High Speed 1: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

High Speed 1

High Speed 1 approaching the Medway Viaducts.
Type High-speed rail
Freight rail[1]
Status Operational
Locale United Kingdom (Greater London
South East England)
Termini London St Pancras
Channel Tunnel
Stations 4
Opened 2003 (Section 1)
2007 (Section 2)
Owner London & Continental Railways
Operator(s) Eurostar, Southeastern, DB Schenker
Rolling stock Class 395
Class 373/1
Class 92 (from 2010)[2]
British Rail MPV
Eurotunnel Class 0001
Line length 108 km (67 mi)
No. of tracks Double track throughout
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) Standard gauge
Electrification 25 kV 50 Hz OHLE
Operating speed 300 km/h (186 mph)
230 km/h (143 mph)[3][4] [5]
  High Speed One / CTRL
Continuation backward
West Coast Main Line
Junction from left
North London Line
Track turning from left Unknown route-map component "KRZo"
Midland Main Line
Transverse terminus from left Unknown route-map component "ABZgf" Straight track
0 km London St Pancras London Underground
Head station Unknown route-map component "ABZld" Junction to right
Kings Cross
Track turning left Unknown route-map component "KRZolf" Unknown route-map component "KRZo"
East Coast Main Line
Enter tunnel Continuation forward
North London Line
Unknown route-map component "tSTR"
London West tunnel (7.5 km)
Exit tunnel Unknown route-map component "KDSTxa"
Temple Mills Eurostar Depot (single track)
Station on track Enter and exit short tunnel
9 km Stratford International Docklands Light Railway
Junction to left Track turning right
Temple Mills Line
Enter tunnel
10 km London East tunnel (10 km)
Junction to left Unknown route-map component "tKRZ" Track turning from right
21 km Ripple Lane freight connection
One way backward Exit tunnel One way forward
Track turning left Unknown route-map component "ABZdg" Track turning right
Bridge over water
Rainham viaduct (0.5 km)
Unknown route-map component "KRZo"
27 km Aveley viaduct (1 km)
Unknown route-map component "AKRZo"
30 km Thurrock viaduct (A282) (1.2 km)
Enter and exit tunnel
32 km River Thames tunnel (2.5 km)
Junction to left + Interchange on track
Track turning from right
37 km Ebbsfleet International
Continuation backward Straight track Continuation forward
North Kent Line
Straight track Unrestricted border on track
Phase 1 - Phase 2 boundary
Junction to left Junction from right
39 km Fawkham Junction link line
Abbreviated in this map Straight track
to Chatham Main Line for London Waterloo
Abbreviated in this map Non-passenger station on track
Singlewell passing loop and depot
Abbreviated in this map Elevated start
50km Medway Viaduct (1.2km)
Track turning left Unknown route-map component "hKRZ" Continuation to left
over Chatham Main Line
Continuation to right Unknown route-map component "hKRZ" Continuation to left
over Medway Valley Line
Elevated over water
over River Medway
Enter and exit tunnel
54 km North Downs Tunnel (3.2 km)
Straight track
Non-passenger station on track
Lenham Heath passing loop
Enter tunnel
88 km Ashford cut and cover tunnel (1.5 km)
Track turning from left Unknown route-map component "tKRZ" Unknown route-map component "ABZ3rg"
Maidstone East Line
Unknown route-map component "ABZdg" Unknown route-map component "tABZdf" Junction from right
South Eastern Main Line
Junction from left Unknown route-map component "tKRZ" Track turning right
89 km
Station on track Exit tunnel
90 km Ashford International
Junction to right Elevated start
Marshlink Line
Straight track Elevated Non-passenger head station
Ashford CTRL-DS Depot (Hitachi)
Junction to left Unknown route-map component "hKRZ" Unknown route-map component "ABZ3lf"
Ashford to Ramsgate
Junction to left Unknown route-map component "hKRZ" Track turning from right
91 km Ashford Flyover (1.5 km)
Straight track Elevated end One way forward
Junction to left Unknown route-map component "ABZdg" Track turning right
Abbreviated in this map Straight track
Abbreviated in this map Straight track
Enter tunnel Junction to left Track turning from right
Unknown route-map component "tÜWKul" Unknown route-map component "ÜWor" Unknown route-map component "xvSTRa"
Unknown route-map component "ÜWo+l" Unknown route-map component "ÜWu+r" Unknown route-map component "vexSTR-STR"
Unknown route-map component "KRZo" Junction to right Unknown route-map component "vexSTR-STR"
South Eastern Main Line
Straight track Unknown route-map component "eABZrg" Unknown route-map component "evSTRrf"
One way backward Non-passenger station on track One way forward
106 km Dollands Moor Freight terminal
Track turning left Unknown route-map component "ABZdg" Track turning right
Unknown route-map component "AKRZ-UKo"
Track turning from left Unknown route-map component "KRZo" Track turning from right
108 km CTRL/Eurotunnel boundary
Track turning left Junction from right Non-passenger station on track
Cheriton Shuttle Terminal (Folkestone)
Junction from left Track turning right
Enter tunnel
109 km Channel Tunnel to LGV Nord
Unknown route-map component "tÜST"
Unknown route-map component "tGRENZE"
FranceUK border

High Speed 1 (HS1), officially known as the Channel Tunnel Rail Link (CTRL) and originally as the Continental Main Line (CML), is a 108-kilometre (67-mile) high-speed railway line running from London, through Kent to the British end of the Channel Tunnel.

The CTRL project was one of the United Kingdom's largest civil engineering projects, encompassing many new bridges and combined tunnels nearly as long as the Channel Tunnel itself. During the construction of the CTRL a major archaeology project was conducted alongside the work.[6] In 2002 the CTRL project was awarded the "Major Project Award" at the British Construction Industry Awards.[7] During and after construction there have been several periods of financial difficulties, both with cost overruns and difficulties with organisations behind the construction project, and eventually the completed line came into public hands in 2009 with plans to sell it back to the private sector under new ownership.

The line was built to carry international traffic passenger from the United Kingdom to Continental Europe; additionally it carries domestic passenger traffic to and from towns and cities in Kent, and has the potential to carry Berne gauge freight traffic. The completed line, crossing over the River Medway and underneath the River Thames to London St Pancras railway station, opened on 14 November 2007.[8] The line allows speeds of 230 to 300 kilometres per hour (143 to 186 mph) and cost £5.2bn to build.[9] Intermediate stations exist at Stratford International, Ebbsfleet International and Ashford International.

International service is offered by Eurostar who provide journey times of London St Pancras to Paris Gare du Nord in 2 hours 15 minutes, and from St Pancras to Brussels-South in 1 hour 51 minutes.[10] These services are operated using a fleet of twenty-seven Class 373/1 multi-system trains capable of reaching 300 kilometres per hour (186 mph). Domestic high-speed commuter services serving the intermediate stations and beyond commenced on 13 December 2009. The fleet of twenty-nine Class 395 passenger trains are permitted to reach speeds of 225 kilometres per hour (140 mph).[11]


Early history

A high-speed rail line, LGV Nord, has been in operation between the Channel Tunnel and the outskirts of Paris since the Tunnel's opening in 1994.[12] This has enabled Eurostar rail services to travel at 300 km/h (186 mph) for this part of their journey. A similar high-speed line from the French border to Brussels, HSL 1, opened in 1997.[13][14] However, in Britain Eurostar trains had to run at much lower speeds on existing tracks between London and the Channel Tunnel.[15] These tracks were shared with local traffic, limiting the number of services that could be run, as well as their timings. The elderly nature of some of this rail infrastructure caused a disproportionate number of delays, limiting the potential and appeal of the Eurostar service.[16] The case for a High Speed line of equal caliber to the continental part of the route was recognised by lawmakers and advised by industry,[17] and the construction of the line was authorised by Parliament with the Channel Tunnel Rail Link Act 1996[18] which was amended by the Channel Tunnel Rail Link (Supplementary Provisions) Act 2008.[19][20]

The original plan for the Channel Tunnel Rail Link involved a tunnel reaching London from the south-east, and an underground terminus in the vicinity of Kings Cross station. However a late change in the plans, principally driven by the then deputy prime minister Michael Heseltine's desire for urban regeneration in East London, led to a change of route, with the new line approaching London from the east. This opened the possibility of reusing the underused St Pancras station as the terminus, with access via the North London Line that crosses the throat of the station.[21]

The idea of using the North London line proved illusory, and it was rejected in 1994 by the then transport secretary, John MacGregor, as difficult to construct and environmentally damaging.[22] However the idea of using St Pancras station as the core of the new terminus was retained, albeit now linked by 20 km (12 miles) of specially built tunnels to Dagenham via Stratford.[21]

London and Continental Railways (LCR) was selected by the UK government in 1996 to undertake construction of the line, as well as the reconstruction of St Pancras station as its terminus, and to take over the British share of the Eurostar operation, Eurostar (UK). The original LCR consortium members were National Express Group, Virgin Group, S. G. Warburg & Co, Bechtel and London Electric.[23][24] Whilst the project was under development by British Rail it was managed by Union Railways, which became a wholly owned subsidiary of LCR. On 14 November 2006, LCR assigned High Speed 1 as the brand name for the completed railway.[25] Official legislation, documentation and line-side signage has continued to refer to "CTRL" however.

The project

The legal framework for the new railway line lies in the Channel Tunnel Rail Link Act 1996[18] providing construction powers that ran for the following 10 years. Originally the whole route was to be constructed as a single project. However extensive changes came when the British government had to put together a rescue plan. In 1998 serious financial difficulties had been encountered, the future looked uncertain for the project.[26] To reduce risk it was split into two separate phases,[27] to be managed by Union Railways (South) and Union Railways (North). A recovery programme was agreed whereby LCR sold government-backed bonds worth £1.6bn to pay for the construction of section 1, with the future of section 2 still looking in doubt.

The original intention had been for the new railway, once completed, to be run by Union Railways as a separate line to the rest of the British railway network. However as part of the 1998 rescue plan it was agreed that, following completion, section 1 would be purchased by Railtrack, along with an option to purchase section 2. In return, Railtrack was committed to operate the whole route as well as St Pancras railway station which, unlike all other former British Rail stations, was transferred to LCR/Union Railways in 1996.[28]

In 2001, Railtrack announced that, due to its own financial problems, it would not undertake to purchase section 2 once it was completed.[29][30][31] This triggered a second restructuring.[32] The 2002 plan agreed that the two sections would have different infrastructure owners (Railtrack for section 1, LCR for section 2) but with common management by Railtrack. Following yet further financial problems at Railtrack[33] its interest in the CTRL was sold back to LCR who then sold the operating rights for the completed line to Network Rail, Railtrack's successor.[34] Under this arrangement LCR will become the sole owner of both sections of the CTRL and the St Pancras property, as per the original 1996 plan. Amendments were made in 2001 for the new station at Stratford International and through connections to the West Coast Main Line.

As a consequence of the project's restructuring the LCR consortium is, as of 2006, construction firms Arup, Bechtel, Halcrow and Systra (who form Rail Link Engineering (RLE)), transport operators National Express Group and SNCF (who operate the Eurostar (UK) share of the Eurostar service with the National Railway Company of Belgium and British Airways), electricity company EDF and UBS Investment Bank. On completion of section 1 by RLE, the line was handed over to Union Railways (South), who then handed it over to London & Continental Stations and Property (LCSP) who are the long term owners of the line. Once section 2 of the line had been completed it was handed over to Union Railways (North) who handed it over to LCSP. Management, operation and maintenance of the entire line, including St Pancras, is undertaken by Network Rail.

In February 2006 there were strong rumours that a 'third party' (believed to be a consortium headed by banker Sir Adrian Montague) had expressed an interest in buying out the present partners in the project.[35] LCR shareholders subsequently rejected the proposal,[36] and the Government, who effectively could overule shareholders' decisions as a result of LCR's reclassification as a state-owned body,[37] decided that discussions with shareholders would not take place imminently, effectively backing shareholders' views on the proposed takeover.[36]

By May 2009 LCR had become insolvent and the government received agreement to use state aid to purchase the line and to also open it up to competition to allow other services to use the line apart from the Eurostar.[38] On 12 October 2009 a proposal to sell 16-billion-pounds of state assets including the Channel Tunnel rail link in the following two years to cut UK public debt was announced.[39]


A Eurostar train on the CTRL, near Ashford

Section 1

Section 1 of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link, opened on 28 September 2003, is a 74 km (46 mile) section of high-speed track from the Channel Tunnel to Fawkham Junction in north Kent. The section's completion cut the London–Paris journey time by around 21 minutes, to 2h 35mn. The line includes the Medway Viaduct, a 1.2 km (¾ mile) bridge over the River Medway and the North Downs Tunnel, a 3.2 km (2 mile) long, 12 m (40 ft) diameter tunnel. In safety testing on the section prior to opening, a new UK rail speed record of 334.7 km/h (208.0 mph) was set.[40] Much of the new high-speed line runs alongside the M2 and M20 motorways through Kent. After completion, Eurostar trains continued to use suburban lines to enter London, arriving at Waterloo International.

There were a number of deaths of employees working on the CTRL over the construction period. A death occurred on Friday 28 March 2003 near Westernhanger, Folkestone where a worker came into contact with the energised power supply.[41] Another death occurred two months later, in May 2003, when a scaffolder fell seven metres at Thurrock, Essex.[42] This death resulted in three companies being found guilty of breaching health and safety legislation, omitting to provide barriers, which resulted in Deverson Direct Ltd being ordered to pay a fine of £50,000, J Murphy and Sons Ltd were fined £25,000, and Hochtief Aktiengesellschaft another £25,000.[42] Two more deaths relate to a fire onboard a train carrying wires, one mile inside a tunnel under the Thames between Swanscombe, Kent, and Thurrock, Essex on Tuesday 16 August 2005. The train shunter died at the scene[43] and the train driver later died in hospital on 20 August 2005.[44] It has been suggested that a large amount of blame for accidents throughout the project lay with individual behaviour, becoming such a problem an internal programme was launched to tackle behaviour problems during the construction.[45]

Section 2

Model showing the current redevelopment of the King's Cross area with the new extension to the barrel-vaulted St Pancras Station on the left

Section 2 of the project opened on 14 November 2007 and is a 39.4 km (24 mile) stretch of track from the newly built Ebbsfleet station in Kent to London St Pancras. Completion of the section cut journey times by a further 20 minutes (London–Paris in 2h 15m; London–Brussels in 1h 51m). The route starts with a 2.5 km (1.5 mile) tunnel which dives under the Thames on the edge of Swanscombe, then runs alongside the London, Tilbury and Southend Railway as far as Dagenham, where it enters a 19 km (12 mile) tunnel (51°31′36.9″N 0°8′13.9″E / 51.526917°N 0.137194°E / 51.526917; 0.137194), before emerging over the East Coast Main Line near St Pancras. The tunnels are divided into London East and London West sections, between which a 1 km stretch runs close to the surface to serve Stratford International and the Temple Mills Depot.

The new depot at Temple Mills, to the north of Stratford, replaced the North Pole depot in the west of London.[46] In testing, the first Eurostar train ran into St Pancras on 6 March 2007.[47] All CTRL connections are fully grade-separate. This is achieved through use of viaducts, bridges, cuttings and in one case, the tunnel portal itself. Along the route, several key and unique design features have emerged.

Unlike normal LGV stations in France, the through tracks for Ashford International railway station are off to one side rather than going through, partly due to Ashford International predating the line.[48] High Speed 1 approaches Ashford International from the north in a cut-and-cover "box"; the south-bound line rises out of this cutting and crosses over the main tracks to enter the station. The main tracks then rise out of the cutting and over a flyover. On leaving Ashford, southbound Eurostars return to the high speed line by travelling under this flyover and joining from the outside. The international platforms at Ashford are supplied with both overhead 25 kV and 3rd rail 750V, avoiding the need to switch power-supplies.


Ashford International

This station was rebuilt as Ashford International during the early 1990s for international services from mainland Europe; this included the addition of two platforms to the north of station (the original down island platform had been taken over by international services). Unlike normal LGV stations in France, the through tracks for Ashford International railway station are off to one side rather than going through.[48] The number of services was reduced after the opening of the Ebbsfleet station. A high-speed domestic service operated by Southeastern to London St Pancras began on 29 June 2009.

Ebbsfleet International

Ebbsfleet International railway station in the borough of Dartford, Kent is 10 miles outside the eastern boundary of Greater London and opened to the public on 19 November 2007.[49] and is now the main regional hub used by Eurostar.[50][51][52] Two of the platforms are designed to serve Eurostar's International trains and four platforms are available for high speed domestic services running upon the line.[53]

St Pancras International

Eurostar train at St Pancras International Railway Station

The terminus for the high speed line in London is St Pancras railway station. During the 2000s, towards the end of the construction of the CTRL, the entire station complex was renovated, expanded and rebranded as St Pancras International,[54][55] with a new security-sealed terminal area for Eurostar trains to continental Europe.[56] In addition it retained traditional domestic connections to the north and south of England. The new extension doubled the length of the central platforms now used for Eurostar services; new platforms have been provided for existing domestic East Midlands Trains and the Southeastern high-speed services that run along High Speed 1 to Kent.[57] New platforms on the Thameslink line across London were built beneath the western margins of the station and the station at King's Cross Thameslink was closed.

A complex junction has been constructed north of St Pancras with connections to the East Coast Main Line, North London Line (for West Coast Main Line) and Midland Main Line, allowing for a wide variety of potential destinations albeit on conventional rails. As part of the works, tunnels connecting the East Coast Main Line to the Thameslink route were also built.

Stratford International

Stratford International railway station was not part of the original government plans for the CTRL.[58] Completed in April 2006, it opened on the 30 November 2009 when the domestic preview Southeastern highspeed services started stopping here.[59] An extension of the Docklands Light Railway will open mid-2010. Eurostar trains will not stop at this station until after the DLR extension has been completed.[60] It will also be the railway station for the main site where the 2012 Summer Olympics will be held.[61]

Temple Mills Depot which is used for storage and servicing of Eurostar trains and off peak berthing of 395 Southeastern highspeed trains and is situated in Leyton



Both track and signalling technology (TVM-430 + KVB) are based on or identical to the standards used on the French LGV high-speed lines. The areas around St Pancras and Gare du Nord use KVB signalling with the whole of the high-speed route to Paris (CTRL, Channel Tunnel, LGV Nord) using TVM-430. Signalling tests before opening were performed by the SNCF-owned "Lucie" test car.[62]

The track is 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) Standard gauge[63] cleared to a larger modern European GC loading gauge[63] enabling GB+ gauge freight as far as the yards at Barking.[64][65] The line is electrified entirely using overhead lines with 25 kV AC railway electrification.


After local protests,[66][67] early plans were modified to put more of the route into tunnels up until a point approximately 1 mile (2 km) from St. Pancras, previously the CTRL was planned to run on an elevated section alongside the North London Line on approach into the line's terminus. The twin tunnels bored under London were driven from Stratford westwards towards St Pancras, eastwards towards Dagenham and from Dagenham westwards to connect with the tunnel from Stratford. The tunnel boring machines were 120 metres long and weighed 1,100 tonnes. The depth of the tunnels vary from a depth of 24 metres to 50 metres.

The construction works were complex and a large number of contractors were involved in delivering them.[68] The CTRL Section 2 construction works had caused considerable disruption around the Kings Cross area of London, however in their wake redevelopment was stimulated.[69][70] The huge redevelopment area includes the run-down areas of post-industrial and ex-railway land close to King's Cross and St Pancras, a conservation area with many listed buildings; this was promoted as one of the benefits for building the CTRL.[71] However it has been postulated that this development was actually suppressed by the construction project,[72] and some of the affected districts are still in a poor state.[73]

Connection line to Waterloo

A 4-kilometre (2.5 mi) connecting line providing access for Waterloo railway station leaves High Speed 1 at Southfleet Junction using a grade-separated junction; the main CTRL tracks continue uninterrupted through to CTRL Section 2 underneath the southbound flyover. The connection joins the Chatham Main Line at Fawkham Junction with a flat crossing. The retention of Eurostar services to Waterloo after the line to St Pancras opened was ruled out on cost grounds.[74] Waterloo International closed upon opening of the section two of the CTRL in November 2007; Eurostar now serves the refurbished St Pancras as its only London terminal.[75][76]



A Eurostar train passing Strood, on approach to the Medway bridge

The Eurostar service uses about 40% of the capacity of High Speed 1,[77] which in November 2007 became the company's route for all their services.[78] Trains run by Eurostar are for international traffic only, passing along the high speed line from London St Pancras railway station to the Channel Tunnel, terminating at either Paris Gare de Nord in France or Brussels Midi-Zuid in Belgium.[79][80] Currently the trains operated by Eurostar are the only ones to make full use of the high speeds upon the line; a Eurostar train was used to set a new British rail speed record of 334.7 km/h (208 mph) on 30 July 2003.[81][82] The British component of Eurostar is owned by London and Continental Railways, which also owns High Speed 1 and the infrastructure upon it.[83]

On 4 September 2007, a train travelled from Paris Gare du Nord to St. Pancras in 2 hours 3 minutes and 39 seconds.[84] On 19 September 2007, a train travelled from Brussels South to St. Pancras in 1 hour 43 minutes.[85]

 Class  Image  Type   Top speed   Number   Routes operated   Built 
 mph   km/h 
Class 373 Eurostar Eurostar at St Pancras railway station.jpg Electric multiple unit 186 300 28 LondonParis
London–Marne-la-Vallée – Chessy
London–Avignon Centre
London–Bourg Saint Maurice


A Southeastern "Javelin" train departing from London St Pancras railway station on a preview domestic service

The domestic high speed services upon High Speed 1 are provided by the operator Southeastern. Having been in planning since 2004,[86] a preview service of the British Rail Class 395 trains, popularly known Javelins, started in June 2009,[53] and a regular service commenced on 13 December 2009. The quickest journey time from Ashford to London St Pancras is 35 minutes[87] compared with 60 minutes for the service to London Charing Cross via Tonbridge.[88] This service on Section 2 of the CTRL, known previously as CTRL-DS, was a factor in London's successful 2012 Olympic Bid, promising a seven-minute journey time from the Olympic Park at Stratford to the London terminus at St Pancras.[89] Although much of the train's route upon High Speed 1 is capable of 300 km/h (186 mph), the maximum operating speed of the train is limited to 225 km/h (140 mph). Javelins are designed for very fast acceleration due to the short distance between stations and the service patterns.[90]

 Class  Image  Type   Top speed   Number   Routes operated   Built 
 mph   km/h 
Class 395 Javelin Class 395 Javelin STP 001.jpg Electric multiple unit 140 225 29 St PancrasStratford International-
Ebbsfleet International-Ashford International-Ramsgate/ Dover Priory.[91]

DB Schenker

CTRL North Downs Tunnel, country portal under Blue Bell Hill

DB Schenker is a global freight operator with a large interest in freight over rail in Europe.[92] While High Speed 1 was constructed with passing loops for freight usage, no freight traffic had run upon the line since opening in 2003.[93] On 16 April 2009 DB Schenker signed an agreement with HS1 Ltd, the owner of High Speed 1, for a partnership to develop TVM modifications for class 92 freight locomotives to run upon the line.[94] Freight services are expected to begin early in 2010, after the signalling technology is made available to all potential operators,[94] and the necessary logistics and support infrastructure to serve freight operations.[95]

 Class  Image  Type   Top speed   Number   Built 
 mph   km/h 
Class 92 92027 George Eliot at Stafford.jpg Electric locomotive 87 140 46 1993

Future operations

At present, only Deutsche Bahn has applied for use of the line and in 2009 regulations were relaxed to allow its trains to use the tunnel. Other proposals are yet to be formalised.

Deutsche Bahn

A Deutsche Bahn high-speed train

In November 2007, it was reported that Deutsche Bahn, Germany's national train company, had applied to use the Channel Tunnel and High Speed 1 rail line into St Pancras International.[96] This was swiftly denied by Deutsche Bahn, and the bi-national Channel Tunnel Safety Authority confirmed that it had not received such an application.[97] The plan was delayed by preexisting safety regulations as Deutsche Bahn fleet of ICE 3M high-speed trains would not permit division in the tunnel.[98]

In December 2008, it was reported that Deutsche Bahn (DB) was interested in buying the British share in Eurostar,[99] which in practice means buying Eurostar (U.K.) Ltd., the 100% subsidiary of London and Continental Railways (LCR) which the British government intends to break up and sell just as it does the other rail-related subsidiary of L&CR, High Speed 1.[100][101] The buyer of EUKL would become the owner of the 11 British "Three Capitals" Class 373 trainsets plus all seven "North of London" sets, and would also be responsible for the operations of Eurostar traffic within Britain once the management contract with ICRR expires in 2010. Guillaume Pépy, the president of SNCF, who held a press conference the same day, described DB's interest as "premature, presumptuous and arrogant".[102] SNCF claims to own 62% of the shares of Eurostar Group Ltd. Hartmut Mehdorn, former CEO of Deutsche Bahn, confirmed DB's interest in conversations with journalists, but insisted in a letter to Pépy a few days later that DB had only informally requested information and not made any official requests to Britain's Department for Transport.[103]

In 2009, Eurotunnel (the owners of the Channel Tunnel) announced that it was prepared to start relaxing the fire safety regulations, in order to permit other operators, such as Deutsche Bahn, to transport passengers via the Tunnel using other forms of rolling stock.[104] Under the deregulation of European railway service, high-speed lines were opened up to open access on 1 January 2010; the Inter-Governmental Commission on the Channel Tunnel (IGC) announced that it was considering relaxing the safety requirements concerning train splitting. LCR suggested that high-speed rail services between London and Cologne could commence before the 2012 Olympics.[105] As of March 2010 Eurotunnel, High Speed 1, DB and other interested train operators formed a working group to discuss changes to the saftey rules, including allowing DB's 200m trains through the tunnel on a Frankfurt to London service.[106]

Veolia's planned use of the AGV train would cut journey times to London


In September 2008 Air France-KLM indicated a desire to take advantage of the change in the law and apply to run rail services, in cooperation with Veolia, from London to Paris and from Paris to Amsterdam in competition with Eurostar and Thalys, respectively, with the intention of purchasing or leasing a number of the new AGV multiple units currently being tested.[107][108] However, in October 2009 Air France withdrew its interest. This led to Veolia looking for new partners, with the announcement that it would begin working on new proposals in cooperation with Trenitalia to run services from Paris to Strasbourg, London and Brussels.[109]


Spanish AVE train

Spanish railway operator RENFE has also shown an interest in running services from Spain to London[110] via Paris, Lyon and Barcelona once its AVE network is connected to France via the Barcelona to Figueres and Perpignan to Figueres lines in 2012.[111]

Transmanche Metro

In February 2010, local councillors from Kent and Pas-de-Calais announced they were in talks to establish a frequent metro service connection between the regional stations along the route. The service would leave Lille and stop at Calais, Ashford and Stratford before reaching London St. Pancras. Currently Ashford and Calais have an infrequent service and trains do not call at Stratford. The initiative is part of Calais' branding as part of the UK in order to benefit from the 2012 London Olympics but is supported on both sides of the channel to bring in more commuters.[112]

See also


  1. ^ http://www.hs1-staging.co.uk/NSRA0609/Freight%20Access/Template%20Framework%20Track%20Access%20Agreement%20-%20Freight%20-%20June%202009.pdf HS1 report on Freight
  2. ^ "Freight trains set to use High Speed 1". highspeed1.co.uk. 2009-04-16. http://www.highspeed1.co.uk/news/?id=233. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  3. ^ "Channel Tunnel Rail Link Visit". Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton. http://www.isvr.soton.ac.uk/IWRN8/CTRL%20Visit.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-06. "Section 2, which has a line speed of 230 km/h" 
  4. ^ "Building Britain's first high speed line". Railway Gazette International. 1999-05-01. http://www.railwaygazette.com/news/single-view/view//building-britains-first-high-speed-line.html. Retrieved 2009-07-06. "Speed will be reduced to 230 km/h between Ebbsfleet and St Pancras, primarily for aerodynamic reasons in the tunnels." 
  5. ^ "Paris - London High Speed 1 (CTRL)". High Speed: TVM. Ansaldo STS. http://www.ansaldo-sts.com/AnsaldoSTS/EN/Business/HighSpeed/TVM/args/detail/details~projects~project_detail_0000057.shtml/type/web_project/index.sdo. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  6. ^ Matthews, Roger (2003). The archaeology of Mesopotamia: theories and approaches. Routledge. p. 31. ISBN 0-415253-17-9. "The development of this new railway resulted in the largest archaeological project to date in the United Kingdom" 
  7. ^ "CTRL team scoops BCI Major Project Award". New Civil Engineer. 2006-11-02. http://www.nce.co.uk/ctrl-team-scoops-bci-major-project-award/480980.article. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  8. ^ "High Speed One - and Only". RailStaff. 2006-11-14. http://www.railwaypeople.com/rail-news-articles/high-speed-one-and-only-1196.html. Retrieved 2006-11-14. 
  9. ^ "High Speed 1". railway-technology.com. 2008-12-23. http://www.railway-technology.com/projects/highspeedone/. Retrieved 2008-12-23. 
  10. ^ "Eurostar to launch passenger services at St Pancras International on Wednesday 14 November 2007". Eurostar. 2006-11-14. http://www.eurostar.com/UK/uk/leisure/about_eurostar/press_release/press_archive_2006/14_11_2006_november_14_07.jsp. Retrieved 2006-11-15. 
  11. ^ "Southeastern Highspeed". Southeastern Railway. 2009-12-01. http://www.southeasternrailway.co.uk/index.php/highspeed. Retrieved 2009-12-01. 
  12. ^ "Bilan LOTI de la LGV Nord Rapport". Cgedd Developpement. http://www.cgedd.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/LGV_Nord_cle58b46b.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-10. 
  13. ^ "Infrabel celebrates 10 years of the High Speed Line in Belgium". Infrabel. https://ecms.b-holding.be/DMS/ds/en/1902728. Retrieved 2009-05-13. 
  14. ^ "Detailed map layout of Belgian railway transportation network". Infrabel. http://m.fte2.org/doc/car/ctr.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-13. 
  15. ^ Harper, Keith. "French attack Railtrack". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2001/jan/18/transport.world. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  16. ^ "How the need for a CTRL developed". Transport for London. http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/rail/pi/ctrl/theneedforachanneltunnelrailli1. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  17. ^ Harrison, Michael (18 June 1993). "2001: a rail odyssey drags on: Plans for a Channel tunnel link are finally gathering speed". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/2001-a-rail-odyssey-drags-on-plans-for-a-channel-tunnel-link-are-finally-gathering-speed-michael-harrison-reports-1492380.html. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  18. ^ a b "Channel Tunnel Rail Link Act 1996 c61". 1996. http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1996/ukpga_19960061_en_1. Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  19. ^ "Channel Tunnel Rail Link (Supplementary Provisions) Act 2008 c5". 2008. http://www.statutelaw.gov.uk/content.aspx?LegType=All+Legislation&title=Channel+Tunnel+Rail+Link+Act&searchEnacted=0&extentMatchOnly=0&confersPower=0&blanketAmendment=0&sortAlpha=0&TYPE=QS&PageNumber=1&NavFrom=0&parentActiveTextDocId=3483587&ActiveTextDocId=3483587&filesize=12216. Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  20. ^ "HC Hansard Volume 467 Part 3 Column 259". Hansard. Parliament of the United Kingdom. 8 November 2007. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200708/cmhansrd/cm071108/debtext/71108-0002.htm#07110847000011. Retrieved 2008-08-31. 
  21. ^ a b "How St Pancras was chosen". BBC News. 2007-11-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7082392.stm. Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
  22. ^ Goodwin, Stephen (21 January 1994). "Inside Parliament: Euro-sceptic derides 'white elephant' line". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/inside-parliament-eurosceptic-derides-white-elephant-line-1409211.html. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  23. ^ "Britain's Channel Tunnel rail link (four contract contenders named)". Railway Age. accessmylibrary.com. 01 September 1995. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-31944420_ITM. Retrieved 2009-08-01.  (subscription required)
  24. ^ Wolmar, Christian (04 July 1995). "Branson in last round of rail link fight". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/branson-in-last-round-of-rail-link-fight-1589794.html. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  25. ^ "High-speed rail link open in year". BBC News. 14 November 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/6144338.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  26. ^ "The Channel Tunnel Rail Link: Report by the Controller and Auditor General". National Audit Office. http://www.nao.org.uk/idoc.ashx?docId=4c41eba0-1c8f-4225-9961-599c13d69d44&version=-1. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  27. ^ "Press Release - Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions: The Channel Tunnel Rail Link". National Audit Office. http://www.nao.org.uk/whats_new/0001/0001302.aspx. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  28. ^ "About St Pancras". stpancras.com. http://www.stpancras.com/about-st-pancras/about-us. Retrieved 2009-07-09. 
  29. ^ Harper, Keith (30 May 2000). "Railtrack funding of Channel rail link in doubt again". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2000/may/30/7. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  30. ^ Harrison, Michael (16 January 2001). "Railtrack could ditch new Channel rail link". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/railtrack-could-ditch-new-channel-rail-link-702632.html. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  31. ^ Brown, Colin (1 April 2001). "Railtrack to lose its new-line monopoly". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/railtrack-to-lose-its--newline-monopoly-689651.html. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  32. ^ Harrison, Michael (17 January 2001). "Phase two of tunnel link need not be built by Railtrack, says Eurostar". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/phase-two-of-tunnel-link-need-not-be-built-by-railtrack-says-eurostar-703001.html. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  33. ^ Walters, Joanna (21 October 2001). "Rail's shattered dream". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2001/oct/21/politics.Whitehall. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  34. ^ "Railtrack Sells Part of Channel Tunnel Rail Link". Tribune Business News. accessmylibrary.com. 3 April 2003. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-6003197_ITM. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  35. ^ "City grandee tries to grab tunnel link firm". London: The Times. 2006-02-19. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2095-2046857,00.html. Retrieved 2006-11-15. 
  36. ^ a b "LCR rejects takeover bid". RailStaff. 2006-03-31. http://www.railwaypeople.com/rail-news-articles/lcr-rejects-takeover-bid-1024.html. Retrieved 2006-11-15. 
  37. ^ "Debt-laden Channel tunnel rail link is 'nationalised'". The Guardian. 2006-02-21. http://www.guardian.co.uk/frontpage/story/0,,1714423,00.html. Retrieved 2006-11-15. 
  38. ^ Ed Owen (8 June 2009). "Government takes control of London and Continental". New Civil Engineer. http://www.nce.co.uk/news/transport/government-takes-control-of-london-and-continental/5203105.article. Retrieved 16 February 2010. 
  39. ^ "British state assets selloff". The Straits Times. http://www.straitstimes.com/Breaking%2BNews/Money/Story/STIStory_441123.html. Retrieved 2009-10-12. 
  40. ^ "Eurostar breaks high speed record". Erik's Rail News. 2003-07-30. http://www.eriksrailnews.com/archive/eurostar_ctrl_pr.html. Retrieved 2007-04-12. 
  41. ^ "Engineer electrocuted on rail link". BBC News. 2003-03-30. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/2900293.stm. Retrieved 2009-02-14. 
  42. ^ a b "Firms fined over rail link death". BBC News. 2004-10-04. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/3715208.stm. Retrieved 2009-02-14. 
  43. ^ "Man killed in rail tunnel blaze". BBC News. 2005-08-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/4157924.stm. Retrieved 2009-02-14. 
  44. ^ "Channel Tunnel burns victim dies". BBC News. 2005-08-21. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/4171516.stm. Retrieved 2009-02-14. 
  45. ^ "Case study: Channel Tunnel Rail Link". New Civil Engineer. 22 February 2001. http://www.nce.co.uk/case-study-channel-tunnel-rail-link/810293.article. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  46. ^ "Depot mark 2 promises faster maintenance of faster trains". Railway Gazette International. 31 October 2007. http://www.railwaygazette.com/news/single-view/view//depot-mark-2-promises-faster-maintenance-of-faster-trains.html. 
  47. ^ "Railway Herald on-line magazine, Issue 75". 9 March 2007. p. 3. http://www.railwayherald.org/magazine/pdf/RHUK/Issue75.pdf. Retrieved 9 February 2010. 
  48. ^ a b Eurostar Press Release, "Eurostar celebrates 10 years at Ashford International"
  49. ^ "Ebbsfleet open to Eurostar trains". BBC News. 2007-11-19. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/7101240.stm. Retrieved 2009-07-05. 
  50. ^ "RailEurope". save-eurostar.org. http://www.save-eurostar.org/2009/05/10/raileurope/. Retrieved 2009-05-14. 
  51. ^ "New station means Eurostar change". BBC News. 2006-09-12. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/kent/5337586.stm. Retrieved 2007-12-14. 
  52. ^ "Save Ashford International (retrieved from archive.org)". www.saveashfordinternational.org.uk. http://web.archive.org/web/20080412000527/http://www.saveashfordinternational.org.uk/. Retrieved 2008-02-18. 
  53. ^ a b "Preview timetable". Southeastern Railways. http://www.southeasternrailway.co.uk/app/webroot/files/cache/Preview%20Timetable.pdf. Retrieved 1 June 2009. 
  54. ^ Official name of the station according to the Department of Transport, released in response to a Freedom of Information Act request at Whatdotheyknow.com retrieved 2008-12-02.
  55. ^ Official name of the station according to the London Borough of Camden released in response to a Freedom of Information Act request at Whatdotheyknow.com retrieved 2008-12-02.
  56. ^ "Security at heart of St Pancras revamp". The Evening Standard. 7 March 2006. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-142935393.html. 
  57. ^ "From concept to reality". Modern Railways (Ian Allan Publishing): pp. 51. November 2007. 
  58. ^ Wolmar, Christian (31 August 1994). "Channel rail link to get one station". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/channel-rail-link-to-get-one-station-1386728.html. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  59. ^ "Southeastern Highspeed". Southeastern. 2009-12-01. http://www.southeasternrailway.co.uk/index.php/highspeed. Retrieved 2009-12-01. 
  60. ^ "House of Lords, Hansard Report Column 147". Hansard. 19 Feb 2008. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200708/ldhansrd/text/80219-0004.htm. 
  61. ^ Clark, Andrew (17 February 2005). "Decision makers go underground to ride the route of new rail link". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2005/feb/17/transport.Olympics2012. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  62. ^ "Britain finally joins the high-speed club: the first section of CTRL opens on September 28". International Railway Journal. August 2003. "Certification of the TVM430 signalling system on the CTRL almost caused a delay in opening of section 1 in 2003." 
  63. ^ a b "HS1 Network Statement". HS1 Limited. 17 August 2009. pp. 17,19. http://www.highspeed1.com/resources/documents/HS1%20Network%20Statement.pdf. " Track Gauge & Structure Gauge: The nominal track gauge is 1435mm. ... Loading Gauge: ... UIC "GC" on HS1; and UIC "GB+" on Ashford connecting lines ... Waterloo connection .. structure gauge (W6/W6A)" 
  64. ^ "Strategic Freight Network: The Longer-Term Vision". Department for Transport. p. 15. http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/rail/strategyfinance/strategy/freightnetwork/strategicfreightnetwork.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-17. "20.5 European freight link (UIC GB+ Gauge): A European loading gauge freight link has been secured as far as Barking through Channel Tunnel" 
  65. ^ "Eurostar Revamps High-Speed Service". 15 October 2007. http://www.railway-technology.com/features/feature1345/. Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  66. ^ "Britons protest tunnel rail routes". St. Petersburg Times. 27 February 1989. http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=L9ANAAAAIBAJ&sjid=GncDAAAAIBAJ&pg=6778,3597181&dq=channel+tunnel+rail+line+protests&hl=en. 
  67. ^ Tully, Shawn (20 November 1989). "Full Throttle towards a new era". CNN. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/1989/11/20/72772/index.htm. "To put some steel into 1992, the Europeans are building a network of tunnels, bridges, and high speed railways" 
  68. ^ "High Speed 1 Section 2 Major Contracts - Descriptions". High Speed 1. Archived from the original on 2007-11-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20071127084849/www.highspeed1.com/downloads%5c22%5chs1s2contracts.pdf. Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  69. ^ "The regeneration benefits of the CTRL". Department for Transport. http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/rail/pi/ctrl/theregenerationbenefitsofthect1. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  70. ^ Griffiths, Emma (5 August 2005). "Developers see London's eastern promise". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/england/london/4734433.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  71. ^ "Final phase of Channel Tunnel Rail Link will be major regeneration boost - Prescott". accessmylibrary.com. 3 April 2009. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-11000460_ITM. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  72. ^ "New Statesman Special Report - Coming soon: the Dome on wheels". New Statesman. http://www.newstatesman.com/200104020018. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  73. ^ Jonathan Glancey (2005-05-27). "Tunnel vision". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/transport/Story/0,2763,1493487,00.html. Retrieved 2009-07-07. "And, despite all this, a large part of the area remains unchanged. People continue to live here with cats and dogs and babies in narrowboats moored to the banks of the Regent's canal. Somers Town, on one side of St Pancras, remains little more than a slum, while King's Cross is still an unzipping ground for low-rent prostitution, a crack needle in the side of civilised London." 
  74. ^ "Five Waterloo platforms left in limbo by Eurostar pullout". London: The Times. 14 November 2007. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article2865114.ece. Retrieved 2009-05-02. 
  75. ^ "The transformation of St Pancras". BBC News. 2007-11-06. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7079915.stm. Retrieved 2007-12-14. 
  76. ^ Millward, David (3 November 2007), Eurostar will cross London — in 15 hours, The Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/eurostar/738722/Eurostar-will-cross-London---in-15-hours.html, retrieved 2009-04-16 
  77. ^ "Overdue U.K. ‘Bullet Train’ Enters Service Amid Cuts". Bloomberg L.P.. 2009-06-29. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601101&sid=aXLVB53toMOE. Retrieved 2009-07-05. 
  78. ^ Rudd, Matt (28 October 2007), Eurostar to Brussels, London: The Times, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/travel/destinations/europe/article2744141.ece, retrieved 2009-05-10 
  79. ^ "Our history". Eurotunnel. http://www.eurotunnel.com/ukcP3Main/ukcCorporate/ukcTunnelInfrastructure/ukcDevelopment/ukpHistory. Retrieved 2009-05-10. 
  80. ^ Official Waterloo 'Goodbye' video, useful statistics and numbers shown
  81. ^ Eurostar breaks UK high speed record, Eurostar, http://www.eurostar.com/UK/be/leisure/about_eurostar/press_release/press_archive_2003/30_07_03.jsp, retrieved 2009-07-06 
  82. ^ Offical Eurostar video of Record-breaking High Speed 1 run from Paris to London, Eurostar, http://www.youtube.com/watch?gl=GB&hl=en-GB&v=YoYIwXkmaqc, retrieved 2009-07-07 
  83. ^ "London and Continental Railways Limited". Department for Transport. 8 June 2009. http://www.dft.gov.uk/press/speechesstatements/statements/londoncontrailwayslimited. 
  84. ^ "Eurostar set Paris-London record". BBC News. 2007-09-04. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/6977211.stm. Retrieved 2007-09-04. 
  85. ^ "Eurostar sets new record from Brussels". The Telegraph. 2007-09-20. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/09/20/neuro120.xml. Retrieved 2007-09-20. 
  86. ^ Booth, Jenny (27 October 2004). "Britain is to have its own bullet trains". London: The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article499619.ece. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  87. ^ "South Eastern Trains Times". Southeastern. http://www.southeasternrailway.co.uk/app/webroot/files/cache/Preview%20timetable%20inc%20weekends.pdf. Retrieved 5 November 2009. 
  88. ^ "South Eastern Trains Times (11:53 CX arrives 12:53)". Southeastern. 11 May 2009. http://www.southeasternrailway.co.uk/app/webroot/files/cache/Timetable%2011%20May%2009.pdf. Retrieved 5 November 2009. 
  89. ^ "Full speed ahead at St Pancras International Station". London2012. http://www.london2012.com/blog/2007/11/09/full-speed-ahead-at-st-pancras-international-station.php. Retrieved 23 June 2009. 
  90. ^ Hale, Beth (23 June 2009). "The British Bullet: 140mph train unveiled... but passengers will pay for slashed commuter times with fare hikes". Daily Mail. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1193880/140mph-Javelin-train-unveiled--passengers-pay-slashed-commuter-times-fare-hikes.html. "Although slower than the 186mph Eurostar trains that share the same line, the Class 395 train is lighter and accelerates faster than its French-built counterpart" 
  91. ^ "Southeastern: Highspeed services reach Ramsgate and Dover". Southeastern. 13 August 2009. http://www.southeasternrailway.co.uk/index.php/news/news_items/view/110. Retrieved 2009-08-18. 
  92. ^ "Transportation and Logistics in the DB Group". DB Schenker. http://www.dbschenker.com/site/logistics/dbschenker/com/en/about__dbschenker/about__dbschenker.html. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  93. ^ "Eurostar Revamps High-Speed Service". Railway Technology. http://www.railway-technology.com/features/feature1345. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  94. ^ a b "Freight trains to use High Speed 1 from 2010". Railway Gazette International. 2009-04-16. http://www.railwaygazette.com/news/single-view/view//freight-trains-to-use-high-speed-1-from-2010.html. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  95. ^ "Eurotunnel may bid for HS1 rail link". International Freighting Weekly. 10 July 2009. http://www.ifw-net.com/freightpubs/ifw/rail/eurotunnel-may-bid-for-hs1-rail-link/1247649687328.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  96. ^ Murray, Dick (1 November 2007). "Germans plan Eurostar rival". thisismoney.co.uk. http://www.thisismoney.co.uk/news/article.html?in_article_id=425859&in_page_id=2&ct=5&ito=1453. 
  97. ^ Wolmar, Christian (23 November 2007). "Rail 579: Who is going to use the new high speed line?". Rail Magazine (Peterborough). http://www.christianwolmar.co.uk/2007/11/rail-579-who-is-going-to-use-the-new-high-speed-line/. 
  98. ^ Murray, Dick (19 December 2007). "German rival for Eurostar". London Evening Standard. http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/standard/article-23419061-german-rival-for-eurostar.do. Retrieved 7 February 2010. 
  99. ^ Webster, Ben (12 December 2008). "We'll buy UK's share of Eurostar — and run it better, say Germans". The Times (London). http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/transport/article5327300.ece. 
  100. ^ O'Connell, Dominic (13 March 2008). "Fees for high-speed tunnel link derail Eurostar's gravy train". The Times (London). http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/transport/article3671706.ece. 
  101. ^ London & Continental Railways - scroll down to section "About the future".
  102. ^ Barrow, Keith (1 April 2009). "2010: A high-speed odyssey". International Railway Journal. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-197853897.html. 
  103. ^ Agence France-Presse (16 December 2008). "Chemins de fer: le ton monte entre Deutsche Bahn et la SNCF" (in French). http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jS6KC-z9s0TKDCKIMe_FMFGmyP8g. 
  104. ^ "Deutsche Bahn gets access to Channel Tunnel". Deutsche Welle. 16 December 2009. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,5018915,00.html?maca=en-rss-en-all-1573-rdf. Retrieved 11 February 2009. 
  105. ^ Lydall, Ross (3 February 2010). "The train at St Pancras will be departing for ... Germany via Channel Tunnel". London Evening Standard. http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/standard/article-23801905-the-train-at-st-pancras-will-be-departing-for-germany-via-channel-tunnel.do. Retrieved 7 February 2010. 
  106. ^ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article7055789.ece
  107. ^ Allen, Peter (10 September 2008). "Airlines plot Eurostar rival services". thisismoney.co.uk. http://www.thisismoney.co.uk/news/article.html?in_article_id=451804&in_page_id=2&ct=5. 
  108. ^ Savage, Michael (11 September 2008). "Air France to launch 'quicker' train to Paris as Eurostar monopoly ends". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/travel/news-and-advice/air-france-to-launch-quicker-train-to-paris-as-eurostar-monopoly-ends-925578.html. 
  109. ^ Veoila and Trenitalia mount rival Eurostar service - Breaking Travel News, 24/12/09
  110. ^ http://www.businessweek.com/news/2010-03-09/eurostar-failures-bolster-deutsche-bahn-s-tunnel-bid-update1-.html
  111. ^ http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/transport/article6934799.ece
  112. ^ "Commuter trains from Calais to Kent 'could be running before 2012 Olympics', claims French mayor". Daily Mail. 5 February 2010. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1248558/Metro-commuter-trains-Calais-Kent-running-2012-Olympics.html. Retrieved 18 February 2010. 


  • Young, George; Alison Gorlov (1995). Channel Tunnel Rail Link. Union Railways. 
  • National Audit Office (2001). Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions: The Channel Tunnel Rail Link. The Stationery Office. ISBN 0102868018. 
  • National Audit Office (2005). Progress on the Channel Tunnel Rail Link. The Stationery Office. ISBN 010293343X. 
  • Montagu, Samuel; Department of Transport (1993). Channel Tunnel Rail Link. HMSO. 
  • Bertolini, Luca; Tejo Spit (1998). Cities on rails: the redevelopment of railway station areas. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0419227601. 

Further reading

  • Pielow, Simon (1997). Eurostar. Ian Allan. ISBN 071102-451-0. 
  • Anderson, Graham; Roskrow, Ben (1994). The Channel Tunnel Story. London: E & F N Spon. ISBN 041919620X. 
  • European Commission Directorate-General for Regional Policy and Cohesion (1996). The regional impact of the Channel Tunnel throughout the Community. Luxembourg: European Commission. ISBN 92 826 8804 6. 
  • Sievert, Terri (2002). The World's Fastest Trains. Capstone Press. ISBN 073681-061-7. 
  • Griffiths, Jeanne (1995). London to Paris in Ten Minutes: The Eurostar Story. Images. ISBN 189781-747-9. 
  • Comfort, Nicholas (2007). The Channel Tunnel and its High Speed Links. Oakwood Press. ISBN 156554-854-x. 
  • Parliament: House of Commons Transport Committee (2008). Delivering a Sustainable Railway. The Stationery Office. ISBN 021552-222-2. 
  • Mitchell, Vic (1996). Ashford: From Steam to Eurostar. Middleton Press. ISBN 187379-367-7. 

External links

Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address