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Hiroshima
広島
—  Designated city  —
広島市 · Hiroshima City
Atomic Bomb Dome (left) and modern buildings

Flag
Location of Hiroshima in Hiroshima
Hiroshima is located in Japan
Hiroshima
Coordinates: 34°23′53″N 132°28′32.9″E / 34.39806°N 132.475806°E / 34.39806; 132.475806
Country Japan
Region Chūgoku, Sanyō
Prefecture Hiroshima
Government
 - Mayor Tadatoshi Akiba (SDP)
Area
 - Total 905.01 km2 (349.4 sq mi)
Population
(January 2010)
1,173,980
 - Density 1,297.2/km2 (3,359.7/sq mi)
City Symbols
 - Tree Camphor Laurel
 - Flower Oleander
Website Hiroshima City
Phone number 082-245-2111
Address

Hiroshima-shi,
Naka-ku, Kokutaiji 1-6-34
730-8586

Hiroshima (広島市 Hiroshima-shi?) (About this sound listen ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshū, the largest island of Japan. It became the first city in history destroyed by a nuclear weapon when the United States of America dropped an atomic bomb on it at 8:15am on August 6, 1945, near the end of World War II.[1] Hiroshima gained municipality status on April 1, 1889, and was designated on April 1, 1980, by government ordinance. The city's current mayor is Tadatoshi Akiba.

Contents

History

Hiroshima was founded on the river delta coastline of the Seto Inland Sea in 1589 by the powerful warlord Mōri Terumoto, who made it his capital after leaving Koriyama Castle in Aki Province.[2][3] Hiroshima Castle was quickly built, and Terumoto moved in in 1593. Terumoto was on the losing side at the Battle of Sekigahara. The winner, Tokugawa Ieyasu, deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province to Masanori Fukushima, a daimyo who had supported Tokugawa.[4] The castle passed to Asano Nagaakira in 1619, and Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area. Under Asano rule, the city prospered, developed, and expanded, with few military conflicts or disturbances.[4] Asano's descendants continued to rule until the Meiji Restoration in the 19th century.[5]

Hiroshima Commercial Museum 1915

Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima Domain during the Edo period. After the han was abolished in 1871, the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture. Hiroshima became a major urban center during the Meiji period as the Japanese economy shifted from primarily rural to urban industries. During the 1870s, one of the seven government-sponsored English language schools was established in Hiroshima.[6] Ujina Harbor was constructed through the efforts of Hiroshima Governor Sadaaki Senda in the 1880s, allowing Hiroshima to become an important port city. The Sanyo Railroad was extended to Hiroshima in 1894, and a rail line from the main station to the harbor was constructed for military transportation during the First Sino-Japanese War.[7] During that war, the Japanese government moved temporarily to Hiroshima, and the Emperor maintained his headquarters at Hiroshima Castle from September 15, 1894 to April 27, 1895.[7] The significance of Hiroshima for the Japanese government can be discerned from the fact that the first round of talks between Chinese and Japanese representatives to end the Sino-Japanese War was held in Hiroshima from February 1 to February 4, 1895.[8] New industrial plants, including cotton mills, were established in Hiroshima in the late 1800s.[9] Further industrialization in Hiroshima was stimulated during the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, which required development and production of military supplies. The Hiroshima Prefectural Commercial Exhibition Hall was constructed in 1915 as a center for trade and exhibition of new products. Later, its name was changed to Hiroshima Prefectural Product Exhibition Hall, and again to Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall.[10]

WWII and atomic bombing

Atomic Effects- Hiroshima City

During World War II, the Second Army and Chugoku Regional Army were headquartered in Hiroshima, and the Army Marine Headquarters was located at Ujina port. The city also had large depots of military supplies, and was a key center for shipping.[11]

The bombing of Tokyo and other cities in Japan during World War II caused widespread destruction and hundreds of thousands of deaths, nearly all civilians.[12] For example, Toyama, an urban area of 128,000, was nearly fully destroyed, and incendiary attacks on Tokyo are credited with claiming 90,000 lives.[13] There were no such air raids in Hiroshima. However, the threat was certainly there and to protect against potential firebombings in Hiroshima, students (between 11–14 years) were mobilized to demolish houses and create firebreaks.[14]

On Monday, August 6, 1945, at 8:15 AM, the nuclear bomb 'Little Boy' was dropped on Hiroshima by an American B-29 bomber, the Enola Gay,[15] directly killing an estimated 80,000 people. By the end of the year, injury and radiation brought total casualties to 90,000-140,000.[16] Approximately 69% of the city's buildings were completely destroyed, and about 7% severely damaged.

Research about the effects of the attack was restricted during the occupation of Japan, and information censored until the signing of the San Francisco Peace Treaty in 1951, restoring control to the Japanese.[17]

Much has been written in news reports, novels, and popular culture about Hiroshima in the years after the bombing.

Reconstruction after the war

On September 17, 1945, Hiroshima was struck by the Makurazaki Typhoon (Typhoon Ida), one of the largest typhoons of the Shōwa period. Hiroshima prefecture suffered more than 3,000 deaths and injuries, about half the national total.[18] More than half the bridges in the city were destroyed, along with heavy damage to roads and railroads, further devastating the city.[19]

Folded paper cranes representing prayers for peace and Sadako Sasaki

Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with the help from the national government through the Hiroshima Peace Memorial City Construction Law passed in 1949. It provided financial assistance for reconstruction, along with land donated that was previously owned by the national government and used for military purposes.[20]

In 1949, a design was selected for the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall, the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation, was designated the Genbaku Dome (原爆ドーム) or "Atomic Dome", a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. The Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum was opened in 1955 in the Peace Park.[21]

Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament in 1949, at the initiative of its mayor, Shinzo Hamai (1905–1968). As a result, the city of Hiroshima received more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate translation services for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of all nuclear weapons and the Mayor of Hiroshima is the President of Mayors for Peace, an international Mayoral organization mobilizing cities and citizens worldwide to abolish and eliminate nuclear weapons by the year 2020 Mayors for Peace 2020 Vision Campaign.[22][23]

Geography

Atomic Bomb Dome

Hiroshima has eight wards (ku):

Ward Population Area (km²) Density
(per km²)
Map
Aki-ku 78,176 94.01 832 Hiroshima wards.png
Asakita-ku 156,368 353.35 443
Asaminami-ku 220,351 117.19 1,880
Higashi-ku 122,045 39.38 3,099
Minami-ku 138,138 26.09 5,295
Naka-ku 125,208 15.34 8,162
Nishi-ku 184,881 35.67 5,183
Saeki-ku 135,789 223.98 606
Population as of October 31, 2006
Climate data for Hiroshima, Japan (1971-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 9.6
(49)
10.2
(50)
13.8
(57)
19.5
(67)
23.8
(75)
26.9
(80)
30.8
(87)
32.1
(90)
28.3
(83)
23.0
(73)
17.2
(63)
12.3
(54)
20.6
(69)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.3
(42)
5.7
(42)
9.0
(48)
14.6
(58)
18.9
(66)
22.8
(73)
26.9
(80)
27.9
(82)
23.9
(75)
18.0
(64)
12.3
(54)
7.5
(46)
16.1
(61)
Average low °C (°F) 1.7
(35)
1.8
(35)
4.5
(40)
9.8
(50)
14.3
(58)
19.2
(67)
23.7
(75)
24.3
(76)
20.2
(68)
13.8
(57)
8.2
(47)
3.5
(38)
12.1
(54)
Precipitation mm (inches) 46.9
(1.85)
66.9
(2.63)
120.5
(4.74)
156.0
(6.14)
156.8
(6.17)
258.1
(10.16)
236.3
(9.3)
126.0
(4.96)
180.3
(7.1)
95.4
(3.76)
67.8
(2.67)
34.8
(1.37)
1,540.6
(60.65)
Snowfall cm (inches) 5
(2)
6
(2.4)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2
(0.8)
13
(5.1)
Sunshine hours 137.5 131.1 166.3 189.1 205.7 158.8 182.9 201.5 154.9 180.2 149.3 147.8 2,004.9
% Humidity 67 67 65 64 66 73 75 71 71 69 68 69 69
Avg. snowy days 7.8 7.6 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 4.3 22.4
Source: [24] 2009-06-08

Demographics

Hondori shopping arcade in Hiroshima

As of 2006, the city has an estimated population of 1,154,391, while the total population for the metropolitan area was estimated as 2,043,788 in 2000.[25] The total area of the city is 905.08 km², with a density of 1275.4 persons per km².[26]

The population around 1910 was 143,000.[5] Before World War II, Hiroshima's population had grown to 360,000, and peaked at 419,182 in 1942.[26] Following the atomic bombing in 1945, the population dropped to 137,197.[26] By 1955, the city's population had returned to pre-war levels.[27]

Economy

Hiroshima is the center of industry for the Chūgoku-Shikoku region, and is by and large centered along the coastal areas. Hiroshima has long been a port city and Hiroshima port or Hiroshima International Airport can be used for the transportation of goods.

Hiroshima at night

Its largest industry is the manufacturing industry with core industries being the production of Mazda cars, car parts and industrial equipment. Mazda Motor Corporation is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. Mazda accounts for 32% of Hiroshima's GDP.[28] Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata, Mazda Demio (Mazda2), Mazda CX-9 and Mazda RX-8. The Mazda CX-7 has been built there since early 2006.[citation needed] Other Mazda factories are in Hofu and Flat Rock, Michigan.

Mazda 787B at the Mazda Museum in Hiroshima

General machinery and equipment also account for a large portion of exports. Because these industries require research and design capabilities, it has also had the offshoot that Hiroshima has many innovative companies actively engaged in new growth fields (for example, Hiroshima Vehicle Engineering Company (HIVEC).[29] Many of these companies hold the top market shares in Japan and the world, or are alone in their particular field. Tertiary industries in the wholesale and retail areas are also very developed.

Hiroshima port and ferry terminal

Another result of the concentration of industry is an accumulation of skilled personnel and fundamental technologies. This is considered by business to be a major reason for location in Hiroshima. Business setup costs are also much lower than other large cities in the country and there is a comprehensive system of tax breaks, etc. on offer for businesses which locate in Hiroshima. This is especially true of two projects: the Hiroshima Station Urban Development District and the Seifu Shinto area which offer capital installments (up to 501 million yen over 5 years), tax breaks and employee subsidies.[30] Seifu Shinto, which translates as West Wind, New Town is the largest construction project in the region and is an attempt to build "a city within a city." It is attempting to design from the ground up a place to work, play, relax and live.

Hiroshima recently made it onto Lonely Planet's list of the top cities in the world. Commuting times rank amongst the shortest in Japan and the cost of living is lower than other large cities in Japan such as Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto, or Fukuoka.

Culture

Hiroshima has a professional symphony orchestra, which has performed at Wel City Hiroshima since 1963.[31] There are also many museums in Hiroshima, including the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, along with several art museums. The Hiroshima Museum of Art, which has a large collection of French renaissance art, opened in 1978. The Hiroshima Prefectural Art Museum opened in 1968, and is located near Shukkei-en gardens. The Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art, which opened in 1989, is located near Hijiyama Park. Festivals include Hiroshima Flower Festival and Hiroshima International Animation Festival.

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, which includes the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, draws many visitors from around the world, especially for the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony, an annual commemoration held on the date of the atomic bombing. The park also contains a large collection of monuments, including the Children's Peace Monument, the Hiroshima National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims and many others.

Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period. Hiroshima Gokoku Shrine is within the walls of the castle. Other attractions in Hiroshima include Shukkei-en, Fudōin, Mitaki-dera, and Hijiyama Park.

Cuisine

A man prepares okonomiyaki in a restaurant in Hiroshima

Hiroshima is known for okonomiyaki, cooked on a hot-plate (usually right in front of the customer). It is cooked with various ingredients, which are layered rather than mixed together as done with the Osaka version of okonomiyaki. The layers are typically egg, cabbage, moyashi, sliced pork/bacon with optional items (mayonnaise, fried squid, octopus, cheese, mochi, kimchi, etc.), and noodles (soba, udon) topped with another layer of egg and a generous dollop of okonomiyaki sauce (Carp and Otafuku are two popular brands). The amount of cabbage used is usually 3 - 4 times the amount used in the Osaka style, therefore arguably a healthier version. It starts out piled very high and is generally pushed down as the cabbage cooks. The order of the layers may vary slightly depending on the chef's style and preference, and ingredients will vary depending on the preference of the customer.

Media

The Chugoku Shimbun is the local newspaper serving Hiroshima. It publishes both morning paper and evening editions. Television stations include Hiroshima Home TV, Hiroshima TV, TV Shinhiroshima, and the RCC Broadcasting Company. Radio stations include Hiroshima FM, Chugoku Communication Network, FM Fukuyama, FM Nanami, and Onomichi FM. Hiroshima is also served by NHK, Japan's public broadcaster, with television and radio broadcasting.

Sports

Hiroshima Municipal Stadium

Hiroshima is home to several professional and non-professional sports teams. Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times. Kohei Matsuda, owner of Toyo Kogyo, was primary owner of the team from the 1970s until his death in 2002.[32] The team is now owned by members of the Matsuda family, while Mazda has minority ownership of the team. Hiroshima Municipal Stadium, which was built in 1957, was the home of the Hiroshima Carp from the time it was built until the end of the 2008 season. The stadium is located in central Hiroshima, across from the A-Bomb Dome. The city is building a new baseball stadium near the JR Hiroshima Station, to be ready for the 2009 season.[33] Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's professional football team; they won the Japanese league championship five times in the late 1960s and have remained one of Japan's traditionally strong football clubs. In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games.

Club Sport League Venue Established
Hiroshima Toyo Carp Baseball Central League Mazda Stadium 1949
Sanfrecce Hiroshima Football J. League Hiroshima Big Arch 1938
JT Thunders Volleyball V.League Nekota Kinen Taiikukan 1931
Hiroshima Maple Reds Handball Japan Handball League Hirogin no mori Taiikukan 1994

Education

Satake Memorial Hall at Hiroshima University

Hiroshima University was established in 1949, as part of a national restructuring of the education system. One national university was set-up in each prefecture, including Hiroshima University, which combined eight existing institutions (Hiroshima University of Literature and Science, Hiroshima School of Secondary Education, Hiroshima School of Education, Hiroshima Women's School of Secondary Education, Hiroshima School of Education for Youth, Hiroshima Higher School, Hiroshima Higher Technical School, and Hiroshima Municipal Higher Technical School), with the Hiroshima Prefectural Medical College added in 1953.[34]

Transportation

Local public transportation in Hiroshima is provided by a streetcar system, operated by Hiroshima Electric Railway called "Hiroden" (広電?) for short. Hiroden also operates buses in and around Hiroshima Prefecture. Hiroshima Electric Railway was established on June 18, 1910, in Hiroshima. While many other Japanese cities abandoned the streetcar system by the 1980s, Hiroshima retained it because the construction of a subway system was too expensive for the city to afford, as it is located on a delta. During the 1960s, Hiroshima Electric Railway, or Hiroden, bought extra streetcars from other Japanese cities. Although streetcars in Hiroshima are now being replaced by newer models, most retain their original appearance. Thus, the streetcar system is sometimes called a "Moving Museum" by railroad buffs. Of the four streetcars that survived the war, two are still in operation as of July 2006 (Hiroden Numbers 651 and 652). There are seven streetcar lines, many of which terminate at Hiroshima Station.

Hiroden streetcar

The Astram Line opened for the 1994 Asian Games in Hiroshima, with one line from central Hiroshima to Seifu Shinto and Hiroshima Big Arch, the main stadium of the Asian Games. Astram uses rubber-tyred metro cars, and provides service to areas towards the suburbs that are not served by Hiroden streetcars.[35] The Skyrail Midorizaka Line is a monorail that operates between Midoriguchi and Midori-Chūō, serving three stops.

The JR West Hiroshima Station offers inter-city rail service, including Sanyō Shinkansen which provides high speed service between Shin-Ōsaka and Fukuoka. Sanyō Shinkansen began providing service to Hiroshima in 1975, when the Osaka-Hakata extension opened.[36] Other rail service includes the Sanyō Main Line, Kabe Line, Geibi Line, and Kure Line.

Ferries are operated by JR Miyajima Ferry and Miyajima Matsudai Kisen to Miyajima. Hiroden provides service to Miyajimaguchi Station, which is located near the ferry terminal for service to Miyajima. Hiroshima Port is the main passenger ferry terminal for Hiroshima, with service to Etajima, Matsuyama, and other destinations. There is also an international ferry terminal which has service to Busan and Ulsan in South Korea, Shanghai, Dalian, Qingdao and Ningbo in China, Keelung and Kaohsiung in Taiwan, as well as Hong Kong.[37] There is also a boat taxi service that runs along the ota-gawa channels into the city center.

Hiroshima Airport, located nearby in the city of Mihara, provides air service within Japan to Tokyo, Sapporo, Okinawa, and Sendai. International air service is provided to Seoul, Guam, Bangkok, Taipei, Shanghai, Beijing, and Dalian. Commuter air service is also available at Hiroshima-Nishi Airport.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Hiroshima has six overseas sister cities:[38]

Within Japan, Hiroshima has a similar relationship with Nagasaki.

Further reading

  • Pacific War Research Society, Japan's Longest Day (Kodansha, 2002, ISBN 4-7700-2887-3), the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor.
  • Richard B. Frank, Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0-14-100146-1)
  • Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng. ed. 1961[41]
  • Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 0-679-76285-X
  • John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0-679-72103-7
  • Michihiko Hachiya, Hiroshima Diary: The Journal of a Japanese Physician, August 6 - September 30, 1945 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1955), since reprinted.
  • Masuji Ibuse, Black Rain, ISBN 0-87011-364-X
  • Hara Tamiki, Summer Flowers ISBN 0-691-00837-X
  • Robert Jay Lifton Death in life: The survivors of Hiroshima, Weidenfeld & Nicolson 1st edition (1968) ISBN 0297764667

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509514-6. 
  2. ^ "The Origin of Hiroshima". Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-01-30. http://web.archive.org/web/20080130190042/http://www.city.hiroshima.jp/kikaku/joho/toukei/History-E/c01.html. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  3. ^ Scott O'Bryan (2009). "Hiroshima: History, City, Event". About Japan: A Teacher's Resource. http://aboutjapan.japansociety.org/content.cfm/hiroshima_history_city_event. Retrieved 2010-03-14. 
  4. ^ a b Kosaikai, Yoshiteru (2007). "History of Hiroshima". Hiroshima Peace Reader. Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation. 
  5. ^ a b Terry, Thomas Philip (1914). Terry's Japanese Empire. Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 640. 
  6. ^ Bingham (US Legation in Tokyo) to Fish (US Department of State), September 20, 1876, in Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, transmitted to congress, with the annual message of the president, December 4, 1876, p. 384
  7. ^ a b Kosakai, Hiroshima Peace Reader
  8. ^ Dun (US Legation in Tokyo) to Gresham, February 4, 1895, in Foreign relations of United States, 1894, Appendix I, p. 97
  9. ^ Jacobs, Norman (1958). The Origin of Modern Capitalism and Eastern Asia. Hong Kong University. p. 51. 
  10. ^ Sanko (1998). Hiroshima Peace Memorial (Genbaku Dome). The City of Hiroshima and the Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation. 
  11. ^ United States Strategic Bombing Survey (June 1946). "U. S. Strategic Bombing Survey: The Effects of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki". nuclearfiles.org. Archived from the original on 2004-10-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20041011111052/http://www.nuclearfiles.org/redocuments/1946/460619-bombing-survey1.html. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  12. ^ Pape, Robert (1996). Bombing to Win: Airpower and Coercion in War. Cornell University Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0801483110. 
  13. ^ "Firebombing Japan". darkchilde@bookmice.net. http://www.bookmice.net/darkchilde/japan/fire.html. Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
  14. ^ "Japan in the Modern Age and Hiroshima as a Military City". The Chugoku Shimbun. http://www.chugoku-np.co.jp/abom/97e/peace/e/03/omoide.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-19. 
  15. ^ The Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of History and Heritage Resources.
  16. ^ Radiation Effects Research Foundation
  17. ^ Ishikawa and Swain (1981), p. 5
  18. ^ Makurazaki Typhoon
  19. ^ Ishikawa and Swain (1981), p. 6
  20. ^ "Peace Memorial City, Hiroshima". Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-02-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20080206124545/http://www.city.hiroshima.jp/kikaku/joho/toukei/History-E/c05.html. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  21. ^ "Fifty Years for the Peace Memorial Museum". Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum. http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/exhibit_e/exh0507_e/exh050701_e.html. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  22. ^ "Surviving the Atomic Attack on Hiroshima, 1945". Eyewitnesstohistory.com. 1945-08-06. http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/hiroshima.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  23. ^ "Library: Media Gallery: Video Files: Rare film documents devastation at Hiroshima". Nuclear Files. http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/library/media-gallery/video/hiroshima-aftermath. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  24. ^ "気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値)". Japan Meteorological Agency. http://www.data.jma.go.jp/obd/stats/etrn/view/nml_sfc_ym.php?prec_no=67&prec_ch=%8DL%93%87%8C%A7&block_no=47765&block_ch=%8DL%93%87&year=&month=&day=&elm=normal&view=. 
  25. ^ "Population of Japan, Table 92". Statistics Bureau. http://www.stat.go.jp/English/data/kokusei/2000/final/hyodai.htm#21. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  26. ^ a b c "2006 Statistical Profile". The City of Hiroshima. Archived from the original on 2008-02-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20080206110108/http://www.city.hiroshima.jp/kikaku/joho/toukei/12_pro/profile-e.html. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  27. ^ de Rham-Azimi, Nassrine, Matt Fuller, and Hiroko Nakayama (2003). Post-conflict Reconstruction in Japan, Republic of Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, East Timor. United Nations Publications. p. 69. 
  28. ^ Parker, J. (2004). "In Praise of Japanese Engineering; In Praise of Hiroshima". Circuits and Systems. 47th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems. 1. 
  29. ^ "Hiroshima Vehicle Engineering Company". HIVEC. http://www.hivec.com. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  30. ^ "広島市:ひろしま西風新都". Seifu-shinto.jp. http://www.seifu-shinto.jp/index_f.html. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  31. ^ Wel City Hiroshima
  32. ^ "Carp owner dies". The Japan Times. July 12, 2002. http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/sb20020712a2.html. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  33. ^ Graczyk, Wayne (March 4, 2007). "New stadium in Hiroshima looking good for 2009 season". The Japan Times. http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/sb20070304wg.html. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  34. ^ "History of Hiroshima University". Hiroshima University. http://www.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/category_view.php?category_child_id=2&category_id=8&template_id=14&lang=en. Retrieved 2007-06-25. 
  35. ^ "Astram Line". Design Soken Hiroshima Inc. http://www.gk-design.co.jp/dsh/English/TP/TP_01.html. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  36. ^ "Shinkansen". japan-guide.com. http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2018.html. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  37. ^ "Access-Sea Transport". Chugoku Bureau of Economy,Trade and Industry. Archived from the original on 2006-01-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20060106074310/http://www.chugoku.meti.go.jp/english-hp/region/access/access4.html. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  38. ^ "広島市の姉妹・友好都市". City.hiroshima.jp. http://www.city.hiroshima.jp/shimin/kokusai/shimai/top-e.html. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  39. ^ "Hanover - Twin Towns" (in German). © 2007-2009 Hanover.de - Offizielles Portal der Landeshauptstadt und der Region Hannover in Zusammenarbeit mit hier.de. http://www.hannover.de/de/buerger/entwicklung/partnerschaften/staedte_regionspartnerschaften/index.html. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  40. ^ Friendly relationship at Official website of Volgograd
  41. ^ Gyanpedia.in

References

  • Ishikawa, Eisei, David L. Swain (1981). Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical, and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombings. Basic Books. 
  • Kowner, Rotem (2002). "Hiroshima". in M. Ember & C. Ember (eds.). Encyclopedia of Urban Cultures (Vol. II). Grolier. pp. 341–348. ISBN 0717256987. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Hiroshima (広島) [1] is an industrial city of wide boulevards and criss-crossing rivers, located along the coast of the Seto Inland Sea. Although many only know it for the horrific split second on August 6, 1945, when it became the site of the world's first atomic bomb attack, it is now a modern, cosmopolitan city with a lot of great food and nightlife.

Blessings of Peace, Chuo Park
Blessings of Peace, Chuo Park

Those expecting to step off the Shinkansen into a pile of smoldering rubble will be in for a surprise, as Hiroshima has all the ferroconcrete and blinking neon of any other modern Japanese city. Teenagers stream in and out of the station, where McDonald's and the latest keitai (cell phones) await; hapless salarymen rush down Aioi-dori to their next meeting, casting a bloodshot eye toward the seedy bars of Nagarekawa as they pass. At first glance, it can be hard to imagine that anything out of the ordinary ever happened here.

Hiroshima was founded in 1589 on the delta formed by the Ota River, flowing out to the Seto Inland Sea. The warlord Mori Terumoto built a castle there, only to lose it eleven years later to Tokugawa Ieyasu after the Battle of Sekigahara, which marked the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate. Control of the area was given to the Asano clan of samurai, who ruled without much incident for the next two and a half centuries. Their descendants embraced the rapid modernization of the Meiji period, and Hiroshima became the seat of government for the region, a major industrial center, and a busy port.

By World War II, Hiroshima was one of the larger cities in Japan, and a natural communications and supply center for the military. Forced laborers from Korea and China were shipped in by the tens of thousands, and local schoolchildren also spent part of their days working in munitions factories. Residents of the city must have felt curiously blessed for the first few years of the war, as Hiroshima had been left largely untouched by American bombing campaigns; that was, however, intended to ensure a more accurate measurement of the atomic bomb's effect on the candidate cities, which had been narrowed down to Hiroshima, Kokura, Kyoto, Nagasaki, and Niigata.

2000 feet from ground zero, 1945
2000 feet from ground zero, 1945

On 6 August 1945, at 8:15AM, time was up. The American B-29 bomber Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb dubbed "Little Boy" on Hiroshima. It is estimated that at least 70,000 people were killed in the explosion and its immediate aftermath. Most of the city was built of wood, and fires raged out of control across nearly five square miles, leaving behind a charred plain with a few scattered concrete structures. Corpses lay piled in rivers; medical treatment was virtually non-existent, as most of the city's medical facilities had been located near the hypocenter, and the few doctors left standing had no idea what hit them. That evening, radioactive materials in the atmosphere caused a poisonous "black rain" to fall.

In the days ahead, many survivors began to come down with strange illnesses, such as skin lesions, hair loss, and fatigue. Between 70,000 and 140,000 people would eventually die from radiation-related diseases. Known as hibakusha, the survivors were also subject to severe discrimination from other Japanese, but have since been at the forefront of Japan's post-war pacifism and its campaign against the use of nuclear weapons.

Recovery was slow, given the scale of the devastation, and black markets thrived in the first few years after the war. However, the reconstruction of Hiroshima became a symbol of Japan's post-war pacifism. While most of the city is thoroughly modernized, there are areas — such as the ramshackle buildings east of the train station (slated for demolition over the next few years) — that still reflect that 1950s rush to rebuild.

Today, Hiroshima has a population of more than 1.1 million. Automobiles are a major local industry, with Mazda's corporate headquarters nearby. There are three excellent art museums in the city center, some of Japan's most fanatical sports fans, and a wide range of culinary delights — most notably the city's towering contribution to bar cuisine, Hiroshima-style okonomiyaki.

Although many visitors, especially Americans, may feel apprehensive about visiting Hiroshima, it is a friendly, welcoming city, with as much interest in Western culture as anywhere else in Japan. Tourists are welcomed, and exhibits related to the atomic bomb are not concerned with blame or accusations. Bear in mind, though, that many hibakusha still live in the city, and even most of the young people in Hiroshima have family members who lived through the blast. As such, the average Hiroshima resident isn't likely to relish talking about it, although you needn't shy away from the topic if one of the chatty fellows around the Peace Park brings it up.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

HIROSHIMA, a city and seaport of Japan, capital of the government of its name in central Nippon. Pop. (1903) 113,545. It is very beautifully situated on a small plain surrounded by hills, the bay being studded with islands. In its general aspect it resembles Osaka, from which it is 190 m. W. by rail, and next to that place and Hiogo it is the most important commercial centre on the Inland Sea. The government has an area of about 3000 sq. m., with a population of about 1,500,000. Hiroshima is famous all over Japan owing to its association with the neighbouring islet of Itaku-Shima, "Island of Light," which is dedicated to the goddess Bentin and regarded as one of the three wonders of Japan. The chief temple dates from the year 587, and the island, which is inhabited largely by priests and their attendants, is annually visited by thousands of pilgrims. But the hallowed soil is never tilled, so that all provisions have to be brought from the surrounding districts.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

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Wikipedia

Hiroshima

  1. a city in Honshu, Japan; devastated by the first atomic bomb dropped in warfare in 1945

Translations


Simple English

Hiroshima
広島市
File:Hiroshima in Hiroshima Prefecture
Hiroshima's location in Hiroshima, Japan.
Location
Country Japan
Region Chūgoku, Sanyō
Prefecture Hiroshima
Physical characteristics
Area 905.01 km2 (349.43 sq mi)
Population (as of January 2007)
     Total 1,159,391
     Density 1,281.1 km2 (495 sq mi)
Symbols
Tree Camphor Laurel
Flower Oleander
Hiroshima Government Office
Mayor Tadatoshi Akiba (Social Democratic Party (Japan))
Address Hiroshima-shi,
Naka-ku, Kokutaiji 1-6-34
730-8586
Phone number 082-245-2111
Official website: Hiroshima City

Hiroshima (広島) is the name of a city and prefecture in Japan. Hiroshima city is the capital of Hiroshima prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Japan. About a million people live in Hiroshima.

Contents

History

In the late Sengoku period and Edo period, Hiroshima was the capital of local daimyos. A big and beautiful castle, Hiroshima-jo was built. Its nickname is Rijo, meaning Castle of the Carp.

Atomic bombing

[[File:|thumbnail|Atomic Bomb Dome]] Hiroshima was the site of the first ever atomic bombing near the end of World War II.[1] The bomb exploded over Hiroshima at 8:16 on the morning of August 6, 1945. Much of the city was destroyed. Over 100,000 people were killed, many instantly and many afterwards because of radiation sickness. It is now estimated that 140,000 people were killed by the explosion. The bomb was nicknamed Little Boy after President Theodore Roosevelt.[1] More people died later because of cancer or other illnesses caused by the radiation, between 1950, and 1990, approximately 21,343 people died of cancer, resulted from the radiation caused by the atomic bomb. A building near the blast center still remains and is called the Atomic Bomb Dome.

Itsukushima shrine

Near to Hiroshima, there is a small island called Miyajima. The island is known for its deer. An old Shinto shrine named Itsukushima Shrine is also here. It is said that Itsukushima shrine was built at the end of the 5th century. The shrine is known for its use of red-colored wood, and especially for the torii gate that leads into the shrine, which is partly underwater at high tide. Today Itsukushima shrine and the Atomic Bomb Dome are registered as World Heritage sites. Also it was a landing site for the U.S.

Sport

Baseball

There is a professional baseball team in Hiroshima called Hiroshima Carp.

References

Other websites








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