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.In image processing, computer graphics, and photography, high dynamic range imaging (HDRI or just HDR) is a set of techniques that allow a greater dynamic range of luminances between the lightest and darkest areas of an image than standard digital imaging techniques or photographic methods.^ System and method for enhancing dynamic range in images .
  • Dynamic range enhancement for ... - Google Patent Search 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.google.com [Source type: News]

^ High dynamic range, tone mapping, image histogram, per ceptual rendering, digital imaging.
  • [Abstract] Tone Mapping and Enhancement of High Dynamic Range Images based on a Model of Visual Perception 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.actapress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Here is a link to a High Dynamic Range Image sequence.
  • High Dynamic Range Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC hdriblog.com [Source type: General]

.This wider dynamic range allows HDR images to more accurately represent the wide range of intensity levels found in real scenes, ranging from direct sunlight to faint starlight.^ For high dynamic range images.
  • Keith Price Bibliography HDR, High Dynamic Range, Enhanced Dynamic Range from Multiple Images 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC iris.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Image dynamic range is over 10000.
  • Simulation Imaging Library 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.aoc.nrao.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Simulation Imaging Library 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.cv.nrao.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Results 1 to 4 of 4 Thread: HDR (high dynamic range) Image Format .
  • HDR (high dynamic range) Image Format 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.smalleranimals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.The two main sources of HDR imagery are computer renderings and merging of multiple photographs, which in turn are known as low dynamic range (LDR)[2] (also called standard dynamic range (SDR)[3]) photographs.^ A second alternative is to merge multiple images to increase dynamic range.
  • The Future of Digital Imaging - High Dynamic Range Photography (HDR) 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.cybergrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HDR is High Dynamic Range, achieved in a computer.
  • High Dynamic Range Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC nzphoto.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HDR stands for High Dynamic Range .
  • High Dynamic Range (HDR) Photography: Tutorials, Tips and Stunning Examples | Inspiration 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.hongkiat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • High Dynamic Range (HDR) Photography: Tutorials, Tips and Stunning Examples | Inspiration 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.hongkiat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tone mapping techniques, which reduce overall contrast to facilitate display of HDR images on devices with lower dynamic range, can be applied to produce images with preserved or exaggerated local contrast for artistic effect.^ Equalize Histogram Compresses the dynamic range of the HDR image while trying to preserve some contrast.

^ An example of a high dynamic range (HDR) image.
  • Emerging Tech: High Dynamic Range Imaging - - PopPhotoNovember/December 2007 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC archive.popphoto.com [Source type: General]

^ Image dynamic range is over 10000.
  • Simulation Imaging Library 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.aoc.nrao.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Simulation Imaging Library 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.cv.nrao.edu [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Example

Photography

.In photography, dynamic range is measured in EV differences (known as stops) between the brightest and darkest parts of the image that show detail.^ For high dynamic range images.
  • Keith Price Bibliography HDR, High Dynamic Range, Enhanced Dynamic Range from Multiple Images 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC iris.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Image dynamic range is over 10000.
  • Simulation Imaging Library 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.aoc.nrao.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Simulation Imaging Library 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.cv.nrao.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Measuring the visible range of High Dynamic Range Images (HDRI) .
  • Welcome to McCann Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC web.mac.com [Source type: Academic]

.An increase of one EV or one stop is a doubling of the amount of light.^ A stop equals a doubling of the amount of light.
  • High Dynamic Range Photography Techniques | Outdoor Exposure Photo 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.outdoorexposurephoto.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Doubling the amout of light will increase the EV by one.
  • Panorado - Background: HDR Imaging (High Dynamic Range) 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.panorado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However, we like to think in terms of exposure, where each increasing EV is doubling the amount of light.
  • Graphics.com: The shared resource for creative design 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.graphics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Dynamic Ranges of Common Devices
Device Stops Contrast
Computer LCD Display 9.5 700:1
DSLR camera (1Dmk2) 11[4] 2048:1
Print film 7[4] 128:1
.High-dynamic-range photographs are generally achieved by capturing multiple standard photographs, often using exposure bracketing, and then merging them into an HDR image.^ Here is a link to a High Dynamic Range Image sequence.
  • High Dynamic Range Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC hdriblog.com [Source type: General]

^ This method was developed to produce a high dynamic range image from a set of photographs taken with a range of exposures.
  • PhotoPhix Library | Photo HDR | High Dynamic Range Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.photophix.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HDR - A Fad or a Growing Trend? | Presidia Creative 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.presidiacreative.com [Source type: General]
  • High Dynamic Range | Markus Linke's personal blog 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.linke.de [Source type: General]
  • Miller’s Professional Imaging Review | Markus Linke's personal blog 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.linke.de [Source type: General]

^ For high dynamic range images.
  • Keith Price Bibliography HDR, High Dynamic Range, Enhanced Dynamic Range from Multiple Images 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC iris.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Digital photographs are often encoded in a camera's raw image format, because 8 bit JPEG encoding doesn't offer enough values to allow fine transitions (and also introduces undesirable effects due to the lossy compression).^ Photographic tone reproduction for digital images.
  • System and process for generating high dynamic range video - Patent 7010174 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Works with most RAW camera formats ?
  • MediaChance Dynamic PHOTO HDR v4.65 Portable 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.renslt.org [Source type: General]

^ The images can be 8-bit jpeg film originals, or even 16 bit raw digital camera image files.
  • Photoshop CS2 High Dynamic Range 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.astropix.com [Source type: General]

.Any camera that allows manual over- or under-exposure of a photo can be used to create HDR images.^ Sometimes I use HDR techniques to create images that are pure fantasy.
  • High Dynamic Range Photography Techniques | Outdoor Exposure Photo 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.outdoorexposurephoto.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In these photos, I used 5 different exposures of photos, range of under, normal, and over.
  • Ulundanu Bali Photos in High Dynamic Range Photography | Bali Photographer 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC bali-photographer.net [Source type: General]

^ Uses of HDR images .
  • High Dynamic Range Environment Mapping On Mainstream Graphics Hardware - Intel® Software Network 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC software.intel.com [Source type: Reference]
  • GameDev.net - High Dynamic Range Environment Mapping On Mainstream Graphics Hardware 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.gamedev.net [Source type: Reference]

.Some cameras have an auto exposure bracketing (AEB) feature with a far greater dynamic range than others, from the 3 EV of the Canon EOS 40D, to the 18 EV of the Canon EOS-1D Mark II.^ Cameras which test with greater dynamic range aren't any better than other cameras.

^ Canon EOS-5D (Camera JPEG) .
  • Nikon D80 Digital Camera Imatest - Full Review - The Imaging Resource! 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.imaging-resource.com [Source type: General]

^ Many digital cameras include an Auto Exposure Bracketing (AEB) option.
  • High Dynamic Range Imagery and your Photography (Part 1) Temecula, CA « DSE Virtual Tour Productions Blog 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC dsevtp.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

[5]
.The Pentax K-7 DSLR has an HDR mode which captures an HDR image and then outputs (only) a tone-mapped JPEG file.^ What is the difference between HDR and tone mapping images?
  • HDR Photography | High Dynamic Range Photos 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.hdrphotographyblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HDR image (created from the 3 left photos) + Tone Mapping .
  • HDR photo software & plugin for Lightroom, Aperture & Photoshop - Tone Mapping, Exposure Fusion & HDR Imaging for photography 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.hdrsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ It is also worth noting that HDR Capture is only accessible when the K-7 is set to JPEG-only capture output.
  • The Pentax K-7: The era of in-camera High Dynamic Range Imaging has arrived! from Adorama Learning Center 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.adorama.com [Source type: General]

[6]
Dynamic range for each ISO setting of the 1Dmk2[7]
ISO Dynamic Range (Stops)
50 11.3
100 11.6
200 11.5
400 11.2
800 10.7
1600 9.7
3200 8.7

Mathematics

Contrast ratio = 2(EV difference)
EV difference = log2(Contrast ratio)
.The fact that an increase of 1 EV indicates a doubling of light means that EV is often represented on a base-2 logarithmic scale.^ ISO uses a doubling scale, so a doubling in ISO means a doubling in sensitivity.
  • HDR Photography: What is High Dynamic Range? » i Digital Photo 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.idigitalphoto.com [Source type: General]

^ Although quantum efficiency is often considered separately from noise, a value indicating reduced numbers of quantum mechanical events implies an increase in statistical or Poisson noise.
  • Hamamatsu Learning Center: Introduction to Digital Imaging in Microscopy 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC learn.hamamatsu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The values stored for HDR images are often linear, which means that they represent relative or absolute values of radiance or luminance (gamma 1.0).
  • PhotoPhix Library | Photo HDR | High Dynamic Range Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.photophix.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The human perception of brightness is well approximated by a Steven's power law,[8] which over a reasonable range is close to logarithmic, as described by the Weber–Fechner law, which is one reason that logarithmic measures of light intensity are often used.^ Because this light has different intensities, Photoshop creates the HDR file using 32 bits (creating a large file) to describe each color channel as opposed to the usual 8 or 16 bits (see nearby sidebar on bit depth).
  • Peachpit: Lessons in DSLR Workflow:High Dynamic Range (HDR) > High Dynamic Range (HDR) 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.peachpit.com [Source type: General]

^ Bit Texture Filtering and Blending Did you know that the human eye is more sensitive to low intensities of light, and sees darker shades with more detail than high-intensity or bright light?
  • High-Precision Effects 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.nvidia.com [Source type: General]

^ This means that we need to describe the brightness of what we see — from dark shadows to sunlight — within the integer range of 0 to 255.
  • High Dynamic Range Imagery (part 1) — What the Heck Is It? « All Things Visual 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC allthingsv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9][10]

Representing HDR images on LDR displays

Contrast reduction

.HDR images can easily be represented on common LDR devices, such as computer monitors and photographic prints, by simply reducing the contrast, just as all image editing software is capable of doing.^ Use a HDR Imaging capable software to produce your HDR Images Softwares to do HDR Images .
  • What are HDR or High Dynamic Range Images? - Brajeshwar 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC brajeshwar.com [Source type: General]

^ HDR image formats all have a few points in common.
  • Linux.com :: High Dynamic Range images under Linux 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.linux.com [Source type: General]

^ HDR processing for LDR images .
  • Acme Educational Blog » Announcing John Paul Caponigro’sTwo New R/Evolution DVDs: Fine Art Digital Printing and XDR: Extending Dynamic Range – HDR 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.acmeeducational.com [Source type: General]

Clipping and compressing dynamic range

.Scenes with high dynamic ranges are often represented on LDR devices by cropping the dynamic range, cutting off the darkest and brightest details, or alternatively with an S conversion curve that compresses contrast progressively and more aggressively in the highlights and shadows while leaving the middle portions of the contrast range relatively unaffected.^ For high dynamic range images.
  • Keith Price Bibliography HDR, High Dynamic Range, Enhanced Dynamic Range from Multiple Images 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC iris.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Gradient domain high dynamic range compression.
  • System and process for generating high dynamic range video - Patent 7010174 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I am interested in high dynamic range scenes; I am not so interested in tone mapping.
  • Luminous Landscape Forum > Creating High Dynamic Range Images 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC luminous-landscape.com [Source type: General]

An example of a rendering of an HDRI tone-mapped image in a New York City nighttime cityscape.

Tone mapping

.Tone mapping reduces the dynamic range, or contrast ratio, of the entire image, while retaining localized contrast (between neighboring pixels), tapping into research on how the human eye and visual cortex perceive a scene, trying to represent the whole dynamic range while retaining realistic color and contrast.^ For high dynamic range images.
  • Keith Price Bibliography HDR, High Dynamic Range, Enhanced Dynamic Range from Multiple Images 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC iris.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This image will have pixels whose values represent the true radiance values in the scene.
  • High Dynamic Range Environment Mapping On Mainstream Graphics Hardware - Intel® Software Network 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC software.intel.com [Source type: Reference]
  • GameDev.net - High Dynamic Range Environment Mapping On Mainstream Graphics Hardware 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.gamedev.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The smaller the pixels are the smaller the dynamic range.
  • CCTVfocus » Blog Archive » Dynamic range of solid state imaging devices 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.cctvfocus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Images with too much tone mapping processing have their range over-compressed, creating a surreal low-dynamic-range rendering of a high-dynamic-range scene.^ Here is a link to a High Dynamic Range Image sequence.
  • High Dynamic Range Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC hdriblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Category:CDR Compressed Dynamic Range images which have been converted from High Dynamic Range to Low Dynamic Range without using local tone mapping, ...
  • Search results for "High dynamic range imaging" - Wikimedia Commons 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For high dynamic range images.
  • Keith Price Bibliography HDR, High Dynamic Range, Enhanced Dynamic Range from Multiple Images 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC iris.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

Comparison with traditional digital images

.Information stored in high dynamic range images typically corresponds to the physical values of luminance or radiance that can be observed in the real world.^ Here is a link to a High Dynamic Range Image sequence.
  • High Dynamic Range Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC hdriblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Medium Dynamic Range images.
  • VRMAG - HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE IMAGING, PANOSCAN & SPHERON 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.vrmag.org [Source type: General]

^ For high dynamic range images.
  • Keith Price Bibliography HDR, High Dynamic Range, Enhanced Dynamic Range from Multiple Images 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC iris.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This is different from traditional digital images, which represent colors that should appear on a monitor or a paper print.^ This is different from traditional digital images, which represent colors that should appear on a monitor or a paper print.
  • PhotoPhix Library | Photo HDR | High Dynamic Range Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.photophix.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comparison with traditional digital images .
  • PhotoPhix Library | Photo HDR | High Dynamic Range Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.photophix.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The image should then appear very dark.
  • Photoshop CS2 High Dynamic Range 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.astropix.com [Source type: General]

.Therefore, HDR image formats are often called "scene-referred", in contrast to traditional digital images, which are "device-referred" or "output-referred". Furthermore, traditional images are usually encoded for the human visual system (maximizing the visual information stored in the fixed number of bits), which is usually called "gamma encoding" or "gamma correction". The values stored for HDR images are often gamma compressed (power law) or logarithmically encoded, or floating-point linear values, since fixed-point linear encodings are increasingly inefficient over higher dynamic ranges.^ Equalize Histogram Compresses the dynamic range of the HDR image while trying to preserve some contrast.

^ Compute the logarithm of the HDR image and normalize it to the interval [0 1], thereby compressing the dynamic range of HDR data to an interval that a LDR device can display.
  • MATLAB Digest - July 2008 - Rendering High Dynamic Range Images on the Web 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.mathworks.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Information stored in high dynamic range images usually corresponds to the physical values of luminance or radiance that can be observed in the real world.
  • PhotoPhix Library | Photo HDR | High Dynamic Range Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.photophix.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11][12][13]
.HDR images often use a higher number of bits per color channel than traditional images to represent many more colors over a much wider dynamic range.^ Most often, the distinction is made depending on the number of bits per color channel that the digitized image can hold.
  • What are HDR or High Dynamic Range Images? - Brajeshwar 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC brajeshwar.com [Source type: General]
  • Photomatix high dynamic range images: What is HDR? 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC photoshop-pro.com [Source type: General]

^ But its still 8 bits per channel.
  • Graphics.com: The shared resource for creative design 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.graphics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medium Dynamic Range images.
  • VRMAG - HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE IMAGING, PANOSCAN & SPHERON 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.vrmag.org [Source type: General]

.16-bit ("half precision") or 32-bit floating point numbers are often used to represent HDR pixels.^ Step 4 The merged result is a floating-point 32 bit image.
  • HDR - High Dynamic Range Photography - Merging HDR in Photoshop CS3 - Step-By-StepTutorial | PhotoshopSupport.com 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.photoshopsupport.com [Source type: General]

^ The 32-bit numbers are decimal (or “floating point”) values, not integer values.
  • NatureScapes.Net - The High Dynamic Range (HDR) Landscape Photography Tutorial 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.naturescapes.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We need to use floating point numbers.
  • Graphics.com: The shared resource for creative design 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.graphics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, when the appropriate transfer function is used, HDR pixels for some applications can be represented with as few as 10–12 bits for luminance and 8 bits for chrominance without introducing any visible quantization artifacts.^ A progressive scan interline CCD sensor gives a resolution of 1.92 million pixels in a 12-bit digital output.
  • Advanced Imaging Concepts - Digital Microscope Cameras new and used, low light and high resolution. 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.aic-imagecentral.com [Source type: General]

^ However, it’s a little different when using Dynamic Photo HDR .
  • Tutorial: High Dynamic Range, Even With Moving Subjects (Professional Photographer Magazine Web Exclusives) 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.ppmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Some of the more commonly used configurations include frame transfer ( FT ), full frame ( FF ), and interline ( IL ) types.
  • Hamamatsu Learning Center: Introduction to Digital Imaging in Microscopy 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC learn.hamamatsu.com [Source type: Reference]

[11][14]

History of HDR photography

1850

.The idea of using several exposures to fix a too-extreme range of luminance was pioneered as early as the 1850s by Gustave Le Gray to render seascapes showing both the sky and the sea.^ The idea of using several exposures to fix a too extreme range of luminosity was pioneered as early as the 1850’s by Gustave LeGray to render seascapes showing both the sky and the sea.
  • mental_floss Blog » The Magic of HDR Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.mentalfloss.com [Source type: General]

^ Merging both exposures into a single JPEG image, maximum dynamic range and natural, true to life colours are achieved in the final image.
  • Sony Presents New Range of Cyber-shot Cameras :: News :: www.hardwarezone.com® 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC hardwarezone.com [Source type: General]

^ Le Gray used one negative for the sky, and another one with a longer exposure for the sea, and combined the two in a single picture in positive.
  • mental_floss Blog » The Magic of HDR Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.mentalfloss.com [Source type: General]

.Such rendering was impossible at the time using standard techniques, the luminosity range being too extreme.^ Such rendering was impossible at the time using standard techniques, the luminosity range being too extreme.
  • mental_floss Blog » The Magic of HDR Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.mentalfloss.com [Source type: General]

^ The idea of using several exposures to fix a too extreme range of luminosity was pioneered as early as the 1850’s by Gustave LeGray to render seascapes showing both the sky and the sea.
  • mental_floss Blog » The Magic of HDR Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.mentalfloss.com [Source type: General]

^ The images shown in books explaining HDRI are not actually HDRI images; ink printing techniques, and the paper used to present the image both also have limited dynamic range.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Practical HDRI: High Dynamic Range Imaging for Photographers 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Le Gray used one negative for the sky, and another one with a longer exposure for the sea, and combined the two in a single picture in positive.^ In one picture, we set the correct exposure for the shadows and, in another one, we set the correct exposure for the highlights.
  • HDRI – High Dynamic Range Imaging – PictureCorrect 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.picturecorrect.com [Source type: General]

^ Le Gray used one negative for the sky, and another one with a longer exposure for the sea, and combined the two in a single picture in positive.
  • mental_floss Blog » The Magic of HDR Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.mentalfloss.com [Source type: General]

^ The idea of using several exposures to fix a too extreme range of luminosity was pioneered as early as the 1850’s by Gustave LeGray to render seascapes showing both the sky and the sea.
  • mental_floss Blog » The Magic of HDR Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.mentalfloss.com [Source type: General]

[15]

1930

.High dynamic range imaging was originally developed in the 1930s and 1940s by Charles Wyckoff.^ This leads to the technique we want to describe: the High Dynamic Range Imaging.
  • HDRI – High Dynamic Range Imaging – PictureCorrect 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.picturecorrect.com [Source type: General]

^ HDR 101 – High Dynamic Range Imaging .
  • HDR 101 – High Dynamic Range Imaging | Beyond Megapixels 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.beyondmegapixels.com [Source type: General]

^ For high dynamic range images.
  • Keith Price Bibliography HDR, High Dynamic Range, Enhanced Dynamic Range from Multiple Images 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC iris.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Wyckoff's detailed pictures of nuclear explosions appeared on the cover of Life magazine in the mid 1940s.^ Wyckoff’s detailed pictures of nuclear explosions appeared on the cover of Life magazine in the mid 1940s.
  • HDR - A Fad or a Growing Trend? | Presidia Creative 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.presidiacreative.com [Source type: General]

^ Wyckoff's detailed pictures of nuclear explosions appeared on the cover of Life magazine in the mid 1940s.
  • High Dynamic Range | Markus Linke's personal blog 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.linke.de [Source type: General]

.Wyckoff implemented local neighborhood tone remapping to combine differently exposed film layers into one single image of greater dynamic range.^ For high dynamic range images.
  • Keith Price Bibliography HDR, High Dynamic Range, Enhanced Dynamic Range from Multiple Images 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC iris.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Comparison of unadjusted and dynamic range adjusted images of the same film .
  • Dynamic Range - Turku Centre for Biotechnology 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC cic.btk.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The photographs are then merged into a single image.
  • Tutorial: High Dynamic Range, Even With Moving Subjects (Professional Photographer Magazine Web Exclusives) 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.ppmag.com [Source type: General]

1980

.The desirability of HDR has been recognized for decades, but its wider usage was, until quite recently, precluded by the limitations imposed by the available computer processing power.^ H igh Dynamic Range imaging (HDRI or simply HDR) has become recently a very popular technique of post-processing photos to enhance them and achieve a desired artistic effect.
  • 1. High Dynamic Range Photography Simplified 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.naviquan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High-Dynamic-Range (HDR) Vision: Microelectronics, Image Processing, Computer Graphics , Springer 2007, ISBN 978-3-540-44432-9 WWW Version .
  • Keith Price Bibliography HDR, High Dynamic Range, Enhanced Dynamic Range from Multiple Images 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC iris.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Area and power limitations within the pixel preclude the use of a high-gain, high-bandwidth comparator.
  • Mixed analog and digital pixel for high dynamic range readout - Patent 7326903 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Probably the first practical application of HDRI was by the movie industry in late 1980s and, in 1985, Gregory Ward created the Radiance RGBE image file format which was the first (and still the most commonly used) HDR imaging file format.^ Uses of HDR images .
  • High Dynamic Range Environment Mapping On Mainstream Graphics Hardware - Intel® Software Network 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC software.intel.com [Source type: Reference]
  • GameDev.net - High Dynamic Range Environment Mapping On Mainstream Graphics Hardware 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.gamedev.net [Source type: Reference]

^ For our work we have used the RGBE file format.
  • GameDev.net - High Dynamic Range Environment Mapping On Mainstream Graphics Hardware 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.gamedev.net [Source type: Reference]

^ First, combine bracketed exposures to create an HDR image.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: The HDRI Handbook: High Dynamic Range Imaging for Photographers and CG Artists +DVD 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

Wyckoff's concept of neighborhood tone mapping was applied to video cameras by a group from the Technion in Israel led by Prof. Y.Y.Zeevi who filed for a patent on this concept in 1988.[16] In 1993 the first commercial medical camera was introduced that performed real time capturing of multiple images with different exposures, and producing an HDR video image.[17]
.Modern HDR imaging uses a completely different approach, based on making a high-dynamic range luminance or light map using only global image operations (across the entire image), and then tone mapping this result.^ The HDR imaging approach includes: .
  • /ImageMagick/trunk/www/high-dynamic-range.html – ImageMagick 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC trac.imagemagick.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Category:CDR Compressed Dynamic Range images which have been converted from High Dynamic Range to Low Dynamic Range without using local tone mapping, ...
  • Search results for "High dynamic range imaging" - Wikimedia Commons 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ (Note: this tutorial is based on building an HDR image from 7 different shots), with Photomatix (used for Generating HDR and Tone Mapping) and Photoshop CS2 (for retouching only).
  • 19 Tutorials for Creating Beautiful HDR (High Dynamic Range) Imagery : Speckyboy Design Magazine 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC speckyboy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 19 Tutorials for Creating Beautiful HDR (High Dynamic Range) Imagery | Pictures 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.news-world.us [Source type: General]

.Global HDR was first introduced in 1993[18] resulting in a mathematical theory of differently exposed pictures of the same subject matter that was published in 1995 by Steve Mann and Rosalind Picard.^ Click HDR > GENERATE to combine the differently exposed pictures.
  • APOGEE PHOTO MAGAZINE: How to Take High Dynamic Range Photographs - Latest Photo Imaging Technique 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.apogeephoto.com [Source type: General]

^ Later introduction in 1993[2] resulted in a mathematical theory of differently exposed pictures of the same subject matter that was published in 1995 by Steve Mann and Rosalind Picard.
  • High Dynamic Range | Markus Linke's personal blog 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.linke.de [Source type: General]

^ In 1997 this technique of combining several differently exposed images to produce a single HDR image was presented to the computer graphics community by Paul Debevec.
  • HDR - A Fad or a Growing Trend? | Presidia Creative 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.presidiacreative.com [Source type: General]
  • High Dynamic Range | Markus Linke's personal blog 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.linke.de [Source type: General]

[19] .In 1997 this global-HDR technique of combining several differently exposed images to produce a single HDR image was presented to the computer graphics community by Paul Debevec.^ One of the founders of the technique is Paul Debevec.
  • 35 Fantastic HDR Pictures - Smashing Magazine 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.smashingmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1997 this technique of combining several differently exposed images to produce a single HDR image was presented to the computer graphics community by Paul Debevec.
  • HDR - A Fad or a Growing Trend? | Presidia Creative 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.presidiacreative.com [Source type: General]
  • High Dynamic Range | Markus Linke's personal blog 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.linke.de [Source type: General]

^ This composite technique is different from (and may be of lesser or greater quality than) the production of an image from a single exposure of a sensor that has a native high dynamic range.
  • HDR - A Fad or a Growing Trend? | Presidia Creative 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.presidiacreative.com [Source type: General]
  • High Dynamic Range | Markus Linke's personal blog 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.linke.de [Source type: General]

.This method was developed to produce a high dynamic range image from a set of photographs taken with a range of exposures.^ Here is a link to a High Dynamic Range Image sequence.
  • High Dynamic Range Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC hdriblog.com [Source type: General]

^ This method was developed to produce a high dynamic range image from a set of photographs taken with a range of exposures.
  • HDR - A Fad or a Growing Trend? | Presidia Creative 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.presidiacreative.com [Source type: General]
  • High Dynamic Range | Markus Linke's personal blog 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.linke.de [Source type: General]

^ For high dynamic range images.
  • Keith Price Bibliography HDR, High Dynamic Range, Enhanced Dynamic Range from Multiple Images 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC iris.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.With the rising popularity of digital cameras and easy-to-use desktop software, the term HDR is now popularly used to refer to this process.^ With the rising popularity of digital cameras and easy-to-use desktop software, the term HDR is now popularly used to refer to this process.
  • HDR - A Fad or a Growing Trend? | Presidia Creative 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.presidiacreative.com [Source type: General]

^ With the rising popularity of digital cameras and easy-to-use desktop software, the term HDR is now popularly used[4] to refer to this process.
  • High Dynamic Range | Markus Linke's personal blog 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.linke.de [Source type: General]

^ Now hoping for a camera with built in HDR...
  • SketchUcation Community Forums • View topic - HDR (High Dynamic Range) Tutorial 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC forums.sketchucation.com [Source type: General]

.This composite technique is different from (and may be of lesser or greater quality than) the production of an image from a single exposure of a sensor that has a native high dynamic range.^ Here is a link to a High Dynamic Range Image sequence.
  • High Dynamic Range Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC hdriblog.com [Source type: General]

^ For high dynamic range images.
  • Keith Price Bibliography HDR, High Dynamic Range, Enhanced Dynamic Range from Multiple Images 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC iris.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ High Dynamic Range (guest post) .
  • High Dynamic Range (guest post) | Lisa's Chaos 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC lisaschaos.com [Source type: General]

.Tone mapping is also used to display HDR images on devices with a low native dynamic range, such as a computer screen.^ Compute the logarithm of the HDR image and normalize it to the interval [0 1], thereby compressing the dynamic range of HDR data to an interval that a LDR device can display.
  • MATLAB Digest - July 2008 - Rendering High Dynamic Range Images on the Web 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.mathworks.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Category:CDR Compressed Dynamic Range images which have been converted from High Dynamic Range to Low Dynamic Range without using local tone mapping, ...
  • Search results for "High dynamic range imaging" - Wikimedia Commons 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For high dynamic range images.
  • Keith Price Bibliography HDR, High Dynamic Range, Enhanced Dynamic Range from Multiple Images 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC iris.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

1996

.Steve Mann developed and patented the global-HDR method for producing digital images having extended dynamic range at the MIT Media Laboratory.^ This method was developed to produce a high dynamic range image from a set of photographs taken with a range of exposures.
  • HDR - A Fad or a Growing Trend? | Presidia Creative 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.presidiacreative.com [Source type: General]
  • High Dynamic Range | Markus Linke's personal blog 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.linke.de [Source type: General]

^ For high dynamic range images.
  • Keith Price Bibliography HDR, High Dynamic Range, Enhanced Dynamic Range from Multiple Images 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC iris.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Where is the dynamic range bottleneck in digital imaging?
  • High Dynamic Range Imaging | MetaFilter 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: General]

[20] .Mann's method involved a two-step procedure: (1) generate a single floating point image array by global-only image operations (operations that affect all pixels identically, without regard to their local neighborhoods); and then (2) convert this image array, using local neighborhood processing (tone-remapping, etc.^ Step 4 The merged result is a floating-point 32 bit image.
  • HDR - High Dynamic Range Photography - Merging HDR in Photoshop CS3 - Step-By-StepTutorial | PhotoshopSupport.com 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.photoshopsupport.com [Source type: General]

^ We need to use floating point numbers.
  • Graphics.com: The shared resource for creative design 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.graphics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The image in the bottom right quadrant is generated using our method.
  • System and process for generating high dynamic range video - Patent 7010174 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

), into an HDR image. .The image array generated by the first step of Mann's process is called a "lightspace image", "lightspace picture", or "radiance map". Another benefit of global-HDR imaging is that it provides access to the intermediate light or radiance map, which has been used for computer vision, and other image processing operations[20].^ They provide a tool called “Photomatix” which is specialized on HDR imaging.
  • schrankmonster blog » High Dynamic Range Imaging… my first steps… 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.schrankmonster.de [Source type: General]

^ Panoramas - Another use for HDR is in panoramic images.
  • The Future of Digital Imaging - High Dynamic Range Photography (HDR) 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.cybergrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This process is called tone mapping.
  • The Future of Digital Imaging - High Dynamic Range Photography (HDR) 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.cybergrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The PopSci How 2.0 Blog - High-Dynamic-Range Photography: A Guide 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC popsci.typepad.com [Source type: General]
  • High-Dynamic-Range Photography: A Guide | Popular Science 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.popsci.com [Source type: General]

1997

.In 1997 this technique of combining several differently exposed images to produce a single HDR image was presented to the public by Paul Debevec.^ One of the founders of the technique is Paul Debevec.
  • 35 Fantastic HDR Pictures - Smashing Magazine 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.smashingmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1997 this technique of combining several differently exposed images to produce a single HDR image was presented to the computer graphics community by Paul Debevec.
  • High Dynamic Range | Markus Linke's personal blog 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.linke.de [Source type: General]

^ Click HDR > GENERATE to combine the differently exposed pictures.
  • APOGEE PHOTO MAGAZINE: How to Take High Dynamic Range Photographs - Latest Photo Imaging Technique 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.apogeephoto.com [Source type: General]

2005

A tone-mapped rendering of an HDR photo taken in Ithaca, New York
.Photoshop CS2 introduced the Merge to HDR function.^ I fully expect to see some really silly if not downright ugly images in the months ahead, as photographers get their copies of Photoshop CS2 and start discovering what the HDR function is capable of.

^ (Note: this tutorial is based on building an HDR image from 7 different shots), with Photomatix (used for Generating HDR and Tone Mapping) and Photoshop CS2 (for retouching only).
  • 19 Tutorials for Creating Beautiful HDR (High Dynamic Range) Imagery : Speckyboy Design Magazine 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC speckyboy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you use digital cameras, there may be a chance that you have Photoshop (where HDR images are supported since CS2).
  • 1. High Dynamic Range Photography Simplified 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.naviquan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]
.In many ways, Photoshop CS2's HDR function is the holy grail of dynamic range.^ Another way to get extra dynamic range.
  • Keith Price Bibliography HDR, High Dynamic Range, Enhanced Dynamic Range from Multiple Images 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC iris.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ HDR (high Dynamic Range) .

^ In many ways, Photoshop CS2's HDR function is the holy grail of dynamic range.

.With properly shot and processed files it allows photographers to easily create images that were previously impossible, or at least very difficult to accomplish.^ You need at least 3-shots to create an HDR image.
  • Introduction To High Dynamic Range (HDR) Photography | DIYPhotography.net 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.diyphotography.net [Source type: General]

^ Not all image files are created equal.
  • Linux.com :: High Dynamic Range images under Linux 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.linux.com [Source type: General]

^ With properly shot and processed files it allows photographers to easily create images that were previously impossible, or at least very difficult to accomplish.

But, good as it is, like a gun or nuclear power, it can be a force for evil as well as good.
.Not every image needs to have 10-15 stops of dynamic range.^ For high dynamic range images.
  • Keith Price Bibliography HDR, High Dynamic Range, Enhanced Dynamic Range from Multiple Images 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC iris.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This image has an artificially high dynamic range.
  • Aperture Based High Dynamic Range Imaging 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC graphics.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High dynamic range from mutliple images.
  • Keith Price Bibliography HDR, High Dynamic Range, Enhanced Dynamic Range from Multiple Images 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC iris.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In fact, most photographs look quite nice, thank you very much, with the 5-7 stops of dynamic range that we're used to.^ And most of them have much more options for how to increase and use the increased dynamic range.
  • SketchUcation Community Forums • View topic - HDR (High Dynamic Range) Tutorial 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC forums.sketchucation.com [Source type: General]

^ The human eye is said to have a dynamic range of as much as 24 stops.
  • High Dynamic Range Photography Techniques | Outdoor Exposure Photo 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.outdoorexposurephoto.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, most photographs look quite nice, thank you very much, with the 5-7 stops of dynamic range that we're used to.

.I fully expect to see some really silly if not downright ugly images in the months ahead, as photographers get their copies of Photoshop CS2 and start discovering what the HDR function is capable of.^ I fully expect to see some really silly if not downright ugly images in the months ahead, as photographers get their copies of Photoshop CS2 and start discovering what the HDR function is capable of.

^ (Note: this tutorial is based on building an HDR image from 7 different shots), with Photomatix (used for Generating HDR and Tone Mapping) and Photoshop CS2 (for retouching only).
  • 19 Tutorials for Creating Beautiful HDR (High Dynamic Range) Imagery : Speckyboy Design Magazine 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC speckyboy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the most part, to create decent HDR images, it takes a good photographer, and a little knowledge of photo editing software like Photoshop or Photomatix.
  • 19 Tutorials for Creating Beautiful HDR (High Dynamic Range) Imagery : Speckyboy Design Magazine 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC speckyboy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But, as with all such tool [sic], in the hands of sensitive artists and competent craftsmen, I'm sure that we will start to be shown the world in new and exciting ways.^ But, as with all such tool, in the hands of sensitive artists and competent craftsmen, I'm sure that we will start to be shown the world in new and exciting ways.

^ To maintain ease of navigation throughout the book, please be sure to create links to the pages before and after your new page, using the template shown here .
  • Blender 3D: Noob to Pro - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Colin Smith shows you all the main features as well as the new Mask panel and the revamped Dodge, Burn and Sponge tools.
  • Photoshop CAFE TV - Intro to High Dynamic Range | Adobe TV 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC tv.adobe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Michael Reichmann , Luminous Landscape[21]

Video

.Until recently there were no "pure" examples of HDR based cinematography, since the effects were most commonly used during composited sequences in films.^ For example, the shadow saturation I used in the HDR above was +3.

^ There are various formats available to store HDR images, such as Radiance RGBE (.hdr) and OpenEXR (.exr) among the most commonly used.
  • Photomatix high dynamic range images: What is HDR? 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC photoshop-pro.com [Source type: General]

^ In this article, we create HDR Explorer, a Web-based experimental test platform that can be used to quickly evaluate how different HDR algorithms render LDR images.
  • MATLAB Digest - July 2008 - Rendering High Dynamic Range Images on the Web 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.mathworks.com [Source type: Reference]

.However with the advent of low cost consumer digital cameras, many amateurs began posting tone mapped HDR timelapse videos on the Internet.^ With the rising popularity of digital cameras and easy-to-use desktop software, the term HDR is now popularly used to refer to this process.
  • HDR - A Fad or a Growing Trend? | Presidia Creative 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.presidiacreative.com [Source type: General]

^ Just trying one of my old photos taken in New Zealand Before and After processing for HDR and Tone Mapping.

^ Note that this does not necessarily mean that the K-7 is creating an HDR from three JPEGs and then tone mapping or simply applying low-bit Exposure Blending to three JPEGs rendered from the originally captured burst.
  • The Pentax K-7: The era of in-camera High Dynamic Range Imaging has arrived! from Adorama Learning Center 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.adorama.com [Source type: General]

.In 2008 Mobius/Quark Films released "Silicon Valley Timelapse" which is said to feature almost 1.1 million frames of tone mapped HDR, making it the largest single source of tone mapped HDR footage available to date.^ Photomatix is a HDR/Tone Mapping application, Hydra is not at the moment, although Tone Mapping is coming in a future release, according to my communication with the developer, he said in the 'Spring', I emailed him back and told him the dogwoods are blooming and the birds chirping here already :)   (Version 1.0.4) .
  • Download Hydra for Mac - High dynamic range imaging software. MacUpdate Mac Software Downloads 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.macupdate.com [Source type: General]

^ The GUI serves as a front end for experimenting with HDR data creation and tone-mapping algorithms.
  • MATLAB Digest - July 2008 - Rendering High Dynamic Range Images on the Web 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.mathworks.com [Source type: Reference]

^ HDR photography is basically any technique for creating an image that contains a higher dynamic range than can normally be captured in a single frame in a camera (either film or digital).
  • High Dynamic Range Photography Techniques | Outdoor Exposure Photo 9 January 2010 13:52 UTC www.outdoorexposurephoto.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

See also

Methods

File Formats

Software

References

  1. ^ Reinhard, Erik; Ward, Greg; Pattanaik, Sumanta; Debevec, Paul (2006). High dynamic range imaging: acquisition, display, and image-based lighting. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Morgan Kaufmann. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-12-585263-0. "Images that store a depiction of the scene in a range of intensities commensurate with the scene are what we call HDR, or 'radiance maps.' On the other hand, we call images suitable for display with current display technology LDR." 
  2. ^ Cohen, Jonathan and Tchou, Chris and Hawkins, Tim and Debevec, Paul E. (2001). Steven Jacob Gortler and Karol Myszkowski. ed. "Real-Time High Dynammic Range Texture Mapping". Proceedings of the 12th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering Techniques (Springer): 313–320. ISBN 3-211-83709-4. 
  3. ^ Vassilios Vonikakis and Ioannis Andreadis (2008). "Fast Automatic Compensation of Under/Over-Exposured Image Regions". in Domingo Mery and Luis Rueda. Advances in image and video technology: Second pacific rim symposium, PSIVT 2007, Santiago, Chile, December 17-19, 2007. p. 510. ISBN 9783540771289. http://books.google.com/books?id=vkNfw8SsU3oC&pg=PA510&dq=hdr+sdr+%22standard+dynamic+range%22&ei=gqe6Svq0IZfGM7KehMYP#v=onepage&q=hdr%20sdr%20%22standard%20dynamic%20range%22&f=false. 
  4. ^ a b R. N. Clark. "Film versus Digital Summary". http://www.clarkvision.com/imagedetail/film.vs.digital.summary1/index.html. Retrieved 2010-02-28. 
  5. ^ "Auto Exposure Bracketing by camera model". http://hdr-photography.com/aeb.html. Retrieved 18 August 2009. 
  6. ^ "The Pentax K-7: The era of in-camera High Dynamic Range Imaging has arrived!". http://www.adorama.com/alc/blogarticle/11608. Retrieved 18 August 2009. 
  7. ^ R. N. Clark. "Procedures for Evaluating Digital Camera Sensor Noise, Dynamic Range, and Full Well Capacities; Canon 1D Mark II Analysis". http://www.clarkvision.com/imagedetail/evaluation-1d2/index.html. Retrieved 2009-08-21. 
  8. ^ Stanley Smith Stevens and Geraldine Stevens (1986). Psychophysics: Introduction to its Perceptual, Neural, and Social Prospects. Transaction Publishers. pp. 208–209. ISBN 9780887386435. http://books.google.com/books?id=r5JOHlXX8bgC&pg=PA208&dq=eye+logarithmic+power-law&lr=&as_brr=3&ei=TSyOSqTWHIuWlQS2sZG5Bw#v=onepage&q=eye%20logarithmic%20power-law&f=false. 
  9. ^ Vernon B. Mountcastle (2005). The Sensory Hand: Neural Mechanisms of Somatic Sensation. Harvard University Press. pp. 16–17. ISBN 9780674019744. http://books.google.com/books?id=WOmqKSheygYC&pg=PA17&dq=logarithmic+weber-fechner&lr=&as_brr=3&ei=9DKOSrTaHJCqkASHxZShBw#v=onepage&q=logarithmic%20weber-fechner&f=false. 
  10. ^ Leslie Stroebel and Richard D. Zakia (1995). The Focal Encyclopedia of Photography (3rd ed.). Focal Press. p. 465. ISBN 9780240514178. http://books.google.com/books?id=CU7-2ZLGFpYC&pg=PA465&dq=logarithmically+light+nearly&lr=&as_brr=3&ei=UjSOSouBEKWQkAT12-GmBw#v=onepage&q=logarithmically%20light%20nearly&f=false. 
  11. ^ a b Greg Ward, Anyhere Software. "High Dynamic Range Image Encodings". http://www.anyhere.com/gward/hdrenc/hdr_encodings.html. 
  12. ^ "The RADIANCE Picture File Format". http://radsite.lbl.gov/radiance/refer/Notes/picture_format.html. Retrieved 2009-08-21. 
  13. ^ Fernando, Randima (2004). "26.5 Linear Pixel Values". Gpu Gems. Boston: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0321228324. http://http.developer.nvidia.com/GPUGems/gpugems_ch26.html. 
  14. ^ Max Planck Institute for Computer Science. "Perception-motivated High Dynamic Range Video Encoding". http://www.mpi-sb.mpg.de/resources/hdrvideo/. 
  15. ^ J. Paul Getty Museum. Gustave Le Gray, Photographer. July 9 – September 29, 2002. Retrieved September 14, 2008.
  16. ^ US patent application 5144442, Ginosar, R., Hilsenrath, O., Zeevi, Y., "Wide dynamic range camera", published 1992-09-01  
  17. ^ Technion - Israel Institute of Technology (1993). Adaptive Sensitivity. http://visl.technion.ac.il/research/isight/AS/. 
  18. ^ "Compositing Multiple Pictures of the Same Scene", by Steve Mann, in IS&T's 46th Annual Conference, Cambridge, Massachusetts, May 9-14, 1993
  19. ^ S. Mann and R. W. Picard. "On Being ‘Undigital’ With Digital Cameras: Extending Dynamic Range By Combining Differently Exposed Pictures". http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/mann95being.html. 
  20. ^ a b US patent application 5828793, Steve Mann, "Method and apparatus for producing digital images having extended dynamic ranges", published 1998-10-27  
  21. ^ a b "Merge to HDR in Photoshop CS2". http://www.luminous-landscape.com/tutorials/hdr.shtml. Retrieved 2009-08-27. 
  22. ^ "CinePaint Frequently Asked Questions". http://www.cinepaint.org/faq.html. Retrieved 2009-08-31. 

External links


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