Hiragana: Wikis

  
  

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Hiragana
ひらがな
ひ 教科書体.svg
Type syllabary
Spoken languages Japanese and Okinawan
Time period ~800 A.D. to the present
Parent systems
Sister systems katakana, hentaigana
Unicode range U+3040-U+309F
ISO 15924 Hira
.Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.^ Pages above the hiragana page contain punctuation, symbols, and other similar characters.
  • JWPce Manual - Entering Text 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.physics.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This page contains brief discussions of issues that may be of interest to our customers.
  • Boca Systems - Ghostwriter News 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.bocasystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note: To view this page properly you may need to select "Encoding" of "Japanese (EUC)" [ show me how!
  • Sakura Saku: lyrics, transcription, translation, hiragana, kanji 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC lyberty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hiragana (平仮名, ひらがな or ヒラガナ?) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and the Latin alphabet (Rōmaji.^ Contact Hiragana, 平仮名 Hiragana, one of the three writing systems in Japanese, contains 46 basic characters.
  • Japanese in 20 weeks > Basics >> Hiragana 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.japanesein20weeks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hiragana is one of the two phonetic Japanese syllabaries.
  • Glossary of Japanese Terms 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.takase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese has three alphabets: Chinese characters or kanji (漢字), hiragana (ひらがな) and katakana (カタカナ).

) .Hiragana and katakana are both kana systems, in which each character represents one mora.^ Both the hiragana and katakana character sets are included with 104 items each.
  • Download Hiragana & Katakana for Mac - Learn the Japanese syllabary character sets. MacUpdate Mac Software Downloads 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.macupdate.com [Source type: General]

^ Hiragana and Katakana Characters Explained (includes full kana charts) the .
  • the Hiragana and Katakana Characters Explained (includes full kana charts) 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.bitboost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each katakana character represents a phonetic syllable.
  • Double-Byte Character Sets in Windows 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC msdn.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

.Each kana is either a vowel such as "a" (); a consonant followed by a vowel such as "ka" (); or "n" (), a nasal sonorant which, depending on the context, sounds either like English m, n, or ng (IPA: [ŋ]), or like the nasal vowels of French.^ Note that for katakana, there are a couple differences to learn, such as how to support foreign sounds like "va."
  • Practice your Hiragana with Image::Magick 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.perlmonks.org [Source type: General]

^ The rest are syllables combined by one of these vowels with a consonant (ka ki ku ke ko ra ri ru re ro...

^ "Oh" Most of the consonants are pronounced like in English, the exceptions being f and r .
  • Picofarad #8: Write Your Name in Japanese 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.bidalaka.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hiragana are used for words for which there are no kanji, including particles such as kara から "from", and suffixes such as ~san さん "Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms." Hiragana are also used in words for which the kanji form is not known to the writer or readers, or is too formal for the writing purpose. .Verb and adjective inflections, as, for example, be-ma-shi-ta (べました) in tabemashita (食べました?, "ate"), are written in hiragana.^ There is an example of "I understand - wakari ma su" and "I undersood - wakari ma shi ta".
  • Japanese Podcasting Lessons: Learn to speak Japanese and write Kanji symbols 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC learn-japanese.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Forget your English and say To-Yo-Ta, Ka-Wa-Sa-Ki, Ma-Tsu-Shi-Ta.
  • Overview of the Japanese Language to Help You Learn Japanese 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.transparent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kanji represents blocks of meaning (nouns, stems of adjectives and verbs) and hiragana expresses the grammatical relationship between them (endings of adjectives and verbs, particles).

.In this case, part of the root is also written in kanji.^ But be aware that many written words are part kanji and part hiragana.
  • Katakana Stroke Order - Yahoo! Widgets 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC widgets.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Katakana Stroke Order - Yahoo! Widgets 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC widgets.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Kanji are used for the core parts of a sentence: nouns and the root forms of verbs and adjectives.
  • Tim's Takamatsu - A Bit of the Language 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.timwerx.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In some happy cases, a kanji combo is hit upon where both sound and meaning are appropriate, as in "laser," written "thunder-shoot" and pronounced lei-she.
  • http://www.kanjiclinic.com/kc34final.htm 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.kanjiclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hiragana are also used to give the pronunciation of kanji in a reading aid called furigana.^ Giving the pronunciation of kanji for readers who may not know them (used like this, hiragana are called furigana ).
  • Hiragana - Japan Reference 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When used in this role, Hiragana are known as 'Furigana'.
  • Japanese kanji, hiragana, katakana, Japanese alphabets 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.futureimplications.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Katakana is also used I think because the traditional use of katakana is to assist in pronunciation (in Buddhist texts called kanamajiri) While the current 'readings'(furigana) are in a sense 'pronunciations' written in hiragana, I think that this is because katakana is emphatic (per Brian's post) and to use it for furigana is akin to saying 'hey, I know you don't understand this' rather than 'for the one or two of you who don't know how this is read...'
  • languagehat.com: NAMES IN KATAKANA. 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.languagehat.com [Source type: General]

.The article Japanese writing system discusses in detail when the various systems of writing are used.^ The Japanese writing system .
  • Chinese characters, literacy, and the Japanese model 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.kh.rim.or.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese writing systems (kanji and hiragana ).
  • hiragana times ebook Download 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.toodoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Which writing system is used in children's books?

.There are two main systems of ordering hiragana, the old-fashioned iroha ordering, and the more prevalent gojūon ordering.^ THE JAPANESE WRITING SYSTEM: Written Japanese is a mix of two syllabaries, Hiragana and Katakana (known collectively as 'kana') and a score of ideographs originally borrowed from Chinese (known as 'Kanji').
  • Genshiken.UCT Anime Club - katakana and hiragana book 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.genshiken.uct.ac.za [Source type: General]

^ Nuku is a personal Japanese tutor, teaching you the two native Japanese writing systems, hiragana and katakana.
  • Hiragana Tiles 1.0 Freeware Download - Game teaching Japanese Hiragana symbols 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.rocketdownload.com [Source type: General]
  • Hiragana - Free Download at Rocket Download 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.rocketdownload.com [Source type: General]

^ The Japanese Writing System and Japanese Characters Japanese has an extremely complicated writing system, consisting of two sets of phonetic syllabaries called the hiragana and katakana .
  • Overview of the Japanese Language to Help You Learn Japanese 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.transparent.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Writing system

.Hiragana consists of a basic set of characters: five singular vowels, 39 distinct consonant-vowel unions and one singular consonant.^ Hiragana has 46 basic characters.
  • How to Speak Japanese 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

^ Hiragana consists of the characters below: Katakana .
  • Japanese characters - hiragana, katakana, kanji, romaji 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.gpuss.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first five characters of both hiragana and katakana are the vowels a , i , u , e , o .

Additionally, を wo is included (although pronounced the same as vowel お o, [o]), bringing up the total count of common use characters to 46.
.These basic characters can be modified in various ways.^ The hiragana consist of a basic set of characters, the gojūon (五十音, literally "fifty sounds", but only 45 are in common use today), which can be modified as follows: .
  • Hiragana - Japan Reference 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soft constanent Variants: These are made from the characters above to produce sounds like "Ba" and "Pa" and "Za".

^ Hiragana Basic Videos:  In these videos you will learn how to pronounce each character with Kaoru Sensei as she  introduces you to the 46 Hiragana characters.
  • Read Hiragana 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC readhiragana.com [Source type: General]

.By adding a dakuten marker ( ゛), a voiceless consonant is turned into a voiced consonant: kg, sz, td, and hb.^ The same rules for voicing hiragana apply to katakana, with the exception of the ウ, which can be voiced and has been used in the past when words with a "v" in them were turned into a gairaigo, such as "violin" becoming ヴァイオリン.
  • 日本語資源 - Nihongoresources.com 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.nihongoresources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two diagonal dashes placed on the upper right corner of a sign starting with /k/, /s/, or /t/ turns the voiceless consonant into a voiced one.

.Hiragana beginning with an h can also add a handakuten marker ( ゜) changing the h to a p.^ Adding a handakuten (半濁点) marker ゜ changes h → p .
  • Hiragana - Japan Reference 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A small version of the hiragana for ya, yu or yo (ゃ, ゅ or ょ respectively) may be added to hiragana ending in i.^ Adding a small version of the hiragana for ya , yu or yo (ゃ, ゅ or ょ respectively) changes a preceding i vowel sound to a glide palatalization.
  • Hiragana - Japan Reference 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next set has only 3 hiragana: ya, yu, and yo.
  • Writing Japanese Hiragana: With Romaji Equivalent Spellings and Pronunciation 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC learning-japanese.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Writing Japanese Dakuten & Glides Quotation-like dakuten (ten-ten), the circle handakuten (maru) and small y-set hiragana are added to appropriate hiragana to produce alternate pronunciations.

.This changes the i vowel sound to a glide (palatalization) to a, u or o.^ In this example, the change in vowel sound in the first and second syllables needs highlighting, as most students will pronounce "salad" with an identical vowel in each syllable.
  • The Language Teacher Online 21.01: Katakana is not English 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.jalt-publications.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Adding a small version of the hiragana for ya , yu or yo (ゃ, ゅ or ょ respectively) changes a preceding i vowel sound to a glide palatalization.
  • Hiragana - Japan Reference 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Palatization (adding a "y" sound between an initial consonant and a vowel: e.g.
  • Japanese Writing Systems 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Addition of the small y kana is called yōon.
.A small tsu っ, called a sokuon, indicates that the following consonant is geminated (doubled).^ A small tsu っ indicates a glottal stop.
  • Hiragana - Japan Reference 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is represented in romaji by doubling the following consonant.
  • Hiragana - Japan Reference 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Think of it as a large intro, as there are still a few odds and ends (such as the small tsu, which marks a double consonant) that I have not fully discussed here.
  • Genshiken.UCT Anime Club - katakana and hiragana book 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.genshiken.uct.ac.za [Source type: General]

For example, compare さか saka 'hill' with さっか sakka 'author'. It also sometimes appears at the end of utterances, where it denotes a glottal stop. .However, it cannot be used to double the na, ni, nu, ne, no syllables' consonants - to double them, the singular n (ん) is added in front of the syllable.^ Finally, for some consonant/vowel combinations still not covered, you can use other syllables plus the a - i - u - e - o series, as indicated in the table below.
  • Picofarad #8: Write Your Name in Japanese 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.bidalaka.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Japanese syllables can be approximated in western languages by combining a consonant sound with a vowel sound, using the following five vowels: .
  • 日本語資源 - Nihongoresources.com 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.nihongoresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, when followed by a consonant, it assimilates into the preceding vowel, which is doubled in length: .
  • Picofarad #8: Write Your Name in Japanese 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.bidalaka.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example さんにん sannin 'three people'.
.Hiragana usually spells long vowels with the addition of a second vowel kana.^ If you have more than one vowel in a row or a vowel sound that ends in / r /, it usually becomes a long vowel sound.
  • Katakana Exercises - Tae Kim's Japanese grammar guide 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.guidetojapanese.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These methods of writing long vowels apply for katakana as well as for hiragana, even though the examples above happen to be hiragana.
  • the Hiragana and Katakana Characters Explained (includes full kana charts) 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.bitboost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, while the / e / vowel sound followed by 「い」 is usually considered to a long vowel sound, the pronunciation is actually a slurred connection of the / e / and / i / vowel sounds.

.The chōon (long vowel mark) (ー) used in katakana is rarely used with hiragana, for example in the word らーめん, rāmen, but this usage is considered non-standard.^ Usage of hiragana/katakana .
  • Anime Web Turnpike - Web Forums - Usage of hiragana/katakana 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC forum.anipike.com [Source type: General]

^ Katakana used to emphasis a paticular word.
  • Anime Web Turnpike - Web Forums - Usage of hiragana/katakana 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC forum.anipike.com [Source type: General]

^ Japanese words in both Hiragana and Katakana.
  • Read Japanese | Learn how to read real Japanese - learnhundreds of Japanese words, phrases and kanji characters 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC readjapanesefast.com [Source type: General]

.In informal writing, small versions of the five vowel kana are sometimes used to represent trailing off sounds (はぁ , ねぇ ).^ The symbol of " " is used when lengthening a vowel sound.
  • Japanese Language & Characters - Hiragana, Katakana, Kanji 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.saiga-jp.com [Source type: Reference]

^ There are ways to represent other sounds with hiragana, using minuscule versions of the five vowel kana.
  • Hiragana - Japan Reference 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The decision to resolve these deficiencies were to add small versions of the five vowel sounds.

Table of hiragana

.The following table shows hiragana together with their Hepburn romanization and IPA pronunciation in the gojūon order.^ This animated Widget shows the proper stroke order for writing the 47 basic Japanese Hiragana characters (one of the two syllabic alphabets).
  • Hiragana Stroke Order - Yahoo! Widgets 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC widgets.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hiragana Stroke Order - Yahoo! Widgets 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC widgets.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hiragana consist of a basic set of characters, the gojūon (五十音, literally "fifty sounds", but only 45 are in common use today), which can be modified as follows: .
  • Hiragana - Japan Reference 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Joe Tomei in the comments has provided an excellent Hiragana & Katakana site that has tables showing more features and forms of both systems than I ever knew existed.
  • languagehat.com: NAMES IN KATAKANA. 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.languagehat.com [Source type: General]

Hiragana with dakuten or handakuten follow the gojūon kana without them, with the yōon kana following. .Obsolete and normally unused kana are shown in gray.^ Obsolete kana are shown in red .
  • Hiragana - Japan Reference 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For all syllables besides ん, the pronunciation indicated is for word-initial syllables, for mid-word pronunciations see below.^ Because of what we chose as romanisation, it's also sometimes called the "double consonant" marker, but this isn't really right, because you can use it in writing without anything following it at all, to indicate a glottal stop (like in the stopping mid-word situation), and it never "doubles" な or ま column syllables, which is explained in the next bit: .
  • 日本語資源 - Nihongoresources.com 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.nihongoresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Furigana are hiragana printed in a small size next to kanji in order to indicate how that character should be read (see image below).
  • Chinese characters, literacy, and the Japanese model 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.kh.rim.or.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, for some consonant/vowel combinations still not covered, you can use other syllables plus the a - i - u - e - o series, as indicated in the table below.
  • Picofarad #8: Write Your Name in Japanese 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.bidalaka.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the middle of words, the g sound (normally [ɡ]) often turns into a velar nasal [ŋ] and less often (although increasing recently) into the velar fricative [ɣ].^ Although there are many ways to write the same word in Japanese kanji, today's Japanese kanji symbol is often used in books, or magazines, especially with the historical story.

An exception to this is numerals; 15 juugo is considered to be one word, but is pronounced as if it was juu and go stacked end to end: [d͡ʑu͍ːɡo].
.Additionally, the j sound (normally [d͡ʑ]) can be pronounced [ʑ] in the middle of words.^ In addition, listening to the native Japanese voice will help you understand the way the words are pronounced.
  • Read Japanese | Learn how to read real Japanese - learnhundreds of Japanese words, phrases and kanji characters 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC readjapanesefast.com [Source type: General]

For example すうじ suuji [su͍ːʑi] 'number'.
The singular n is pronounced [n] before t, ch, ts, n, r, z, j and d, [m] before m, b and p, [ŋ] before k and g, [ɴ] at the end of utterances, [ũ͍] before vowels, palatal approximants (y), consonants s, sh, h, f and w, and finally [ĩ] after the vowel i if another vowel, palatal approximant or consonant s, sh, h, f or w follows.
.In kanji readings, the diphthongs ou and ei are today usually pronounced [oː] (long o) and [eː] (long e) respectively.^ Today's Japanese kanji is King, and it is pronounced as Ou.

.For example とうきょう toukyou is pronounced [toːkʲoː] 'Tokyo', and せんせい sensei is [seũ͍seː] 'teacher'. However, とう tou is pronounced [tou͍] 'to inquire', because the o and u are considered distinct, u being the infinitive verb ending.^ So I’d stop reading certain sites and go searching for others because I still wanted to read and learn more, but the new sites usually ended up being negative too.
  • Japan it UP! - a blog by an American living in Japan 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.japanitup.com [Source type: General]

Similarly, している shiteiru is pronounced [ɕiteiɾu͍] 'is doing'.
.For a more thorough discussion on the sounds of Japanese, please refer to Japanese phonology.^ Lindsey For more information about Japanese symbols and kanji tattoo design pictures , please click the link.

^ For more information about today's Japanese lesson, please also visit our New Japanese dictionary website.
  • Japanese Podcasting Lessons: Learn to speak Japanese and write Kanji symbols 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC learn-japanese.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For more information, please go to 100% accurate Japanese symbol translation for kanji tattoo design .

Spelling rules

.With a few exceptions for sentence particles は, を, and へ (pronounced as wa, o, and e), and a few other arbitrary rules, Japanese is phonemically orthographic.^ Today's Japanese podcasting lesson is to teach you about the particles and sentence order of Japanese language.
  • Japanese Podcasting Lessons: Learn to speak Japanese and write Kanji symbols 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC learn-japanese.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This has not always been the case: a previous system of spelling, now referred to as historical kana usage, had many spelling rules; the exceptions in modern usage are the legacy of that system.^ As an example, the first Japanese word processor to use the modern kana-kanji text entry system was the Toshiba JW-10 .
  • GT!Blog » Why Japan didn’t create the iPod 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC blog.gatunka.com [Source type: General]

The exact spelling rules are referred to as kanazukai (仮名遣い?).
There are two hiragana pronounced ji (じ and ぢ) and two hiragana pronounced zu (ず and づ). These pairs are not interchangeable. Usually, ji is written as じ and zu is written as ず. There are some exceptions. .If the first two syllables of a word consist of one syllable without a dakuten and the same syllable with a dakuten, the same hiragana is used to write the sounds.^ As an example, the first Japanese word processor to use the modern kana-kanji text entry system was the Toshiba JW-10 .
  • GT!Blog » Why Japan didn’t create the iPod 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC blog.gatunka.com [Source type: General]

^ Hiragana Normally, when we write "respect" in Japanese, we use kanji symbols.

^ However, as you might know, there are different ways to write the same word in Japanese, and it really depends on context.

For example chijimeru ('to boil down' or 'to shrink') is spelled ちぢめる and tsuzuku ('to continue') is つづく. .For compound words where the dakuten reflects rendaku voicing, the original hiragana is used.^ Visit our official website at: http://www.learn-japanese-kanji-hiragana-katakana.com/ Japanese words used in a hair salon Send to Friends .
  • Japanese Podcasting Lessons: Learn to speak Japanese and write Kanji symbols 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC learn-japanese.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, chi ( 'blood') is spelled ち in plain hiragana. When hana ('nose') and chi ('blood') combine to make hanaji 鼻血 'nose bleed'), the sound of 血 changes from chi to ji. So hanaji is spelled はなぢ according to ち: the basic hiragana used to transcribe . Similarly, tsukau (使う/遣う; 'to use') is spelled つかう in hiragana, so kanazukai (仮名遣い; 'kana use', or 'kana orthography') is spelled かなづかい in hiragana.
.However, this does not apply when kanji are used phonetically to write words which do not relate directly to the meaning of the kanji (see also ateji).^ We use two kanji symbols to write.
  • Japanese Podcasting Lessons: Learn to speak Japanese and write Kanji symbols 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC learn-japanese.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was surprised to see the word akari was not used...

^ As an example, the first Japanese word processor to use the modern kana-kanji text entry system was the Toshiba JW-10 .
  • GT!Blog » Why Japan didn’t create the iPod 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC blog.gatunka.com [Source type: General]

.The Japanese word for 'lightning', for example, is inazuma (稲妻).^ As an example, the first Japanese word processor to use the modern kana-kanji text entry system was the Toshiba JW-10 .
  • GT!Blog » Why Japan didn’t create the iPod 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC blog.gatunka.com [Source type: General]

The component means 'rice plant', is written いな in hiragana and is pronounced: ina. The component means 'wife' and is pronounced tsuma (つま) when written in isolation—or frequently as zuma (ずま) when it features after another syllable. .Neither of these components have anything to do with 'lightning', but together they do when they compose the word for 'lightning'. In this case, the default spelling in hiragana いなずま rather than いなづま is used.^ The reason for this is because a lot of our in class learning was done through reading rather than learning a group of words.
  • Read Japanese | Learn how to read real Japanese - learnhundreds of Japanese words, phrases and kanji characters 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC readjapanesefast.com [Source type: General]

^ When we use the term " Other Information ", we mean any information other than Personal Information collected by the Site (Personal Information and Other Information, together, the " Information ").
  • Japanese Lessons - Learn Katakana 5 | SPIKE 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ We use both hiragana and kanji scripts to write overcome in Japanese, and they are four Japanese symbols.

Officially, ぢ and づ do not occur word-initially. .There were words such as ぢばん jiban 'ground' in the historical kana usage, but they were unified under じ in the modern kana usage in 1946, so today it is spelled exclusively じばん.^ As an example, the first Japanese word processor to use the modern kana-kanji text entry system was the Toshiba JW-10 .
  • GT!Blog » Why Japan didn’t create the iPod 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC blog.gatunka.com [Source type: General]

^ Although there are many ways to write the same word in Japanese kanji, today's Japanese kanji symbol is often used in books, or magazines, especially with the historical story.

However, づら zura 'wig' (from かつら katsura) and づけ zuke (an obscure sushi term for lean tuna nigiri) are examples of word-initial づ today. Some people write the word for hemorrhoids as ぢ (normally じ) for the sake of emphasis.
.No standard Japanese words begin with the kana ん (n).^ As an example, the first Japanese word processor to use the modern kana-kanji text entry system was the Toshiba JW-10 .
  • GT!Blog » Why Japan didn’t create the iPod 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC blog.gatunka.com [Source type: General]

This is the basis of the word game shiritori. ん n is normally treated as its own syllable and is separate from the other N based kana. A notable exception to this is the colloquial negative verb conjugation; for example わからない wakaranai meaning "[I] don't understand" is rendered as わからん wakaran. It is however not a contraction of the former, but instead comes from the classic negative verb conjugation ぬ nu (わからぬ wakaranu).
ん is sometimes directly followed by a vowel (a, i, u, e or o) or a palatal approximant (ya, yu or yo). These are clearly distinct from the na, ni etc. syllables, and there are minimal pairs such as きんえん kin'en 'smoking forbidden', きねん kinen 'commemoration', きんねん kinnen 'recent years'. In Hepburn romanization, they are distinguished with an apostrophe, but not all romanization methods make the distinction. For example past prime minister Junichiro Koizumi's first name is actually じゅんいちろう Jun'ichirō pronounced [d͡ʑu͍ũ͍it͡ɕiɾoː]
There are a few hiragana which are rarely used. Wi ゐ and we ゑ are obsolete. .Vu ゔ is a modern addition used to represent the /v/ sound in foreign languages such as English, but since Japanese from a phonological standpoint does not have a /v/ sound, it is pronounced as /b/ and mostly serves as a more accurate indicator of a word's pronunciation in its original language.^ Japanese Typewriters: Mechanical typewriters capable of typing thousands of different characters Using an IME: Japanese text entry in modern computers Permalink .
  • GT!Blog » Why Japan didn’t create the iPod 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC blog.gatunka.com [Source type: General]

^ As an example, the first Japanese word processor to use the modern kana-kanji text entry system was the Toshiba JW-10 .
  • GT!Blog » Why Japan didn’t create the iPod 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC blog.gatunka.com [Source type: General]

^ For more information, please go to 100% accurate Japanese symbol translation for kanji tattoo design .

However, it is rarely seen because loanwords and transliterated words are usually written in katakana, where the corresponding character would be written as ヴ. ぢゃ, ぢゅ, ぢょ for ja/ju/jo are theoretically possible in rendaku, but are practically never used. For example 日本中 'throughout Japan' could be written にほんぢゅう, but is practically always にほんじゅう.
.The みゅ myu kana is extremely rare in originally Japanese words; linguist Haruhiko Kindaichi raises the example of the Japanese family name Omamyūda (小豆生田) and claims it is the only occurrence amongst pure Japanese words.^ Yes, we can write Japanese name symbols with the literal meaning, and this is called the purely denotative translation method.

^ Labels: Japanese family crest , kanji name symbols .

^ Japanese family crest with Japanese kanji name symbols .

Its katakana counterpart is used in many loanwords, however.

History

Hiragana's character shape was derived from the Chinese cursive script (sōsho). Shown here is a sample of the cursive script by Chinese Tang Dynasty calligrapher Sun Guoting, from the late 7th century.
.Hiragana developed from man'yōgana, Chinese characters used for their pronunciations, a practice which started in the 5th century.^ The Dude: Only languages using Chinese characters have this problem.
  • GT!Blog » Why Japan didn’t create the iPod 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC blog.gatunka.com [Source type: General]

^ Here are a few typographic town logos that make clever use of hiragana and katakana characters.
  • Design ::: Pink Tentacle 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC pinktentacle.com [Source type: General]

[1]. The oldest example of Man'yōgana is Inariyama Sword which is an iron sword excavated at the Inariyama Kofun in 1968. This sword is thought to be made in year of 辛亥年(which is A.D.471 in commonly accepted theory)[2]. The forms of the hiragana originate from the cursive script style of Chinese calligraphy. The figure below shows the derivation of hiragana from manyōgana via cursive script. The upper part shows the character in the regular script form, the center character in red shows the cursive script form of the character, and the bottom shows the equivalent hiragana.
Hiragana origin.svg
When they were first created, hiragana were not accepted by everyone. Many felt that the language of the educated was still Chinese. .Historically, in Japan, the regular script (kaisho) form of the characters was used by men and called otokode (男手?), "men's writing", while the cursive script (sōsho) form of the kanji was used by women.^ Hiragana Normally, when we write "respect" in Japanese, we use kanji symbols.

^ The website is called " Japanese symbol learning resource " On this learning website, you can also understand the difference between kanji, hiragana and katakana scripts.

^ We use both hiragana and kanji scripts to write overcome in Japanese, and they are four Japanese symbols.

Thus hiragana first gained popularity among women, who were not allowed access to the same levels of education as men. .From this comes the alternative name of onnade (女手?) "women's writing". For example, The Tale of Genji and other early novels by female authors used hiragana extensively or exclusively.^ Hiragana Normally, when we write "respect" in Japanese, we use kanji symbols.

^ We use both hiragana and kanji scripts to write overcome in Japanese, and they are four Japanese symbols.

^ The Site is to be used solely for your noncommercial, non-exclusive, non-assignable, non-transferable and limited personal use and for no other purposes.
  • Japanese Lessons - Learn Katakana 5 | SPIKE 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.Male authors came to write literature using hiragana.^ Hiragana Normally, when we write "respect" in Japanese, we use kanji symbols.

^ We use both hiragana and kanji scripts to write overcome in Japanese, and they are four Japanese symbols.

.Hiragana, with its flowing style, was used for unofficial writing such as personal letters, while katakana and Chinese were used for official documents.^ Before the advent of computers, katakana was never used to write entire sentences.
  • GT!Blog » Why Japan didn’t create the iPod 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC blog.gatunka.com [Source type: General]

^ You can choose to opt-out of certain such uses as described in the " Opting-Out of Certain Uses of Personal Information " Section above.
  • Japanese Lessons - Learn Katakana 5 | SPIKE 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ My wife has a blog where she writes in both Chinese and English, but she writes less and less in Chinese as it is such a hassle to select the correct character every time.
  • GT!Blog » Why Japan didn’t create the iPod 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC blog.gatunka.com [Source type: General]

.In modern times, the usage of hiragana has become mixed with katakana writing.^ Learn Japanese language Learn to speak and write Japanese kanji, hiragana and katakana symbols!

Katakana is now relegated to special uses such as recently borrowed words (i.e., since the 19th century), names in transliteration, the names of animals, in telegrams, and for emphasis.
.Originally, all syllables had more than one hiragana.^ I find that many things in Japan cost the same or more than in the US. And all Sony products have only Japanese language menus.
  • Japan it UP! - a blog by an American living in Japan 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC www.japanitup.com [Source type: General]

In 1900, the system was simplified so each syllable had only one hiragana. Other hiragana are known as hentaigana (変体仮名?)
The pangram poem Iroha-uta ("ABC song/poem"), which dates to the 10th century, uses every hiragana once (except n ん, which was just a variant of む before Muromachi era).

How to write hiragana

.The following table shows how to write each hiragana character.^ The following informative table lists some of the ISO 10646 quotation mark characters: .
  • Generated content, automatic numbering, and lists 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

It is arranged in the traditional way, beginning top right and reading columns down. The little numbers and arrows indicate the stroke order and direction.
Table hiragana.svg

Hiragana in Unicode


In Unicode, Hiragana occupies code points U+3040 to U+309F:
Hiragana
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+304x  
U+305x
U+306x
U+307x
U+308x
U+309x    
.The Unicode hiragana block contains precomposed characters for all hiragana in the modern set, including small vowels and yōon kana for compound syllables, plus the archaic wi and we and the rare vu.^ The modern kana-kanji conversion approach involves entering characters phonetically, and converting based on dictionaries.
  • GT!Blog » Why Japan didn’t create the iPod 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC blog.gatunka.com [Source type: General]

.All combinations of hiragana with dakuten and handakuten used in modern Japanese are available as precomposed characters, and can also be produced by using a base hiragana followed by the combining dakuten and handakuten characters (U+3099 and U+309A, respectively).^ Hiragana Normally, when we write "respect" in Japanese, we use kanji symbols.

^ In the days of telegraph, this was done using a 94×94 cell table written on a sheet of paper with all of the characters listed on it.
  • GT!Blog » Why Japan didn’t create the iPod 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC blog.gatunka.com [Source type: General]

^ Virtual key codes are used to report which keyboard key has been pressed, rather than a character generated by the combination of one or more keystrokes (such as "A", which comes from shift and "a").
  • KeyEvent (Java Platform SE 6) 11 January 2010 22:21 UTC java.sun.com [Source type: Reference]

.This method is used to add the diacritics to kana that are not normally used with them, for example applying the dakuten to a pure vowel or the handakuten to a kana not in the h-group.^ So, we normally use the purely phonetic translation method.

^ As an example, the first Japanese word processor to use the modern kana-kanji text entry system was the Toshiba JW-10 .
  • GT!Blog » Why Japan didn’t create the iPod 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC blog.gatunka.com [Source type: General]

^ P> The following example illustrates how markers may be used to add periods after each numbered list item.
  • Generated content, automatic numbering, and lists 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Characters U+3095 and U+3096 are small か (ka) and small け (ke), respectively. U+309F is a digraph of より (yori) occasionally used in vertical text. U+309B and U+309C are spacing (non-combining) equivalents to the combining dakuten and handakuten characters, respectively.
There are currently no characters at code points U+3040, U+3097, or U+3098.

See also

References

  1. ^ Yookoso! An Invitation to Contemporary Japanese 1st edition McGraw-Hill, page 13 "Linguistic Note: The Origins of Hiragana and Katakana"
  2. ^ Seeley (2000:19-23)
  • "The Art of Japanese Calligraphy", Yujiro Nakata, ISBN 0-8348-1013-1, gives details of the development of onode and onnade.

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Kana article)

From Wikiversity

.Welcome to the kana lessons course, where you will learn how to read, write, and pronounce hiragana and katakana, the two syllabaries of the Japanese language.^ Learn Japanese language Learn to speak and write Japanese kanji, hiragana and katakana symbols!

^ Japanese Lessons - Learn Katakana 11 .
  • Japanese Lessons - Learn Katakana 5 | SPIKE 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Talksushi.com - Learn how to read Japanese with this one of many Japanese language videos.
  • Japanese Lessons - Learn Katakana 5 | SPIKE 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

Like kanji, the kana are not just geometric shapes but rather three-dimensional paths. Character strokes must therefore be arranged in a certain way.

Contents

Reading material

Learning activities

The kana are generally best learned by rote though mnemonics can help with the initial memorisation. .Find yourself a nice drilling program or website and practice every day until you can consistently remember the entire kana.^ EVERY DAY I LOVE YOU .
  • EVERY DAY I LOVE U, a Bleach fanfic - FanFiction.Net 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.fanfiction.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Build on a small subset and work from there.
.You will find links to useful software in the textbook Practice software section.^ This is the entire and exclusive Agreement between you and us regarding use of the Site and it cannot be modified, except as specifically described below in Section 2.
  • Japanese Lessons - Learn Katakana 5 | SPIKE 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ On this site, you will find a great information about Japanese writing system and calligraphy designs used as tattoo tribals and design.

^ You can choose to opt-out of certain such uses as described in the " Opting-Out of Certain Uses of Personal Information " Section above.
  • Japanese Lessons - Learn Katakana 5 | SPIKE 10 January 2010 5:43 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

Mix in plenty of writing practice as you learn the readings. .It will take many repetitions to get used to the movements to make your characters look nice.^ This is the second time of using your service and once again you have delivered, many thanks.

You can practice writing on this sheet.

Tests

Further reading

Project: Introduction to Japanese
Previous: Introduction to the Japanese Writing System — Kana — Next: Kanji

Simple English

Hiragana are part of the Japanese writing system. Japanese writing normally consists of kanji which are used for the main words in a sentence, and hiragana which are used for the little words that make up the grammar (in English these would be words like “from” and “his”). Hiragana is also used for the endings of some of the words.

Hiragana is a syllabary, which means that each hiragana character stands for a syllable. It is therefore different from a language such as English which uses an alphabet in which most of the letters stand for one bit of sound (phoneme). There is also another syllabary called katakana which is mostly used for foreign words and names. The two kana systems are quite easy to learn, but kanji takes years of practice. In contrast, the kana systems can be learnt in two weeks.

In the past hiragana was considered as women's writing, while men wrote in kanji. Since kanji suit well in Chinese language but poorly in Japanese language, it was the women who wrote the first Japanese books, poems and songs. Later the Buddhist clerics, such as Rennyo (d. 1498), wrote in hiragana to make the religious message easy to understand and everyone to read.

Sometimes the whole of a text may be written in hiragana to make it easy. This would be used in books for young children, or for students starting to learn Japanese, or when writing the lyrics for songs underneath the music where it is important to show how the words fit the music. Some rare or strange kanji may also have so-called furigana characters above it. They are hiragana which show how the kanji is to be pronounced.

In Hiragana each character (kana) is either a vowel (such as "a": あ); a consonant followed by a vowel (such as "ka": か); or, at the end of a syllable, an "n": (ん), although sometimes this sounds more like an “m” or “ng”.

As an example of how the grammatical endings are used we can take the verb “to eat” which is食べる (taberu). Here the main part of the word “eat” (pronounced “ta” in this case) is the kanji 食. The other two syllables: “be-ru” are in hiragana (べる). To say “I ate” or “you ate” etc you would say “tabemashita”, written食べました (“be-ma-shi-ta” is written in hiragana).

Contents

Table of hiragana

The main hiragana characters are shown in this table.

vowels yōon
a i u e o (ya) (yu) (yo)
ka ki ku ke ko きゃ kya きゅ kyu きょ kyo
sa shi su se so しゃ sha しゅ shu しょ sho
ta chi tsu te to ちゃ cha ちゅ chu ちょ cho
na ni nu ne no にゃ nya にゅ nyu にょ nyo
ha hi fu he ho ひゃ hya ひゅ hyu ひょ hyo
ma mi mu me mo みゃ mya みゅ myu みょ myo
ya yu yo
ra ri ru re ro りゃ rya りゅ ryu りょ ryo
わ wa ゐ wi ゑ we を wo
n
ga gi gu ge go ぎゃ gya ぎゅ gyu ぎょ gyo
za ji zu ze zo じゃ ja じゅ ju じょ jo
da (ji) (zu) de do ぢゃ (ja) ぢゅ (ju) ぢょ (jo)
ba bi bu be bo びゃ bya びゅ byu びょ byo
pa pi pu pe po ぴゃ pya ぴゅ pyu ぴょ pyo

Notice that the sound “hu” is unknown in Japanese, so ふ is pronounced “fu” with an “f” which is blown lightly.

To write the voiced sounds for “g”, “d”, “z” and “b” two little lines called a dakuten (゛) are added after a character starting with the unvoiced sounds “k”, “t”, “s” and “h”. A circle, (゜), is added after a “h” for the sound “p”. For example: は gives the sound “ha”; ば gives the sound “ba”; ぱ gives the sound “pa”.

Sometimes when words are joined together to make compound words, a sound changes from unvoiced to voiced. For example: “hana”: はな (nose) + ち“chi” (blood) becomes はなぢ “hanaji” (nosebleed)

Some Japanese syllables which have sliding sounds add a small version of the hiragana for ya, yu or yo (ゃ, ゅ and ょ) This is called “yōon”. For example: “sha” sounds like “shi”+”ya” so “densha” (a tram) is written でんしゃ. A small “tsu” っ called a “sokuon” shows a doubled consonant: “Nippon” (Japan) is written にっぽん. Without the small “tsu” the first syllable would sound like the word “knee”.

A student starting to learn to write Japanese can start with hiragana or with katakana. Hiragana is the basis of learning Japanese script. However, for someone who is about to visit Japan and just wants to be able to recognize a few words, katakana will be more useful as it will help to read many of the road signs, shop names and the names of things on restaurant menus.

Other pages

References

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Hiragana, which are similar to those in the above article.








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