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High-definition television (or HDTV, or just HD) refers to video having resolution substantially higher than traditional television systems (standard-definition TV, or SDTV, or SD). HD has one or two million pixels per frame, roughly five times that of SD. Early HDTV broadcasting used analog techniques, but today HDTV is digitally broadcast using video compression.

Projection screen in a home theater, displaying an HDTV image.

Contents

History of high-definition television

The term high definition once described a series of television systems originating from the late 1930s; however, these systems were only high definition when compared to earlier systems that were based on mechanical systems with as few as 30 lines of resolution.

The British high definition TV service started trials in August 1936 and a regular service in November 1936 using both the (mechanical) Baird 240 line and (electronic) Marconi-EMI 405 line (377i) systems. The Baird system was discontinued in February 1937. In 1938 France followed with their own 441 line system, variants of which were also used by a number of other countries. The US NTSC system joined in 1941. In 1949 France introduced an even higher resolution standard at 819 lines (768i), a system that would be high definition even by today's standards, but it was monochrome only. All of these systems used interlacing and a 4:3 aspect ratio except the 240 line system which was progressive (actually described at the time by the technically correct term of 'sequential') and the 405 line system which started as 5:4 and later changed to 4:3. The 405 line system adopted the (at that time) revolutionary idea of interlaced scanning to overcome the flicker problem of the 240 line with its 25 Hz frame rate. The 240 line system could have doubled its frame rate but this would have meant that the transmitted signal would have doubled in bandwidth, an unacceptable option.

Color broadcasts started at similarly higher resolutions, first with the US NTSC color system in 1953, which was compatible with the earlier B&W systems and therefore had the same 525 lines (480i) of resolution. European standards did not follow until the 1960s, when the PAL and SECAM colour systems were added to the monochrome 625 line (576i) broadcasts.

Since the formal adoption of Digital Video Broadcasting's (DVB) widescreen HDTV transmission modes in the early 2000s the 525-line NTSC (and PAL-M) systems as well as the European 625-line PAL and SECAM systems are now regarded as standard definition television systems. In Australia, the 625-line digital progressive system (with 576 active lines) is officially recognized as high definition.[1]

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Analog systems

In 1949, France started its transmissions with an 819 lines system (768i). It was monochrome only, it was used only on VHF for the first French TV channel, and it was discontinued in 1985.

In 1958, the Soviet Union developed Тransformator (Russian: Трансформатор, Transformer), the first high-resolution (definition) television system capable of producing an image composed of 1,125 lines of resolution aimed at providing teleconferencing for military command. It was a research project and the system was never deployed in the military or broadcasting.[2]

In 1969, the Japanese state broadcaster NHK first developed consumer high-definition television with a 5:3 aspect ratio, a slightly wider screen format than the usual 4:3 standard.[3] The system, known as Hi-Vision or MUSE after its Multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding for encoding the signal, required about twice the bandwidth of the existing NTSC system but provided about four times the resolution (1080i/1125 lines). Satellite test broadcasts started in 1989, with regular testing starting in 1991 and regular broadcasting of BS-9ch commenced on 25 November 1994, which featured commercial and NHK programming.

In 1981, the MUSE system was demonstrated for the first time in the United States. It had the same 5:3 aspect ratio as the Japanese system.[4] Upon visiting a demonstration of MUSE in Washington, US President Ronald Reagan was most impressed and officially declared it "a matter of national interest" to introduce HDTV to the USA.[5]

Several systems were proposed as the new standard for the USA, including the Japanese MUSE system, but all were rejected by the FCC because of their higher bandwidth requirements. At the same time that the high definition systems were being studied, the number of television channels was growing rapidly and bandwidth was already a problem. A new standard had to be radically efficient, needing less bandwidth for HDTV than the existing NTSC standard for SDTV.

Rise of digital compression

Since 1972, International Telecommunication Union's radio telecommunications sector (ITU-R) ITU-R has been working on creating a global recommendation for Analogue HDTV. These recommendations however did not fit in the broadcasting bands which could reach home users. The standardization of MPEG-1 in 1993 also led to the acceptance of recommendations ITU-R BT.709[6]. In anticipation of these standards the DVB organisation was formed, an alliance of broadcasters, consumer electronics manufacturers and regulatory bodies. The DVB develops and agrees on specifications which are formally standardised by ETSI[7].

DVB created first the standard for DVB-S digital satellite TV, DVB-C digital cable TV and DVB-T digital terrestrial TV. These broadcasting systems can be used for both SDTV and HDTV. In the USA the Grand Alliance proposed ATSC as the new standard for SDTV and HDTV. Both ATSC and DVB were based on the MPEG-2 standard. The DVB-S2 standard is based on the newer and more efficient H.264/MPEG-4 AVC compression standards. Common for all DVB standards is the use of highly efficient modulation techniques for further reducing bandwidth, and foremost for reducing receiver-hardware and antenna requirements.

In 1983, the International Telecommunication Union's radio telecommunications sector (ITU-R) set up a working party (IWP11/6) with the aim of setting a single international HDTV standard. One of the thornier issues concerned a suitable frame/field refresh rate, with the world already strongly demarcated into two camps, 25/50Hz and 30/60Hz, related by reasons of picture stability to the frequency of their main electrical supplies.

The IWP11/6 working party considered many views and through the 1980s served to encourage development in a number of video digital processing areas, not least conversion between the two main frame/field rates using motion vectors, which led to further developments in other areas. While a comprehensive HDTV standard was not in the end established, agreement on the aspect ratio was achieved.

Initially the existing 5:3 aspect ratio had been the main candidate, but due to the influence of widescreen cinema, the aspect ratio 16:9 (1.78) eventually emerged as being a reasonable compromise between 5:3 (1.67) and the common 1.85 widescreen cinema format. (Bob Morris explained that the 16:9 ratio was chosen as being the geometric mean of 4:3, Academy ratio, and 2.35:1, the widest cinema format in common use, in order to minimize wasted screen space when displaying content with a variety of aspect ratios.[8])

An aspect ratio of 16:9 was duly agreed at the first meeting of the IWP11/6 working party at the BBC's Research and Development establishment in Kingswood Warren. The resulting ITU-R Recommendation ITU-R BT.709-2 ("Rec. 709") includes the 16:9 aspect ratio, a specified colorimetry, and the scan modes 1080i (1,080 actively interlaced lines of resolution) and 1080p (1,080 progressively scanned lines). The current Freeview HD trials use MBAFF, which contains both progressive and interlaced content in the same encoding.

It also includes the alternative 1440×1152 HDMAC scan format. (According to some reports, a mooted 750 line (720p) format (720 progressively scanned lines) was viewed by some at the ITU as an enhanced television format rather than a true HDTV format,[9] and so was not included, although 1920×1080i and 1280×720p systems for a range of frame and field rates were defined by several US SMPTE standards.)

Demise of analog HD systems

However, even that limited standardization of HDTV did not lead to its adoption, principally for technical and economic reasons. Early HDTV commercial experiments such as NHK's MUSE required over four times the bandwidth of a standard-definition broadcast, and despite efforts made to shrink the required bandwidth down to about two times that of SDTV, it was still only distributable by satellite with one channel shared on a daily basis between seven broadcasters. In addition, recording and reproducing an HDTV signal was a significant technical challenge in the early years of HDTV. Japan remained the only country with successful public broadcast analog HDTV. Digital HDTV broadcasting started in 2000 in Japan, and the analog service ended in the early hours of 1 October 2007.

In Europe, analogue 1,250-line HD-MAC test broadcasts were performed in the early 1990s, but did not lead to any established public broadcast service.

Inaugural HDTV broadcast in the United States

HDTV technology was introduced in the United States in the 1990s by the Digital HDTV Grand Alliance, a group of television companies and MIT.[10][11] Field testing of HDTV at 199 sites in the United States was completed August 14, 1994.[12] The first public HDTV broadcast in the United States occurred on July 23, 1996 when the Raleigh, North Carolina television station WRAL-HD began broadcasting from the existing tower of WRAL-TV south-east of Raleigh, winning a race to be first with the HD Model Station in Washington, D.C., which began broadcasting July 31, 1996.[13][14][15] The American Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) HDTV system had its public launch on October 29, 1998, during the live coverage of astronaut John Glenn's return mission to space on board the Space Shuttle Discovery.[16] The signal was transmitted coast-to-coast, and was seen by the public in science centers, and other public theaters specially equipped to receive and display the broadcast.[16][17]

First regular European HDTV broadcasts

Although HDTV broadcasts had been demonstrated in Europe since the early 1990s, the first regular broadcasts started on January 1, 2004 when Euro1080 launched the HD1 channel with the traditional Vienna New Year's Concert. Test transmissions had been active since the IBC exhibition in September 2003, but the New Year's Day broadcast marked the official start of the HD1 channel, and the start of HDTV in Europe.[18]

Euro1080, a division of the Belgian TV services company Alfacam, broadcast HDTV channels to break the pan-European stalemate of "no HD broadcasts mean no HD TVs bought means no HD broadcasts..." and kick-start HDTV interest in Europe.[19]

The HD1 channel was initially free-to-air and mainly comprised sporting, dramatic, musical and other cultural events broadcast with a multi-lingual soundtrack on a rolling schedule of 4 or 5 hours per day.

These first European HDTV broadcasts used the 1080i format with MPEG-2 compression on a DVB-S signal from SES Astra's 1H satellite at Europe's main DTH Astra 19.2°E position. Euro1080 transmissions later changed to MPEG-4/AVC compression on a DVB-S2 signal in line with subsequent broadcast channels in Europe.

Notation

HDTV broadcast systems are identified with three major parameters:

  • Frame size in pixels is defined as number of horizontal pixels × number of vertical pixels, for example 1280 × 720 or 1920 × 1080. Often the number of horizontal pixels is implied from context and is omitted.
  • Scanning system is identified with the letter P for progressive scanning or I for interlaced scanning.
  • Frame rate is identified as number of video frames per second. For interlaced systems an alternative form of specifying number of fields per second is often used.[citation needed]

If all three parameters are used, they are specified in the following form: [frame size][scanning system][frame or field rate] or [frame size]/[frame or field rate][scanning system].[citation needed] Often, frame size or frame rate can be dropped if its value is implied from context. In this case the remaining numeric parameter is specified first, followed by the scanning system.

For example, 1920×1080p25 identifies progressive scanning format with 25 frames per second, each frame being 1,920 pixels wide and 1,080 pixels high. The 1080i25 or 1080i50 notation identifies interlaced scanning format with 25 frames (50 fields) per second, each frame being 1,920 pixels wide and 1,080 pixels high.[citation needed] The 1080i30 or 1080i60 notation identifies interlaced scanning format with 30 frames (60 fields) per second, each frame being 1,920 pixels wide and 1,080 pixels high.[citation needed] The 720p60 notation identifies progressive scanning format with 60 frames per second, each frame being 720 pixels high; 1,280 pixels horizontally are implied.

50Hz systems allow for only three scanning rates: 25i, 25p and 50p. 60Hz systems operate with much wider set of frame rates: 23.976p, 24p, 29.97i/59.94i, 29.97p, 30p, 59.94p and 60p. In the days of standard definition television, the fractional rates were often rounded up to whole numbers, e.g. 23.976p was often called 24p, or 59.94i was often called 60i. High definition television allows using both fractional and whole rates, therefore strict usage of notation is required. Nevertheless, 29.97i/59.94i is almost universally called 60i, likewise 23.976p is called 24p.[citation needed]

For commercial naming of a product, the frame rate is often dropped and is implied from context (e.g., a 1080i television set). A frame rate can also be specified without a resolution. For example, 24p means 24 progressive scan frames per second, and 50i means 25 interlaced frames per second.[citation needed]

One aspect of the HDTV that hasn't received a naming standard is color. Until recently, the color of each pixel was regulated by three 8-bit color values, each representing the level of red, blue, and green which defined a pixel color. Together the 24 total bits defining color yielded just under 17 million possible pixel colors. Recently, some manufacturers have designed systems that can employ 10 bits for each color (30 bits total) which provides for a palette of 1 billion colors. They contend that this provides a much richer picture. Until the naming of this criterion is standardized, consumers will have to do research to ensure that a piece of equipment supports this feature.

Most HDTV systems support resolutions and frame rates defined either in the ATSC table 3, or in EBU specification. The most common are noted below.

High-definition display resolutions

Video format supported Native resolution (W×H) Pixels Aspect ratio (W:H) Description
Actual Advertised (Mpixel) Image Pixel
720p
1280x720
1024×768
XGA
786,432 0.8 16:9 4:3 Typically a PC resolution (XGA); also a native resolution on many entry-level plasma displays with non-square pixels.
1280×720
921,600 0.9 16:9 1:1 Standard HDTV resolution and a typical PC resolution (WXGA), frequently used by video projectors; also used for 750-line video, as defined in SMPTE 296M, ATSC A/53, ITU-R BT.1543.
1366×768
WXGA
1,049,088 1.0 683:384
(approx. 16:9)
1:1
approx.
A typical PC resolution (WXGA); also used by many HD ready TV displays based on LCD technology.
1080p/1080i
1920×1080
1920×1200
2,073,600 2.1 16:10 1:1 Standard HDTV resolution, used by Full HD and HD ready 1080p TV displays such as high-end LCD, Plasma and rear projection TVs, and a typical PC resolution (lower than WUXGA); also used for 1125-line video, as defined in SMPTE 274M, ATSC A/53, ITU-R BT.709;
Video format supported Screen resolution (W×H) Pixels Aspect ratio (W:H) Description
Actual Advertised (Mpixel) Image Pixel
720p
1780×956
1780×956
Clean Aperture
876,096 0.9 Fix me 1:1 Used for 750-line video with raster artifact/overscan compensation, as defined in SMPTE 296M.
1080p
1920×1080
1888×1062
Clean aperture
2,001,280 2.0 16:9 1:1 Used for 1125-line video with faster artifact/overscan compensation, as defined in SMPTE 274M.
1080i
1920×1080
1440×1080
HDCAM/HDV
1,555,200 1.6 16:9 4:3 Used for anamorphic 1125-line video in the HDCAM and HDV formats introduced by Sony and defined (also as a luminance subsampling matrix) in SMPTE D11.

Standard frame or field rates

  • 23.976 Hz (film-looking frame rate compatible with NTSC clock speed standards)
  • 24 Hz (international film and ATSC high definition material)
  • 25 Hz (PAL, SECAM film, standard definition, and high definition material)
  • 29.97 Hz (NTSC standard definition material)
  • 50 Hz (PAL & SECAM high definition material))
  • 60 Hz (ATSC high definition material)
A comparison of multiple TV resolution standards as if it were viewed on a fixed-pixel display at full 1080p resolution. View at full size for proper comparison.

At a minimum, HDTV has twice the linear resolution of standard-definition television (SDTV), thus showing greater detail than either analog television or regular DVD. The technical standards for broadcasting HDTV also handle the 16:9 aspect ratio images without using letterboxing or anamorphic stretching, thus increasing the effective image resolution.

The optimum format for a broadcast depends upon the type of videographic recording medium used and the image's characteristics. The field and frame rate should match the source and the resolution. A very high resolution source may require more bandwidth than available in order to be transmitted without loss of fidelity. The lossy compression that is used in all digital HDTV storage and transmission systems will distort the received picture, when compared to the uncompressed source.

Types of media

Standard 35 mm photographic film used for cinema projection has higher resolution than HDTV systems, and is exposed and projected at a rate of 24 frames per second. To be shown on television in PAL-system countries, cinema film is scanned at the TV rate of 25 frames per second, causing an acceleration of 4.1 percent, which is generally considered acceptable. In NTSC-system countries, the TV scan rate of 30 frames per second would cause a perceptible acceleration if the same were attempted, and the necessary correction is performed by a technique called 3:2 pull-down: over each successive pair of film frames, one is held for three video fields (1/20 of a second) and the next is held for two video fields (1/30 of a second), giving a total time for the two frames of 1/12 of a second and thus achieving the correct average film frame rate.

Non-cinematic HDTV video recordings intended for broadcast are typically recorded either in 720p or 1080i format as determined by the broadcaster. 720p is commonly used for Internet distribution of high-definition video, because all computer monitors operate in progressive-scan mode. 720p also imposes less strenuous storage and decoding requirements compared to both 1080i and 1080p. 1080p is usually used for Blu-ray Disc.

Contemporary systems

Components of a typical satellite HDTV system:
1. HDTV Monitor
2. HD satellite receiver
3. Standard satellite dish
4. HDMI cable, DVI-D and audio cables, or audio and component video cables

Besides an HD-ready television set, other equipment may be needed to view HD television. In the US, Cable-ready TV sets can display HD content without using an external box. They have a QAM tuner built-in and/or a card slot for inserting a CableCARD.[20]

High-definition image sources include terrestrial broadcast, direct broadcast satellite, digital cable, IPTV, the high definition disc BD, Internet downloads, the Bluray Compatable PlayStation 3 (PS3), and with some limitations according to model, production run and accessories the Xbox 360.

Recording and compression

HDTV can be recorded to D-VHS (Digital-VHS or Data-VHS), W-VHS (analog only), to an HDTV-capable digital video recorder (for example DirecTV's high-definition Digital video recorder, Sky HD's set-top box, Dish Network's VIP 622 or VIP 722 high-definition Digital video recorder receivers, or TiVo's Series 3 or HD recorders), or an HDTV-ready HTPC. Some cable boxes are capable of receiving or recording two or more broadcasts at a time in HDTV format, and HDTV programming, some free, some for a fee, can be played back with the cable company's on-demand feature.

The massive amount of data storage required to archive uncompressed streams meant that inexpensive uncompressed storage options were not available in the consumer market until recently. In 2008 the Hauppauge 1212 Personal Video Recorder was introduced. This device accepts HD content through component video inputs and stores the content in an uncompressed MPEG transport stream (.ts) file or Blu-ray format .m2ts file on the hard drive or DVD burner of a computer connected to the PVR through a USB 2.0 interface.

Realtime MPEG-2 compression of an uncompressed digital HDTV signal is prohibitively expensive for the consumer market at this time, but should become inexpensive within several years (although this is more relevant for consumer HD camcorders than recording HDTV). Analog tape recorders with bandwidth capable of recording analog HD signals such as W-VHS recorders are no longer produced for the consumer market and are both expensive and scarce in the secondary market.

In the United States, as part of the FCC's plug and play agreement, cable companies are required to provide customers who rent HD set-top boxes with a set-top box with "functional" Firewire (IEEE 1394) upon request. None of the direct broadcast satellite providers have offered this feature on any of their supported boxes, but some cable TV companies have. As of July 2004, boxes are not included in the FCC mandate. This content is protected by encryption known as 5C.[21] This encryption can prevent duplication of content or simply limit the number of copies permitted, thus effectively denying most if not all fair use of the content.

TV resolution

See also

References

  1. ^ "SBS jubilant with its 576p HD broadcasts". http://www.broadcastandmedia.com/articles/ff/0c0276ff.asp. 
  2. ^ "HDTV in the Russian Federation: problems and prospects of implementation (in Russian)". http://rus.625-net.ru/625/2007/01/tvch.htm. 
  3. ^ "Researchers Craft HDTV's Successor". http://www.pcworld.com/article/id,132289-c,hdtv/article.html. 
  4. ^ "Digital TV Tech Notes, Issue #2". http://www.tech-notes.tv/Archive/tech_notes_002.htm. 
  5. ^ James Sudalnik and Victoria Kuhl, "High definition television"
  6. ^ "High definition television comes of age thanks to ITU". http://www.itu.int/ITU-R/index.asp?category=information&link=hdtv-25&lang=en. 
  7. ^ "History of the DVB Project". http://www.dvb.org/about_dvb/history/. 
  8. ^ Bob Morris (2003-07-13). "The true origins of the 16:9 HDTV aspect ratio!". rec.arts.movies.tech. (Web link). Retrieved on 2010-01-16.
  9. ^ "Digital TV Tech Notes, Issue #41". http://www.tech-notes.tv/Archive/tech_notes_041.htm. 
  10. ^ The Grand Alliance includes AT&T, General Instrument, MIT, Philips, Sarnoff, Thomson, and Zenith)
  11. ^ Carlo Basile et al. (1995). "The U.S. HDTV standard: the Grand Alliance". IEEE Spectrum 32 (4): 36–45. 
  12. ^ HDTV field testing wraps up
  13. ^ History of WRAL Digital
  14. ^ WRAL-HD begins broadcasting HDTV
  15. ^ Comark transmitter first in at Model Station
  16. ^ a b Albiniak, Paige (1998-11-02). "HDTV: Launched and Counting.". Broadcasting and cable (BNET). http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb5053/is_199811/ai_n18386452?tag=content;col1. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 
  17. ^ "Space Shuttle Discovery: John Glenn Launch". Internet Movie Database. 1998. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0384554/. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  18. ^ SES ASTRA (October 23, 2003). "SES ASTRA and Euro1080 to pioneer HDTV in Europe". Press release. http://www.ses-astra.com/business/en/news-events/press-archive/2003/23-10-03/index.php. 
  19. ^ Bains, Geoff. "Take The High Road" What Video & Widescreen TV (April, 2004) 22-24
  20. ^ "HDTV information". http://www.hidefster.com/HDTV_blog/?cat=9. 
  21. ^ "5C Digital Transmission Content Protection White Paper" (pdf). 1998-07-14. http://www.dtcp.com/data/wp_spec.pdf. Retrieved 2006-06-20. 

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Television article)

From Wikiquote

Quotes regarding Television

Sourced

Arranged by author
  • The role of television is the illusion of company, noise. I call it the fifth wall and the second window: the window of illusion.
  • The luminous screen in the home carries fantastic authority. Viewers everywhere tend to accept it as a window on the world... It has tended to displace or overwhelm other influences such as newspapers, school, church, grandpa, grandma. It has become the definer and transmitter of society's values.
    • Erik Barnouw, The Sponsor: Notes On a Modern Potentate (Oxford University Press, 1978), ISBN 0-19-502614-4, p. 75
  • Bread and circuses—to some observers, welfare and television seemed modern equivalents, pacifiers of empire, protectors of power and privilege.
    If television has assumed this role, it is not the result of a struggle between good guys and bad guys. If it were, it would be easy to solve, like problems in televisionland... The sponsor who thinks in terms of maximizing sales and profits is doing his duty... The advertising agency executive who recommends programs and time-slots in terms of audience size and demographic targets is likewise doing his job... The network sales executive who favors programs that advertising agencies will recommend to sponsors is performing his task... The problem—the folly—is not in any of these, but in a system that has made the center of national attention a market item, for sale at auction prices. The system has put the leadership of our society on the auction block.
    • Erik Barnouw, The Sponsor: Notes On a Modern Potentate (Oxford University Press, 1978), ISBN 0-19-502614-4, p. 171-172
  • For intellectual authority, the appropriate version of Descartes's cogito would be today: I am talked about, therefore I am.
  • We're aware of the scale of the planet, so we don't accept that our own circumscribed horizons constitute reality. Much more real is what's relayed to us by the TV.
    • John Brunner, Stand on Zanzibar (1968), continuity (17) "Timescales"
  • I’d park myself a few inches from the RCA color television set we had. I was so close, I could feel the static electricity of the screen tugging at the peach fuzz on my face and smell the wonderful aroma of electrically heated dust coming from the vents of that lustrous wooden console. No matter how many times my mother yelled, “Kevin! Move back before you go blind!” I’d still feel myself powerfully drawn into that world, and the worn-out seats of my Lee jeans bore witness to the pull I was powerless to resist.
    • Kevin Clash, puppeteer who plays Elmo on Sesame Street, on his childhood. Published in 2006 as part of My Life as a Furry Red Monster.
  • It is a medium of entertainment which permits millions of people to listen to the same joke at the same time, and yet remain lonesome.
  • Television is just another appliance- It's just a toaster with pictures.
  • Television, the drug of the Nation, Breeding ignorance and feeding radiation.
    Where imagination is sucked out of children by a cathode ray nipple. T.V. is the only wet nurse that would create a cripple
    • Michael Franti,Television drug of the nation, from Hypocrisy is the Greatest Luxury, by Disposable Heroes of Hiphoprisy, 1991 [3]
  • like the invention of indoor plumbing. It didn’t change people’s habits. It just kept them inside the house.
  • One of television’s great contributions is that it brought murder back into the home, where it belongs.
  • Seeing a murder on television can … help work off one’s antagonisms. And if you haven’t any antagonisms, the commercials will give you some.
  • In the days before machinery men and women who wanted to amuse themselves were compelled, in their humble way, to be artists. Now they sit still and permit professionals to entertain them by the aid of machinery. It is difficult to believe that general artistic culture can flourish in this atmosphere of passivity.
  • News is not at all an easy thing to do on television. A good many of the main news items are not easily made visual — therefore we have the problem of giving news with the same standards that the corporation has built up in sound.
  • Television is simultaneously blamed, often by the same people, for worsening the world and for being powerless to change it.
  • On the big screen they showed us a sun/ But not as bright in life as the real one/ It's never quite the same as the real one.
    • Elton John "Grey Seal" from the album Goodbye Yellow Brick Road
  • I invite you to sit down in front of your television set when your station goes on the air and stay there without a book, magazine, newspaper, profit and-loss sheet or rating book to distract you--and keep your eyes glued to that set until the station signs off. I can assure you that you will observe a vast wasteland.
  • I haven't had a TV in 10 years, and I really don't miss it. 'Cause it's always so much more fun to be with people than it ever was to be with a television.
  • Television has changed the American child from an irresistible force into an immovable object.
    • Laurence J. Peter , Peter's Quotations: Ideas for Our Time (1977), ISBN 0-688-03217-6, p. 324
  • One of the few good things about modern times: If you die horribly on television, you will not have died in vain. You will have entertained us.
  • Thanks to TV and for the convenience of TV, you can only be one of two kinds of human beings, either a liberal or a conservative.
  • I hate television. I hate it as much as peanuts. But I can't stop eating peanuts.

Unsourced

  • It used to be that we in films were the lowest form of art. Now we have something to look down on. ~ Billy Wilder
  • Sex on television can’t hurt you – unless you fall off. ~ Woody Allen
  • Television is called a medium because it is neither rare or well done ~ variously attributed
  • Television is for appearing on, not looking at. ~ Noel Coward
  • TV is like taking black spray paint to your third eye. ~ Bill Hicks
  • "Television - teacher, mother, secret lover" ~ Homer Simpson
  • Television is more interesting than people. If it were not, we should have people standing in the corners of our rooms. ~ Alan Coren
  • The best that can be said for Norwegian television is that it gives you the sensation of a coma without the worry and inconvenience ~ Bill Bryson
  • Television has raised writing to a new low. ~ Samuel Goldwyn (1882 - 1974)
  • There are many ways to talk about television. But in a "Business" perspective, let's be realistic : basically, TF1's job is to help Coca-Cola sell its product, for instance. To make the advertising message well received, the audience's brain must be available. Our shows are here to make the brain available, to entertain it, to relax it, to prepare it between two messages. What we're selling to Coca-Cola is available human brain time. Nothing is as difficult as getting this availability. ~ Patrick Le Lay, CEO of TF1, the main French TV-channel
  • Television is something the Russians invented to destroy American education. ~ Paul Erdös
  • If there's anything unsettling to the stomach, it's watching actors on television talk about their personal lives. ~ Marlon Brando
  • Don't you wish there were a knob on the TV to turn up the intelligence? There's one marked 'Brightness,' but it doesn't work. ~ Gallagher
  • I can think of nothing more boring for the American people than to have to sit in their living rooms for a whole half hour looking at my face on their television screens. ~ Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • Television enables you to be entertained in your home by people you wouldn't have in your home. ~ David Frost
  • It is difficult to produce a television documentary that is both incisive and probing when every twelve minutes one is interrupted by twelve dancing rabbits singing about toilet paper. ~ Rod Serling (1924 - 1975)
  • Television? The word is half Greek and half Latin. No good will come of this device. ~ C. P. Scott 1936
  • My father hated radio and couldn't wait for television to be invented so he could hate that, too. ~ Peter De Vries, American novelist (1910-1993)
  • When the TV programme’s ratings fall, advertise Viagra. ~ Leonid S. Sukhorukov
  • Television is America's jester. It has assumed the guise of an idiot while actually accruing power and authority behind the smoke screen of its self-degradation. ~Lawrence Mintz
  • The smallest bookstore still contains more ideas of worth than have been presented in the entire history of television. ~Andrew Ross
  • Thank GOD my tv was there to catch my heads fa-AAAAHHHHHHH-ll. ~Jeremy "Sideshow" Von Myers, Author
  • I think that parents only get so offended by television because they rely on it as a babysitter and the sole educator of their kids.

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Look up television in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Simple English


High-definition television (HDTV) is a new television broadcasting system which uses a higher resolution than a normal television. With HDTV we can watch television in higher quality than old television, giving a more vivid and clear screen.

Most HDTV systems use digital signals. And HDTV has a 16:9 aspect ratio (width to height). This is different than SDTV (standard-definition television) which uses analog signals and a 4:3 aspect ratio.

HDTV picture resolution is at least twice that of SDTV, so it can present a more vivid screen than analog television or DVD. HDTV can control resolution efficiently.

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