Hindkowans: Wikis

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Hindkowans
Total population
3,941,176[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Pakistan:
   3,940,000[2]

 India: 4,394[3][4]

Languages

Hindko, Mirpuri, Punjabi

Religion

Islam (predominantly Sunni),[5] Christian minority estimated at 2%,[6] and Hindu & Sikh minority of indeterminate size[7][8]

Related ethnic groups

Punjabi people, Seraiki people, other neighboring Indo-Aryan peoples

Hindkowans (Hindko: هِندکوان (Shahmukhi), हिन्दकोवान (Devanagari), ਹਿੰਦਕੋਵਾਨ (Gurmukhi)) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group native to the North-West Frontier Province and Punjab provinces of Pakistan and the Jammu and Kashmir state of India.[4] However, an indeterminate number have left the region and now live in other parts of South Asia.[9]

Hindkowans speak Hindko, a Lahnda language that is primary in northern Punjab.[10] In Afghanistan, a group of Hindus still continue to speak Hindko and are referred to as Hindki.[11][12]

Contents

Religion

Hindkowans, like other Indo-Aryan peoples originally practiced Hinduism; for this reason, the term "Hindko" itself is defined as the "language of the Hindus."[13] As such, there are a number of Hindu Hindkowans.[14][15][16][17][18] Some of these Hindu Hindkowans are traders and over time, have settled in areas as far as Kalat, Balochistan.[19][20] Other Hindu Hindkowans migrated to India from their native region of Sarhad after the partition of India in 1947.[9] During the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent, which took place from the 12th century A.D. onwards, many of the Hindkowans converted to Islam. Today, most of the Hindkowan population is Sunni Muslim.[5] Later, with the spread of Sikhism and the rise of the Sikh Empire beginning in the eighteenth century A.D., some Hindkowans, both Hindu & Muslim, became Sikhs.[14][15][16][17][18] Like the Hindus, many Sikh Hindkowans migrated to Hindustan after the partition of India in 1947.[9]

Origin

H.A. Rose, author of Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier has defined Hindkowans or Hindkis as follows:

Hindki, a generic term, half contemptuous, applied to all Muhammadans who being of Hindu origin speak Hindko and have been converted to Islam in comparatively recent times. In Bannu the term usually denotes an Awan or Jat cultivator, but in a wider sense it includes all Muhammadans who talk Hindi, Panjabi or any other dialect derived from them.[21]

The NWFP Imperial Gazetteer (1905) regularly refers to their language as Hindko, which means "Indian mountains."[22] According to the publication Hindko and Gujari:

"More than one interpretation has been offered for the term Hindko. Some associate it with India, others with Hindu people, and still others with the Indus."[23][24]

Hindkowans who are sometimes referred to as Punjabi Pathans, but this nomenclature is totally incorrect as Pathans are people of the NWFP and parts of Afghanistan; a Punjabi is anyone from the region of Punjab; therefore a person living in the NWFP and linguistically Hindkowan cannot be termed a Pathan. However, this term of Punjabi Pathan can only be more correctly used to refer to Afghan/Pashtoon/Pathan tribes settled in Punjab, for example the Niazis of Mianwali and speak Seraiki language and those living in Attock district of Punjab who speak Hindko and Pashtu language. Those who are Afghans /Arabs/Turks/Pashtuns/ by origin and race, and are often converts of often practice customs which are not different from Muslims originally from the region.

Long before the partition of India, Grierson, in the Linguistic Survey of India, employed the term Hindko to mean "the language of Hindus" (viii, 1:34).[10] Farigh Bukhari and South Asian language expert and historian Christopher Shackle believe that Hindko was a generic term applied to the Indo-Aryan dialect continuum in the Pakistani northwest frontier territories and the adjacent district of Attock in the Punjab, Pakistan province to differentiate it in function and form from Pashto. Linguists classify the language into the Indic group.

Demographics

There are no fresh and authentic figures on the speakers of Hindko language. However, according to indirect method of household rate employed in the 4th Population Census of 1981, an estimated 2.4 per cent of the total population of Pakistan and estimated 27 per cent of NWFP speak Hindko as their mother language, with more rural than urban households reporting Hindko as their household language.No information was gathered on the Hindko language in the 5th Population Census carried out in 1998 as Hindko language column was removed from the census form much to the dismay of Hindkowans.

The largest geographically contiguous group of Hindko-speakers is concentrated in the districts of Peshawar, Abbottabad, Kohat, Attock District, Nowshera, Haripur, Mansehra and Mardan of Pakistan

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Tribal Communities

People here tend to associate themselves with larger families instead of a language as it was formerly known) like the Maliar, the Paracha, the Awan, the Sarrara, the Gujar, the Gakhar, the Dhund Abbasi, and the Karlal. People who speak Hindko are referred to by some academics as Pathans[citation needed] probably because many ethnic people, for example Mashwanis, Tareens, Swatis, Tahirkhelis, Tanolis,Dilazaks, Jadoons, Alizai, Khattak ,Barakzai, Kakar,Umerzai, and Yousafzai who settled in Districts like Abbotabad, Haripur and Mansehra, adopted Hindko as their first language and had gained political power in these areas during the British rule and also because of many ethnic Pushtun people who speak Hindko as their first language in Peshawar and Kohat[citation needed]. It is important to mention that Awan tribe of this region is somewhat similar with other Pashtun tribes of area because it also came from Arabia through Afghanistan and settled in such territories of Pashtun belt and have equal characteristics. The Hindko speaking people living in major cities Peshawar, Kohat, Nowshera and chhachh area of Attock are bilingual in Pashto and Hindko.[citation needed] Similarly many Pashto speaking people in districts like Mansehra especially in Agror Valley and northern Tanawal (Shergarh), have become bilingual in Pashto and Hindko.[citation needed]7

Distribution

The speakers of Hindko live primarily in seven districts in NWFP: Mansehra, Mardan, Abbottabad, Haripur, Peshawar, Nowshera and Kohat in NWFP, as well as the Attock and Rawalpindi districts in the Punjab and parts of Kashmir; Jonathan Addleton states that Hindko is the most significant linguistic minority in the NWFP, represented in nearly one-fifth of the province's total households." In Abbotabad, 98 per cent of households reported speaking Hindko, in Mansehra District 50 per cent, in Haripur District around 65 per cent, in Peshawar District 5 per cent, and in Kohat District 10 per cent (1986).[citation needed] Testing of inherent intelligibility among Hindko dialects through the use of recorded tests has shown that there is a northern (Hazara) dialect group and a southern group. The southern dialects are more widely understood throughout the dialect network than are the northern dialects. The dialects of rural Peshawar and Talagang are the most widely understood of the dialects tested. The dialect of Balakot is the least widely understood.

Bilingualism

In most Hindko-speaking areas, speakers of Pashto live in the same or neighbouring communities (although this is less true in Abbottabad and Kaghan Valley than elsewhere). In the mixed areas, many people speak both languages. The relationship between Hindko and Pashto is not one of stable bilingualism.

Notable Hindkowans

See also

Kapoor Family of Indian films and khans of the indian film industry mostly from hindko speaking area of NWFp

References

  1. ^ Joshua Project: Hindkowan people: total population found by adding all Hindko speakers
  2. ^ Ethnologue: Languages of Pakistan
  3. ^ Abstract of speakers’ strength of languages and mother tongues – 2001, Census of India (retrieved 19 March 2008)
  4. ^ a b "Hindko, Northern speakers in India". The Joshua Project. http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rop3=104709&rog3=IN. Retrieved 2007-09-09. 
  5. ^ a b "Hindko, Southern". SIL International. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hnd. Retrieved 2008-08-17. 
  6. ^ Hindko Home: Religious Division
  7. ^ Kapoor Family: Prithviraj Kapoor
  8. ^ Himal South Asian: Elsewhere
  9. ^ a b c "Peshawarites still remember the Kapoor family". Daily Times. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_29-12-2003_pg7_25. Retrieved 2007-09-14. 
  10. ^ a b "LAHNDA". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/KRO_LAP/LAHNDA_properly_Lahnda_or_Lahin.html. Retrieved 2008-08-17. 
  11. ^ "Hindki". Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/PAS_PER/HINDKI.html. Retrieved 2007-09-14. 
  12. ^ "Ethnologue Report for Hindko". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hno. Retrieved 2007-09-14. 
  13. ^ "The Encyclopædia britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, Volume 16". The Encyclopædia Britannica Company. http://books.google.com/books?id=OvYtAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA80&dq=hindko+hindu&cd=6#v=onepage&q=hindko%20hindu&f=false. Retrieved 2008-08-17. "Lahnda is also spoken in the north of the state of Bahawalpur and of the province of Sind, in which latter locality it is known as Siraiki. Its western boundary is, roughly speaking, the river Indus, across which the language of the Afghan population is Pashto (Pushtu), while the Hindu settlers still speak Landha. In the Derajat, however, Lahnda, is the principal language of all classes in the plains west of the river. Lahnda is also known as Western Panjabi and as Jatki, or the language of the Jats, who form the bulk of the population whose mother tongue it is. In the Derajat it is called Hindko or the language of the Hindus." 
  14. ^ a b "Papers in language and linguistics, Volume 1". Bahri Publications. http://books.google.com/books?id=_yliAAAAMAAJ&q=hindko+hindus&dq=hindko+hindus&cd=6. Retrieved 2008-08-17. "Essentially, what has occurred is an occupation by Pashto-speaking Pathans of key areas in the urban economy of the province which before 1947 were traditionally exercised by Hindko- speaking Hindus and Sikhs." 
  15. ^ a b "Language forum, Volume 9". Bahri Publications. http://books.google.com/books?id=ezw4AAAAIAAJ&q=hindko+hindus&dq=hindko+hindus&cd=4. Retrieved 2008-08-17. "Essentially, what has occurred is an occupation by Pashto-speaking Pathans of key areas in the urban economy of the province which before 1947 were traditionally exercised by Hindko- speaking Hindus and Sikhs." 
  16. ^ a b "The rise and development of Urdu and the importance of regional languages in Pakistan". Christian Study Centre. http://books.google.com/books?id=MskbAAAAIAAJ&q=hindko+hindus&dq=hindko+hindus&cd=9. Retrieved 2008-08-17. "to Hindko is the most significant linguistic minority in the NWFP, ... to an influx of Pashtuns replacing the Hindko-speaking Sikhs and Hindus who ..." 
  17. ^ a b "Journal of Asian history, Volumes 35-36". O. Harrassowitz. http://books.google.com/books?id=naMUAQAAIAAJ&q=sikh+hindko&dq=sikh+hindko&cd=4. Retrieved 2008-08-17. "The real opposition to Pashto came, however, from the speakers of Hindko. A large number of Sikhs and Hindus, all speaking Hindko, lived in the cities of N.W.F.P. and had a voice in the legislative assembly, this was often perceived as the non-Muslim opposition to Pashto." 
  18. ^ a b "Language, ideology and power: language learning among the Muslims of Pakistan and North India". Oxford University Press. http://books.google.com/books?id=kjZiAAAAMAAJ&q=sikh+hindko&dq=sikh+hindko&cd=10. Retrieved 2008-08-17. "The real opposition to Pashto came, however, from the speakers of Hindko. A large number of Sikhs and Hindus, all speaking Hindko, lived in the cities of N.W.F.P. and had a voice in the legislative assembly, this was often perceived as the non-Muslim opposition to Pashto." 
  19. ^ "The social organization of the Marri Baluch". Indus Publications. http://books.google.com/books?id=K3pCAAAAYAAJ&q=kalat+hindko+hindu&dq=kalat+hindko+hindu&cd=1. Retrieved 2008-08-17. "...is in the hands of a small caste of Hindu merchants. These Hindus are Hindko-speaking and regard Kalat as their homeland, where they generally keep their families and go for some months every year to visit and to obtain supplies. While in the Marri area, they must be under the protection of a local Marri chief or the sardar himself." 
  20. ^ "Viking fund publications in anthropology, Issue 43". Viking Fund. http://books.google.com/books?id=yuyZAAAAIAAJ&q=kalat+hindu+merchants+marri&dq=kalat+hindu+merchants+marri&cd=6. Retrieved 2008-08-17. "...is in the hands of a small caste of Hindu merchants. These Hindus are Hindko-speaking and regard Kalat as their homeland, where they generally keep their families and go for some months every year to visit and to obtain supplies. While in the Marri area, they must be under the protection of a local Marri chief or the sardar himself." 
  21. ^ A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West provinces, compiled by H A Rose, vol II Page 333
  22. ^ "Hindko in Kohat and Peshawar". Cambridge University Press. http://www.jstor.org/sici?sici=0041-977X(1980)43:3%3C482:HIKAP%3E2.0.CO;2-M&cookieSet=1. Retrieved 2007-09-09. 
  23. ^ "Hindko and Gujari: Volume 3 of Sociolinguistic survey of northern Pakistan". National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University. http://books.google.com/books?id=4n91AAAAIAAJ&q=hindu+hindko&dq=hindu+hindko&cd=1. Retrieved 2007-09-09. "More than one interpretation has been offered for the term Hindko. Some associate it with India, others with Hindu people, and still others with the Indus." 
  24. ^ "Grierson Linguistic Survey of India". Overseas Pakistanis Foundation. http://www.opf.org.pk/almanac/L/languages.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-09. 
  25. ^ "Heroic villain: An informative and entertaining biography of a daredevil Pathan.". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/mag/2005/01/09/stories/2005010900450400.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 
  26. ^ The Frontier Post: Hindko journal issue on Dilip brought out
  27. ^ Bite the Mango Film Festival '04: Dilip Kumar - Pure Gold
  28. ^ Upperstall: Dilip Kumar

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