Highway 401 (Ontario): Wikis


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Provincial Highway 401
Macdonald-Cartier Freeway
Highway of Heroes

Divided freeway
Maintained by the Ontario Ministry of Transportation
Length: 815 km (506 mi)[1][note 1]
Formed: 1938, numbered in 1952
Lanes: 4–18 (4–6 lanes through most sections)
Cities: Windsor, Chatham, London, Kitchener, Mississauga, Toronto, Oshawa, Belleville, Kingston, Brockville, Cornwall
Western terminus:  Highway 3 – Windsor
Major junctions:  Highway 402 – London
 Highway 403 – Woodstock
 Highway 8 – Cambridge
 Highway 407 near Milton, Ontario
 Highway 403 / Highway 410 – Mississauga
 Highway 427
 Highway 400
 Highway 404 / Don Valley ParkwayToronto
 Highway 35 / Highway 115 – Clarington
 Highway 137 to I-81
 Highway 416 – Brockville
Eastern terminus: A-20 towards Montreal, QC
Map of Highway 401
Highway 401 (in orange) within Southern Ontario.
Highway system
Ontario 400-Series Freeways
 Highway 400     401    Highway 402

Provincial Highway 401, also known by its official name of the Macdonald-Cartier Freeway and colloquially as The 401, is a freeway in the Canadian province of Ontario. It is the longest of the 400-Series highways, stretching 815.0 kilometres (506.4 mi) from Windsor to the Quebec border, the busiest highway in North America,[2] and one of the widest and busiest in the world.[3] Together with Quebec Autoroute 20, it forms the transportation backbone of the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor, along which over half of Canada's population resides.

Three highways were renumbered "Highway 401" in 1952: the 11.8 km (7.3 mi) Toronto Bypass between Weston Road and Highway 11 (Yonge Street); Highway 2A for 54.7 km (34.0 mi) between West Hill in Scarborough, and Newcastle, east of Oshawa; and the 41.2 km (25.6 mi) Highway 2S between Gananoque, Ontario and Butternut Bay, west of Brockville, now known as the Thousand Islands Parkway. It became fully navigable from Windsor to the Quebec border by 1964. In 1965, the highway was given a second designation, the Macdonald-Cartier Freeway, in honour of the fathers of confederation. In 1968, the Gananoque–Brockville section was bypassed, and the final intersection grade-separated near Kingston, making Highway 401 a freeway for its entire 542 mi (872 km) length. On August 24, 2007, the portion of the highway between Trenton and the Don Valley Parkway in Toronto was designated as the Highway of Heroes, as the road is travelled by fallen Canadian soldiers from the Canadian Forces Base to the coroners office in Toronto.



Highway 401 was completed in 1968

Highway 401 begins at Highway 3, 13 km from the Detroit River on the outskirts of Windsor (not at the Michigan border as some mistakenly assume, though the exits on the freeway are listed as distances from the Ambassador Bridge[4]) and ends at the Quebec border, 818 km away. There are 18 rest areas or service centres (oases) located along the route, allowing motorists to access services without leaving the highway. A plaque was erected at the Mallorytown oasis, located on the last section of the freeway to be completed, stating that the 401 was the longest non-toll freeway under a single highway authority in North America. (Today the section of Interstate 10 in Texas holds this record.)

Major freeway junctions are located at these roads and highways: 402, Highbury Avenue (London), 403, 8, 6, 407, 410, 427, 400, Allen Road (Toronto), 404 and Don Valley Parkway (Toronto), 35 and 115, 416. Quebec Autoroute 20 continues the highway at its eastern end.

Highway 401 currently has no direct connections with U.S. Interstate highways, but Interstates 75, 94, 96 and 375 in Detroit, Michigan, and Interstate 81 in New York State are each a short distance away, via Highways 3, the former 3B, and 137, leading to the Ambassador Bridge, the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel, and the Thousand Islands Bridge, respectively. Highway 402 also links Highway 401 to I-69/I-94 via the Bluewater Bridge in Sarnia, Ontario. An extension to a potential border crossing with Michigan in the western portion of Windsor may eventually connect to a spur Interstate in Detroit, Michigan, but no routing on the extension has been determined yet.

Transportation corridor

The 401 at Don Mills Road.

The 401 is one of the world's busiest highways, with an estimated Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) of over 500,000 in 2006, between the Weston Road and Highway 400 interchanges in Toronto.[3] Due to its triple use as the main trade, commuting and recreational corridor in Ontario, 24-hour traffic volumes can exceed the 500,000 level on some days. The just-in-time inventory systems of the highly integrated auto industry in Michigan and Ontario have made the highway the busiest truck route in the world. Highway 401 also includes the world's busiest multi-structure bridge at Hogg's Hollow in Toronto (four structures for the highway's four roadway beds). The first of these structures served as a bypass for Highway 11, and was built in 1929, with the three others being built more recently (1960s).

The 401 is a strategically important highway in Canada, as it connects the populous Southern Ontario region with Quebec and Michigan, while also connecting to most other major highways in the province. The 401 also acts as a 'short cut' between Detroit and Buffalo, New York (via Queen Elizabeth Way and Highway 403), and is used by many American motorists for this reason. The highway also serves as the principal connection to Montreal and points east, including New England, becoming Autoroute 20 at the Quebec border. The border crossing at Windsor and Detroit is the busiest trade crossing in the world, and although the 401 itself does not physically extend the last few kilometres into Detroit,[4] it is the only route from Toronto to Windsor and on to Interstate 75 (aside from the Blue Water Bridge in Sarnia via Highway 402 and I-69/I-94). A future expansion of the Windsor-Detroit border crossing, which will include a freeway bypass of the existing Highway 3, may result in Highway 401 having a direct freeway link to the border. The route and type of roadway built is causing much debate in the Windsor area, with the city opting for a partially covered roadway with parks on top. However, the provincial and federal governments of Canada are seemingly opting for a cheaper less-effective solution, likely to be a simple at-grade highway extending to the new crossing. Some 40% of Canada-U.S. trade travels the highway, representing one-third of Canada's foreign trade, and 4% of all U.S. foreign trade. However, it is not part of the Trans-Canada Highway.

Collector-express sections

Today the stretch of Highway 401 that passes through the Greater Toronto Area ranges from 6 to 18 lanes, making it one of the widest freeways in the world.


Islington Avenue to Brock Road

Highway 401 west of the Don Valley Parkway/Highway 404 junction, showing the wide 14-lane cross-section

The section that now runs through Toronto was a rural roadway that was entirely outside of the Toronto city limits when first opened, and was originally referred to as the Toronto Bypass. The new freeway attracted development all along its length. As the city's suburbs grew, it quickly became an urban commuter road, rather than a long-distance bypass route as was originally planned, leading to extensive traffic jams.

This was a problem/opportunity solved and built upon to some extent by implementing separate express and collector lanes, similar to the express/local set-up of the Dan Ryan Expressway in Chicago. Transfers, such as The Basketweave allow traffic to move from the express to collector lanes and vice versa.

Though Highway 401's collectors are intended more for urban commuters, they enjoy equal access to intersecting freeways as the express lanes do, such as at the junctions with Highway 404 and somewhat with Highway 400, so their use is not restricted to local traffic. The configuration also facilitates road maintenance, as the MTO can close off either the express or collector lanes for night repairs or upgrades. By contrast, the collector-express system on Highway 427 separates out two streams of traffic; the express lanes connect the QEW/Gardiner with 401 and exclusively lead to freeway-to-freeway ramps, while the collector lanes link up the arterials Highway 27 and Brown's Line and have interchanges with local traffic.

By 1967 Highway 401 was widened from four lanes to 12 or more through Toronto from Islington Avenue to Warden Avenue. In the early 1970s the collector express lanes were extended to Neilson Road and eastward to Brock Road by 1997.

The main collector-express setup with a minimum 12-lane cross-section currently stretches from Islington Avenue to Brock Road. Highway 409, which branches off from Highway 401 just west of Islington to Toronto Pearson International Airport, has been unsuccessful in diverting traffic volumes and the 10-lane segment between Islington and Highway 427 is often highly congested. The existing 401-427 interchange is a bottleneck, narrowing to eight lanes of traffic (four in each direction) through the interchange. It initially only allowed six lanes of through traffic until a widening project was completed in 2005.

An alternative plan to the collector-express setup was to construct a bypass of Highway 401. This project was revived in 1987 and opened in 1997 as the toll road Highway 407 ETR to parallel Highway 401 in the Greater Toronto Area.


In order to make sure drivers are not confused by signs appearing in other lanes, colours have been assigned to both Collector and Express Lanes. Collector lanes (handling traffic merging from and to exits) are blue while Express Lane signs are green. Due to the urban nature of the road, all signs are mounted overhead on gantries. The green signs list up to four (though more often only three) upcoming exits (for example: Leslie St, Bayview Ave, Yonge St, 4 km). However, the mileages indicated on the signs do not indicate the actual distance to the next exit, they only indicate the distance to the next transfer to the collectors. Once in the collector lanes, the blue signs direct and inform drivers of the distance until the exit ramp (for example: Leslie Street, 1 km).

Highway 403/410 to Highway 427

Highway 401 has a separate collector-express system in Mississauga between the junctions with Highways 403/410 and Highway 427. This was completed in 1986, concurrent with the expansion of the 401-403 interchange and the addition of two express flyover ramps and includes an eastbound collector-express transfer known as the "Tunnel." At 18 lanes wide this is the widest section of Highway 401, although at the present only nine lanes are designated for 401 through traffic (as express lanes) while the collector lanes serve as direct connections or ramp extensions from 403/410 to 427.

Several prerequisite projects to accommodate widening from Highways 403/410 to Mississauga Road were underway by the late 1990s, including a new interchange at Mavis Road and the reconstruction of the Mississauga Road and Derry Road overpasses. Plans have been established to widen the highway as far west as Highway 407, and potentially to Milton thereafter.


The need for a four-lane bypass of Highway 2 in the Oshawa area was growing in the early 1930s, as the simple two-lane road could no longer handle the growing levels of traffic. The idea for a roadway similar to Middle Road in Peel County was led by Thomas McQuesten, then head of the Department of Highways.

Construction began on two portions of Highway 401 before the beginning of the Second World War: the new Kingston Road from Highland Creek to Oshawa (the modern day former Highway 2A), which bypassed the Kingston Road (Highway 2), and the scenic highway (now the Thousand Islands Parkway) from Gananoque to Brockville, also bypassing a portion of Highway 2. The former was built because of heavy traffic between Toronto and Oshawa, and the latter to connect with the Thousand Islands Bridge, opened in 1938. In late 1941 or early 1942, the scenic highway was opened to local traffic as a gravel road,[5] and numbered Highway 2S, for "Highway 2 Scenic" (as opposed to the popular, but incorrect, idea of "Highway 2 South", since the road does lie fully south of Highway 2). Paving of the south side, the future eastbound lanes, was completed several years later.[6][7]

Construction of the first segment, from Highland Creek to Oshawa, was initiated in 1938. Much of the grading and a number of structures were completed before the Second World War, at which time most of the construction work was suspended. This section was finally completed and opened to traffic in 1947.

During the Second World War, the provincial government undertook a number of surveys and studies to determine the most desirable route for the new limited-access highway.

The highway was redesignated "Highway 401" in 1952. The last segment, between Gananoque and Brockville, was completed in 1968 to bypass what is now the Thousand Islands Parkway (which included at-grade intersections and private entrances). The last at-grade intersection on the present alignment was at Joyceville Road, east of Kingston, which was converted to an interchange with the final 1968 construction.

Much of the current routing of Highway 401 across Toronto was built in 1954 (when the entire area was north of the city) as the "Toronto By-Pass". The road ended temporarily at the Weston Road interchange (now Exit 357), while a bridge across the Humber River was constructed for the road to be extended westwards. This bridge was never used, as just a few months later, Hurricane Hazel damaged it so badly that it had to be dynamited and completely rebuilt. This delayed Highway 401's completion in the Toronto area for nearly a year.[8]

Through much of the 1950s, motorists were annoyed with the perceived snail's pace of constructing the freeway, and had pressured the provincial government to speed up the completion of Highway 401, with much of the public supporting turning Highway 401 into a tolled road to accelerate construction. To do this, the provincial government had assigned the "Select Committee on Toll Roads and Highway Financing" in 1955 to consider any benefits or disadvantages from this[9]. The resulting report from the committee was in by 1956, and the result was that tolling the roadway would be extremely detrimental. Tolls would appear on the 400-series network, if only temporarily. When the St. Lawrence Seaway was built in the late 1950s, drivers on the Queen Elizabeth Way paid tolls on the newly-built Garden City and Burlington Bay skyways until 1973, as a way to recover the costs of construction and upgrades.

During the late 1950s, the road was extended from Windsor to London as an at-grade Super 2, before being twinned in the 1960s (the segment from Windsor to Tilbury was completed as a four-lane freeway), with the eastbound carriageway being built first. This is still evident today, as many bridges over creeks and streams in the area have different ages and appearances. The section from Windsor to Tilbury was among the original sections built, from 1952-1958, with the Tilbury Bypass (from Exit 56 to Exit 63) being constructed in 1961, with the Tilbury-London section opening in 1963. In 1957, the London-Woodstock section opened, as a four-lane divided freeway from Highway 4's interchange (just west of London), to Highway 2's interchange (just east of Woodstock). The road would later be extended to Kitchener in 1961, where it was linked to the Kitchener-Toronto-Oshawa section.

Highway 401 at Kingston

In 1964, Highway 401 was diverted from its former alignment in Windsor, Ontario along what is now Dougall Parkway, to its current terminus with Highway 3, with the overpass carrying Highway 3's westbound lanes being built in 1956 in anticipation of the extension.[6][10] The former alignment became Highway 401A (a secret designation, much like Highway 400A in Barrie). At this time, Highway 401 was also twinned from Windsor (interchange with Highway 98, now Provincial Road) to the eastern interchange (Exit 63) with Highway 2 in Tilbury, with two new lanes being constructed north of the existing lanes. The new carriageway became the westbound lanes, while the original two-lane carriageway became the east-bound lanes. This twinning from Windsor to Tilbury was completed in 1965. By 1968, all of Highway 401 was twinned to a minimum of four lanes.

In 1965, Lieutenant Governor of Ontario William Earl Rowe issued an Order-in-Council, on the advice of then-Premier John Robarts, designating Highway 401 the Macdonald-Cartier Freeway, to honour both Sir John A. Macdonald and Sir George-Étienne Cartier, two of the Province of Canada's Fathers of Confederation, and in recognition of Canada's upcoming centennial celebrations in 1967. This name is found on maps and official documents, but seldom used in conversation or on modern road signs. Macdonald's name is misspelled on Internet mapping services, such as Google Maps and Microsoft Virtual Earth, in spite of repeated requests to data supplier Navteq to correct the error.[citation needed] A 1961 proposal to name the highway the Leslie M. Frost Thruway, after the recently retired Premier of Ontario, was approved by the provincial cabinet, but was never carried on to receive Royal Assent.

"Carnage Alley"

Around the same time, the section of Highway 401 between Windsor and London became known as Carnage Alley, a reference to the numerous accidents that occurred over that stretch of the highway through out the nineties.[11] Various other names, including The Killer Highway circulated for a time,[12] before Carnage Alley became prominent following an 87-vehicle pile-up on September 3, 1999, the worst in Canadian history.[13]

Ironically, only a few days prior, then Transportation Minister David Turnbull had deemed the killer highway "pleasant" to drive.[14] On the morning of September 3, the local weather station reported clear conditions due to a malfunction,[13] while a thick layer of fog rolled onto the highway. The unimproved section of road with an open grass median proved fatal to seven, as 87 vehicles quickly crashed into each other, one following another, in the dense fog.[15]

Immediately following the accident, the MTO installed paved shoulders with rumble strips[16] and funded additional police to patrol the highway, a move described as "not enough" by critics.[17] Beginning in 2004, 46 km (29 mi) of the highway was widened from four concrete lanes to six aspault lanes, paved shoulders added, a concrete Ontario Tall Wall median installed,[18] interchanges improved and signage upgraded as part of a five phase project to improve the 401 from Highway 3 in Windsor to Essex County Road 42 (formerly Highway 2) on the western edge of Tilbury.[19]

In the spring of 2007, Bill 203, the Safer Roads for a Safer Ontario Act was introduced to parliament by project ERASE (Eliminate Racing Activities on Streets Everywhere), a campaign created by local and provincial police.[20][21] The law, passed September 30, 2007, allows police to immediately suspend the driver’s licence and impound the vehicle involved for seven days in the case of "excessive speeding" (driving 50 km/h over the limit, or over 150 km/h on 400-series highways).[22][23] Transport truck maximum speed is also limited by speed governors to 105 km/h, as in nearby Quebec.[24]

"A large blue billboard to the side of the highway. In the centre is the text, over 4 lines, reading: 'Highway of Heroes Autoroute des héros'. To the left of it is a Highway 401 reassurance marker. To the right of the text is another reassurance marker, this time with a red poppy in place of the number '401'."
A Highway of Heroes billboard.

Highway of Heroes

On 24 August 2007, the Ministry of Transportation announced that the stretch of Highway 401 between Glen Miller Road, in Trenton, and the intersection of the Don Valley Parkway and Highway 404, in Toronto, would bear the additional name Highway of Heroes, in honour of Canada's fallen soldiers,[25] though Highway 401 in its entirety remains designated as the Macdonald-Cartier Freeway.[26] This length of the freeway is often travelled by a convoy of vehicles carrying a fallen soldier's body, with his or her family, from CFB Trenton to the coroner's office at the Centre for Forensic Sciences in Toronto. Since 2002, when the first of Canada's fallen soldiers were returned from Afghanistan, crowds have lined the overpasses to pay their respects as convoys pass.[27]

"A signpost with two King's Highway reassurance markers mounted to the left and right of the post. The left one has the number 401, while the right has a red poppy, with the text 'Highway of Heroes' above it. Below is a rectangular sign mounted in the centre of the post, with 'WEST' written within it."
The English variation of the Highway of Heroes reassurance marker.

The origin of the name can be traced to a June 25, 2007 article in the Toronto Sun by columnist Joe Warmington, in which he interviews Northumberland columnist and photographer Pete Fisher. Warmington describes the gathering of crowds on overpasses to welcome fallen soldiers as a "highway of heroes phenomena."[28] This led Crahame Township volunteer firefighter Ken Awender to contact Fisher on July 10 about starting a petition, leading Fisher to publish an article in the Cobourg Daily Star and Port Hope Evening Guide three days later. This article was in turn posted to the Northumberland Today website.[29] The online article was picked up by several media outlets, and eventually caught the attention of London resident Jay Forbes. Forbes began a petition, which went on to receive over 20,000 signatures[25] before being brought to the attention of Ontario transportation minister Joanne Cansfield on August 22.[30] Following the announcement on August 24, the provincial government and Ministry of Transportation set out designing new signs. The signs were erected and unveiled on September 7,[26] and include a smaller reassurance marker (shield) with a poppy and the text "Highway of Heroes" in place of a number, as well as a larger billboard version with English and French text. A French translation of the poppy shield is also posted within Toronto.


The Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) intends to widen all of the remaining four-lane sections to a minimum of six, and place an Ontario Tall Wall along the entire length of the freeway.[18][31]

Windsor-Essex Parkway

In 2004, it was announced that a new border crossing would be constructed between Detroit and Windsor. The Detroit River International Crossing (DRIC) was formed as a bi-national committee to manage the project.[32] The MTO took advantage of this opportunity to extend Highway 401 to the international border, and began an environmental assessment on the entire project in late 2005.[33] Alongside this, the City of Windsor hired New York traffic consultant Sam Schwartz to design a parkway to the border. Schwartz's proposal would eventually inspire the DRIC's own design, but his route was not chosen, with the DRIC opting instead to take a northern route.[34] On February 8, 2008, the MTO announced that it had began purchasing property south of the E.C. Row Expressway,[35] upsetting many area residents who purchased properties in the years prior.[36][37]

On March 3, 2008, the Michigan Department of Transportation and the MTO (in partnership with Transport Canada and the Federal Highway Administration of the United States, and the Detroit River International Crossing group) completed a joint assessment on the soils along the Detroit River and determined the soils along the river could indeed support the weight of a new bridge; a grave concern of all parties involved in the project was the stability of the underlying soil and clay, as well as the impact of the nearby Windsor Salt mine.[38]

On May 1, 2008, it was announced that the extension of the 401 will be named the Windsor-Essex Parkway, and a preferred route was selected.[39] The new parkway will be below-grade and have 6 through-lanes. It will follow (but not replace) Talbot Road and Huron-Church Road from a new interchange at the current end of Highway 401, to the E.C. Row Expressway, which it will run concurrently with westward for 2 km (1.2 mi). From there, it will turn northwest and follow a new alignment to the border.[40] Initial construction of a new bridge south of the Highway 3/401 junction, as well as a noise barrier from North Talbot Road to Howard Avenue began in the fall of 2009. The project has an expected completion date of 2013.[41]

Southwestern Ontario

In Southwestern Ontario, most improvements along the 401 have been completed to provide six lanes from Windsor to Toronto,[31] in response to the Carnage Alley pile up in 1999.[18][42] West of Essex County Road 19 (Manning Road), the highway is currently being widened in anticipation of the Windsor-Essex Parkway.[39][43] Between Tilbury and Highway 402, the 401 remains four lanes wide with a grass median. The widening and upgrading of this section is in the planning stages, with construction possibly beginning in 2012 and lasting for several years. Several interchanges are planned for improvement as part of this construction.[44] Further east, construction is underway to widen several kilometres of the highway east of the junction with Highway 402,[19][45] as well as closing the remaining four lane gap between Woodstock and Kitchener.[46]

Central Ontario

In their 2007 plan for southern Ontario, the MTO announced long-term plans to create HOV-lanes from Mississauga Road west to Milton.[47] Construction is also underway to widen Highway 401 to a 12 lane collector-express system from Highway 403 and Highway 410 west to Mississauga Road.[48]

Within Toronto, a select number of projects are being completed during overnight construction projects. This includes the widening and rehabilitation of the Hogg's Hollow bridge,[49] as well as the replacement of the original gantries throughout the collector-express system.[50]

In Oshawa, Exit 416 (Park Road) was replaced by a new interchange at Exit 415 (Stevenson Road). The contract, which began September 7, 2005, included the interchange as well as the resurfacing of 23.4 km (14.5 mi) of the highway between Oshawa and Highway 35 / Highway 115, at a total cost of $65,097,000.00.[51] The westbound ramps were opened in mid September, 2007[52] and the eastbound ramps in the summer of 2009. Resurfacing is expected to be completed by July 31, 2010.[51]

Current expansion plans in Durham include the construction of two new freeways north from the 401. The first will be directly east of Durham Regional Road 23 (Lakeridge Road),[53] while the second will lie to the east of Durham Regional Road 34 (Courtice Road).[54] Following the 407 east extension's approval, Highway 401 will be widened to an extension of the express-collector system, from its current end at Durham Regional Road 1 (Brock Road) in Pickering to Durham Regional Highway 12 (Brock Street) in Whitby.[55] Long term plans also call for HOV lanes to run from Brock Road to Durham Regional Road 33 (Harmony Road), though no planning has begun at this time.[47]

Eastern Ontario

East of Durham, the MTO is planning to widen the entire length of the highway to 6 lanes.[31] Preliminary work includes the widening of the bridge over the Trent River in Trenton,[56] as well as the realignment of some roads alongside the highway.[57] By mid 2012, the 401 will be widened for 6 kilometres through Kingston.[58]


Service centres offering fuel, rest stops, and food are located at the following points on Highway 401:

Location Direction(s) Nearby Exits Services
Tilbury North
Tilbury South
56, 63[59] Closed for reconstruction[60]
West Lorne
137, 149[61] Closed for reconstruction[60]
222, 230[62] Esso, Tim Hortons, Wendy's, Mr. Sub (westbound only), Nicholby's Express
Woodstock to be closed on March 31[63]
Cambridge North
Cambridge South
286, 295[64] Petro-Canada, McDonald's
Newcastle Westbound 440, 448[65] Esso, Tim Hortons, Wendy's, Mr. Sub, Nicholby's Express
Port Hope Eastbound 458,456[66] Esso, Tim Hortons, Wendy's, Mr. Sub
Trenton North
Trenton South
509, 522[67] Closed for reconstruction[60]
Napanee Westbound 582, 593[68] Petro-Canada, McDonald's
Odessa Eastbound 599, 611[68] Esso, Tim Hortons, KFC
Mallorytown North
Mallorytown South
675, 685[69] Closed for reconstruction[60]
750, 758
758, 770[70]
Closed for reconstruction[60]
Bainsville Westbound 825[71] Closed for reconstruction[60]

Exit list

Division Location km Exit number Destinations Notes
Old New
References: [1] [72][73]
Essex County Windsor 0.0 1 1  Highway 3Ambassador Bridge to USA Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
2.6 1b 13 Dougall Avenue – Detroit-Windsor Tunnel to USA Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; formerly Highway 3B / Highway 401A
3.4 2 14  Essex County Road 46 (Walker Road) – Windsor, Essex Formerly Highway 98
Tecumseh 10.4 3 21  Essex County Road 19 (Manning Road) – Tecumseh
17.5 4 28  Essex County Road 25 (Puce Road) – Puce
23.7 5 34  Essex County Road 27 (Belle River Road) – Woodslee, Belle River
30.0 6 40  Essex County Road 31 (French Line Road) – St. Joachim
37.3 7 48  Highway 77 – Leamington
 Essex County Road 35 (Comber Road) – Stoney Point
45.7 8 56  Essex County Road 42 – Tilbury Formerly  Highway 2
Chatham-Kent Tilbury 52.8 9 63 Chatham-Kent Road 2 (Queen's Line) Formerly Highway 2
Chatham 70.9 10 81 Chatham-Kent Road 27 (Bloomfield Road)
79.3 11 90  Highway 40
Chatham-Kent Road 11 (Communication Road) – Blenheim
91.0 12 101 Chatham-Kent Road 15 (Kent Bridge Road) – Dresden, Ridgetown
98.3 13 109 Chatham-Kent Road 17 / 21 (Victory Road) – Thamesville, Ridgetown Formerly  Highway 21
106.2 14 117 Chatham-Kent Road 20 (Orford Road) – Highgate
Elgin County West Elgin 119.2 15 129 Elgin County Road 103 (Furnival Road) – Wardsville, Rodney
127.3 16 137 Elgin County Road 76 (Graham Road) – West Lorne Formerly Highway 76
Dutton/Dunwich 138.5 17 149 Elgin County Road 8 (Currie Road) – Dutton
147.4 18 157 Elgin County Road 14 (Iona Road) – Melbourne, Iona
154.1 164 Elgin County Road 20 (Union Road) – Port Stanley, Shedden
Middlesex County London 166.7 19 177  Highway 4 (Colonel Talbot Road) – St. Thomas Signed as exits 177A (south) and 177B (north)
173.2 183  Highway 402 – Sarnia Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
175.9 20 186 Wellington Road
176.8 187 Exeter Road Formerly Highway 135
179.1 21 189 Highbury AvenueSt. Thomas Formerly Highway 126
183.6 194 Veterans Memorial Parkway Formerly Highway 100
Thames Centre 185.5 22 195 Middlesex County Road 74 (Westchester Bourne) – Nilestown, Belmont Formerly Highway 74
189.3 23 199 Middlesex County Road 32 (Dorchester Road) – Dorchester
193.0 24 203 Middlesex County Road 73 (Elgin Road) – Aylmer Formerly Highway 73
198.5 25 208 Middlesex County Road 30 (Putnam Road) – Putnam, Avon
Oxford County South-West Oxford, Ingersoll 206.0 26 216 Oxford County Road 10 (Culloden Road)
208.5 27 218  Highway 19
Oxford County Road 119 (Plank Line) – Tillsonburg
South-West Oxford 212.2 222 Oxford County Road 6 – Stratford, Embro
219.8 28 230 Oxford County Road 12 (Sweaburg Road / Mill Street) – Sweaburg
221.9 29 232 Oxford County Road 59 – Delhi Formerly Highway 59
225.3 235  Highway 403 – Brantford, Hamilton Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
226.3 30 236 Oxford County Road 15 (Towerline Road) – Woodstock
227.9 31 238 Oxford County Road 2 – Paris, Woodstock Formerly Highway 2
Blandford-Blenheim 240.1 32 250 Oxford County Road 29 (Drumbo Road) – Innerkip, Drumbo
Waterloo Region North Dumfries 257.9 33 268 Waterloo Regional Road 97 (Cedar Creek Road) – Cambridge, Plattsville, Ayr Signed as exits 268A (east) and 268B (west) eastbound; formerly Highway 97
Kitchener, Cambridge 265.0 34 275 Waterloo Regional Road 28 (Homer Watson Boulevard / Fountain Street) Replaced Doon-Blair Road exit in the 1970s
267.9 35 278  Highway 8 – Kitchener, Waterloo
Waterloo Regional Road 8 – Cambridge
Signed as exits 278A (east) and 278B (west) eastbound
Cambridge 272.5 36[72] 282 Waterloo Regional Road 24 (Hespeler Road) to  Highway 24
284 Waterloo Regional Road 36 (Franklin Boulevard) Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
276.5 286 Waterloo Regional Road 33 (Townline Road)
Wellington County Road 33 (Townline Road)
Wellington County Puslinch
285.7 295  Highway 6 – Guelph West end of Highway 6 overlap
290.1 37 299  Highway 6 – Hamilton
Wellington County Road 46 (Brock Road) – Guelph, Hamilton
East end of Highway 6 overlap
Regional Municipality of Halton Milton 301.9 38 312 Halton Regional Road 1 (Guelph Line) – Burlington, Campbellville
310.1 39 320 Halton Regional Road 25 – Acton, Milton Formerly  Highway 25; GO Transit bus stop on eastbound ramp.
313.8 324 Halton Regional Road 4 (James Snow Parkway)
318.0 40 328 Halton Regional Road 3 (Trafalgar Road) – Oakville, Halton Hills, Georgetown
320.4 330A  Highway 407 Signed as exit 330 westbound
320.4 330B  Highway 407 Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
Regional Municipality Peel Region Streetsville 322.7 333 Winston Churchill Boulevard
Mississauga 326.1 41 336 Peel Regional Road 1 (Mississauga Road / Erin Mills Parkway)
329.6 340 Mavis Road
331.7 42 342 Hurontario Street Formerly  Highway 10
334.5 344  Highway 410 – Brampton Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
334.5 344  Highway 403 / Highway 410 – Hamilton, Brampton Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
336.0 43 346 Peel Regional Road 4 (Dixie Road)
340.3–341.1 44
348  Highway 427 / Renforth Drive – Toronto Pearson International Airport, Downtown Toronto Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
Toronto 341.1 350 Eglinton Avenue Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
341.1 351 Carlingview Drive Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
341.1 45 352  Highway 427 Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
343.5 46 354  Highway 27 (Dixon Road / Martin Grove Road)
355  Highway 409 – Toronto Airport
Belfield Road
Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
346.0 47 356 Islington Avenue
347.4 48 357 Weston Road
348.9 49 359  Highway 400 (south to Black Creek Drive) – Barrie Express exits 359 eastbound to Highway 400 only.
350.5 49A[74] 360 Jane Street Ramps removed, access to Jane Street via Black Creek Drive.
352.0 50 362 Keele Street
354.0 50A 364 Dufferin Street, Yorkdale Road Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
354.8 51 365 Allen Road, Yorkdale Road
356.2 51A 366 Bathurst Street Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
357.3 52 367 Avenue Road Formerly Highway 11A
359.0 53 369 Yonge Street Formerly  Highway 11
361.0 54 371 Bayview Avenue
362.9 55 373 Leslie Street
364.9 56 375  Highway 404 – Richmond Hill, Newmarket
Don Valley ParkwayDowntown Toronto
366.3 57 376 Victoria Park Avenue
367.6 58 378 Warden Avenue
369.2 59 379 Kennedy Road
370.8 380 Brimley Road south, Progress Avenue Eastbound exit and westbound entrance from northbound Brimley Road
371.6 59A[75] 381 McCowan Road
373.2 60 383 Markham Road Formerly  Highway 48
375.0 60A 385 Neilson Road
376.5 61 387 Morningside Avenue
379.0 61A 389 Meadowvale Road
380.3 62 390  Highway 2 / Highway 2A (Kingston Road, Sheppard Avenue, Port Union Road) Signed as exit 392 (formerly 63[72]) westbound
Regional Municipality of Durham Pickering 63A 394  Durham Regional Road 38 (Whites Road)
64 397  Durham Regional Road 29 (Liverpool Road) Westbound exit and entrance
399  Durham Regional Road 1 (Brock Road)
Ajax 65 400 Church Street Removed, exit replaced with nearby Westney Road interchange (Exit 401) in 1988
401  Durham Regional Road 31 (Westney Road) Replaced Exit 400 (Church Street) in 1988
66 403  Durham Regional Road 44 (Harwood Avenue) Removed, exit replaced with nearby Salem Road interchange (Exit 404) in 2003
404  Durham Regional Road 41 (Salem Road) Replaced Exit 403 (Harwood Avenue) in 2003
Whitby 67 410 Durham Regional Highway 12 (Brock Street) Formerly  Highway 12
68 412  Durham Regional Road 26 (Thickson Road)
Oshawa 69 415  Durham Regional Road 53 (Stevenson Road) Replaced Exit 416 (Park Road) in 2009
69 416  Durham Regional Road 54 (Park Road) Removed, exit replaced with nearby Stevenson Road interchange (Exit 415) in 2009
70 417  Durham Regional Road 2 (Simcoe Street) Westbound exit is via exit 418
71 418  Durham Regional Road 16 (Ritson Road)
72 419  Durham Regional Road 22 / Durham Regional Road 33 (Bloor Street / Harmony Road)
Clarington 73 425  Durham Regional Road 34 (Courtice Road) – Courtice
428 Holt Road (Darlington Nuclear Generating Station) Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
74 431  Durham Regional Road 57 (Waverley Road) – Bowmanville
75 432  Durham Regional Road 14 (Liberty Street) – Bowmanville, Port Darlington
76 435 Bennett Road
77 436  Highway 35 / Highway 115 – Peterborough, Orono, Lindsay
78 440  Durham Regional Road 17 (Mill Street) – Newcastle, Bond Head
79 448  Durham Regional Road 18 (Newtonville Road) – Newtonville
Northumberland County Port Hope 456 Wesleyville Road
80 461 Northumberland County Road 2 – Welcome Formerly Highway 2
81 464 Northumberland County Road 28 – Peterborough, Bewdley Formerly  Highway 28
Cobourg, Hamilton 82 472 Northumberland County Road 18 (Burnham Street) – Gores Landing
83 474 Northumberland County Road 45 – Norwood, Baltimore Formerly Highway 45
Alnwick/Haldimand 84 487 Northumberland County Road 23 (Lyle Street) – Centreton, Grafton
Cramahe 85 497 Northumberland County Road 25 (Percy Street / Big Apple Drive) – Colborne, Castleton
Brighton 86 509 Northumberland County Road 30 – Brighton, Campbellford Formerly Highway 30
Hastings County Quinte West 87 522 Hastings County Road 40 (Wooler Road) – Trenton
88 525 Hastings County Road 33 – Trenton, Frankford, Batawa Formerly  Highway 33
89 526 Hastings County Road 4 (Glen Miller Road) – Trenton, CFB Trenton
90 538 Hastings County Road 1 (Wallbridge-Loyalist Road) – Stirling
91 543  Highway 62 – Marmora, Madoc to Hastings County Road 14 Signed as exits 543A (south) and 543B (north); formerly  Highway 14
92 544  Highway 37 – Tweed
Tyendinaga 93 556 Hastings County Road 7 (Shannonville Road) – Shannonville, Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory
94 566  Highway 49
Hastings County Road 15 (Marysville Road) – Picton, Deseronto, Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory
95 570 Lennox and Addington County Road 10 (Deseronto Road) – Deseronto
Lennox and Addington County Greater Napanee
96 579 Lennox and Addington County Road 41 – Napanee, Kaladar Formerly  Highway 41
97 582 Lennox and Addington County Road 5 (Palace Road) – Napanee, Newburgh
Loyalist 98 593 Lennox and Addington County Road 4 (Camden East Road) – Millhaven, Camden East Formerly Highway 133
99 599 Lennox and Addington County Road 6 (Wilton Road) – Yarker, Amherstview, Odessa
Frontenac County Kingston 100 611 Frontenac County Road 38 – Harrowsmith, Sharbot Lake Formerly Highway 38
101 613 Frontenac County Road 9 (Sydenham Road), Sydenham
615 Sir John A. Macdonald Boulevard
102 617 Frontenac County Road 10 (Division Street) – Westport
103 619 Frontenac County Road 11 (Montreal Street) – Battersea
104 623  Highway 15 – Smiths Falls, Ottawa
105 632 Frontenac County Road 16 (Joyceville Road) – Joyceville
Leeds and Grenville United Counties Gananoque, Leeds and the Thousand Islands 106 645 Leeds and Grenville County Road 32 – Crosby Formerly Highway 32
107 647 Thousand Islands ParkwayIvy Lea, Rockport Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
Leeds and the Thousand Islands 107 648  Highway 2 – Gananoque
Leeds and Grenville County Road 2
Eastbound via exit 647
108 659 Leeds and Grenville County Road 3 (Reynolds Road) – Ivy Lea, Lansdowne, Rockport
109 661  Highway 137 ( I-81 to U.S.A.)
Front of Yonge 110 675 Leeds and Grenville County Road 5 (Mallorytown Road) – Mallorytown, Athens, Rockport
Elizabethtown-Kitley 110A 685 Thousand Islands Parkway Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
111 687 Leeds and Grenville County Road 2 – Brockville Formerly Highway 2
Brockville 112 696 Leeds and Grenville County Road 29 – Brockville, Smiths Falls Formerly File:Ontario 42.svg Highway 29 / Highway 42
113 698 North Augusta Road – Brockville, North Augusta
Augusta 114 705 Leeds and Grenville County Road 15 (Maitland Road) – Merrickville, Maitland
Prescott 115 716 Leeds and Grenville County Road 18 (Edward Street) – Prescott, Domville
Edwardsburgh/Cardinal 721A  Highway 416 – Ottawa, Kemptville Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
116 721B  Highway 16 (to NY 37 ) – Kemptville, Johnstown, USA Signed as exit 721 westbound
117 730 Leeds and Grenville County Road 22 (Shanly Road) – Cardinal
Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry United Counties South Dundas 118 738 Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry County Road 1 (Carman Road) – Iroquois
119 750 Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry County Road 31 – Ottawa, Morrisburg, Winchester Formerly Highway 31
120 758 Upper Canada Road
South Stormont 121 770 Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry County Road 14 (Dickinson Drive) – Ingleside
122 778 Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry County Road 35 (Moulinette Road) – Long Sault
786 Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry County Road Power Dam Drive Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
Cornwall 123 789  Highway 138 (Brookdale Avenue) – Ottawa, Hawkesbury, Three Nations Crossing to USA
124 792 McConnell Avenue
125 796 Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry County Road 44 (Boundary Road)
South Glengarry
126 804 Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry County Road 27 (Summerstown Road) – Summerstown
127 814 Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry County Road 2 / County Road 34 – Lancaster, Alexandria, Hawkesbury Formerly Highway 2 south /  Highway 34 north
128 825 Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry County Road 23 (4th Line Road, Curry Hill Road)

See also



  1. ^ The first interchange on Highway 401 (Dougall Avenue) is numbered exit 13, but is only 2 km from Highway 3. The Windsor-Essex Parkway will likely incorporate the initial kilometres into exit numbers along its length.


  1. ^ a b Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (2004). "Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) counts". http://www.raqsb.mto.gov.on.ca/techpubs/TrafficVolumes.nsf/tvweb?OpenForm&Seq=5. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  2. ^ Brian Gray (2004-04-10). "GTA Economy Dinged by Every Crash on the 401 - North America's Busiest Freeway". Toronto Sun, transcribed at Urban Planet. http://www.urbanplanet.org/forums/index.php?showtopic=3459. Retrieved 2007-03-18. "The "phenomenal" number of vehicles on Hwy. 401 as it cuts through Toronto makes it the busiest freeway in North America..." 
  3. ^ a b "Ontario government investing $401 million to upgrade Highway 401". Ministry of Transportation. 2002-08-06. http://ogov.newswire.ca/ontario/GPOE/2002/08/06/c0057.html?lmatch=&lang=_e.html. Retrieved 2007-03-18. "Highway 401 is one of the busiest highways in the world and represents a vital link in Ontario's transportation infrastructure, carrying more than 400,000 vehicles per day through Toronto." 
  4. ^ a b Highway 401's distance measurements are from the foot of the Ambassador Bridge to the Quebec border, while the roadway officially starts at the interchange of Highway 3, a full 13-km shorter. Sources: http://www.thekingshighway.ca, Rand McNally Atlases, and the Ministry of Transportation
  5. ^ Department of Highways, Ontario, Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ending March 31st, 1942, p. 9
  6. ^ a b TheKingsHighway
  7. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=r0e-8PU_4dsC&dq=%22new+kingston+road%22+oshawa&q=%22highway+2s&pgis=1#search Annual Report By Ontario Dept. of Highways, Ontario Dept. of Agriculture and Food, Ontario Dept. of Public Works, 1940, 1941, 1949
  8. ^ TheKingsHighway.ca - History on Highway 401
  9. ^ Highway 401 - the Story.html
  10. ^ TheKingsHighway.ca - History on Highway 401
  11. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named JShragge; see Help:Cite error.
  12. ^ The Birmingham Post (September 4, 1999). "Killer highway claims ten more car smash victims". CBS. http://findarticles.com/p/news-articles/birmingham-post-england-the/mi_7996/is_1999_Sept_4/killer-highway-claims-car-smash/ai_n36016421/. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  13. ^ a b Robson, Dan (August 30, 2009). "Reliving the horror of the 401 fog". The Toronto Star. http://www.thestar.com/Article/688425. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  14. ^ McCann, Wendy (August 31, 1999). "Killer Highway 'Pleasant' To Drive". The Hamilton Spectator. p. 3. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/thestar/access/446842601.html?dids=446842601:446842601&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Aug+31%2C+1999&author=WENDY+MCCANN%2C+THE+CANADIAN+PRESS&pub=The+Spectator&edition=&startpage=C.3&desc=KILLER+HIGHWAY+%27PLEASANT%27+TO+DRIVE. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  15. ^ CBC News (September 5, 1999). "Cleanup continues after horrific highway crash". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/1999/09/04/crash990904.html. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  16. ^ Todays Trucking (January 5, 2000). "Ontario puts more money into highways than ever before". Newcom Business Media. http://www.todaystrucking.com/news.cfm?intDocID=9293&CFID=1161538&CFTOKEN=62794508. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  17. ^ Canadian Press (September 18, 1999). "Upgrades, extra police planned for Canada 401". Toledo, Ohio: The Blade. p. 8. http://news.google.ca/newspapers?id=Yh4VAAAAIBAJ&sjid=3gMEAAAAIBAJ&dq=police%20highway%20401&pg=3525%2C766211. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  18. ^ a b c Robson, Dan (August 30, 2009). "Improvements made to 'Carnage Alley'". The Toronto Star. http://www.thestar.com/Article/688426. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  19. ^ a b Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (March 2007) Canada and Ontario Making Improvements to Highway 401 in Essex County . Canadian News Wire. (Report). Retrieved on March 14, 2010.
  20. ^ Legislative Assembly of Ontario (April 19, 2007) Debates and Proceedings - Official Records . (Report). Retrieved on February 3, 2010.
  21. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (May 3, 2007) A Statement to the Ontario Legislature . (Report). Retrieved on February 3, 2010.
  22. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (September 30, 2007) Bill 203 - Safer Roads for a Safer Ontario Act . (Report). Retrieved on February 3, 2010.
  23. ^ e-Laws Highway Traffic Act . Services Ontario. (Report). Retrieved on February 3, 2010.
  24. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (December 22, 2008) Truck Speed Being Capped . Government of Ontario Newswire. (Report). Retrieved on February 15, 2010.
  25. ^ a b CTV.ca News Staff (August 24, 2007). "Stretch of 401 to be renamed 'Highway of Heroes'". CTV Toronto. http://toronto.ctv.ca/servlet/an/local/CTVNews/20070824/online_petition_070824/20070824/?hub=TorontoHome. Retrieved February 3, 2010. 
  26. ^ a b Office of the Premier (September 7, 2007) "Highway of Heroes" Signs Unveiled Along Highway 401 . (Report). Retrieved on February 3, 2010.
  27. ^ CityNews.ca Staff (August 24, 2007). "Hwy. 401 Will Be Renamed 'Highway Of Heroes' To Honour Soldiers". City News. http://www.citytv.com/toronto/citynews/news/local/article/16147--hwy-401-will-be-renamed-highway-of-heroes-to-honour-soldiers. Retrieved February 3, 2010. 
  28. ^ Warmington, Joe (June 25, 2007). "unknown". Toronto Sun. 
  29. ^ Pete Fisher (July 13, 2007). "Highway of Heroes: Let's make it official". Northumberland Today. http://www.northumberlandtoday.com/ArticleDisplayGenContent.aspx?e=3532. Retrieved February 3, 2010. 
  30. ^ Canadian Press (August 24, 2007). "Section of 401 to be renamed for fallen". The Record. http://news.therecord.com/News/CanadaWorld/article/232740. Retrieved February 3, 2010. 
  31. ^ a b c Hertz, Barry (July 25, 2007). "Province plans to create 6-lane Highway 401". The National Post. http://network.nationalpost.com/np/blogs/toronto/archive/2007/07/25/province-plans-to-create-six-lane-highway-401.aspx. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 
  32. ^ DRIC study team. "DRIC Reports (Canada)". Detroit River International Crossing Project. http://www.partnershipborderstudy.com/. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  33. ^ DRIC study team. "DRIC Reports (Canada)". Detroit River International Crossing Project. http://www.partnershipborderstudy.com/. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  34. ^ The Windsor Star. "Windsor's 'Garden of Eden'". Canada.com. http://www.canada.com/windsorstar/story.html?id=c2d4a7a3-97cf-42ca-a11a-3dac8bed7d2c. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  35. ^ Cramdon, The Ambassador Bridge, http://sportsbarwindsor.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=4&Itemid=4, retrieved February 26, 2010 
  36. ^ Pearson, Craig (February 14, 2008). "Province buying up land for 401 extension". Windsor Star. p. 1. http://www.canada.com/windsorstar/story.html?id=9ec7a01e-af9f-4e0c-936d-c09f6cf0ef4a&k=49700. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  37. ^ CBC News (November 27, 2009). "Couple worries new parkway will surround their home". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/windsor/story/2009/11/27/windsor-highway-land-fight.html#socialcomments. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  38. ^ Government of Canada (March 3, 2008). "Border transportation partnership reaches milestone". Transport Canada. http://www.tc.gc.ca/mediaroom/releases/nat/2008/08-h063e.htm. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  39. ^ a b Detroit River International Crossing Study team (May 1, 2008). "News Release - The DRIC Announces Preferred Access Road". URS Corporation. http://www.weparkway.ca/NewsRelease.html. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  40. ^ Detroit River International Crossing Study team (May 1, 2008). "Parkway Map". URS Corporation. http://www.weparkway.ca/pdfs/Prelim_Parkway-Rendered_June09(608x2250)2.pdf. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  41. ^ Detroit River International Crossing Study team (July 2009). "Initial Construction". URS Corporation. http://www.weparkway.ca/pdfs/Initial-Construction.pdf. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  42. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (2008). "Borders and Gateways". http://www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/pubs/highway-construction/southern-highway-2008/partE.shtml. Retrieved March 15, 2010. 
  43. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (August 27, 2007). "Contract #: 2007-3043". http://www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/traveller/trip/construction_reports-central.shtml#Contract2007-3043. Retrieved March 14, 2010. 
  44. ^ Chatham This Week (December 5, 2007). "401 widening won't happen for years". Sun Media. http://www.chathamthisweek.com/ArticleDisplay.aspx?archive=true&e=1927687. Retrieved March 15, 2010. 
  45. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (June 26, 2006). "Canada and Ontario Improving Highway 401 in London". Transport Canada. http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/mediaroom/releases-nat-2006-06-h064e-2767.htm. Retrieved March 14, 2010. 
  46. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (July 14, 2008). "Contract #: 2008-3004". http://www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/traveller/trip/construction_reports-central.shtml#Contract2008-3004. Retrieved March 14, 2010. 
  47. ^ a b Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (May 24, 2007). "Ontario’s High Occupancy Vehicle Lane Network: Summary of the Plan for the 400-Series Highways in the Greater Golden Horseshoe". http://www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/traveller/hov/summary2007.htm. Retrieved February 25, 2010. "Figure 2 proposes a vision for “growing the corridors” by building on existing HOV lanes. This involves extending the HOV lanes on Highways 400 and 404 farther north and adding lanes to other key sections such as Highway 401 in Peel Region." 
  48. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (August 19, 2009). "Contract #: 2009-2031". http://www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/traveller/trip/construction_reports-central.shtml#Contract2009-2031. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  49. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (November 30, 2008). "Contract #: 2008-2017". http://www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/traveller/trip/construction_reports-central.shtml#Contract2008-2017. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  50. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (July 22, 2009). "Contract #: 2009-2029". http://www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/traveller/trip/construction_reports-central.shtml#Contract2009-2029. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  51. ^ a b Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (September 7, 2005). "Contract #: 2005-2014". Archived from the original on October 30, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071030015156/http://www.roadinfo.mto.gov.on.ca/english/traveller/construction/maps/Contract.asp?No=2&No=2005-2014+475930000. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  52. ^ durhamregion.com News (September 14, 2007). "Stevenson interchange open". Metroland Media Group. http://newsdurhamregion.com/news/article/85902. Retrieved October 4, 2007. 
  53. ^ Totten Sims Hubiki Associates (August 17, 2009) Highway 407 Environmental Assessment, West Durham Link at Highway 401 . Ministry of Transportation of Ontario, 7. (Report). Retrieved on February 17, 2010.
  54. ^ Totten Sims Hubiki Associates (August 17, 2009) Highway 407 Environmental Assessment, East Durham Link at Highway 401 . Ministry of Transportation of Ontario, 9. (Report). Retrieved on February 17, 2010.
  55. ^ Szekely, Reka (June 30, 2009). "Highway 401 between Ajax and Whitby to be widened". durhamregion.com News. http://www.newsdurhamregion.com/article/129766. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  56. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (October 14, 2008). "Contract #: 2008-4006". http://www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/traveller/trip/construction_reports-eastern.shtml#Contract2008-4006. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  57. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (November 9, 2009). "Contract #: 2009-4003". http://www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/traveller/trip/construction_reports-eastern.shtml#Contract2009-4003. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  58. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (September 13, 2008). "Contract #: 2008-4009". http://www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/traveller/trip/construction_reports-eastern.shtml#Contract2008-4009. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  59. ^ Ministry of Transportation. Official Ontario road map [map]. (2003) Section T20. Retrieved on February 27, 2010.
  60. ^ a b c d e f Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (February 18, 2010). "Ontario Service Centres FAQ". http://www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/traveller/service-centres/questions-and-answers.shtml#three. Retrieved February 27, 2010. 
  61. ^ Ministry of Transportation. Official Ontario road map [map]. (2003) Section S21. Retrieved on February 27, 2010.
  62. ^ Ministry of Transportation. Official Ontario road map [map]. (2003) Section R23. Retrieved on February 27, 2010.
  63. ^ Rivers, Heather (February 27, 2010). "Planned renovation means temporary closure". Woodstock: Sentinel-Review. http://www.woodstocksentinelreview.com/ArticleDisplay.aspx?e=2468496&auth=HEATHER%20RIVERS,%20SENTINEL-REVIEW. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  64. ^ Ministry of Transportation. Official Ontario road map [map]. (2003) Section R24. Retrieved on February 27, 2010.
  65. ^ Ministry of Transportation. Official Ontario road map [map]. (2003) Section Q27. Retrieved on February 27, 2010.
  66. ^ Ministry of Transportation. Official Ontario road map [map]. (2003) Section Q28. Retrieved on February 27, 2010.
  67. ^ Ministry of Transportation. Official Ontario road map [map]. (2003) Section Q28. Retrieved on February 27, 2010.
  68. ^ a b Ministry of Transportation. Official Ontario road map [map]. (2003) Section P31. Retrieved on February 27, 2010.
  69. ^ Ministry of Transportation. Official Ontario road map [map]. (2003) Section O–P33. Retrieved on February 27, 2010.
  70. ^ Ministry of Transportation. Official Ontario road map [map]. (2003) Section O34. Retrieved on February 27, 2010.
  71. ^ Ministry of Transportation. Official Ontario road map [map]. (2003) Section N36. Retrieved on February 27, 2010.
  72. ^ a b c {{{publisher}}}. Macdonald-Cartier Freeway (Highway 401) [map]. (1967) Retrieved on February 4, 2010.
  73. ^ Department of Highways, Ontario. Ontario King's Highway 401 [map]. (1964) Retrieved on February 4, 2010.
  74. ^ Rolph-Clark-Stone Limited, Metropolitan Toronto and Vicinity, from the map of Ontario, published 1964 by Shell Oil
  75. ^ H.M. Gousha Company, Toronto and Vicinity, from the map of Ontario, published 1972 by Texaco

External links


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