The Full Wiki

More info on Hezbollah

Hezbollah: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Hezbollah

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hezbollah
Leader Hassan Nasrallah
Founded 1982 - 1985 (officially)
Ideology Islamism
Religion Shi'a Islam
Nationality Lebanese
Website
Varies. See List of official sites.

Hezbollah[1] (Arabic: حزب اللهḥizbu-'llāh(i),[2] literally "party of God") is a Shi'a Islamist political and paramilitary organisation based in Lebanon.[3] Hezbollah is now also a major provider of social services, which operate schools, hospitals, and agricultural services for thousands of Lebanese Shiites, and plays a significant force in Lebanese politics.[4] It is regarded as a resistance movement throughout much of the Arab and Muslim world.[3] Many governments, including Arab ones, have condemned actions by Hezbollah while others have praised the party.[5][6] Several western countries regard it in whole or in part as a terrorist organization.[7]

Hezbollah first emerged as a militia in response to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, also known as Operation Peace for Galilee, in 1982, set on resisting the Israeli occupation of Lebanon during the Lebanese civil war.[3][8] Its leaders were inspired by Ayatollah Khomeini, and its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of Iranian Revolutionary Guards.[9] Hezbollah's 1985 manifesto listed its three main goals as "putting an end to any colonialist entity" in Lebanon, bringing the Phalangists to justice for "the crimes they [had] perpetrated," and the establishment of an Islamic regime in Lebanon.[10][11] Hezbollah leaders have also made numerous statements calling for the destruction of Israel, which they refer to as a "Zionist entity... built on lands wrested from their owners."[10][11]

Hezbollah, which started with only a small militia, has grown to an organization with seats in the Lebanese government, a radio and a satellite television-station, and programs for social development.[12] Hezbollah maintains strong support among Lebanon's Shi'a population, and gained a surge of support from Lebanon's broader population (Sunni, Christian, Druze) immediately following the 2006 Lebanon War,[13] and is able to mobilize demonstrations of hundreds of thousands.[14] Hezbollah alongside with some other groups began the 2006–2008 Lebanese political protests in opposition to the government of Prime Minister Fouad Siniora.[15] Later dispute over Hezbollah preserve its telecoms network led to clashes and Hezbollah-led opposition fighters seized control of several West Beirut neighborhoods from Future Movement militiamen loyal to Fouad Siniora, this areas then handed over to the Lebanese Army.[16] Finally, on the basis of Doha Agreement, Hezbollah was granted veto power in Lebanon's parliament. In addition, National unity government was formed which Hezbollah has one minister and controls eleven of thirty seats in it.[4][17]

Hezbollah receives its financial support from Iran, Syria, and the donations of Lebanese and other Shi'a.[18][19] It has also gained significantly in military strength in the 2000s.[20] Despite a June 2008 certification by the United Nations that Israel had withdrawn from all Lebanese territory,[21] in August of that year, Lebanon's new Cabinet unanimously approved a draft policy statement which secures Hezbollah's existence as an armed organization and guarantees its right to "liberate or recover occupied lands." Since 1992, the organization has been headed by Hassan Nasrallah, its Secretary-General.

Hezbollah
Flag of Hezbollah

Articles

Contents

History

Map of southern Lebanon, featuring the Blue Line and Litani River, 2006.

Foundation

Scholars differ as to when Hezbollah came to be a distinct entity. Some organizations list the official formation of the group as early as 1982,[22] in response to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon.[4] Diaz and Newman maintain however, that Hezbollah remained an amalgamation of various violent Shi’a activists until as late as 1985.[23] Another source states that it was formed by supporters of Sheikh Ragheb Harb, a leader of the southern Shiite resistance, who was killed by Israelis in 1984.[24]

1980s

Ending Israel's occupation of Southern Lebanon was the primary focus of Hezbollah's early activities.[8] Israel had become militarily involved in Lebanon in combat with the Palestine Liberation Organization, which had been invited into Lebanon after Black September in Jordan. Israel had been attacking the PLO in Southern Lebanon in the lead-up to the 1982 Lebanon War, and Israel had invaded and occupied Southern Lebanon and besieged Beirut.[25]

Hezbollah waged an asymmetrical guerrilla war against Israel. At the beginning, it had used suicide attacks against the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) and against Israeli targets outside of Lebanon.[26] Hezbollah is reputed to have been among the first Islamic resistance groups to use tactical suicide bombing, assassination, and capturing against foreign soldiers in the Middle East.[9] But gradually, Hezbollah turned into a paramilitary organization and used missiles, Katyusha, and other type of rocket launchers and detonations of explosive charges[27][28] instead of capturings,[29][30] murders,[29] hijackings,[31] and bombings.[31][32][33] Hezbollah has been subject to assassination and abduction by Israel as well.[31]

During the Civil War, although Hezbollah battled the Amal militia for control of Shiite areas and vigorously attacked Israel's Lebanese proxies (SLA), unlike other wartime militias, it never engaged in sectarian bloodletting (or fought a major engagement with the army) during the war. At the end of civil war in 1990, despite Taif Agreement asked "disbanding of all Lebanese and non-Lebanese militias", Syria, in control of Lebanon at that time allowed Hezbollah to maintain their arsenal, control the Shiite areas in Southern Lebanon along the border with Israel.[34]

After 1990

In this decade Hezbollah transformed from a revolutionary group into political one, in a process which is described as Lebanonisation of Hezbollah. Unlike the uncompromising revolutionary stance in 1980s, Hezbollah conveyed a lenient stance towards the Lebanese state.[35]

The process start with the election of Abbas al-Musawi as the secretary general and promoted when he succeeded by Hasan Nasrallah. Hezbollah changed its discourse and made it pluralistic and inclusive in orientation which is called "Infitah policy". In 1991, al-Manar TV station was launched.

In 1992, Hezbollah decided to participate in election and Ali Khamenei, supreme leader of Iran, endorsed it. Former Hezbollah secretary general, Subhi al-Tufayli, contested this decision which led to schism in Hezbollah. Then Hezbollah published its political program which contains liberation of Lebanese land from Zionist occupation, abolishment of political sectarianism, ensuring political and media freedom, amending in electoral law to make it more representative of the populace. This program led to the victory of all of twelve seats which were on its electoral list. At the end of that year Hezbollah began to dialog with Lebanese Christians. Hezbollah regards cultural, political and religious freedoms in Lebanon as sanctified. This dialog expands to other groups except those who have relation with Israel.[36]

In 1997, Hezbollah formed Multi-confessional Lebanese Brigades to Fighting the Israeli Occupation, which was an attempt to revive national and secular resistance against Israel, which marks the Lebanonisation of resistance.[37]

Ideology

On February 16, 1985, Sheik Ibrahim al-Amin issued Hezbollah's manifesto. According to this manifesto (titled "An Open Letter: The Hizballah Program"), the three objectives of the organization are:[10]

  • To expel the Americans, the French and their allies definitely from Lebanon, putting an end to any colonialist entity on our land.
  • To submit the Phalanges to a just power and bring them all to justice for the crimes they have perpetrated against Muslims and Christians.
  • To permit all the sons of our people to determine their future and to choose in all the liberty the form of government they desire. We call upon all of them to pick the option of Islamic government which, alone, is capable of guaranteeing justice and liberty for all. Only an Islamic regime can stop any future tentative attempts of imperialistic infiltration onto our country.

The 1985 manifesto makes it clear that Hezbollah intends to use armed force to achieve these goals and phrases its argument for this measure through the language of defensive jihad.[38]

Hezbollah's Shi'a Islamic doctrine

Hezbollah was formed in the early 1980s, mostly with the aid of the Ayatollah Khomeini's followers, in order to spread Islamic revolution.[39] It follows a newly invented distinct version of Islamic Shi'a Faqihi ideology (“Willayat Al-Faqih”) developed by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, leader of the Islamic Revolution of Iran.[3]

Translated excerpts from Hezbollah's original 1985 manifesto read:

We are the sons of the umma (Muslim community) ...
... We are an ummah linked to the Muslims of the whole world by the solid doctrinal and religious connection of Islam, whose message God wanted to be fulfilled by the Seal of the Prophets, i.e., Prophet Muhammad. Our behavior is dictated to us by legal principles laid down by the light of an overall political conception defined by the leading jurist....As for our culture, it is based on the Holy Quran, the Sunna and the legal rulings of the faqih who is our source of imitation...[10]

Although Hezbollah originally aimed to transform Lebanon into a formal Faqihi Islamic republic, this goal has been abandoned.[8] Nasrallah has been quoted as saying, "We believe the requirement for an Islamic state is to have an overwhelming popular desire, and we're not talking about fifty percent plus one, but a large majority. And this is not available in Lebanon and probably never will be."[9] Doubts, however, remain.[40][41] Since that time, Hezbollah has transformed from a revolutionary movement to a socio-political movement of Lebanese Shi'a and has accepted the multi-cultural situation of Lebanon. This transformation is known as "Lebanonization".[42] However, Hezbollah is not satisfied with the multi-confessional quotas under the Ta'if Accord, under the pretext that the Shia's position in the state is lower than its proportion of population. Hezbollah favors a one-person-one-vote system, but does not intend to force it onto the other minorities.[24]

Attitudes, statements, and actions concerning Israel and Zionism

From the inception of Hezbollah to the present,[9][10][43][44][45] the elimination of the State of Israel has been one of Hezbollah's primary goals. Some translations of Hezbollah's 1985 Arabic-language manifesto state that "our struggle will end only when this entity [Israel] is obliterated".[10] However neither the original publication of the manifesto, nor those found on Hezbollah's website, include the statement.[10] In an interview with the Washington Post, Nasrallah said "I am against any reconciliation with Israel. I do not even recognize the presence of a state that is called 'Israel'".[46] In March 2009, in a speech marking the birthday of Muhammad, Nasrallah said, "As long as Hezbollah exists, it will never recognize Israel." rejecting a US precondition for dialogue.[47][48][49]

In 1993, during the Oslo peace process, Nasrallah and several other top Hezbollah generals came out staunchly opposed to any final peace agreement between the Israelis and Palestinians to the point that they accused Palestinian National Authority President Yasser Arafat of blasphemy and treachery to the Muslim people.[50]

Israel's occupation of the Shebaa Farms, along with the presence of Lebanese prisoners in Israeli jails, is often cited as justification—and invoked as a pretext, according to many[51][52][53]—for Hezbollah's continued hostilities against Israel even after Israel's verified withdrawal from Lebanon in 2000. Hezbollah's spokesperson Hassan Ezzedin, however, had this to say about an Israeli withdrawal from Shebaa Farms:

"If they go from Shebaa, we won't stop fighting them. ... Our goal is to liberate the 1948 borders of Palestine, ... The Jews who survive this war of liberation can go back to Germany or wherever they came from. However, that the Jews who lived in Palestine before 1948 will be 'allowed to live as a minority and they will be cared for by the Muslim majority.'"[54]

On May 26, 2000, After the Israeli withdrawal from south Lebenon Hassan Nassrallah said: "I tell you: this "Israel" that owns nuclear weapons and the strongest air force in this region is more fragile than a spiderweb".[55][56] Arie W. Kruglanski, Moshe Ya'alon, Bruce Hoffman, Efraim Inbar, and YNET interpret the "spider web" theory as the notion, articulated by Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah, that Israel's reverence for human life, the hedonistic nature of the Israeli society, and its self-indulgent Western values make it weak, soft, and vulnurable. Such a society, though technologically advanced, will crumble under continued war and bloodshed.[57][58][59][60]

According to Joseph Alagha, Hezbollah's Deputy-General Na'im Qasim said during an interview on October 28, 2002 for the Daily Star that the struggle against Israel is a "core belief" of Hezbollah and "the central rationale of Hizbullah's existence".[61]

In a 2003 interview, Nasrallah answered questions concerning the renewed peace talks between the Palestinians and the Israelis, stating that he would not interfere in what he regarded as "... primarily a Palestinian matter." However, in his speeches to his followers, he provides rationalizations for suicide bombings.[62 ] Similarly, in 2004, when asked whether he was prepared to live with a two-state settlement between Israel and Palestine, Nasrallah said again that he would not sabotage what is finally a "... Palestinian matter."[9] He also said that outside of Lebanon, Hezbollah would act only in a defensive manner towards Israeli forces, and that Hezbollah's missiles were acquired to deter attacks on Lebanon.[63]

A prominent Hezbollah poster at a May 2009 rally had an image of a mushroom cloud along with the message, "OH ZIONISTS, IF YOU WANT THIS TYPE OF WAR THEN SO BE IT!"[64]

In November 2009, Hezbollah pressured a private English-language school to drop excerpts from The Diary of Anne Frank [65][66] after Hezbollah's Al-Manar television channel complained, asking how long Lebanon would "remain an open arena for the Zionist invasion of education"? [66]

Attitudes and actions concerning Jews and Judaism

Hezbollah officials say that the group distinguishes between Judaism and Zionism. However, various anti-Semitic statements have been attributed to them, and their Secretary General, Hassan Nasrallah.[67] Hezbollah accused Jews of deliberately spreading H.I.V. and other diseases to Arabs throughout the Middle East.[68][69][70] Al-Manar, the Hezbollah-owned and operated television station, was criticized for airing "anti-Semitic propaganda" in the form of a television drama depicting a Jewish world domination conspiracy.[71][72][73] Hezbollah also used antisemitic educational materials designed for 5-year-old scouts.[74][75] Likewise, the group has been accused of engaging in Holocaust denial, and supporting Holocaust deniers.[76][77]

Organization

Organizational chart of Hezbollah, by Ahmad Nizar Hamzeh.

At the beginning many Hezbollah leaders have maintained that the movement was "not an organization, for its members carry no cards and bear no specific responsibilities,"[78] and that the movement does not have "a clearly defined organizational structure."[79] Nowadays, as Hezbollah scholar Magnus Ranstorp reports, Hezbollah does indeed have a formal governing structure, and in keeping with the principle of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (velayat-e faqih), it "concentrate[s] ... all authority and powers" in its religious leaders, whose decisions then "flow from the ulama down the entire community."

The supreme decision-making bodies of the Hezbollah were divided between the Majlis al-Shura (Consultative Assembly) which was headed by 12 senior clerical members with responsibility for tactical decisions and supervision of overall Hizballah activity throughout Lebanon, and the Majlis al-Shura al-Karar (the Deciding Assembly), headed by Sheikh Muhammad Hussein Fadlallah and composed of eleven other clerics with responsibility for all strategic matters. Within the Majlis al-Shura, there existed seven specialized committees dealing with ideological, financial, military and political, judicial, informational and social affairs. In turn, the Majlis al-Shura and these seven committees were replicated in each of Hizballah's three main operational areas (the Beqaa, Beirut, and the South).[80]

Since the Supreme Leader of Iran is the ultimate clerical authority, Hezbollah's leaders have appealed to him "for guidance and directives in cases when Hezbollah's collective leadership [was] too divided over issues and fail[ed] to reach a consensus."[80] After the death of Iran's first Supreme Leader, Khomeini, Hezbollah's governing bodies developed a more "independent role" and appealed to Iran less often.[80] Since the Second Lebanon War, however, Iran has restructured Hezbollah to limit the power of Hassan Nasrallah, and invested billions of dollars "rehabilitating" Hezbollah.[81]

Structurally, Hezbollah does not distinguish between its political/social activities within Lebanon and its military/jihad activities against Israel. "Hezbollah has a single leadership," according to Naim Qassem, Hezbollah's second in command, "All political, social and jihad work is tied to the decisions of this leadership ... The same leadership that directs the parliamentary and government work also leads jihad actions in the struggle against Israel."[82]

Political activities

Lebanon

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Lebanon



Other countries · Atlas
Politics portal
Lebanon’s majority Shi’a areas, where Hezbollah is most prominent.
December 10, 2006 pro-Hezbollah rally in Beirut

Hezbollah alongside with Amal is one of two major political parties in Lebanon that represent the Shiite Muslims. It holds 14 of the 128 seats in Lebanon's Parliament and is a member of the Resistance and Development Bloc. According to Daniel L. Byman, it's "the most powerful single political movement in Lebanon."[83]

Hezbollah, along with the Amal Movement, represents most of Lebanese Shi'a.[84] However, unlike Amal, Hezbollah has not disarmed. Hezbollah participates in the Parliament of Lebanon. In the general election of 2005, it won 10.9% of parliamentary seats. The Resistance and Development Bloc, of which Hezbollah is a member, won all 23 seats in Southern Lebanon, and in total, 35 seats, or 27.3% of parliamentary seats nationwide.[85] When municipal elections were held in the first half of 2004, Hezbollah won control of 21% of the municipalities.[24]

Hezbollah has been one the main parties of March 8 Alliance since polarization of political atmosphere of Lebanon in March 2005. Although Hezbollah had joined the new government in 2005, it remained staunchly opposed to the March 14 Alliance.[86] In November 2006, Hezbollah, the Free Patriotic Movement (FPM), and the Amal Movement jointly demanded the establishment of a "national unity government",[87][88] in which they demanded early elections and one third of the Cabinet seats; effectively, veto power.[89][90] When negotiations with the ruling coalition failed, five Cabinet Ministers from Hezbollah and Amal resigned their positions. On December 1, 2006, these groups began the 2006–2008 Lebanese political protests, an ongoing series of protests and sit-ins in opposition to the government of Prime Minister Fouad Siniora.[15][91] Finally, on May 7, 2008 Lebanon's 17-month long political crisis spiraled out of control. The fighting was sparked by a government move to shut down Hezbollah's telecommunication network and remove Beirut Airport's security chief over alleged ties to Hezbollah. Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah said the government's decision to declare the group's military telecommunications network illegal was a "declaration of war" on the organization, and demanded that the government revoke it.[92][93] Hezbollah-led opposition fighters seized control of several West Beirut neighborhoods from Future Movement militiamen loyal to the American-backed government, in street battles that left 11 dead and 30 wounded. The opposition-seized areas were then handed over to the Lebanese Army.[16] The army also pledged to resolve the dispute and has reversed the decisions of the government by letting Hezbollah preserve its telecoms network and re-instating the airport's security chief.[94][95] At the end, rival Lebanese leaders reached consensus over Doha Agreement on May 21, 2008, to end the 18-month political feud that exploded into fighting and nearly drove the country to a new civil war.[96] On the basis of this agreement, Hezbollah was granted veto power in Lebanon's parliament. At the end of the conflicts, National unity government was formed by Fouad Siniora on July 11, 2008 and Hezbollah has one minister and controls eleven of thirty seats in the cabinet.[4][17]

Military activities

Hezbollah has a military branch known as Al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya ("The Islamic Resistance") and is the possible sponsor of a number of lesser-known militant groups, some of which may be little more than fronts for Hezbollah itself, including the Organization of the Oppressed, the Revolutionary Justice Organization, the Organization of Right Against Wrong, and Followers of the Prophet Muhammad.[97][98]

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1559 called for the disarmament of militia[99] with the Taif agreement at the end of the Lebanese civil war. Hezbollah denounced, and protested against, the resolution.[100] The 2006 military conflict with Israel has increased the controversy. Failure to disarm remains a violation of the resolution and agreement as well as subsequent United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701.[101][102] Since then both Israel and Hezbollah have asserted that the organization has gained in military strength.[20] A Lebanese public opinion poll taken in August 2006 shows that most of the Shia did not believe that Hezbollah should disarm after the 2006 Lebanon war, while the majority of Sunni, Druze and Christians believed that they should.[13] The Lebanese cabinet, under president Michel Suleiman and Prime Minister Fouad Siniora, guidelines state that Hezbollah enjoys the right to "liberate occupied lands."[103] In 2009, a Hezbollah commander (speaking on condition of anonymity) said, "[W]e have far more rockets and missiles [now] than we did in 2006."[104] There is speculation in the world press that Hezbollah is actively preparing for another war.

Suicide attacks and kidnappings

Between 1982 and 1986, there were 36 suicide attacks in Lebanon directed against American, French and Israelis forces by 41 individuals with predominantly leftist political beliefs and of both major religions,[105] killing 659.[26] Hezbollah has been accused of some or all of these attacks, but denies involvement in any.[106][107][108] These attacks included the April 1983 U.S. Embassy bombing (by the Islamic Jihad Organization),[109] the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing (by the Islamic Jihad Organization),[109][110][111][112] and a spate of attacks on IDF troops and SLA militiamen in southern Lebanon.[26] The period also saw the hijacking of TWA Flight 847 in 1985,[110] and the Lebanon hostage crisis from 1982 to 1992.[111] More recently, Hezbollah has been accused of the January 15, 2008, bombing of a U.S. Embassy vehicle in Beirut.[113]

Outside of Lebanon, Hezbollah has been accused of the 1992 Israeli Embassy attack in Buenos Aires,[110][111] and the 1994 AMIA bombing of a Jewish cultural centre, both in Argentina.[110] According to Nasrallah, however, Hezbollah refused any participation in operations outside Lebanese and Israeli lands before 2008.[114]

Conflict with Israel

South Lebanon conflict

Hezbollah has been involved in several cases of armed conflict with Israel:

  • During the 1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict, Hezbollah waged a guerrilla campaign against Israeli forces occupying Southern Lebanon. Israel withdrew in 2000 in accordance with 1978's United Nations Security Council Resolution 425.[21] With the collapse of their supposed allies, the SLA, and the rapid advance of Hezbollah forces, they withdrew suddenly on May 24, 2000 six weeks before the announced 7 July date."[31] Hezbollah held a victory parade, and its popularity in Lebanon rose.[115] Hezbollah and many analysts considered this a victory for the movement, and since then its popularity has been boosted in Lebanon.[115][116]
  • On July 25, 1993, following Hezbollah's killing of seven Israeli soldiers in southern Lebanon, Israel launched Operation Accountability (known in Lebanon as the Seven Day War), during which the IDF carried out their heaviest artillery and air attacks on targets in southern Lebanon since 1982. The aim of the operation was to eradicate the threat posed by Hezbollah and to force the civilian population north to Beirut so as to put pressure on the Lebanese Government to restrain Hezbollah.[117] The fighting ended when an unwritten understanding was agreed to by the warring parties. Apparently, the 1993 understanding provided that Hezbollah combatants would not fire rockets at northern Israel, while Israel would not attack civilians or civilian targets in Lebanon.[118]
  • In April 1996, after continued Hezbollah rocket attacks on Israeli civilians,[119] the Israeli armed forces launched Operation Grapes of Wrath, which was intended to wipe out Hezbollah's base in southern Lebanon. Over 100 Lebanese refugees were killed by the shelling of a UN base at Qana, in what the Israeli military said was a mistake.[120] Finally, following several days of negotiations, the two sides signed the Grapes of Wrath Understandings on April 26, 1996. A cease-fire was agreed upon between Israel and Hezbollah, which would be effective on April 27, 1996. Both sides agreed that civilians should not be targeted, which meant that Hezbollah would be allowed to continue its military activities against IDF forces inside Lebanon.[24][121]

2000 Hezbollah cross-border raid

On October 7, 2000, three Israeli soldiers – Adi Avitan, Staff Sgt. Benyamin Avraham, and Staff Sgt. Omar Sawaidwere – were abducted by Hezbollah while patrolling the Israeli side of the Israeli-Lebanese border.[122] The soldiers were killed either during the attack or in its immediate aftermath.[123][124] Defense Minister Shaul Mofaz has, however, said that Hezbollah abducted the soldiers and then killed them.[125][126] The bodies of the slain soldiers were exchanged for Lebanese prisoners in 2004.[127]

2006 Lebanon War

The 2006 Lebanon War was a 34-day military conflict in Lebanon and northern Israel. The principal parties were Hezbollah paramilitary forces and the Israeli military. The conflict was precipitated by a cross-border raid by Hezbollah during which they kidnapped and killed Israeli soldiers. In a speech in July 2008, Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah acknowledged that he had ordered the kidnapping of Israeli soldiers in order to free prisoners held in Israeli jails.[102] The conflict began on July 12, 2006 when Hezbollah militants fired rockets at Israeli border towns as a diversion for an anti-tank missile attack on two armored Humvees patrolling the Israeli side of the border fence, killing three, injuring two, and seizing two Israeli soldiers.[128]

Israel responded with massive airstrikes and artillery fire on targets in Lebanon that damaged Lebanese civilian infrastructure, including Beirut's Rafic Hariri International Airport (which Israel said that Hezbollah used to import weapons and supplies),[129] an air and naval blockade,[130] and a ground invasion of southern Lebanon. Hezbollah then launched more rockets into northern Israel and engaged the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) in guerrilla warfare from hardened positions.[131] The war continued until a United Nations-brokered ceasefire went into effect on August 14, 2006. Hezbollah was responsible for thousands of Katyusha rocket attacks against Israeli civilian towns and cities in northern Israel,[132] which Hezbollah said were in retaliation for Israel's killing of civilians and targeting Lebanese infrastructure.[133] According to The Guardian, "In the fighting 1,200 Lebanese and 158 Israelis were killed. Of the dead almost 1,000 Lebanese and 41 Israelis were civilians."[134]

Attacks against the Multinational force in Iraq

In June 2006, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State David Satterfield disclosed that Hizbullah cadres had attacked U.S.-led coalition forces in Iraq.[135]

In his testimony before the Armed Services Committees of the Congress on April 8, 2008, General David Petraeus, the commander of the multinational forces in Iraq, reported that the Iranian Qods Force, with the assistance of Lebanese Hizbullah’s Department 2800, was training, arming and guiding the “Special Groups” in Iraq.[136] Asharq Alawsat reported on August 18, 2008, that Iran denied that Hezbollah operatives were involved in attacks against U.S. and Iraqi forces in four Iraqi provinces.

Armed strength

Hezbollah has not revealed its armed strength. It has been estimated by Mustafa Alani, security director at the Dubai-based Gulf Research Centre, that Hezbollah's military force is made up of about 1,000 full-time Hezbollah members, along with a further 6,000-10,000 volunteers.[137]

Hezbollah possesses the Katyusha-122 rocket, which has a range of 29 km (18 mi) and carries a 15-kg (33-lb) warhead. Hezbollah also possesses about 100 long-range missiles. They include the Iranian-made Fajr-3 and Fajr-5, the latter with a range of 75 km (47 mi), enabling it to strike the Israeli port of Haifa, and the Zelzal-1, with an estimated 150 km (93 mi) range, which can reach Tel Aviv. Fajr-3 missiles have a range of 40 km (25 mi) and a 45-kg (99-lb) warhead, and Fajr-5 missiles, which extend to 72 km (45 mi), also hold 45-kg (99-lb) warheads.[137]

According to various reports, Hezbollah is armed with anti-tank guided missiles, namely, the Russian-made AT-3 Sagger, AT-4 Spigot, AT-5 Spandrel, AT-13 Saxhorn-2 'Metis-M', АТ-14 Spriggan 'Kornet'; Iranian-made Ra'ad (version of AT-3 Sagger), Towsan (version of AT-5 Spandrel), Toophan (version of BGM-71 TOW); and European-made MILAN missiles. These weapons have been used against IDF soldiers, causing many of the deaths during the 2006 Lebanon War.[138] A small number of Saeghe-2s (Iranian-made version of M47 Dragon) were also used in the war.[139]

For air defense, Hezbollah has anti-aircraft weapons that include the ZU-23 artillery and the man-portable, shoulder-fired SA-7 and SA-18 surface-to-air missile (SAM).[140] One of the most effective weapons deployed by Hezbollah has been the C-802 anti-ship missile.[141]

Targeting policy

Hezbollah has not been involved in any suicide bombing since Israel withdrew from Lebanon.[142][143] After the September 11, 2001 attacks, Hezbollah condemned Al Qaeda for targeting the civilian World Trade Center, but remained silent on the attack on the The Pentagon, neither favoring nor opposing the act.[9][144] Hezbollah also denounced the Armed Islamic Group massacres in Algeria, Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya attacks on tourists in Egypt,[145] and the murder of Nick Berg.[146] In a 2006 interview with the Washington Post, Nasrallah condemned violence against American civilians.[144]

Although Hezbollah has denounced certain attacks on Western civilians, some people accuse the organization of the bombing of an Argentine synagogue in 1994. Argentine prosecutor Alberto Nisman, Marcelo Martinez Burgos, and their "staff of some 45 people"[147] said that Hezbollah and their contacts in Iran were responsible for the 1994 bombing of a Jewish cultural center in Argentina, in which "[e]ighty-five people were killed and more than 200 others injured."[148] In June 2002, shortly after the Israeli government launched Operation Defensive Shield, Nasrallah gave a speech in which he defended and praised suicide bombings of Israeli targets by members of Palestinian groups for "creating a deterrence and equalizing fear." Nasrallah stated that "in occupied Palestine, there is no difference between a soldier and a civilian, for they are all invaders, occupiers and usurpers of the land."[9]

Attacks on Hezbollah leaders

Hezbollah has also been the target of bomb attacks and kidnappings. These include:

  • On July 28, 1989, Israeli commandos kidnapped Sheikh Abdul Karim Obeid, the leader of Hezbollah.[150] This action led to the adoption of UN Security Council resolution 638, which condemned all hostage takings by all sides.
  • In 1992, Israeli helicopters attacked a motorcade in southern Lebanon, killing the Hezbollah leader Abbas al-Musawi, his wife, son, and four others.[31]

Media operations

Hezbollah operates a satellite television station, Al-Manar TV ("the Lighthouse") and a radio station al-Nour ("the Light").[152] Al-Manar broadcasts from Beirut, Lebanon.[152] The station was launched by Hezbollah in 1991[153] with the help of Iranian funds.[154] Al-Manar, self-proclaimed "Station of the Resistance" (qanat al-muqawama), is a key player in what Hezbollah calls its "psychological warfare against the Zionist enemy"[154][155] and an integral part of Hezbollah's plan to spread its message to the entire Arab world.[154]

Hezbollah's television station Al-Manar airs programming designed to inspire suicide attacks in Gaza, the West Bank, and Iraq.[54][156][157] Al-Manar's transmission in France is prohibited due to promotion of Holocaust denial, a criminal offense in France.[158][159][160] The United States lists Al-Manar television network as a terrorist organization.[161]

Materials aimed at instilling principles of nationalism and Islam in children are an aspect of Hezbollah's media operations.[162] The Hezbollah Central Internet Bureau released a video game in 2003 entitled Special Force, in which players conduct war on Israeli invaders, wherein the winner becomes a national hero on Earth and a martyr in Heaven.[163]

Social services

Hezbollah also organizes extensive social development programs, running hospitals, news services, and educational facilities. Social services have a central role in the party's programs. Most experts believe that Hezbollah's social and health programs are worth hundreds of millions of dollars annually.[18]

Hezbollah organizes an extensive social development program and runs hospitals, news services, educational facilities, and encouragement of Nikah mut‘ah.[18][164] Some of its established institutions are: Emdad committee for Islamic Charity,[165] Hezbollah Central Press Office, Al Jarha Association,[166] and Jihad Al Binaa Developmental Association.[167] Jihad Al Binna's Reconstruction Campaign is responsible for numerous economic and infrastructure development projects in Lebanon.[168][169] Hezbollah has set up a Martyr's Institute (Al-Shahid Social Association), which guarantees to provide living and education expenses for the families of fighters who die in battle.[170] In March 2006, an IRIN news report of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs noted: "Hezbollah not only has armed and political wings - it also boasts an extensive social development program. Hezbollah currently operates at least four hospitals, twelve clinics, twelve schools and two agricultural centres that provide farmers with technical assistance and training. It also has an environmental department and an extensive social assistance program. Medical care is also cheaper than in most of the country's private hospitals and free for Hezbollah members".[18]

According to CNN: "Hezbollah did everything that a government should do, from collecting the garbage to running hospitals and repairing schools."[171] In July 2006, during the war with Israel, when there was no running water in Beirut, Hezbollah was arranging supplies around the city. "People here [in South Beirut] see Hezbollah as a political movement and a social service provider as much as it is a militia, in this traditionally poor and dispossessed Shiite community."[171] Also, after the war it competed with the Lebanese government to reconstruct destroyed areas. According to analysts like American University Professor Judith Swain Harik, Jihad al-Binaa has won the initial battle of hearts and minds, in large part because they are the most experienced in Lebanon in the field of reconstruction.[172]

Funding

Hezbollah's financial support is a matter of controversy. Critics argue that it is, or has been, massively supported with tens of millions of dollars annually from the Islamic Republic of Iran.[54] Hezbollah maintains that the main source of its income comes from donations by Muslims.[173]

Lebanese Shi’ites often make zakat contributions directly after prayers and an additional donation in a Hezbollah donation box. Hezbollah also receives financial and political assistance, as well as weapons and training, from the Islamic Republic of Iran.[18][19][170] The US estimates that Iran has been giving Hezbollah about US$60–100 million per year in financial assistance.[174]

Hezbollah has relied extensively on funding from the Shi'ite Lebanese Diaspora in West Africa, the United States and, most importantly, the Triple Frontier, or tri-border area, along the junction of Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil.[175] U.S. law enforcement officials identified an illegal multimillion-dollar cigarette-smuggling fundraising operation[176] and drug smuggling.[177][178]

Foreign relations

Hezbollah has close relations with Iran.[179] It also has ties with the leadership in Syria, specifically with President Hafez al-Assad (until his death in 2000) and his son and successor Bashar al-Assad.[180] Although Hezbollah and Hamas are not organizationally linked, Hezbollah provides military training as well as financial and moral support to the Sunni Palestinian group.[181] Furthermore, Hezbollah is a strong supporter of the ongoing Al-Aqsa Intifada.[9] Whether there has been cooperation or any relationship between Hezbollah and al-Qaeda has been questioned.[182] Hezbollah's leaders deny links to al-Qaeda, present or past.[182][183] Also, some al-Qaeda leaders, like Abu Musab al-Zarqawi[184] and Wahhabi clerics, consider Hezbollah to be apostate.[185][186] But United States intelligence officials speculate that there has been contact between Hezbollah and low-level al-Qaeda figures who fled Afghanistan for Lebanon.[182][187][188]

Outside views

Public opinion

Velayat-e Faqih adherents rally on July 29, 2006, in support of Hezbollah in Toronto, Canada, during the 2006 Lebanon war

In much of the Arab world, Hezbollah is seen as a legitimate resistance organization that has defended its land against an Israeli occupying force and has consistently stood up to the Israeli army.[9]

According to a survey released by the "Beirut Center for Research and Information" on 26 July during the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict, 87 percent of Lebanese support Hezbollah's "retaliatory attacks on northern Israel",[189] a rise of 29 percentage points from a similar poll conducted in February. More striking, however, was the level of support for Hezbollah's resistance from non-Shiite communities. Eighty percent of Christians polled supported Hezbollah, along with 80 percent of Druze and 89 percent of Sunnis.[190 ][191 ]

In a poll of Lebanese adults taken in 2004, 6% of respondents gave unqualified support to the statement "Hezbollah should be disarmed". 41% reported unqualified disagreement.[192] A poll of Gaza Strip and West Bank residents indicated that 79.6% had "a very good view" of Hezbollah, and most of the remainder had a "good view".[193] Polls of Jordanian adults in December 2005 and June 2006 showed that 63.9% and 63.3%, respectively, considered Hezbollah to be a legitimate resistance organization.[194] In the December 2005 poll, only 6% of Jordanian adults considered Hezbollah to be terrorist.[195]

A July 2006 USA Today/Gallup poll found that 83% of the 1,005 Americans polled blamed Hezbollah, at least in part, for the 2006 Lebanon War, compared to 66% who blamed Israel to some degree. Additionally, 76% disapproved of the military action Hezbollah took in Israel, compared to 38% who disapproved of Israel's military action in Lebanon.[196] A poll in August 2006 by ABC News and the Washington Post found that 68% of the 1,002 Americans polled blamed Hezbollah, at least in part, for the civilian casualties in Lebanon during the 2006 Lebanon War, compared to 31% who blamed Israel to some degree.[196] Another August 2006 poll by CNN showed that 69% of the 1,047 Americans polled believed that Hezbollah is unfriendly towards, or an enemy of, the United States.[196]

Designation as a terrorist organization or resistance movement

Governments disagree on Hezbollah’s status as a legitimate political entity, a terrorist group, or both. Throughout most of the Arab and Muslim worlds, Hezbollah is referred to as a resistance movement.[3] Hezbollah's violent acts are considered by some countries as terrorist attacks; other governments regard Hezbollah as resistance and engaged in national defense."[197][198]

Countries below have officially listed Hezbollah in at least some part as a terrorist organization.

 Australia The Hezbollah External Security Organization [199]
 Canada The entire organization Hezbollah [200]
 Israel The entire organization Hezbollah [201 ][201 ][202]
 United Kingdom Hezbollah's military wing only [203][204]
 United States The entire organization Hezbollah [205][205]

In 1999, Hezbollah was placed on the US State Department terrorism list. After Hezbollah's condemnation of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the USA, it was removed from the list, but it was later returned to the list. [206] In 2002, US State Department official Christopher Ross was cited as explaining that while "the Hezbollah party and some of its members carried out terrorist acts in the past", "the acts that it carried out against the Israeli forces in South Lebanon were not terrorist acts."[207]

The European Union does not list Hezbollah as a "terrorist organization";[208] it listed the deceased Imad Mugniyah, a senior member and founder of Hezbollah, as a terrorist.[209][210][211] In addition, on March 10, 2005, the European Parliament passed a non-binding resolution recognizing "clear evidence" of "terrorist activities by Hezbollah"[212] and urging the EU Council to brand Hezbollah a terrorist organization and EU governments to place Hezbollah on their terrorist blacklists, as the bloc did with the Palestinian Hamas group in 2003.[212] The Council, however, has been reluctant to do this, because France, Spain, and Britain fear that such a move would further damage the prospects for Middle East peace talks.[212] In the midst of the 2006 conflict between Hezbollah and Israel, Russia’s government declined to include Hezbollah in a newly released list of terrorist organizations, with Yuri Sapunov, the head of anti-terrorism for the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, saying that they list only organizations which represent "the greatest threat to the security of our country".[213] Prior to the release of the list, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov called "on Hezbollah to stop resorting to any terrorist methods, including attacking neighboring states."[214]

The Quartet’s fourth member, the United Nations, does not maintain such a list,[215] however, the United Nations has made repeated calls for Hezbollah to disarm and accused the group of destabilizing the region and causing harm to Lebanese civilians.[216] Human rights organizations Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have accused Hezbollah of committing war crimes against Israeli civilians,[217] in which in the same article, they also accused Israel of war crimes but against Lebanese civilians.

Some other countries have criticized Hezbollah, citing terrorist activities, without maintaining such a list. Argentine prosecutors hold Hezbollah and their financial supporters in Iran responsible for the 1994 bombing of a Jewish cultural center, described by the Associated Press as "the worst terrorist attack on Argentine soil", in which "[e]ighty-five people were killed and more than 200 others injured."[148] On 24 February 2000, French Prime Minister Lionel Jospin condemned attacks by Hezbollah fighters on Israeli forces in south Lebanon, saying they are "terrorism" and not acts of resistance. "France condemns Hezbollah's attacks, and all types of terrorist attacks which may be carried out against soldiers, or possibly Israel's civilian population."[218] On August 29, 2006, Italian Foreign Minister Massimo D'Alema differentiated the wings of Hezbollah: "Apart from their well-known terrorist activities, they also have political standing and are socially engaged."[219][220] Germany does not maintain an independent national list of terrorist organizations, choosing instead to adopt the common EU list; however, German officials indicate that they would likely support a designation of Hezbollah as a terrorist organization.[221] While not maintaining a list as such, the Netherlands regard Hezbollah as terrorist discussing it as such in official reports of their general intelligence and security service[222] and in official answers by the Minister of Foreign Affairs.[223]

In contrast, supporters of Hezbollah justify Hezbollah's attacks against Israel on several grounds. Firstly, Hezbollah justifies its operations against Israel as reciprocal to Israeli operations against Lebanese civilians and as retaliation for Israel's occupation of Lebanese territory.[197][224][225] Many of these attacks took place while Israel occupied the southern part of Lebanon and held it as a security zone in spite of United Nations Security Council Resolution 425. Although Israel withdrew from Lebanon in 2000, and their complete withdrawal was verified by the United Nations, Lebanon now considers the Shebaa farms—a 26-km² (10-mi²) piece of land captured by Israel from Syria in the 1967 war and considered by the UN to be disputed territory between Syria and Israel—to be Lebanese territory. Additionally, Hezbollah has identified three Lebanese prisoners held in Israeli jails who it wants released.[226] Finally, Hezbollah and others among the Muslim world consider Israel to be an illegitimate state. For these reasons, many in the Arab world consider acts performed by Hezbollah against Israel to be justified as acts of defensive Jihad.[227] Although some Arab states (Egypt, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia) have condemned Hezbollah's actions, saying that "the Arabs and Muslims can't afford to allow an irresponsible and adventurous organization like Hezbollah to drag the region to war" and calling it "dangerous adventurism,"[6] Hezbollah is regarded as a legitimate resistance movement throughout much of Lebanese society and the Arab and Muslim world.[3] In August 2008, Lebanon's cabinet completed a policy statement which recognized "the right of Lebanon's people, army, and resistance to liberate the Israeli-occupied Shebaa Farms, Kafar Shuba Hills, and the Lebanese section of Ghajar village, and defend the country using all legal and possible means."[228]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Other transliterations include Hizbullah, Hizbollah, Hezballah, Hizballah, Hisbollah, and Hizb Allah.
  2. ^ In English the stress is most commonly placed on the final syllable, as suggested in the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (this is in accord with the Persian pronunciation, of Iran); in the Arabic of Hezbollah's theatre of operations it is most commonly placed on the second syllable. Hizb (party) is the Modern Standard Arabic pronunciation, and hezb is closer to Persian and Lebanese dialect. The name is derived from a Qur’anic ayat (verse) referring to those who belong to and follow the "party of God" [1].
    حزب الله ḥizbu-'llāh(i) -u nominative case marker in iḍāfa, initial "a" (written as "alif" ا) in Allāh (الله) is silent.
    Initial letter alif (ا) is usually dropped in this situation. Hence, expressions: bi-'llaah(i), wa-'llaah(i), etc. Final i (unwritten "kasra") (often dropped - is the genitive case marker). The 1st word ends in -u (unwritten ḍamma) in nominative case, -a in accusative, -i in genitive.
    ḥizbu-'llāh(i) - nominative
    ḥizbi-'llāh(i) - genitive
    ḥizba-'llāh(i) - accusative
  3. ^ a b c d e f Jamail, Dahr (2006-07-20). "Hezbollah's transformation". Asia Times. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/HG20Ak02.html. Retrieved 2007-10-23.  
  4. ^ a b c d "Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu'llah)". Council on Foreign Relations. 2008-09-13. http://www.cfr.org/publication/9155/hezbollah.html?breadcrumb=%2F. Retrieved 2008-09-15.  
  5. ^ Iran and Syria continue to support resistance
  6. ^ a b The Jerusalem Post (2006-07-17). "Arab world fed up with Hizbullah". http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1150886029284&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull. Retrieved 2006-08-17.  
  7. ^ Goldirova, Renata (September 17, 2008). "MEPs call on EU states to list Hezbollah as terrorist group". EUobserver.  
  8. ^ a b c "Who are Hezbollah". BBC News. 2008-05-21. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4314423.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-15.  
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Adam Shatz (April 29, 2004). "In Search of Hezbollah". The New York Review of Books. http://www.nybooks.com/articles/17060. Retrieved 2006-08-14.  
  10. ^ a b c d e f g author unknown. "The Hizballah Program" (PDF). provided by standwithus. com (StandWithUs). http://www.standwithus.com/pdfs/flyers/hezbollah_program.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-29.  
  11. ^ a b Stalinsky, Steven. "An Islamic Republic Is Hezbollah's Aim." The New York Sun. 2 August 2006. 1 November 2007.
  12. ^ Deeb, Lara (2006-07-31). "Hizballah: A Primer". Middle East Report. http://www.merip.org/mero/mero073106.html. Retrieved 2006-07-31.  
  13. ^ a b "Briefing: Lebanese Public Opinion". September-October 2006. http://www.mideastmonitor.org/issues/0609/0609_6.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-08.  
  14. ^ "Huge Beirut protest backs Syria." BBC News. 8 March 2005. 7 February 2007.
  15. ^ a b Ghattas, Kim (2006-12-01). "Political ferment in Lebanon". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/6200804.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-15.  
  16. ^ a b "Lebanese army moves into W. Beirut after Hezbollah takeover". Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/981696.html. Retrieved 2008-05-10.  
  17. ^ a b National unity government
  18. ^ a b c d e UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (2006-03-29). "LEBANON: The many hands and faces of Hezbollah". http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=52494&SelectRegion=Middle_East. Retrieved 2006-08-17.  
  19. ^ a b Iranian official admits Tehran supplied missiles to Hezbollah
  20. ^ a b Frykberg, MelL (2008-08-29). "Mideast Powers, Proxies and Paymasters Bluster and Rearm". Middle East Times. http://www.metimes.com/International/2008/08/29/mideast_powers_proxies_and_paymasters_bluster_and_rearm/5485/. Retrieved 2008-08-29. "And if there is one thing that ideologically and diametrically opposed Hezbollah and Israel agree on, it is Hezbollah's growing military strength."  
  21. ^ a b "Security council endorses secretary-general's conclusion on Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon as of 16 June". United Nations Security Council. 2000-06-18. http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2000/20000618.sc6878.doc.html. Retrieved 2006-09-29.  
  22. ^ GlobalSecurity.org, 2005
  23. ^ Diaz & Newman, 2005, p. 55
  24. ^ a b c d Cobban, Helena, "Hizbullah’s New Face." Boston Review. Accessed February 2, 2007. Originally published in the April/May 2005 issue of Boston Review.
  25. ^ Avi Shlaim (2001) The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World W.W. Norton, ISBN 0393321126 Chapter 10; The lebanese Quagmire 1981-1984 pp 384-423
  26. ^ a b c Pape, Robert (2005). Dying to win: the strategic logic of suicide terrorism. Random House. ISBN 1-4000-6317-5.   Specifically: "Suicide Terrorist Campaigns, 1980-2003", Appendix 1. (Page 253 of Australian paperback edition, published by Scribe Publications)
  27. ^ Zionism and Israel - Encyclopedic Dictionary, Hezbollah Definition
  28. ^ Hezbollah – the real story dead link
  29. ^ a b H. CON. RES. 190, 1st session, 101st congress (1989-08-04). "Expressing the sense of the Congress over the reported murder of Lieutenant Colonel William Higgins and Hezbollah-sponsored terrorism.". The Library of Congress. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c101:H.CON.RES.190:. Retrieved 2006-08-08.  
  30. ^ Telegraph, 2004/2/21
  31. ^ a b c d e "Timeline: Lebanon". BBC News. 2008-07-19. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/819200.stm. Retrieved 2008-09-15.  
  32. ^ United States Department of State, April 2005.
  33. ^ "On this day". BBC News. 1994-07-26. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/low/dates/stories/July/26/newsid_2499000/2499619.stm. Retrieved 2006-07-26.  
  34. ^ Jeffrey Goldberg (October 14, 2002). "IN THE PARTY OF GOD Are terrorists in Lebanon preparing for a larger war?". The New Yorker. http://www.jeffreygoldberg.net/articles/tny/a_reporter_at_large_in_the_par.php. Retrieved 2006-08-21.  
  35. ^ "The strategy and tactics of Hizballah's current 'Lebanonization process". Mediterranean Politics, Volume 3, Issue 1 Summer 1998 , pages 103 - 134. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a784386222~db=all.  
  36. ^ Alagha (2006), pp.41-44
  37. ^ Alagha (2006), p.47
  38. ^ Qassem, (2005) page 39
  39. ^ Wright, Robin (2006-07-13). "Options for U.S. Limited As Mideast Crises Spread". Washington Post. p. A19. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/07/12/AR2006071201557.html.  
  40. ^ US Department of State Background Information on Foreign Terrorist Organizations Accessed August 15, 2006
  41. ^ "Lebanese prime minister: There will be no coup." CNN.com. 30 November 2006. 30 November 2006
  42. ^ Staying the Course: the "Lebanonization" of Hizbollah - the integration of an Faqihi Islamist movement into a pluralist political system
  43. ^ United Nations Document A/54/723 S/2000/55, citing Al Hayyat, 30 October 1999 Letter dated 25 January 2000 from the Permanent Representative of Israel to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General Accessed August 17, 2006
  44. ^ The Brunswickan Online. "Hizbollah promises Israel a blood-filled new year, Iran calls for Israel's end". http://www.unb.ca/web/bruns/9900/issue14/intnews/israel.html.   (Student newspaper)
  45. ^ Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada Listed Entities - Hizballah Accessed July 31, 2006
  46. ^ "Said Hassan Nasrallah Q&A: What Hezbollah Will Do". The Washington Post. February 20, 2000. http://www.library.cornell.edu/colldev/mideast/hzblhnsr.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-08.  
  47. ^ "Hezbollah chief defiant on Israel." BBC NEWS. 14 March 2009. 14 March 2009.
  48. ^ "Hezbollah will not recognise Israel." Al Jazeera English. 14 March 2009. 14 March 2009.
  49. ^ "Nasrallah vows Hezbollah will never recognize Israel." Haaretz. 14 March 2009. 14 March 2009
  50. ^ Saad-Ghrayeb, 2002, pp. 151-154
  51. ^ Joshua Mitnick. Behind the dispute over Shebaa Farms, Christian Science Monitor, August 22, 2006.
  52. ^ Flashpoint farmland , The Guardian, May 10, 2006.
  53. ^ "Central to this issue is Hizballah’s claim, which was also espoused by Lebanon’s former pro-Syrian government, that the disputed Shebaa Farms are Lebanese rather than Syrian territories and are occupied by Israel. Therefore, Hizballah maintains that it is a legitimate resistance movement fighting for the liberation of Lebanese territory. Under this pretext, Hizballah, supported by some Lebanese parties, could argue that it is not a militia and thus it is outside the jurisdiction of Resolution 1559." Robert Rabil. Reinforcing Lebanon’s Sovereignty, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, November 8, 2005.
  54. ^ a b c "IN THE PARTY OF GOD Are terrorists in Lebanon preparing for a larger war? by Jeffrey Goldberg". The New Yorker. October 14, 2002. http://www.jeffreygoldberg.net/articles/tny/a_reporter_at_large_in_the_par.php. Retrieved 2007-03-03.  
  55. ^ "The Best American Magazine Writing 2003" By American Society of Magazine Editors, Contributor David Remnick, Published by HarperCollins, 2003, ISBN 0060567759, 9780060567750, 464 pages, Page 88
  56. ^ ""Hassan Nasrallah: In His Own Words"". CAMERA. 2006-07-26. http://www.camera.org/index.asp?x_context=7&x_issue=11&x_article=1158.  
  57. ^ "Israel's National Security: Issues and Challenges Since the Yom Kippur War" By Efraim Inbar, Published by Routledge, 2008, ISBN 0415449553, 9780415449557, 281 pages, Page 229
  58. ^ ""Fact file: Hassan Nasrallah - Leader of Shiite terrorist organization, Hizbullah"". YNET. 2006-07-31. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3284065,00.html.  
  59. ^ Bruce Hoffman in "Homeland Security and Terrorism: Readings and Interpretations" By Russell D. Howard, James J. F. Forest, Joanne C. Moore, Published by McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006, ISBN 0071452826, 9780071452823, 400 pages, Page 64 (Chapter 5 "The logic of suicide terrorism")
  60. ^ Arie W. Kruglanski in "Tangled Roots: Social and Psychological Factors in the Genesis of Terrorism" By Jeffrey Ivan Victoroff, NATO Public Diplomacy Division, Contributor Jeffrey Ivan Victoroff, Published by IOS Press, 2006, ISBN 158603670X, 9781586036706, 477 pages, Pages 68-69 (Chapter 4, "The psychology of terrorism: "Syndrom" versus "Tool" perspectives")
  61. ^ "The Shifts in Hizbullah's Ideology: Religious Ideology, Political Ideology, and Political Program" By Joseph Elie Alagha, Published by Amsterdam University Press, 2006, ISBN 9053569103, 9789053569108, 380 pages, Page 53
  62. ^ Hersh, Seymour (2003-07-18). "The Syrian Bet". The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/articles/030728fa_fact. Retrieved 2006-08-07.  
  63. ^ Macvicar, Sheila (March 16, 2003). "Interview With Sheikh Hassan Nasrallah". CNN. http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0303/16/sun.11.html. Retrieved 2006-08-01.  
  64. ^ Hitchens, Christopher. "Christopher Hitchens on Lebanon and Syria." Vanity Fair. May 2009. 14 August 2009.
  65. ^ Hezbollah presses school into pulling Anne Frank Jewish Telegraphic Agency November 9, 2009
  66. ^ a b Yazbeck, Natacha Anne Frank Diary offends Lebanon's Hezbollah Agence France-Presse November, 2009
  67. ^ "JCPA Middle East Briefing: Hezbollah". United Jewish Communities. 14 February 2008.
  68. ^ Sciolino, Elaine. "French Court Delays Decision on Hezbollah-Run TV Channel." The New York Times 12 December 2004. 14 February 2008.
  69. ^ Carvajal, Doreen. "French Court Orders a Ban on hezbollah-Run TV Channel." The New York Times. 14 December 2004. 14 February 2008.
  70. ^ Block, Melissa. "'New Yorker' Writer Warns of Hezbollah's Radicalism." National Public Radio. 16 August 2006. 16 February 2008.
  71. ^ Sciolino, Elaine. " A New French Headache: When Is Hate on TV Illegal?" The New York Times. 9 December 2004. 16 February 2008.
  72. ^ "Anti-Semitic Series Airs on Arab Television." ADL. 9 January 2004. 16 February 2008.
  73. ^ "Urge President Chirac to Block Hezbollah's Antisemitic and Hate TV." Simon Wiesenthal Center. 21 May 2008.
  74. ^ "UN Human Rights High Commissioner Admits to Wiesenthal Center Delegation ... 'Hezbollah Deliberately Targeted Israeli Civilians.'" Simon Wiesenthal Center. 19 September 2006. 22 May 2008.
  75. ^ Brown, Roy. "Hezbollah attacks IHEU speaker." International Humanist and Ethical Union. 25 September 2006. 22 May 2008.
  76. ^ Satloff, Roger. "The Holocaust's Arab Heroes." The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. 8 October 2006. 14 January 2009.
  77. ^ Stalinsky, Steven. "Hezbollah's Nazi Tactics." The New York Sun. 26 July 2006. 14 January 2009.
  78. ^ al-Nahar al-Arabi walduwali, 10–16 June 1985; and La Revue du Liban, 27 July-3 August 1985. quoted in Ranstorp, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, (1997), p.41
  79. ^ Ranstorp, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, (1997), p. 64
  80. ^ a b c Ranstorp, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, (1997), p.45
  81. ^ Katz, Yaakov. "Hizbollah units being commanded by Iranian officers." Jerusalem Post. 18 September 2009. 17 September 2009.
  82. ^ Daragahi, Borzou. "Lebanon's Hezbollah savors increasing legitimacy." Los Angeles Times. 13 April 2009. 17 April 2009.
  83. ^ "Hezbollah: Most Powerful Political Movement in Lebanon". Council on Foreign Relations. 2008-05-29. http://www.cfr.org/publication/16378/powerful_movement.html?breadcrumb=%2F. Retrieved 2006-09-15.  
  84. ^ Seelye, Kate (2005-04-01). "Lebanon's religious mix". PBS Frontline World. http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/dispatches/lebanon.syria/seelye2.html. Retrieved 2006-07-28.  
  85. ^ Lebanon: Angus Reid Global Monitor
  86. ^ The Counter-revolution of the Cedars
  87. ^ "Nasrallah Warns of 'Street Demonstrations' if National Unity Government is not Formed"
  88. ^ "Aoun calls for national unity government"
  89. ^ San Francisco Chronicle (December 15, 2006). "In Lebanon, Saniora stiffens his resistance". Retrieved December 18, 2006.
  90. ^ Reuters (December 18, 2006). "Lebanon opposition demands early elections". Retrieved December 18, 2006.
  91. ^ The full text of Nasrallah`s speech on the invitation to participate in an open sit-in in Beirut
  92. ^ "Hezbollah takes over west Beirut". BBC news. 2008-05-09. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7391600.stm. Retrieved 2008-05-10.  
  93. ^ "Lebanon tensions rise in clash with Hezbollah". Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/981937.html. Retrieved 2008-05-10.  
  94. ^ "Hezbollah Pledges Pullout From Beirut as Army Makes Concession". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=aqf3zxx_..5I&refer=home. Retrieved 2008-10-05.  
  95. ^ "Hezbollah to Withdraw Gunmen in Lebanon". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/11/world/middleeast/11lebanon.html?hp. Retrieved 2008-10-05.  
  96. ^ "Lebanese leaders 'expect to elect a president' in 24 hours". France 24. http://www.france24.com/en/20080521-lebanon-hezbollah-doha-election-presidential&navi=MONDE. Retrieved 2008-05-31.  
  97. ^ US Department of State (1999-10-08). "Background Information on Foreign Terrorist Organizations". http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/rpt/fto/2801.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-05.  
  98. ^ Canada Gazette (2003-02-12). "Canada Gazette Vol. 137, no 1". http://canadagazette.gc.ca/partII/2003/20030213-x/html/sor53-e.html. Retrieved 2006-07-25.  
  99. ^ United Nations Security Council (2004-09-02). "Resolution 1559 (2004)". http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=S/RES/1559%20(2004)&Lang=E&Area=UNDOC. Retrieved 2007-05-01. "3. Calls for the disbanding and disarmament of all Lebanese and non- Lebanese militias"  
  100. ^ Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Center for Special Studies (Israeli) (2005-09-07). "Hezbollah has no intention to disarm". http://www.terrorism-info.org.il/malam_multimedia/html/final/eng/eng_n/hez_e0905.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-01.  
  101. ^ [2]
  102. ^ a b "Hezbollah: Hezbollah and the Recent Conflict." ADL. 29 September 2006. 26 June 2007.
  103. ^ Ha'aretz 14 August 2008, UN: We've cleared half the cluster bombs Israel dropped on Lebanon By Shlomo Shamir
  104. ^ "Hizbullah says it's getting ready for a new war with Israel." Jerusalem Post. 8 November 2009. 8 November 2009.
  105. ^ "... eight were Islamic fundamentalists. Twenty-seven were Communists and Socialists. Three were Christians. The American Conservative, July 18, 2005. Verified 22nd June 2008.
  106. ^ Sites, Kevin (Scripps Howard News Services). "Hezbollah denies terrorist ties, increases role in government" 2006-01-15
  107. ^ "Frontline: Target America: Terrorist attacks on Americans, 1979-1988", PBS News, 2001. Accessed 4 February 2007
  108. ^ Hezbollah again denies involvement in deadly Buenos Aires bombing BEIRUT, March 19 (AFP)
  109. ^ a b "Timeline of Hezbollah Violence." CAMERA: Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America. 17 July 2006. 18 November 2006. Later reprinted in On Campus magazine's Fall 2006 issue and attributed the article to author Gilead Ini.
  110. ^ a b c d Hezbollah CFR. org Staff, the US Council on Foreign Relations, 2006-07-17
  111. ^ a b c Terrorism - In the Spotlight: Hezbollah (Party of God) Michael Donovan, Center for Defense Information cdi.org, 2002-02-25
  112. ^ "an official with the Iranian Intelligence Service in Tehran phoned the Iranian ambassador in Damascus and issued an order to have them killed...We know about the phone call because it was intercepted by the National Security Agency.....The Hezbollah operative in charge was Imad Fayez Mughniyeh" National Review Online, Clifford D. May, Iran’s War.
  113. ^ Lebanon: Hezbollah and the Jan. 15 Bombing Stratfor, January 15, 2008
  114. ^ H.E. Sayyed Nasrallah Speech in Full: History will mark martyr Moghnieh blood as the start of the fall of "Israel"
  115. ^ a b See:
  116. ^ Ted Koppel on NPR report: Lebanon's Hezbollah Ties. All Things Considered, July 13, 2006.
  117. ^ YNet Operation Accountability ""Increased Israeli casualties led to Operation Accountability in 1993"
  118. ^ "ISRAEL/LEBANON, Unlawful Killings During Operation "Grapes of Wrath"". BBC News. 1996-07-24. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engMDE150421996. Retrieved 2007-10-24.  
  119. ^ "The Grapes of Wrath Understanding"
  120. ^ "History of Israel's role in Lebanon". BBC News. 1998-04-01. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/72493.stm. Retrieved 2007-10-24.  
  121. ^ "Operation Grapes of Wrath". ynetnews. 2006-08-01. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3284744,00.html. Retrieved 2007-10-24.  
  122. ^ "Israelis Held by the Hizbullah - October 2000-January 2004". mfa.gov.il. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2001/2/Israelis%20Held%20by%20the%20Hizbullah%20-%20Oct%202000-Jan%202004.  
  123. ^ "Israel, Hezbollah swap prisoners". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/meast/01/29/prisoner.exchange/.  
  124. ^ Rothfeld, Michael. "War touches raw nerve for grieving parents." Newsday.com. 9 August 2006. 21 February 2008.
  125. ^ Gutman, Matthew. "Prisoner swap due to go ahead today." ProQuest Archiver. 21 February 2008
  126. ^ Stevn, Yoav and Eli Ashkenazi. "New film leaves parents in the dark on sons' fate during kidnap." Haaretz Daily Newspaper. 6 September 2006. 28 February 2008.
  127. ^ "Israel, Hezbollah swap prisoners." CNN.com International. 29 January 2004. 20 February 2008.
  128. ^ New York Times via the International Herald Tribune (July 12, 2006). "Clashes spread to Lebanon as Hezbollah raids Israel". Retrieved August 16, 2007.
  129. ^ "Israeli warplanes hit Beirut suburb". CNN. July 14, 2006. http://edition.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/meast/07/13/mideast/index.html.  
  130. ^ "Lebanese Premier Seeks U.S. Help in Lifting Blockade". Washington Post. 24 August 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/23/AR2006082301671.html.  
  131. ^ Urquhart, Conal (2006-08-11). "Computerised weaponry and high morale". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/israel/Story/0,,1842276,00.html. Retrieved 2006-10-08.  
  132. ^ Hezbollah Attacks Since May 2000 Mitchell Bard, the Jewish AIJAC, 2006-07-24
  133. ^ The Independent - Israel widens bombing campaign as Lebanese militia groups retaliate
  134. ^ "Israel planned for Lebanon war months in advance, PM says". Guardian. 2007-03-09. http://www.guardian.co.uk/syria/story/0,,2029732,00.html. Retrieved 2008-01-12.  
  135. ^ "“Who Was Imad Mughniyeh?”". Guardian. 2008-02-14. http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/templateC05.php?CID=2716. Retrieved 2008-02-14.  
  136. ^ "“Multi-National Force - Iraq”". http://www.mnf-iraq.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&lang=arabic&id=18280.  
  137. ^ a b July 18th - - Agence France Presse - Analysis: Hezbollah a force to be reckoned with
  138. ^ "Missiles neutralizing Israeli tanks". Associated Press. 2007-03-18. http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=2275334.  
  139. ^ Weitz, Paul (2006-08-12). "Hezbollah, Already a Capable Military Force, Makes Full Use of Civilian Shields and Media Manipulation". JINSA Online. http://www.jinsa.org/articles/articles.html/function/view/categoryid/158/documentid/3504/history/3,2360,655,158,3504. Retrieved 2008-01-09.  
  140. ^ "Hezbollah Reportedly Acquires SA-18 SAMs". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin. April 2003. http://www.meib.org/articles/0304_l2.htm.  
  141. ^ Hezbollah missile threat assessed
  142. ^ Hezbollah Operations from the Israeli-Lebanese Border Since the Israeli Withdrawal from Lebanon
  143. ^ Timeline of Hezbollah operations
  144. ^ a b Wright, Robin. "Inside the Mind of Hezbollah". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/07/14/AR2006071401401.html. Retrieved 2006-08-01.  
  145. ^ Hezbollah's condemnation of murder of civilians in Egypt and Algeria is described in Saad-Ghorayeb, p. 101.
  146. ^ Usher, Sebastian (2004-05-13). "Muted Arab reaction to Berg beheading". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/3710057.stm. Retrieved 2006-07-27.  
  147. ^ Larry Luxner (2006-03-04). "AMIA Probe Was Botched: Argentina". The Jewish Week. http://www.thejewishweek.com/news/newscontent.php3?artid=10589. Retrieved 2007-02-05.  
  148. ^ a b "Argentine prosecutors: Arrest former Iranian president." Jerusalem Post, 2006-10-26, "Prosecutor Alberto Nisman told a news conference that the decision to attack the center 'was undertaken in 1993 by the highest authorities of the then-government of Iran.' He said the actual attack was entrusted to the Lebanon-based group Hezbollah."
  149. ^ Did A Dead Man Tell No Tales? - Printout - TIME
  150. ^ Abduction of Sheikh Obeid, Security Council Resolution 638
  151. ^ "Hezbollah's most wanted commander killed in Syria bomb". Reuters. February 13, 2008. http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSL1350754620080213. Retrieved 2008-05-12.  
  152. ^ a b Elise Labott and Henry Schuster (2006). "Lebanese media outlets' assets blocked". cnn.com. http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/meast/03/23/hezbollah.tv/index.html.  
  153. ^ "Terrorist Television Hezbollah has a worldwide reach". National Review Online. December 22, 2004. http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/jorisch200412220812.asp. Retrieved 2007-03-31.  
  154. ^ a b c Avi Jorisch (Winter 2004). "Al-Manar: Hizbullah TV, 24/7". Middle East Quarterly. http://www.meforum.org/article/583. Retrieved 2006-09-03.  
  155. ^ "Al-Manar Television". http://web.archive.org/web/20030410115717/http://web.manartv.org/html/about.html. Retrieved 2007-03-27.  
  156. ^ [http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/jorisch200412220812.asp "Terrorist Television Hezbollah has a worldwide reach"]. National Review Online. December 22, 2004. http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/jorisch200412220812.asp. Retrieved 2006-08-22.  
  157. ^ "Al-Manar and the War in Iraq". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin. April 2003. http://www.meib.org/articles/0304_l1.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-24.  
  158. ^ Full Text of the decision (in French)
  159. ^ Press Release(in French)
  160. ^ France pulls plug on Arab network
  161. ^ Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State (December 14, 2004). "United States Adds Al-Manar TV Network to Terrorism List". Retrieved February 28, 2007.
  162. ^ Roee Nahmias (31 August 2006). "Hizbullah presents". ynetnews.com. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/7340,L-3297896,00.html. Retrieved 2007-02-25.  
  163. ^ Video Game at
  164. ^ "The Militarization of Sex: The story of Hezbollah's halal hookups." by Hanin Ghaddar, Foreign Policy, November 25, 2009
  165. ^ Emdad committee for Islamic Charity
  166. ^ Al Jarha Association
  167. ^ Jehad Al Benaa Developmental Association
  168. ^ Sachs, Susan. The New York Times. Helping Hand of Hezbollah Emerging in South Lebanon. March 30, 2000.
  169. ^ JoMarie Fecci, Washington Report on Middle East Affairs: Despite End of Lebanon’s Long Civil War, Low-Level Conflict Continues Around Israeli-Occupied Zone'
  170. ^ a b Edward Cody and Molly Moore (2006-08-14). "The Best Guerrilla Force in the World". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/13/AR2006081300719.html?nav=rss_world.  
  171. ^ a b CNN (2006-07-25). "Hezbollah's secret weapon". http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/meast/07/24/schuster.hezbollah/index.html. Retrieved 2006-07-25.  
  172. ^ Jackson Allers (September 12, 2006). "Hezbollah Ahead of Govt Again". ipsnews.net. http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=34687. Retrieved 2007-05-19.  
  173. ^ Washington Post, December 20, 2004 Lebanese Wary of a Rising Hezbollah Accessed August 8, 2006
  174. ^ "Hezbollah's Global Finance Network: The Triple Frontier". January 2002. http://www.meib.org/articles/0201_l2.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-07.  
  175. ^ Hezbollah's Global Finance Network: The Triple Frontier
  176. ^ Cigarette Smuggling Linked to Terrorism, The Washington Post
  177. ^ Levitt, Matthew (2007). Hamas. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300122589. http://books.google.com/books?pg=PA70&dq=drug+hezbollah+inpublisher:university&lr=&as_drrb_is=q&as_minm_is=0&as_miny_is=&as_maxm_is=0&as_maxy_is=&ei=73HmSbyXIonQkwT2j6mMAQ&id=CG-AjU3rraQC&num=50&as_brr=0&as_pt=ALLTYPES.  
  178. ^ Giraldo, Jeanne (2007). Terrorism Financing and State Responses. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804755658. http://books.google.com/books?pg=PA70&dq=drug+hezbollah+inpublisher:university&lr=&as_drrb_is=q&as_minm_is=0&as_miny_is=&as_maxm_is=0&as_maxy_is=&ei=73HmSbyXIonQkwT2j6mMAQ&id=CG-AjU3rraQC&num=50&as_brr=0&as_pt=ALLTYPES.  
  179. ^ Halliday, Fred. "A Lebanese fragment: two days with Hizbollah." openDemocracy. 20 July 2006. 17 February 2007.
  180. ^ Gambill, Gary. "Syria and Hezbollah: A Loveless Alliance." Mideast Monitor. 4 March 2005. 17 February 2007. Originally published in The National Post (Toronto).
  181. ^ "Israel-Hamas-Hezbollah: The Current Conflict" (PDF). CRS Report for Congress. July 21, 2006. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33566.pdf. Retrieved 8 September 2006.  
  182. ^ a b c Tehran, Washington, And Terror: No Agreement To Differ by A. W. Samii, Middle East Review of International Affairs, Volume 6, No. 3, September 2002 - citing Al-Majallah, March 24-March 30, 2002 and Al-Watan March 19, 2002
  183. ^ Stinson, Jeffrey. "Minister: Hezbollah doesn't need al-Qaeda's help fighting Israel in Lebanon." USATODAY.com. 28 July 2006. 17 February 2006.
  184. ^ BBC News (2006-06-02). "'Zarqawi tape' urges Sunni unrest". http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/5040974.stm. Retrieved 2006-07-26.  
  185. ^ Jerusalem Post, August 5, 2006 Saudi religious leader blasts Hizbullah Accessed August 6, 2006
  186. ^ Nimir, Suleiman. "Middle East Online." 4 August 2006. 17 February 2007.
  187. ^ CBS News (2002-07-26). "Terrorism Alliance?". http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/07/26/attack/main516585.shtml. Retrieved 2006-07-26.  
  188. ^ Mike Boettcher, Henry Schuster (2003-08-13). "New terror alliance suspected in Iraq". CNN World News. http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/08/13/iraq.terror/. Retrieved 2006-07-26.  
  189. ^ Beirut Center for Research and Information (July 29, 2006). "Poll finds support for Hizbullah's retaliation".
  190. ^ Blanford, Nicholas (2006-07-28). "Israeli strikes may boost Hizbullah base". Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/0728/p06s01-wome.html. Retrieved 2006-07-29.  
  191. ^ "Poll finds support for Hizbullah's retaliation". Beirut Center For Research & Information. 2006-07-29. http://www.beirutcenter.info/default.asp?contentid=692&MenuID=46. Retrieved 2006-08-08.  
  192. ^ "Angus Reid Global Monitor: Polls & Research / Hezbollah’s Disarmament Pondered In Lebanon". Angus Reid Global Monitor. 2005-04-25. http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/view/6914. Retrieved 2007-10-27. "Source: Zogby International / Information International / The Arab American Institute"  
  193. ^ "Angus Reid Global Monitor: Polls & Research / Palestinians Hold Hezbollah in High Regard". Angus Reid Global Monitor. 2006-07-29. http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/view/12694. Retrieved 2007-10-28. "Source: An-Najah National University"  
  194. ^ "Angus Reid Global Monitor: Polls & Research / Hamas, Hezbollah Legitimate for Jordanians". Angus Reid Global Monitor. 2006-07-14. http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/view/12527. Retrieved 2007-10-28. "Source: Centre for Strategic Studies at the University of Jordan"  
  195. ^ "Angus Reid Global Monitor: Polls & Research / Jordanians Review Legitimacy of Specific Groups". Angus Reid Global Monitor. 2006-01-11. http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/view/10495. Retrieved 2007-10-28. "Source: Centre for Strategic Studies at the University of Jordan"  
  196. ^ a b c "Israel/Palestinians." PollingReport.com. 10 December 2006.
  197. ^ a b Hizbullah: Views and Concepts
  198. ^ Statement of purpose
  199. ^ "Hizballah External Security Organisation Relisted". Australian National Security. 2005-07-18. http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/agd/www/nationalsecurity.nsf/AllDocs/7986D1536C0FFD5FCA256FCD001BE859?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2009-06-12.  
  200. ^ See:
  201. ^ a b "Summary of Terrorist Activity 2004". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2005-01-05. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2005/Summary+of+Terrorist+Activity+2004.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-15.  
  202. ^ ": A Pragmatic Terror Organization of Global Reach - A Snapshot (February, 2005)". the International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism (ICT). 2005-02. http://www.ict.org.il/index.php?sid=119&lang=en&act=page&id=5209&str=hizballah. Retrieved 2007-03-27.  
  203. ^ British Home office official listing of Proscribed terrorist groups
  204. ^ "UK ban on Hezbollah military arm". BBC News. 2008-02-07. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7485213.stm. Retrieved 2009-06-12.  
  205. ^ a b "Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs)". United States Department of State. 2005-10-11. http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/fs/37191.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-16.   "Current List of Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations ... 14. Hizballah (Party of God)".
  206. ^ Lamb, Franklin. "Why is Hezbollah on the Terrorism List?". http://www.counterpunch.org/lamb04062007.html. Retrieved 2008-05-04.  
  207. ^ "Ross: Hizbullah's resistance of Israel is not terrorism". arabicnews.com. 2002-03-23. http://www.arabicnews.com/ansub/Daily/Day/020323/2002032309.html. Retrieved 2007-10-29. "In a statement to the Kuwaiti daily al-Rai al-Am issued on Friday, Ross said: ... "we are obliged to describe this organization by putting it in the American lists as a terrorist.""  
  208. ^ redirect
  209. ^ "COUNCIL DECISION of 21 December 2005 implementing Article 2(3) of Regulation (EC) No 2580/2001 on specific restrictive measures directed against certain persons and entities with a view to combating terrorism and repealing Decision 2005/848/EC(2005/930/EC)" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/l_340/l_34020051223en00640066.pdf.  
  210. ^ "COUNCIL COMMON POSITION 2005/847/CFSP" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 29 November 2005. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/l_314/l_31420051130en00410045.pdf.  
  211. ^ "The EU's relations with Lebanon". December 2005. http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/lebanon/intro/. Retrieved 2007-05-19.  
  212. ^ a b c ISN Security Watch (March 11, 2005). "EU lawmakers label Hezbollah 'terrorist’ group". Retrieved March 3, 2007.
  213. ^ "Hezbollah not on Russia's "terrorist" list". Associated Press. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/07/28/AR2006072801433.html. Retrieved 2007-10-27. "Sapunov told Rossiiskaya Gazeta the list of 17 "includes only those organizations which represent the greatest threat to the security of our country." Groups linked to separatist militants in Chechnya and Islamic radicals in Central Asia made the list."  
  214. ^ Haaretz Service and News Agencies (2006-07-15). "Russian defense minister says Hezbollah uses 'terrorist methods' - Haaretz - Israel News". http://www.envirosagainstwar.org/know/read.php?itemid=4382. Retrieved 2007-10-27.  
  215. ^ United Nations Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee Portal Accessed 7 August 2006
  216. ^ "Ban Ki-moon: Hizbullah poses threat to security." Jerusalem Post. 22 October 2009. 23 October 2009.
  217. ^ Katie Fretland (14 September 2006). "Amnesty: Hezbollah committed war crimes against Israel". TheGlobeandMail.com/AP. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20060914.whezbollah0914/BNStory/International. Retrieved 2007-05-19.  
  218. ^ French PM lashes Hezbollah 'terrorism'
  219. ^ D'Alema: The end of unilateralism, UN back in the lead
  220. ^ Italian FM: Hezbollah, Hamas are not al-Qaida
  221. ^ Germany’s Relations with Israel: Background and Implications for German Middle East Policy Congressional Research Service (January 19, 2007)
  222. ^ "Annual Report 2004" (PDF). Netherlands General intelligence and security service. http://www.fas.org/irp/world/netherlands/aivd2004-eng.pdf.  
  223. ^ "Answers to questions on Hezbollah and the EU (in Dutch)". Netherlands Minsitry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.minbuza.nl/nl/actueel/brievenparlement,2008/10/Beantwoording-vragen---r-z-over-Hezbollah-en-de-EU.html.  
  224. ^ CIVILIAN PAWNS, Laws of War Violations and the Use of Weapons on the Israel-Lebanon Border
  225. ^ ISRAEL/LEBANON "OPERATION GRAPES OF WRATH"
  226. ^ Hezbollah's Apocalypse Now
  227. ^ Thisreen (Syrian newspaper) June 21, 1999, reprinted by MEMRI Secretary General of Hizbullah Discusses the New Israeli Government and Hizbullah’s Struggle Against Israel Accessed July 30, 2006
  228. ^ Nafez Qawas, The Daily Star (August 6, 2008). "Berri summons Parliament to vote on policy statement" Retrieved August 6, 2008.

References

Books
  • Joseph Alagha (2006). The Shifts in Hizbullah's Ideology: Religious Ideology, Political Ideology. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 9053569103.  
  • Qassem, Naim (2005). Hizbullah: The Story from Within. Saqi Books. ISBN 978-0863565175.  
Articles

External links

Official sites

UN resolutions regarding Hezbollah

Other links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Flag of Hezbollah

Hezbollah (Party of Allah) is an Islamic group that opposes the Israeli occupation of Palestine as set by the Oslo Accords

Contents

Sourced

Al Qaeda

Israel

  • "If you want to call Hezbollah a terrorist organization, then you must call Israel a terrorist organization."
    • (David Duke’s radio show broadcast, 10 August 2006: The Israeli Invasion and Bombing of Lebanon)
    • [[1]]

Iran

  • "On the matter of political relations with Iran, the sheikh was absolutely clear. Hizbollah regards the Iranian supreme leader, in this case Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, as its ultimate authority; all major political decisions regarding Hizbollah are referred to – when not actually taken in – Iran. He gave the example of the decision taken in 1992 to enter Lebanese national politics: Hizbollah set up a commission, which prepared a report, with various options; this report was sent to Iran; it was Ayatollah Khamenei himself who took the final decision, in favour of participation."

Resistance & terrorism

  • Some area Arabs and Muslims consider Hezbollah and Hamas resistance fighters, not terrorists, though groups such as the Council on American Islamic Relations recognize the terrorist designations and urge Muslims not to support the groups.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:
Wiktionary-logo-en.png
Look up Hezbollah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Commons
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikinews
Wikinews has news related to this article:

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Flag of Hezbollah

Etymology

Arabic حزب الله party of God.

Alternative spellings

Proper noun

Singular
Hezbollah

Plural
-

Hezbollah

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

  1. A radical political and military organization that arose after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon; often accused of terrorism.

Translations


Simple English

Hezbollah (in Arabic: ‮حزب الله‬‎, meaning Party of God) is an Islamic political party and paramilitary organization.

Contents

History

It was formed in Lebanon in 1982, during the Lebanese Civil War. Its main goals then were to fight Western influences and create an Islamic state like Iran in Lebanon. The leader of Hezbollah is Hassan Nasrallah. Hezbollah is a Shi'ite Moslem body, representing the largest Islamic faction in Lebanon. It is supported by Syria and Iran.

Origin

Hezbollah is an Arab nationalist movement and wants freedom for the Palestinian people. Because of this, it believes that the State of Israel should not exist, and fights it. Over the years, the Hezbollah militia has fought a guerrilla war against the Israeli army (IDF) in Southern Lebanon. It also attacks Israel's military positions by firing Katyusha rockets across Israel's northern border.

Opposition

To destroy Hezbollah bases, Israel has responded in different ways. These have included air strikes on sites in Lebanon and sending ground troops into Southern Lebanon. In 2000, Israel withdrew its troops from the "security zone" in Southern Lebanon,but not from a sliver of land called Shebba Farms.This fertile area was kept under Israeli occupation. The border was relatively quiet,not taking into account Israeli targeted assassinations and kidnappings, until July 2006, when Hezbollah kidnapped two IDF soldiers. This led to the 2006 Lebanon War, in which Hezbollah rockets reached deep into Israel.

View points of other countries

Few countries see Hezbollah as a terrorist organisation, the majority do not. Among those who consider it to be terrorist are the United States, the United Kingdom, and Israel, among those who do not are the European Union and Russia. Lebanon sees Hezbollah as a legitimate resistance movement. This view is shared by Syria, Iran and all other countries in the Arab World.

References

Other websites









Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message