latency Associated Transcript (LAT) RNA.^ If the infection is to be latent, the only mRNAs that are made are the latency-associated transcripts.

^ Moreover, UL56 relocalized the E3 ligase Nedd4 to the vesicles both in cells transiently expressing UL56 and in cells infected with HSV-2.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Herpes simplex virus type 2 tegument protein UL56 relocalizes ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 and has a role in transport and/or release of virions 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ HSV 1 and 2 infections are life-long and although latency is soon set up, the infected patient can infect others as a result of recurrence.

.LAT is known to regulate the host cell genome and interferes with natural cell death mechanisms.^ It will be of considerable interest to research the regulation mechanism of UL14 protein in HSV-infected cells.
  • Herpes simplex virus type 2 UL14 gene product has heat shock protein (HSP)-like functions -- Yamauchi et al. 115 (12): 2517 -- Journal of Cell Science 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC jcs.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the absence of a helpervirus, AAV type 2 integrates into the host cell genome with a high preference for a specific site on human chromosome 19q13.3qter ( 3 – 5 ).
  • ssDNA-dependent colocalization of adeno-associated virus Rep and herpes simplex virus ICP8 in nuclear replication domains -- Heilbronn et al. 31 (21): 6206 -- Nucleic Acids Research 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC nar.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.By maintaining the host cells, LAT expression preserves a reservoir of the virus, which allows later recurrences to produce further infections.^ Antigenic specificities of human CD4 + T-cell clones recovered from recurrent genital herpes simplex virus type 2 lesions.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Vaccines: New Ground for Optimism? -- Aurelian 11 (3): 437 -- Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC cvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Further evidence that implicates EBV in Burkitt's lymphoma is the observation that EBV can transform B lymphocytes in culture and can produce B cell lymphomas in primates.

^ Like Ads, alphaherpesviruses, including herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), infect different cell types both in cultures and in their hosts.
  • Intact Microtubules Support Adenovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections -- Mabit et al. 76 (19): 9962 -- The Journal of Virology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.A protein found in neurons may bind to herpes virus DNA and regulate latency.^ The herpes simplex virus-1 Us3 protein kinase blocks CD8T cell lysis by preventing the cleavage of Bid by granzyme B. Cell Death Differ.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Vaccines: New Ground for Optimism? -- Aurelian 11 (3): 437 -- Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC cvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The early DNA-binding protein, ICP8, also stimulates late gene transcription.
  • (WO/2007/016239) HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS MUTANT AND USES THEREFORE 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Vaccine strains of the replication defective herpes virus can be produced that are capable of expressing either one or more proteins or glycoproteins normally expressed by an endogenous herpes virus or expressing a heterologous gene.
  • (WO/2007/016239) HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS MUTANT AND USES THEREFORE 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

.Herpes virus DNA contains a gene for a protein called ICP4, which is an important transactivator of genes associated with lytic infection in HSV-1.[24] Elements surrounding the gene for ICP4 bind a protein known as the human neuronal protein Neuronal Restrictive Silencing Factor (NRSF) or human Repressor Element Silencing Transcription Factor (REST).^ The early DNA-binding protein, ICP8, also stimulates late gene transcription.
  • (WO/2007/016239) HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS MUTANT AND USES THEREFORE 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Gynecologic herpes simplex virus infections.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and in neonate: status of art of epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy and prevention 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ HSV-1 infection and gene expression.
  • Intact Microtubules Support Adenovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections -- Mabit et al. 76 (19): 9962 -- The Journal of Virology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.When bound to the viral DNA elements, histone deacytalization occurs atop the ICP4 gene sequence to prevent initiation of transcription from this gene, thereby preventing transcription of other viral genes involved in the lytic cycle.^ The early DNA-binding protein, ICP8, also stimulates late gene transcription.
  • (WO/2007/016239) HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS MUTANT AND USES THEREFORE 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ The Reps are multifunctional regulatory proteins required for most steps of the AAV life cycle including DNA replication, gene expression, chromosomal integration and viral packaging ( 2 ).
  • ssDNA-dependent colocalization of adeno-associated virus Rep and herpes simplex virus ICP8 in nuclear replication domains -- Heilbronn et al. 31 (21): 6206 -- Nucleic Acids Research 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC nar.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rep gene activation by ICP0, ICP4, and ICP22 is essential to induce AAV DNA replication in the presence of UL5/UL8/UL52 (HP) and ICP8 .
  • PLoS Pathogens: Definition of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Helper Activities for Adeno-Associated Virus Early Replication Events 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

[24][25] .Another HSV protein reverses the inhibition of ICP4 protein synthesis.^ The black box indicates the BGH polyA. (B) Synthesis of Rep proteins in HSV-1-infected HeLaAAVtCR and HA-16 cells.
  • PLoS Pathogens: Definition of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Helper Activities for Adeno-Associated Virus Early Replication Events 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Another experimental protocol to identify the most immunogenic HSV proteins examined the response of T cells from HSV lesions to HSV-1- and -2-infected B cells.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Vaccines: New Ground for Optimism? -- Aurelian 11 (3): 437 -- Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC cvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The ICP0, ICP4, and ICP22 immediate-early HSV-1 proteins cooperate to activate AAV rep gene expression from a latent integrated form .
  • PLoS Pathogens: Definition of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Helper Activities for Adeno-Associated Virus Early Replication Events 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

ICP0 dissociates NRSF from the ICP4 gene and thus prevents silencing of the viral DNA.[26]
.The virus can be reactivated by other illnesses such as cold and influenza, eczema, emotional and physical stress, exposure to bright sunlight, gastric upset, fatigue or injury, and by menstruation.^ Reactivations can occur in spite of ongoing cell-mediated and humoral immune responses and may be induced by a variety of local or systemic stimuli, such as physical or emotional stress, fever, exposure to ultraviolet light, or tissue damage, as well as by immune suppression.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Herpes simplex viruses: is a vaccine tenable? 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These include sunlight, wind, fever, physical injury, surgery, menstruation, suppression of the immune system, and emotional stress.
  • Herpes Simplex - In-Depth Report - NY Times Health 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC nortonhealthcare.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Walgreens.com | Health Library | Print - Herpes simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.walgreens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These include sunlight, wind, fever, local physical injury, menstruation, suppression of the immune system, and emotional stress.
  • Herpes simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Treatment and vaccine development

For more details on treatment of herpes simplex virus, see Herpes simplex.
.Herpes viruses establish lifelong infections and the virus cannot currently be eradicated from the body.^ Gynecologic herpes simplex virus infections.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and in neonate: status of art of epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy and prevention 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Part 1: herpes simplex virus infections.
  • Virology Journal | Full text | Herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and in neonate: status of art of epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy and prevention 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.virologyj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Herpes is an infection caused by the herpes virus.
  • Cure Herpes treatment |Genital Herpes Treatment | Oral Herpes Simplex 1, 2 Virus | Cure Herpes Symptoms Outbreak | HSV 1, HSV 2 Sores, Zoster 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Treatment usually involves general-purpose antiviral drugs that interfere with viral replication, reducing the physical severity of outbreak-associated lesions and lowering the chance of transmission to others.^ The 2.2-kilobase latency-associated transcript of herpes simplex virus type 2 does not modulate viral replication, reactivation, or establishment of latency in transgenic mice.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Vaccines: New Ground for Optimism? -- Aurelian 11 (3): 437 -- Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC cvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These drugs limit herpes viral replication and its spread to other cells.
  • Herpes Simplex - In-Depth Report - NY Times Health 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC nortonhealthcare.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Walgreens.com | Health Library | Print - Herpes simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.walgreens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What clinicians need to know about antiviral drugs and viral resistance.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy -- Bacon et al. 16 (1): 114 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC cmr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Studies of vulnerable patient populations have indicated that daily use of antivirals such as acyclovir and valacyclovir can reduce HSV-2 shedding by 60-80% and cut HSV-2 transmission risk in half.^ Once-daily valacyclovir to reduce the risk of transmission of genital herpes.
  • Genital Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.hivguidelines.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent studies indicate that acyclovir (Zovirax) or valacyclovir (Valtrex) can help reduce the recurrence of genital herpes and the need for Cesarean sections.
  • Herpes simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recent studies indicate that acyclovir (Zovirax) or valacyclovir (Valtrex) or famciclovir (Famvir)Valtrex can help reduce the recurrence of genital herpes and the need for Cesarean sections.
  • Herpes Simplex - In-Depth Report - NY Times Health 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herpes simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC nortonhealthcare.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Walgreens.com | Health Library | Print - Herpes simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.walgreens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
.In vitro research has indicated that Aloe Vera may be effective against genital herpes.^ Researchers have made the first vaccine that protects against genital herpes.
  • herpes 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.menstuff.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vaccine may protect against herpes .
  • herpes 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.menstuff.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aloe vera ointments for genital herpes.
  • Herpes Simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27]
Research into a vaccine is ongoing. .Efforts to develop an effective vaccine have so far been hampered by the many adaptations of HSVs to their human hosts during an evolutionarily ancient relationship.^ HSV vaccine development .
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Herpes simplex viruses: is a vaccine tenable? 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Significant effort has been invested in the development of subunit HSV-2 vaccines.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Vaccines: New Ground for Optimism? -- Aurelian 11 (3): 437 -- Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC cvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Knowledge of the structure of HSV allowed for the development of genetic engineering to generate candidate vaccines and gene therapy vectors.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Herpes simplex viruses: is a vaccine tenable? 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

[4]

Connection with Alzheimer's disease

.A possible link between HSV-1 and Alzheimer’s disease was reported in 1979.[28] In the presence of a certain gene variation (APOE-epsilon4 allele carriers), HSV-1 appears to be particularly damaging to the nervous system and increases one’s risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.^ Certain kidney and blood diseases have also been reported in conjunction with HSV infection.
  • Herpes simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although 25 - 30% of pregnant women in the U.S. and Europe have a history of HSV-2 infection, the risk of transmission to the newborn is low, occurring in between one in 3,500 - 20,000 births, depending on the population group.
  • Herpes simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is most common in infants but can appear in people of all ages, particularly those with impaired immune systems.
  • Herpes simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The virus interacts with the components and receptors of lipoproteins, which may lead to the development of Alzheimer's disease.^ Since the development of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based packaging systems for recombinant AAV vectors ( 1 ) the interaction of AAV with its helper virus HSV has raised increasing interest.
  • ssDNA-dependent colocalization of adeno-associated virus Rep and herpes simplex virus ICP8 in nuclear replication domains -- Heilbronn et al. 31 (21): 6206 -- Nucleic Acids Research 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC nar.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The virus only infects a small number of cell types that express the receptor for complement C3d component (CR2 or CD21).

^ These factors may cause some degree of immune suppression that leads to renewal of virus proliferation in the nerve cell.

[29] .This research identifies HSVs as the pathogen most clearly linked to the establishment of Alzheimer’s.^ Another experimental protocol to identify the most immunogenic HSV proteins examined the response of T cells from HSV lesions to HSV-1- and -2-infected B cells.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Vaccines: New Ground for Optimism? -- Aurelian 11 (3): 437 -- Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC cvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The first was a positive selection approach directed at identifying the most immunogenic HSV proteins to be used in vaccine construction.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Vaccines: New Ground for Optimism? -- Aurelian 11 (3): 437 -- Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC cvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ PCR identifies HSV in cerebrospinal fluid and gives a rapid diagnosis of HSV encephalitis in most cases, eliminating the need for biopsies.
  • Herpes simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30] .Without the presence of the gene allele, HSV-1 does not appear to cause any neurological damage or increase the risk of Alzheimer’s.^ Genital herpes, which typically affects the penis, vulva, or rectum, is usually caused by HSV-2, although the rate of HSV-1 genital infection is increasing.
  • Herpes simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies indicate a higher risk for Alzheimer's in people who have both HSV-1 and a gene called apoE4, a known risk factor for Alzheimer's.
  • Herpes Simplex 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HSV-2 infection increases the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition ( 8 , 59 , 77 ).
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Vaccines: New Ground for Optimism? -- Aurelian 11 (3): 437 -- Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 17 January 2010 22:48 UTC cvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[31]

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