Higher education in Iran: Wikis

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University of Tehran College of Humanities

Iran has a large network of private, public, and state affiliated universities offering degrees in higher education. State-run universities of Iran are under the direct supervision of Iran's Ministry of Science, Research and Technology (for non-medical universities) and Ministry of Health and Medical Education (for medical schools).

Contents

History

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Pre-Islamic era

The existence of pre-Islamic era universities such as the School of Nisibis, Sarouyeh, Reishahr, and The Academy of Gundishapur provide examples of precedence of academic institutions of science that date back to ancient times.

Islamic era

The traditions and heritage of these centers of higher learning were later carried on to renowned schools such as Iran's Nizamiyya, and Baghdad's House of Wisdom, during the Islamic era.

An academic library in Basrah[1] depicted in the 13th century by Yahya ibn Vaseti (یحیی بن واسطی), found in the Maqama of Hariri (مقامات حریری).

Modern

It was Abbas Mirza who first dispatched Iranian students to Europe for a western education.[2]

The history of the establishment of western style academic universities in Iran (Persia) dates back to 1851 with the establishment of Darolfonoon – which was founded as a result of the efforts of the royal vizier Mirza Taghi Khan Amir Kabir, aimed at training and teaching Iranian experts in many fields of science and technology.

In 1855 "The Ministry of Science" was first established, and Ali Gholi Mirza I'tizad al-saltaneh (علیقلی میرزا اعتضاد السلطنه) was appointed Iran's first Minister of Science by Nasereddin Shah.

By the 1890s Darolfonoon was competing with other prominent institutions of modern learning. The Military College of Tehran (Madraseh-ye Nezam), established in 1885 with a budget of 10,000-12,000 tomans, was its first rival; and in 1899 the College of political sciences (Madraseh-ye olum-e siyasi) was organized within the Foreign ministry.[3]

The Ministry of Higher Education, which oversees the operation of all institutes of higher education in Iran, was established in 1967. However, it was back in 1928 that Iran's first university, as we know it today, was proposed by an Iranian physicist, Mahmoud Hessaby. The University of Tehran (or Tehran University) was designed by French architect Andre Godard, and built in 1934. Today, Tehran University is Iran's largest university with over 32,000 students.

In the medical field, it was Joseph Cochran who first founded a professional school in Iran in 1878, and who is often credited for founding Iran’s "first contemporary medical college" [4], as well as founding one of Iran's first modern hospitals ("Westminster Hospital") in Urmia. The medical faculty Cochran established at Urmia University was joined by several other Americans, namely Drs. Wright, Homlz, van Nourdon, and Miller. They were all buried in Urmia as their resting place after serving the area for many years.

In Tehran, Samuel M. Jordan, whom "Jordan Ave." in Tehran is named after, also was directly responsible for the expansion of the American College in Tehran. The school received a permanent charter from the Board of Regents of the State University of New York in 1932.[5]

McCormick Hall, American College of Tehran, circa 1930.

By the end of the first Pahlavi period, University of Tehran was still the only modern university in the country. Hence, the Ministry of Science commenced the establishment of other universities in Isfahan, Tabriz, Ahvaz, and Shiraz, with special emphasis given to the medical and veterinary sciences. [6] Dr. Charles Oberling was highly instrumental in this regard.[7]

The Shah soon initiated projects to build Iranian universities modeled after American schools. Thus Pahlavi University (Shiraz University today), Sharif University of Technology, and Isfahan University of Technology, three of Iran's top academic universities were all directly modeled on American institutions such as the University of Illinois at Chicago, MIT, and the University of Pennsylvania.[8][9] The Shah in return was generous in awarding American universities with financial gifts. For example, the University of Southern California received a gift from the Shah in the form of an endowed chair of petroleum engineering, and a million dollar donation was given to the George Washington University to create an Iranian Studies program.[8]

The 1979 revolution put an end to the massive US-Iran academic relations. In 1980, a major overhaul in the academia and higher education system of Iran initiated by Ayatollah Khomeini led to what is referred to in Iran as "Iran's Cultural Revolution".

In 1986, the Ministry of Higher Education handed over supervision and overseeing of education in the medical sciences in Iran to the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education. This was to optimize use of the medical resources in the country, and to promote health, treatment, teaching, and research more efficiently in the field.

After the Iran–Iraq War, some new universities were founded and doctoral programs were developed in the previous universities. The number of university students is now more than six times as many as in 1979 (when Shah was overthrown), so that critics debate whether the national entrance exam is useful anymore or not. Iran's educational system comprises many schools and universities scattered throughout the country.

Pre-University Education in Iran:

Primary school (Dabestan) starts at the age of 6 for a duration of 5 years. Middle school, also known as orientation cycle (Rahnamayi), goes from the sixth to the eighth grade. High school (Dabirestan), for which the last three years is not mandatory, is divided between theoretical, vocational/technical and manual, each program with its own specialties. Universities, institutes of technology, medical schools and community colleges, provide the higher education. The requirement to enter into higher education is to have a High school diploma, and finally pass the national University entrance's exam. Higher education is sanctioned by different levels of diplomas: Fogh-Diplom or Kardani (equivalent to a Baccalaureate in technical engineering) after 2 years of higher education, Karshenasi (also known under the name “licence”) is delivered after 4 years of higher education (Bachelor's degree). Fogh Licence is delivered after 2 more years of study (Master's degree). After which, another exam allows the candidate to pursue a doctoral program (PhD).

Exclusion of Students

Students of some minority religions have been barred from entering tertiary education institutions in Iran particularly those of the Baha'i Faith[10]. Since the Iranian Revolution of 1979 Baha'i students have been excluded from universities regardless of their national university examination results on basis of their religion.

Academic system of Iranian universities

In 2008, Iran had over 3.5 million students enrolled in universities.[11] Some 1.7 million in various programs in Islamic Azad university and the remainder in State universities. In addition the new enrollment numbers for the academic year 2004 were 290 thousand in Azad universities, and 250 thousand in State universities. Iran currently has 54 state operated universities, and 42 state medical schools. These are primarily the top choice for students in national entrance exams, and have the largest and most prestigious programs. There are 289 major private universities operating as well.[12] In addition there is over 40,000 students engaged in Masters programs and 20,000 students in PhD programs. In all these schools, except for private universities such as the Islamic Azad University system, tuition and room and board, is mostly paid for by the government. The universities themselves largely operate on state budgets. There are also institutes like Payame Noor University that offer degrees remotely or online.

Some schools offer degrees in conjunction with European Universities. The International University of Chabahar for example offers programs under the guidance of London School of Economics and Political Science Goldsmiths University of London, and Royal Holloway.[13] Other schools such as the Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences in Zanjan, have close collaboration with The International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy for workshops, seminars, and summer schools. The Iranian government also offers intensely competitive but fully paid scholarships for successful applicants to pursue PhD level studies in Great Britain.

Iran allocates around 0.4% of its GDP to R&D, which ranks it "far behind industrialized societies" and the world average of 1.4%.[14]

Rankings

University of Tehran, Sharif University of Technology, Iran University of Science and Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, (Tehran Polytechnic), K.N.Toosi University of Technology,Tarbiat Modares University, Shahid Beheshti University, Allameh Tabatabaee University, Shiraz University, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Isfahan University of Technology, University of Isfahan,Tarbiat Moallem University and Tabriz University are generally cited as the most prestigious schools of Iran frequently. Among these universities, Tarbiat Modares University is the sole only-graduate-level university: it does not offer any undergraduate degree.

Almost none of these universities however are mentioned (or perhaps not evaluated) in the 2007 Academic Ranking of World Universities (link), nor in the The Times Higher Education Supplement.[4] Sharif University of Technology and University of Tehran are the only Iranian universities that appear in the THES world ranking for 2008. The universities ranked above 400 are listed alphabetically in this list, thus the exact ranks of these two universities are unavailable.[15][16][17]

Iranian authorities however ignore such rankings, and claim that, according to Chancellor of Tehran University, "Iran is third in Science and Technology in Asia after Japan and Turkey".[18]

Critics further claim that for the case of Iran, rankings such as SJT and THES fail to provide an accurate image when assessing Iran's institutions of higher education, since graduates from these universities routinely are well prepared and end up matriculating into the competitive elite graduate schools of Europe and the United States in comparatively large numbers.

Ranking by number of publications

University of Tehran faculty of Fine Arts

In terms of the number of papers published via Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), the 2007 ranking of medical and non-medical universities of Iran is as follows:[19]

Ranking by number of publications

University City Papers published
University of Tehran Tehran 1156
Tehran University of Medical Sciences Tehran 719
Tarbiat Modarres University Tehran 574
Sharif University of Technology Tehran 572
Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Tehran 478
Shiraz University Shiraz 404
Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic) Tehran 398
Iran University of Science and Technology Tehran 326
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Shiraz 281
Isfahan University of Technology Isfahan 246
Tabriz University Tabriz 234
Ferdowsi University of Mashad Mashad 218
Bu-Ali Sina University (Avicenna University) Hamedan 205
Tabriz University of Medical Sciences Tabriz 198
Isfahan University Isfahan 196
Shahid Beheshti University Tehran 188
Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics Tehran 177
Iran University of Medical Sciences Tehran 158
University of Mazandaran Babol 158
Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Isfahan 141

The most number of papers published in the following fields by order:

  1. Chemistry
  2. Medicine
  3. Engineering
  4. Physics

Reports for 2003[20] and 2005[21] are also available.

Ranking of Medical Schools

In one study in the medical fields published in January of 2001, Tehran University of Medical Sciences ranked first in Iran in terms of the number of ISI and Medline publications, followed by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences following next.[14]

The most recent list of the highest top ranked universities in the medical field is:[22]

  1. Tehran University of Medical Sciences
  2. Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences(Former National University)
  3. Iran University of Medical Sciences
  4. Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
  5. Mashad University of Medical Sciences
  6. Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

Ranking of Dental Schools

According to the 2007 rankings[23] the top 5 rated schools in the dental field in Iran are:

  1. Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
  2. Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Mashad University of Medical Sciences
  3. Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
  4. Kerman University of Medical Sciences and Yazd University of Medical Sciences and Hamedan University of Medical Sciences
  5. Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and Babol University of Medical Sciences

Ranking of Pharmacy Schools

According to the 2007 rankings[24] the top 3 rated schools in the pharmaceutical field in Iran are:

  1. Tehran University of Medical Sciences
  2. Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
  3. Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

Ranking by Webometrics

The latest webometrics data reveal Iran's top school Tehran University to be ranked second in the Middle East[25] but ranked at number 1083 worldwide.[26] The list of top 5 Iranian universities by webometric counts are:

WORLD RANK UNIVERSITY SIZE VISIBILITY RICH FILES SCHOLAR
987 University of Tehran 933 1,710 737 932
1035 Isfahan University of Medical Sciences 1,476 1,074 3,512 382
1135 Tehran University of Medical Sciences 962 2,849 2,276 119
1924 Isfahan University of Technology 3,002 4,640 2,738 332
1932 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad 1,648 3,456 1,567 1,733
1977 Sharif University of Technology 2,591 2,795 1,743 1,793
2035 Shiraz University of Medical Sciences 2,083 4,347 2,280 960
2160 Shiraz University 3,025 4,046 2,886 871

List of Iranian universities

Iran's Brain Drain problem

Iran tops the world countries in the brain drain phenomenon. The CIA estimates that 77% of Iran's population aged 15 and over can read and write[27]. A significant majority of this population is at or approaching collegiate levels. Of this population, nearly 150,000 are estimated to exit Iran every year.[28][29]

Prominent libraries in Iran

Large libraries existed in Iran both before and after the advent of Islam and throughout many periods in Iran's history. One can mention the libraries at Gondeshapur, School of Nisibis, and Sarouyeh during the pre-Islamic era of Iran.

During the Middle Ages, many schools of Nizamiyya harbored large collections of manuscripts and treatises. In Maragheh, Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī built a library that reportedly contained some 40,000 volumes which was well financed[30]. And the royal library of the Samanid court in which Avicenna was granted special access to, is yet another fine example.[31]

The first prototype of a modern national library in Iran was the Library of Dar al-Funun College established in 1851. In 1899 another library called the Nation's Library was inaugurated in Tehran. Finally, the National Library of Iran was inaugurated in 1937.

Iran's major national libraries today are:

References

  1. ^ هنرهای اسلامی: نگاره های مقامات حریری آرشيو
  2. ^ Patrick Clawson and Michael Rubin. Eternal Iran. Palgrave Macmillan. 2005. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.34
  3. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica. Link: [1]
  4. ^ Archives Of Iranian Medicine
  5. ^ Lorentz, J. Historical Dictionary of Iran. 1995. ISBN 0-8108-2994-0
  6. ^ آموزش و پرورش در ایران (Education in Iran). Naser Takmil Homayoun. دفتر پژوهشهای فرهنگی (Center for Cultural Research Publications). p.98
  7. ^ پروفسور ابرلن و نقش او در آموزش پزشکی نوین ایران (Dr. Charles Oberling and his role in Iran's modern medical education). شمس شریعت تربقان. TUMS Publications. 2007.
  8. ^ a b Trends by Region: MIDDLE EAST and Penn's Global Engagement, University of Pennsylvania Archives
  9. ^ Exporting MIT. Stuart W. Leslie and Robert Kargon. Osiris, volume 21 (2006), pages 110–130 Link: [2]
  10. ^ New tactic obstructs Baha'i enrollments in Iranian universities
  11. ^ http://www.irphe.ir/fa/statistics/Statictics%20Forms/w-br.bruoshoor83-84.pdf
  12. ^ [3]
  13. ^ دانشگاه بین المللی چابهار
  14. ^ a b Medical Science and Research in Iran
  15. ^ Sharif ranks 529 in the world ranking
  16. ^ http://ar.c-a-k.cz/2007%20QS%20Top%20500.pdf
  17. ^ ISNA - 11-20-2007 - 86/8/29 - سرويس: / آموزشي / شماره خبر: 1037148
  18. ^ Fars News Agency : ايران رتبه سوم علمي را در آسيا دارد
  19. ^ Abdolreza Noroozi Chakoli, Mohammad Hassanzadeh, Hamzehali Nourmohammadi (August 30, 2008). "Evaluation of Iran Scientific Productions based on ISI Statistics through 2006-2007". WIS 2008. http://www.collnet.de/Berlin-2008/NoroozichakoliWIS2008eis.pdf. 
  20. ^ http://www.ipm.ac.ir/IPM/homepage/WorldNews/11.pdf
  21. ^ بررسي نقش و جايگاه دانشگاه و صنعت در توسعه ي علمي، صنعتي و اقتصادي
  22. ^ For detailed rankings see: http://www.pezeshk.us/?p=2869
  23. ^ Pezeshk.us | رتبه بندي آموزشي دانشگاه ها و دانشكده هاي علوم پزشكي ايران (3- دانشکده های دندانپزشکی)
  24. ^ Pezeshk.us | رتبه بندي آموزشي دانشگاه ها و دانشكده هاي علوم پزشكي ايران (2-دانشكده هاي داروسازي )
  25. ^ World Universities' ranking on the Web: Top Middle East
  26. ^ Catalogue of World Universities: Universities of Iran (Islamic Republic of)
  27. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html
  28. ^ Harrison, Frances (2007-01-08). "Huge cost of Iranian brain drain". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/6240287.stm. Retrieved 2007-01-08. 
  29. ^ BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6240287.stm
  30. ^ S. H. Nasr, Oliver Leaman. History of Islamic Philosophy. VolI. ISBN 0415259347. 1993. p.542
  31. ^ A History of Medicine. Ralph H. Major. Vol 1. Charles C. Thomas Publishers. 1954. p.242

See also

External links

Official

Other


College of Humanities]]

]]

Iran has a large network of private, public, and state affiliated universities offering degrees in higher education. State-run universities of Iran are under the direct supervision of Iran's Ministry of Science, Research and Technology (for non-medical universities) and Ministry of Health and Medical Education (for medical schools).

Contents

History

Pre-Islamic era

The existence of pre-Islamic era universities such as the School of Nisibis, Sarouyeh, Reishahr, and The Academy of Gundishapur provide examples of precedence of academic institutions of science that date back to ancient times.

Islamic era

The traditions and heritage of these centers of higher learning were later carried on to renowned schools such as Iran's Nizamiyya, and Baghdad's House of Wisdom, during the Islamic era. [1] depicted in the 13th century by Yahya ibn Vaseti (یحیی بن واسطی), found in the Maqama of Hariri (مقامات حریری).]]

Modern

It was Abbas Mirza who first dispatched Iranian students to Europe for a western education.[2]

The history of the establishment of western style academic universities in Iran (Persia) dates back to 1851 with the establishment of Darolfonoon – which was founded as a result of the efforts of the royal vizier Mirza Taghi Khan Amir Kabir, aimed at training and teaching Iranian experts in many fields of science and technology.

In 1855 "The Ministry of Science" was first established, and Ali Gholi Mirza I'tizad al-saltaneh (علیقلی میرزا اعتضاد السلطنه) was appointed Iran's first Minister of Science by Nasereddin Shah.

By the 1890s Darolfonoon was competing with other prominent institutions of modern learning. The Military College of Tehran (Madraseh-ye Nezam), established in 1885 with a budget of 10,000-12,000 tomans, was its first rival; and in 1899 the College of political sciences (Madraseh-ye olum-e siyasi) was organized within the Foreign ministry.[3]

The Ministry of Higher Education, which oversees the operation of all institutes of higher education in Iran, was established in 1967. However, it was back in 1928 that Iran's first university, as we know it today, was proposed by an Iranian physicist, Mahmoud Hessaby. The University of Tehran (or Tehran University) was designed by French architect Andre Godard, and built in 1934. Today, Tehran University is Iran's largest university with over 32,000 students.

In the medical field, it was Joseph Cochran who first founded a professional school in Iran in 1878, and who is often credited for founding Iran’s "first contemporary medical college" [4], as well as founding one of Iran's first modern hospitals ("Westminster Hospital") in Urmia. The medical faculty Cochran established at Urmia University was joined by several other Americans, namely Drs. Wright, Homlz, van Nourdon, and Miller. They were all buried in Urmia as their resting place after serving the area for many years.

In Tehran, Samuel M. Jordan, whom "Jordan Ave." in Tehran is named after, also was directly responsible for the expansion of the American College in Tehran. The school received a permanent charter from the Board of Regents of the State University of New York in 1932.[5], circa 1930.]]

By the end of the first Pahlavi period, University of Tehran was still the only modern university in the country. Hence, the Ministry of Science commenced the establishment of other universities in Isfahan, Tabriz, Ahvaz, and Shiraz, with special emphasis given to the medical and veterinary sciences.[6] Dr. Charles Oberling was highly instrumental in this regard.[7]

The Shah soon initiated projects to build Iranian universities modeled after American schools. Thus Pahlavi University (Shiraz University today), Sharif University of Technology, and Isfahan University of Technology, three of Iran's top academic universities were all directly modeled on American institutions such as the University of Illinois at Chicago, MIT, and the University of Pennsylvania.[8][9] The Shah in return was generous in awarding American universities with financial gifts. For example, the University of Southern California received a gift from the Shah in the form of an endowed chair of petroleum engineering, and a million dollar donation was given to the George Washington University to create an Iranian Studies program.[8]

The 1979 revolution put an end to the massive US-Iran academic relations. In 1980, a major overhaul in the academia and higher education system of Iran initiated by Ayatollah Khomeini led to what is referred to in Iran as "Iran's Cultural Revolution".

In 1986, the Ministry of Higher Education handed over supervision and overseeing of education in the medical sciences in Iran to the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education. This was to optimize use of the medical resources in the country, and to promote health, treatment, teaching, and research more efficiently in the field.

After the Iran–Iraq War, some new universities were founded and doctoral programs were developed in the previous universities. The number of university students is now more than six times as many as in 1979 (when Shah was overthrown), so that critics debate whether the national entrance exam is useful anymore or not. Iran's educational system comprises many schools and universities scattered throughout the country.

Pre-University Education in Iran:

Primary school (Dabestan) starts at the age of 6 for a duration of 5 years. Middle school, also known as orientation cycle (Rahnamayi), goes from the sixth to the eighth grade. High school (Dabirestan), for which the last three years is not mandatory, is divided between theoretical, vocational/technical and manual, each program with its own specialties. Universities, institutes of technology, medical schools and community colleges, provide the higher education. The requirement to enter into higher education is to have a High school diploma, and finally pass the national University entrance's exam. Higher education is sanctioned by different levels of diplomas: Fogh-Diplom or Kardani (equivalent to a Baccalaureate in technical engineering) after 2 years of higher education, Karshenasi (also known under the name “licence”) is delivered after 4 years of higher education (Bachelor's degree). Fogh Licence is delivered after 2 more years of study (Master's degree). After which, another exam allows the candidate to pursue a doctoral program (PhD).

Exclusion of Students

Students of some minority religions have been barred from entering tertiary education institutions in Iran particularly those of the Baha'i Faith[10]. Since the Iranian Revolution of 1979 Baha'i students have been excluded from universities regardless of their national university examination results on basis of their religion.

Academic system of Iranian universities

' Tehran Heart Center.]] In 2008, Iran had over 3.5 million students enrolled in universities.[11] Some 1.7 million in various programs in Islamic Azad university and the remainder in State universities. In addition the new enrollment numbers for the academic year 2004 were 290 thousand in Azad universities, and 250 thousand in State universities. Iran currently has 54 state operated universities, and 42 state medical schools. These are primarily the top choice for students in national entrance exams, and have the largest and most prestigious programs. There are 289 major private universities operating as well.[12] In addition there is over 40,000 students engaged in Masters programs and 20,000 students in PhD programs. In all these schools, except for private universities such as the Islamic Azad University system, tuition and room and board, is mostly paid for by the government. The universities themselves largely operate on state budgets. There are also institutes like Payame Noor University that offer degrees remotely or online.

Some schools offer degrees in conjunction with European Universities. The International University of Chabahar for example offers programs under the guidance of London School of Economics and Political Science Goldsmiths University of London, and Royal Holloway.[13] Other schools such as the Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences in Zanjan, have close collaboration with The International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy for workshops, seminars, and summer schools. The Iranian government also offers intensely competitive but fully paid scholarships for successful applicants to pursue PhD level studies in Great Britain.

By early 2000, Iran allocated around 0.4% of its GDP to R&D, which ranks it "far behind industrialized societies" and the world average of 1.4%.[14] By 2009 this ratio of research to GDP reached 0.87% and the set target is 2.5%.[15]

Rankings

University of Tehran, Sharif University of Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Shahid Beheshti University , K.N.Toosi University of Technology, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran University of Science and TechnologyShahid Beheshti University, Allameh Tabatabaee University, Shiraz University, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Isfahan University of Technology, University of Isfahan, Tarbiat Moallem University, Sahand University of Technology and Tabriz University are generally cited as the most prestigious schools of Iran frequently. Among these universities, Tarbiat Modares University is the sole only-graduate-level university: it does not offer any undergraduate degree.

Almost none of these universities however are mentioned (or perhaps not evaluated) in the 2007 Academic Ranking of World Universities (link), nor in The Times Higher Education Supplement.[3] Sharif University of Technology and University of Tehran are the only Iranian universities that appear in the THES world ranking for 2008. The universities ranked above 400 are listed alphabetically in this list, thus the exact ranks of these two universities are unavailable.[16][17][18]

Iranian authorities however ignore such rankings, and claim that, according to Chancellor of Tehran University, "Iran is third in Science and Technology in Asia after Japan and Turkey".[19]

Critics further claim that for the case of Iran, rankings such as SJT and THES fail to provide an accurate image when assessing Iran's institutions of higher education, since graduates from these universities routinely are well prepared and end up matriculating into the competitive elite graduate schools of Europe and the United States in comparatively large numbers.

Ranking by number of publications (SCImago)

SCImago Research Group's SCImago institutions rankings: 2009 world report ranks all institutions which had more than 100 outputs indexed in the multinational publishing giant Elsevier's Scopus database. The ranking comprises 1,527 higher education institutions, 335 health organisations, 216 government organisations, 29 private bodies and 17 other organisations.

Ranking by number of publications 2009[20]

National rank University city Rank in world
1 University of Tehran Tehran 308
2 Sharif University of Technology Tehran 662
3 Tarbiat Modares University Tehran 799
4 Shiraz University Shiraz 1064
5 Tehran University of Medical Sciences Tehran 1172
6 Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Tehran 1256
7 Isfahan University of Technology Isfahan 1368
8 Shahid Beheshti University Tehran 1438
9 Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Isfahan 1603
10 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Mashad 1673
11 Bu-Ali Sina University Hamedan 1674
12 Amirkabir University of Technology Tehran 1731
13 Tabriz University of Medical Sciences Tabriz 1800
14 Razi University Kermanshah 1824
15 Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Shiraz 1877
16 Iran University of Medical Sciences Tehran 1925
17 Isfahan University Isfahan 1932
18 University of Tabriz Tabriz 2056
19 University of Urmia Urmia 2085

Ranking by number of publications (ISI)

faculty of Fine Arts]]

In terms of the number of papers published via Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), the 2007 ranking of medical and non-medical universities of Iran is as follows:[21]

Ranking by number of publications

University City Papers published
University of Tehran Tehran 1156
Tehran University of Medical Sciences Tehran 719
Tarbiat Modarres University Tehran 574
Sharif University of Technology Tehran 572
Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Tehran 478
Shiraz University Shiraz 404
Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic) Tehran 398
Iran University of Science and Technology Tehran 326
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Shiraz 281
Isfahan University of Technology Isfahan 246
Tabriz University Tabriz 234
Ferdowsi University of Mashad Mashad 218
Bu-Ali Sina University(Avicenna University) Hamedan 205
Tabriz University of Medical Sciences Tabriz 198
Isfahan University Isfahan 196
Shahid Beheshti University Tehran 188
Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics Tehran 177
Iran University of Medical Sciences Tehran 158
University of Mazandaran Babol 158
Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Isfahan 141

The most number of papers published in the following fields by order:

  1. Chemistry
  2. Medicine
  3. Engineering
  4. Physics

Reports for 2003[22] and 2005[23] are also available.

Ranking of Medical Schools

In one study in the medical fields published in January 2001, Tehran University of Medical Sciences ranked first in Iran in terms of the number of ISI and Medline publications, followed by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences following next.[14]

The most recent list of the highest top ranked universities in the medical field is:[24]

  1. Tehran University of Medical Sciences
  2. Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences(Former National University)
  3. Iran University of Medical Sciences
  4. Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
  5. Mashad University of Medical Sciences
  6. Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

Ranking of Dental Schools

According to the 2007 rankings[25] the top 5 rated schools in the dental field in Iran are:

  1. Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
  2. Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Mashad University of Medical Sciences
  3. Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
  4. Kerman University of Medical Sciences and Yazd University of Medical Sciences and Hamedan University of Medical Sciences
  5. Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and Babol University of Medical Sciences

Ranking of Pharmacy Schools

According to the 2007 rankings[26] the top 3 rated schools in the pharmaceutical field in Iran are:

  1. Tehran University of Medical Sciences
  2. Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
  3. Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

Ranking by Webometrics

The latest webometrics data reveal Iran's top school Tehran University to be ranked second in the Middle East[27] but ranked at number 873 worldwide.[28] The list of top 5 Iranian universities by webometric counts are:

WORLD RANK UNIVERSITY SIZE VISIBILITY RICH FILES SCHOLAR
873 University of Tehran 933 1,710 737 932
1035 Isfahan University of Medical Sciences 1,476 1,074 3,512 382
1135 Tehran University of Medical Sciences 962 2,849 2,276 119
1924 Isfahan University of Technology 3,002 4,640 2,738 332
1932 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad 1,648 3,456 1,567 1,733
1977 Sharif University of Technology 2,591 2,795 1,743 1,793
2035 Shiraz University of Medical Sciences 2,083 4,347 2,280 960
2160 Shiraz University 3,025 4,046 2,886 871

List of Iranian universities

Iran's Brain Drain problem

Iran tops the world countries in the brain drain phenomenon. The CIA estimates that 77% of Iran's population aged 15 and over can read and write[29]. A significant majority of this population is at or approaching collegiate levels. Of this population, nearly 150,000 are estimated to exit Iran every year.[30][31]

Prominent libraries in Iran

Large libraries existed in Iran both before and after the advent of Islam and throughout many periods in Iran's history. One can mention the libraries at Gondeshapur, School of Nisibis, and Sarouyeh during the pre-Islamic era of Iran.

During the Middle Ages, many schools of Nizamiyya harbored large collections of manuscripts and treatises. In Maragheh, Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī built a library that reportedly contained some 40,000 volumes which was well financed[32]. And the royal library of the Samanid court in which Avicenna was granted special access to, is yet another fine example.[33]

The first prototype of a modern national library in Iran was the Library of Dar al-Funun College established in 1851. In 1899 another library called the Nation's Library was inaugurated in Tehran. Finally, the National Library of Iran was inaugurated in 1937.

Iran's major national libraries today are:

See also

References

  1. ^ هنرهای اسلامی: نگاره های مقامات حریری آرشيو
  2. ^ Patrick Clawson and Michael Rubin. Eternal Iran. Palgrave Macmillan. 2005. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.34
  3. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica
  4. ^ Archives Of Iranian Medicine
  5. ^ Lorentz, J. Historical Dictionary of Iran. 1995. ISBN 0-8108-2994-0
  6. ^ آموزش و پرورش در ایران (Education in Iran). Naser Takmil Homayoun. دفتر پژوهشهای فرهنگی (Center for Cultural Research Publications). p.98
  7. ^ پروفسور ابرلن و نقش او در آموزش پزشکی نوین ایران (Dr. Charles Oberling and his role in Iran's modern medical education). شمس شریعت تربقان. TUMS Publications. 2007.
  8. ^ a b Trends by Region: MIDDLE EAST and Penn's Global Engagement, University of Pennsylvania Archives
  9. ^ Exporting MIT. Stuart W. Leslie and Robert Kargon. Osiris, volume 21 (2006), pages 110–130 Link: [1]
  10. ^ New tactic obstructs Baha'i enrollments in Iranian universities
  11. ^ http://www.irphe.ir/fa/statistics/Statictics%20Forms/w-br.bruoshoor83-84.pdf
  12. ^ [2]
  13. ^ دانشگاه بین المللی چابهار
  14. ^ a b Medical Science and Research in Iran
  15. ^ (P.5)
  16. ^ Sharif ranks 529 in the world ranking
  17. ^ http://ar.c-a-k.cz/2007%20QS%20Top%20500.pdf
  18. ^ ISNA - 11-20-2007 - 86/8/29 - سرويس: / آموزشي / شماره خبر: 1037148
  19. ^ Fars News Agency : ايران رتبه سوم علمي را در آسيا دارد
  20. ^ http://www.scimagoir.com/pdf/sir_2009_world_report.pdf
  21. ^ Abdolreza Noroozi Chakoli, Mohammad Hassanzadeh, Hamzehali Nourmohammadi (August 30, 2008). "Evaluation of Iran Scientific Productions based on ISI Statistics through 2006-2007". WIS 2008. http://www.collnet.de/Berlin-2008/NoroozichakoliWIS2008eis.pdf. 
  22. ^ http://www.ipm.ac.ir/IPM/homepage/WorldNews/11.pdf
  23. ^ بررسي نقش و جايگاه دانشگاه و صنعت در توسعه ي علمي، صنعتي و اقتصادي
  24. ^ For detailed rankings see: http://www.pezeshk.us/?p=2869
  25. ^ Pezeshk.us | رتبه بندي آموزشي دانشگاه ها و دانشكده هاي علوم پزشكي ايران (3- دانشکده های دندانپزشکی)
  26. ^ Pezeshk.us | رتبه بندي آموزشي دانشگاه ها و دانشكده هاي علوم پزشكي ايران (2-دانشكده هاي داروسازي )
  27. ^ World Universities' ranking on the Web: Top Middle East
  28. ^ Catalogue of World Universities: Universities of Iran (Islamic Republic of)
  29. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html
  30. ^ Harrison, Frances (2007-01-08). "Huge cost of Iranian brain drain". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/6240287.stm. Retrieved 2007-01-08. 
  31. ^ BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6240287.stm
  32. ^ S. H. Nasr, Oliver Leaman. History of Islamic Philosophy. VolI. ISBN 0-415-25934-7. 1993. p.542
  33. ^ A History of Medicine. Ralph H. Major. Vol 1. Charles C. Thomas Publishers. 1954. p.242

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