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Hickory
Hickory at Morton Arboretum
Accession 29-U-10
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fagales
Family: Juglandaceae
Subfamily: Juglandoideae
Tribe: Juglandeae
Subtribe: Caryinae[1]
Genus: Carya
Nutt.
Type species
Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt., 1818[2]
Species

See text

Comparison of North American Carya nuts

Trees in the genus Carya (from Ancient Greek κάρυον "nut") are commonly known as Hickory, derived from the Powhatan of Virginia. The genus includes 17–19 species of deciduous trees with pinnately compound leaves and large nuts. A dozen species are native to North America (11–12 in the United States, 2-4 in Canada, and 1 in Mexico), and 10–24 species from China and Indochina.

Another Asian species, Beaked Hickory, previously listed as Carya sinensis, is now treated in a separate genus Annamocarya, as Annamocarya sinensis.

Hickory flowers are small yellow-green catkins produced in spring. They are wind-pollinated and self-incompatible. The fruit is a globose or oval nut, 2–5 cm (0.79–2.0 in) long and 1.5–3 cm (0.59–1.2 in) diameter, enclosed in a four-valved husk which splits open at maturity. The nut shell is thick and bony in most species, thin in a few, notably C. illinoinensis; it is divided into two halves which split apart when the seed germinates. United States Presidents Andrew Jackson and James K. Polk are known as "Old Hickory" and "Young Hickory" respectively.

Contents

Species and classification

In the APG system, genus Carya (and the whole Juglandaceae family) has been recently moved to the Fagales order.

North America
  • Carya sect. Carya — typical hickories
    • Carya floridana Sarg., 1913 - Scrub Hickory
    • Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet, 1826 - Pignut Hickory, Pignut, Sweet Pignut, Coast Pignut Hickory, Smoothbark Hickory, Swamp Hickory, Broom Hickory
    • Carya myristiciformis (F.Michx.) Nutt., 1818 - Nutmeg Hickory, Swamp Hickory, Bitter Water Hickory
    • Carya ovalis (Wangenh.) Sarg., 1913 - Red Hickory, Spicebark Hickory, Sweet Pignut Hickory (treated as a synonym of C. glabra by Flora N. Amer.)
    • Carya ovata (Mill.) K.Koch - Shagbark Hickory
      • Carya ovata var. ovata - Northern Shagbark Hickory
      • Carya ovata var. australis - Southern Shagbark Hickory, Carolina Hickory (syn. C. carolinae-septentrionalis)
    • Carya laciniosa (Mill.) K.Koch - Shellbark Hickory, Shagbark Hickory, Bigleaf Shagbark Hickory, Kingnut, Big Shellbark, Bottom Shellbark, Thick Shellbark, Western Shellbark
    • Carya pallida (Ashe) Engl. & Graebn., 1902 - Sand Hickory
    • Carya texana Buckley, 1861 - Black Hickory
    • Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt., 1818 - Mockernut Hickory (syn. C. alba)
  • Carya sect. Apocarya — pecans
Asia
  • Carya sect. Sinocarya — Asian hickories
    • Carya dabieshanensis M.C. Liu, 1984 - Dabie Shan Hickory (may be synonymous with C. cathayensis)
    • Carya cathayensis Sarg., 1916 - Chinese Hickory
    • Carya hunanensis W.C.Cheng & R.H.Chang, 1979 - Hunan Hickory
    • Carya kweichowensis Kuang & A.M.Lu, 1979 - Guizhou Hickory
    • Carya poilanei Leroy, 1950 - Poilane's Hickory
    • Carya tonkinensis Lecomte, 1921 - Vietnamese Hickory[3]
Carya cordiformis (Bitternut Hickory) foliage
Ripe hickory nuts ready to fall, Andrews, SC

Hickory is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species. These include:

  • Brown-tail (Euproctis chrysorrhoea)
  • the Coleophora case-bearers C. laticornella and C. ostryae.
  • Regal moth (Citheronia regalis), whose caterpillars are known as hickory horn-devil
  • Walnut Sphinx (Amorpha juglandis)

Another insect that uses the hickory tree as a food source is the hickory leaf stem gall phylloxera (Phylloxera caryaecaulis). Phylloxeridae are related to aphids and have a similarly complex life cycle. Eggs hatch in early spring and the galls quickly form around the developing insects. Phylloxera galls may damage weakened or stressed hickories, but are generally harmless. Deformed leaves and twigs can rain down from the tree in the spring as squirrels break off infected tissue and eat the galls, possibly for the protein content of the phylloxera, or possibly because the galls are fleshy and tasty to the squirrels.

Nuts from the pecan trees are a popular food.

Tryma

Some fruits are borderline and difficult to categorize. Hickory nuts (Carya) and Walnuts (Juglans) in the Juglandaceae family grow within an outer husk; these fruits are technically drupes or drupaceous nuts, and thus not true botanical nuts. Tryma is a specialized term for such nut-like drupes.[4][5]

Uses

Hickory wood is very hard, very stiff, very dense and very shock resistant. As stated in the U.S. Forestry Service pamphlet on "Important Trees of Eastern Forests", "there are some woods that are stronger than hickory and some that are harder, but the combination of strength, toughness, hardness, and stiffness found in hickory wood is not found in any other commercial wood."[6] It is used for tool handles, bows, wheel spokes, carts, drumsticks, lacrosse stick handles, golf club shafts (sometimes still called hickory stick, even though made of steel or graphite), the bottom of skis, walking sticks and for punitive use as a switch (like hazel), and especially as a cane-like hickory stick in schools and use by parents. Paddles are often made from hickory. Baseball bats were formerly made of hickory but are now more commonly made of ash. Hickory is also highly prized for wood-burning stoves, because of its high energy content. Hickory wood is also a preferred type for smoke curing meats. In the Southern United States, hickory is popular for cooking barbecue, as hickory grows abundantly in the region, and adds flavor to the meat. Hickory is sometimes used for wood flooring due to its durability and character.

Hickory is replacing Ash as the wood of choice for Scottish Shinty Sticks (also known as Camans).

A bark extract from shagbark hickory is also used in an edible syrup that is similar to maple syrup, with a slightly bitter, smoky taste.

The nuts of some species are palatable, while others are bitter and only suitable for animal feed. Shagbark and Shellbark Hickories, along with the Pecan, are regarded by some as the finest nut trees.

When cultivated for their nuts, note that because of their self-incompatibility, clonal (grafted) trees of the same cultivar cannot pollinate each other. Two or more cultivars must be planted together for successful pollination. Seedlings (grown from hickory nuts) will usually have sufficient genetic variation.

See also

  • Walnut (also used in waterskis)

References

  1. ^ "Evolution, phylogeny and systematics of the Juglandaceae". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88: 231-269. 2001.  
  2. ^ "Carya Nutt.". TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Name/40002070. Retrieved 2009-10-19.  
  3. ^ "Subordinate Taxa of Carya Nutt.". TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/NameSubordinateTaxa.aspx?nameid=40002070. Retrieved 2009-10-19.  
  4. ^ Identification Of Major Fruit Types
  5. ^ Fruits Called Nuts
  6. ^ Important Trees of Eastern Forests, USDA, 1974

External links

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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Hickory [1] is a city in the foothills of North Carolina.

Get in

By plane

The Hickory Regional Airport is not currently served by any commerical airline. The closest commercial service airports are Charlotte and Greensboro.

  • Amtrak service runs to Charlotte and to Greensboro. A return of passenger rail service to Hickory has been proposed.
  • I-40 - Exit 125 or 126 will take you to the commercial district for shopping and most chain restaurants.
  • US-321 - Intersects with I-40 at mile marker 123.
  • US-70 - Runs nearly parallel with I-40 East-West through town. Most shopping, restaurants, and hotels are along the US-70 corridor.
  • NC-127 - Divides the town roughly between East and West. Head north until 127 ends to find US-64.

By bus

Public transportation is available between many parts of the county via the Piedmont Wagon Transit System [2]. Monday-Saturday, 6AM-6PM Weekdays, 8AM-4PM Saturday. Fare: $.75, transfers included.

Greyhound service is based out of the Citgo station on Highway 70 in Newton.

Get around

Driving in Hickory is quite easy, although the remaining one-way streets and eclectic street naming conventions can be somewhat bewildering. If you get lost, just ask a local and say you're from out of town. They'll refrain from an age-old Hickory tradition of giving directions based on where things "used to be".

The main throughfares in Hickory are Interstate 40, U.S. 70, and U.S. 321.

  • Hickory Museum of Art, [3]. Although American art was almost unrecognized outside of New York and Philadelphia in 1943, the North Carolina city of Hickory set out to establish a museum of American art. Located on Hickory, NC’s SALT Block (Sciences, Art, Literature Together), Hickory took the lead in the Southeast as being the first city to establish a museum of American art. Among the artists represented in the HMA collection are names such as Gilbert Stuart, Thomas Cole, Asher B. Durand, J. Fredrick Kensett, William Merritt Chase, Worthington Whittredge, F. Ballard Williams, Eanger Irving Couse, Elliot Daingerfield, Anna Hyatt Huntington, Hobart Nichols, Albert T. Bricher, Edward Potthast, and many others. Closed Mondays. Free admission.
  • Catawba Science Center, [4]. Explore the Physical and Natural Sciences. Interesting traveling exhibits rotate throughout the year. In October '08 Catawba Science Center expanded to include a planetarium and aquaria with touch tanks where you an touch creatures such as live sharks and rays. Located on Hickory, NC’s SALT Block (Sciences, Art, Literature Together), in the Arts & Science Center of Catawba Valley, CSC also provides a variety of educational movies (in their digital planetarium and fun programming for school groups, children, families, adults, homeschoolers, preschoolers, scouts and other community groups. The Science Emporium gift shop stocks educational toys and gifts that enhance the museum experience. Closed Mondays. Adults: $5, Ages 3-16 $3, Ages 0-3 free.
  • Hickory Motor Speedway, [5]. NASCAR short track. It is the oldest professional sporting venue in Catawba County, and the oldest continually operating motor speedway in the country with over 53 seasons. Three fully equipped concession stands, a souvenir stand, six large restroom areas, and three enclosed air-conditioned hospitality suites. Also contains a game room, and kids' fenced-in play area with a climbing gym & swings, and RV parking is available. Adults, $10.
  • Hickory Crawdads Minor League Baseball, [6]. As American as, well, baseball! Always good fun, and the Crawdads usually win, too! Try the Crawdad Red Ale at the Crawdad Cafe. (Take I-40 to exit 123 North (Hwy 321 Lenoir/Airport). Travel to fifth stoplight and turn left onto Clement Blv., NW. L.P. Frans Stadium is 1/2 mile up to the right). $6-12.
  • Carmike 14, on Catawba Boulevard behind the mall. First-run movies. $7.50 for adults.
  • Marquee Mimosa 7, excellent first-run theatre in downtown Morganton (I-40W from Hickory to NC-18 N/W - 25 minutes). $7 for adults. Less hectic than the Crown or the Carmike with friendlier people and cheaper concessions.
  • Carolina, downtown with two screens and daily $2 showings. A local favorite with ultra-affordable concessions and reclining seats with cupholders. Located in a seemingly ancient theatre downtown near the Wachovia building.
  • Patrick Beaver Memorial Library, [7]. Excellent library with comfy chairs and plenty of books and periodicals. Internet access available for a fee.
  • Lenoir^Rhyne University, [8]. Four-year liberal arts institution with a variety of majors. Affiliated with the NC Synod of the ELCA [9].
  • Appalachian State University, [10]. Offers classes in Hickory as part of the Hickory Metro Higher Education Center.
  • Catawba Valley Community College, [11].
  • Fiber-optic cable. Corning Cable Systems, Alcatel, CommScope.
  • Furniture. Broyhill, Neuville, etc.
  • Furniture. Take I-85S to US-321N for excellent furniture shopping at a host of furniture outlets as well as the Hickory Furniture Mart [12] (huge) and the Catawba Furniture Mall [13] (quieter and less expensive).
  • Valley Hills Mall, [14]. Regional center for shopping. Dillard's, Belk, JC Penney, Sears. Gap, Limited, Lerner, Ambercrombie & Fitch, American Eagle, Aeropostale, Bath and Body Works, etc.
  • Hickory Ridge Shopping Center. On Catawba Valley Boulevard (behind the Valley Hills Mall). Target, Best Buy, Hallmark, Marshalls, Kohl's, Old Navy, AC Moore Crafts, Babies R Us, Pier 1 Imports.
  • McGuire's Pub. Daily food and beer specials. Excellent array of interesting sandwiches. Booths offer excellent privacy in a relaxed atmosphere. Best onion rings in town and the home fries are to die for. The Fitzgerald sandwich is especially good. Stay away if you're truly pressed for time. Downtown across from Bank of Granite. $6-12.
  • Longhorn Streakhouse. US-70 near Home Depot. $9-20.
  • Jersey Mikes Subs. Two locations. US-70 at the intersection with McDonald Parkway (I-40 exit 126) near Barnes and Noble. Second location: NC-127N in the Belle Hollow shopping center beside Harris Teeter. $5-7.
  • Cafe Gouda. Eclectic sandwiches with a more casual and sophisticated air. Sandwiches, mostly. Try the Gouda Delite. Open for breakfast. Lattes and coffee drinks available. NC-127N in the Belle Hollow shopping center near Harris Teeter. $7-12.
  • Backstreets. On the backstreets of Hickory near Hickory High School and the Bank of Granite Building is Backstreets. A little pricey but has an excellent selection of beer and some great food options. Good lighting and a relaxed atmosphere. Daily specials. $9-15.
  • Olde Hickory Taproom.[http:www.oldehickorytaproom.com] The restaurant front for Olde Hickory Brewery offers seasonal ales and beers as well as the local favorites OHB is known for. The food and service here is "just" pretty good, but everyone keeps coming back for more. Must be the beer! Try the dessert special. A limited menu is offered late into the night. $8-18.
  • Amos Howard's. Also owned by Olde Hickory Brewery. West on Highway 70, just out of town. Food and service are on par with the Olde Hickory Taproom. Has giant beer barrels that you can eat in. $7-12
  • Tia's Asian Cuisine. Best Thai in town and the least expensive. Looks a little run-down on the outside, but nice once you're inside. In a small shopping center on Springs Road. From town, go past St. Stephen's Lutheran, and Tia's is a little farther on your right. It's before the intersection with 29th Avenue NE (future McDonald Parkway). $9-13.
  • Thai Orchid. Good Thai. Very easy to find. Hickory Ridge Shopping Center on Catawba Vallege Boulevard (behind the mall in the same shopping center as Best Buy). $10-15.
  • Tony's Pizza. Best pizza in town. Very easy to find. Hickory Ridge Shopping Center on Catawba Valley Boulevard (behind the mall in the same shopping center as Best Buy). $13 for a 19" cheese.
  • 1859 Cafe. 443 2nd Avenue Southwest, [15]. Turn right off Hwy. 70 West at 9th Street SW, between Mister Omelette and Furniture Outlet. Turn right at the 2nd light. (2nd Ave. SW) Travel 3/4 mile. Located right beside Wilson Florist. Enjoy the original music of Ulysses Long or request your favorite tune every Saturday night at 8PM. Relax and listen at your table or gather around the bar. Either way you will welcome the soothing music of Ulysses while dining, or for after dinner relaxation". It has been described as "Casually Elegant." Entrees are $15-$24.50.
  • Sgt. Peppers, [16]. NC-127N across from Hobby Lobby. Great food, good service and atmosphere. Huge bar and live music every weekend. $9-15.
  • Wild Wok, [17]. Located in southeast corner of the Valley Hills Mall parking lot, off of Highway 70. Asian bistro with Chinese, Japanese, Thai, and sushi. Very good food with good service. $9-12.
  • The Hickory Tavern, 2982 N Center Street. Hickory, NC 28601 (http://maps.google.com/maps?q=2982+N.+Center+St.,+Hickory,+NC+28601&spn=0.020574,0.082028&iwloc=A&hl=en), 828-322-2699, [18]. Monday - Sunday: 11:30AM - 2:00AM. shrimp specials on Wednesdays, and oyster specials on Thursdays. very, seafood, steak, appetizers, and sandwiches.  edit

Drink

If you want to buy liquor by the bottle you must do it at state-run ABC (Alcoholic Beverage Commission) stores rather than at a traditional liquor store. Beer and wine are available for purchase at most markets, grocery stores and gas stations. The alcohol laws of North Carolina prohibit the sale of alcohol after 2AM Monday through Saturday, and from 2AM until noon on Sundays.

Given Hickory's German heritage and heavy Lutheran influences, it's no surprise that beer is easy to find and fun to ingest among friends in Hickory.

  • See McGuire's Pub.
  • See Backstreets.
  • See Olde Hickory Taproom.
  • Hickory Tavern
  • Courtyard.
  • Hampton Inn.
  • Crowne Plaza.
  • Holiday Inn Express.
  • Jameson Inn.
  • Sleep Inn, [19].

Stay safe

Stay away from South Center Street. Everywhere else is relatively safe. Avoid the intersection of Highway 70 and Lenoir Rhyne Boulevard at rush hour.

  • Area code. 828.
  • Emergencies. 911
  • Hickory Police [20]. 828-328-5551 (Non-emergency).
  • Blowing Rock, NC. Beautiful town in the mountains. Great park downtown. Get some ice cream across the street, enjoy the breeze, and read a book. US-321N.
  • Blue Ridge Parkway. Junction is just north of Blowing Rock. US-321N.
  • Cone Manor. Crafts, information, and easy trails. The 3 mile jaunt to the lookout tower doesn't take much time and is worth the walk. Go south on the blue ridge parkway. Signed as a "Craft Center."
  • Charlotte, NC. Largest city in NC with lots of things to do. Take US-321S to I-85N.
  • Linville Gorge Wilderness. Serious hikers only. Pristine wilderness in the rugged, untamed Linville Gorge. I-40W to NC-18N/W to NC-181 to NC-183. Permits required for overnights during the peak months. Stay away from Cabin Trail and Rock Jock.
Routes through Hickory
KnoxvilleAsheville  W noframe E  Winston-SalemGreensboro
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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