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Hispanic (Spanish: hispano, hispánico) is a term that originally denoted a relationship to the ancient Hispania (geographically coinciding with the Iberian Peninsula).[note 1] During the modern era, it took on a more limited meaning, relating to the contemporary nation of Spain.

Still more recently, the term has also (or alternatively) been used to denote the culture and people of countries formerly ruled by Spain, usually with a majority of the population speaking the Spanish language. These include Mexico, the majority of the Central and South American countries, and most of the Greater Antilles.

Contents

Terminology

Trajan was a Hispano-Roman Emperor, born in Hispania Baetica (modern-day Spain).

The term Hispanic is derived from Hispanicus, which derived from Hispania (Iberian Peninsula), both of them Latin terms. Hispania may in turn derive from Latin Hispanus, or from Greek Hispania and Hispanos, probably from Celtiberian[1] or from Basque Ezpanna.[2] The words Spain, Spanish, and Spaniard are of the same etymology as Hispanic, ultimately.[1]

Hispanus was the Latin name given to a person from Hispania during Roman rule. In English, the term Hispano-Roman is sometimes used.[3] The Hispano-Romans were composed of people from many different tribes.[4] Some famous Hispani (plural of Hispanus) were Seneca the Elder, Seneca the Younger, Marcus Annaeus Lucanus, Martial, Prudentius, the Roman Emperors Trajan, Hadrian and Theodosius I, and also Magnus Maximus and Maximus of Hispania.

Here follows a comparison of several terms related to Hispanic:

  • Hispano-Roman is used to refer to the culture and people of Hispania, ancestors of the Portuguese and Spanish peoples.[5][6]
  • Hispania was known as Iberia to the Greeks, while the native land of the Hispano-Romans later became a province of the Roman Empire and Al-Andalus during the Moorish Muslim period.
  • Hispanic is used to refer to modern Spain, to the Spanish language, and to the Spanish-speaking nations of the world and particularly the Americas.[7][8]
  • Spanish is used to refer to both to the Spanish language itself and to the culture and the people of Spain.
  • Spaniard is used to refer to the people of Spain.

Prior to the marriage of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469, the four Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula, namely the Kingdom of Portugal, the Crown of Aragon, the Crown of Castile, and the Kingdom of Navarre, were collectively referred to as Hispania - the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula. This revival of the old Roman name in the Middle Ages appears to have originated in Provençal, and appears to be first documented at the end of the 11th century. In the Council of Constance, the four kingdoms shared one vote.

Portugal adopted the word "Lusitanic",[9] or "Lusitanian" to refer to its culture and people, in reference to the Lusitanians, one of the first Indo-European tribes to settle in Europe. From this tribe's name had derived the name of the Roman province of Lusitania, which was a part of Roman province of Hispania, and Lusitania remains Portugal's name in Latin.

The expansion of the Spanish Empire between 1492 and 1898 brought thousands of Spanish migrants to the conquered lands, who established settlements, mainly in the Americas but also in other distant parts of the world, producing a number of multiracial populations. Today the term Hispanic is typically applied to the varied populations of these places, including those with insignificant or no Spanish ancestry. This is not necessarily so for people of Portuguese ancestry, in former Portuguese colonies such as Brazil or Portugal itself. For instance, Portuguese Americans are not considered "Hispanic" by the United States Census Bureau.

Definitions in the United States

The terms Hispanic and Latino tend to be used interchangeably in the United States for people with origins in Spanish–speaking countries. Latino, from American Spanish, is used in some cases as an abbreviation for latinoamericano or "Latin American".[10] In other Hispanophone countries, Hispanic and Latino are not commonly used. The term "Latin American" was used for the first time in the nineteenth century when the French occupied Mexico (1862-1867), leading to the Second Mexican Empire, and wanted to be included in what is considered Spanish America.

The 1970 Census was the first time that a "Hispanic" identifier was used and data collected with the question. The definition of "Hispanic" has been modified in each successive census. The 2000 Census asked if the person was "Spanish/Hispanic/Latino".[11]

The U.S. Office of Management and Budget currently defines "Hispanic or Latino" as "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race".[12] This definition excludes people of Portuguese origins, such as Portuguese Americans or Brazilian Americans. However, they are included in some government agencies' definitions. For example, the U.S. Department of Transportation defines Hispanic to include, "persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or others Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin, regardless of race."[13] This definition has been adopted by the Small Business Administration as well as many federal, state, and municipal agencies for the purposes of awarding government contracts to minority owned businesses. Still, other government agencies adopt definitions that exclude people from Spain, since there is a distinct ethnic difference (indigenous American or European American). Some others include people from Brazil, but not Spain or Portugal. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission encourages any individual who believes that he or she is Hispanic according to the U.S. Office of Management and Budget definition (any Spanish culture or origin) to self-identify as Hispanic.[14] The United States Department of Labor - Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs encourages the same self-identification.[15] As a result, any individual who traces his or her origins to part of the Spanish Empire may self-identify as Hispanic, because an employer may not override an individual's self-identification.[16]

Hispanicization

Hispanicization is the process by which a place or a person absorbs characteristics of Hispanic society and culture.[17][18][19] Modern hispanization of a place, namely in the United States, might be illustrated by Spanish language media and businesses. Hispanization of a person might be illustrated by speaking Spanish, making and eating Latin food, listening to Spanish language music, dressing in Hispanic styles or participating in Hispanic festivals and holidays - Hispanization of those outside the Hispanic community as opposed to assimilation of Hispanics into theirs. In the United States Anglo culture has long been the dominant culture and, historically, U.S. immigrants have assimilated by the third generation.

One of the reasons why the assimilation of Hispanics in the U.S. is not comparable to that of other cultural groups is that Hispanic and Latino Americans have been living in some parts of North America for centuries, in many cases well before the Anglo culture became dominant. For example, California, Texas, Colorado, New Mexico (1598), Arizona, Nevada and Florida have been home to Hispanic peoples since the 16th century, long before the U.S. gained independence from Great Britain. These and other Spanish-speaking territories were part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and later Mexico, before these regions joined or were taken by the United States in 1848. Some cities in the U.S. were founded by Spanish settlers in the 16th century, prior to the creation of the Thirteen Colonies. For example, San Miguel de Galdape, Pensacola and St. Augustine, Florida were founded in 1526, 1559 and 1565 respectively, Santa Fe, New Mexico was founded in 1604, and Albuquerque was established in 1660. Therefore, in some parts of the U.S., the Hispanic cultural legacy is older than the Anglo-Saxon origin. For this reason, many generations have largely maintained their cultural traditions and Spanish language.

Language retention is a common index to assimilation, and according to the 2000 census, about 75 percent of all Hispanics spoke Spanish in the home — even many Hispanics who can trace their ancestry to the original Spanish settlement of the U.S. Southwest between 1598 and 1769. Spanish language retention rates vary geographically; parts of Texas and New Mexico have language retention rates over 90 percent, whereas parts of Colorado and California have retention rates lower than 30 percent.

Hispanic retention rates are so high in parts of Texas and New Mexico and along the border because the percentage of Hispanics living there is also very high. Laredo, Texas; Chimayo, New Mexico; Nogales, Arizona and Coachella, California, for example, all have Hispanic populations greater than 90 percent. In these pockets, Hispanics have always been the majority population. These communities are known within the Hispanic community or Hispanidad, as "continuous communities" because Hispanics have continuously been the majority population since they were settled in the 16th or 17th centuries. Interestingly, Anglo Americans moving into these communities often Hispanicize, creating a situation where assimilation and Hispanization are one and the same.

Spanish-speaking countries and regions

Today, Spanish is among the most commonly spoken first languages of the world. During the period of the Spanish Empire from 1492 and 1898, many people migrated from Spain to the conquered lands. The Spaniards brought with them the Castillian language and culture, and in this process that lasted several centuries, created a global empire with a diverse population. Miscegenation between peoples in the colonies led to the creation of the new mixed peoples, chiefly mestizos and mulatos, in many countries. Genetically, the Spaniards are typically European and are believed to be the longest continuously established population in Europe; they also have small traces of many peoples from the rest of Europe, the Near East and the Mediterranean areas of northern Africa.[20][21] The Hispanic countries, including Spain, are also inhabited by peoples of non-Spanish ancestry, to widely varying extents. Argentina, for instance, has a very large population of Italian descent.

Spanish-speaking countries
Hispanic World
     Spanish identified as an official or de facto official language.
Note: Spanish is identified as a co-official language in Peru, Bolivia and Equatorial Guinea.
See also: List of countries where Spanish is an official language
.
Language and Ethnicities in Spanish-Speaking Areas Around the World
Continent/Region Country/Territory Languages Spoken [22] Ethnic Groups [23] Picture References
Europe Spain Spanish (official) 89%, Catalan 9%, Galician 5%, Basque 1%, are official regionally. (Spanish is spoken by 100% of the population, over 100% indicates bilingual population). ]]).[24] Majority composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types; 88.0% Spanish, 12.0% (Romanian, British, Moroccan, Latin American, German) others (2009) ValladolidAyto 20-4-03.JPG [25][26]
North America Mexico Spanish 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%; (Indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages) (2005) Mestizo (European-Amerindian) 60% [27], Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 12-18%, European or predominantly European 17-20%[27], other 1-2% Zocalo cathedral.jpg [28]
United States English 80.3%, Spanish 12.2%, other Indo-European 3.8%, Asian and Pacific island 2.7%, other 0.7% (2000 census) (Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii).

Note: While the U.S. is an English speaking country, it has always had Spanish-speakers in the American West/Southwest and Florida, and immigration from Hispanic countries has increased the Spanish speaking population in the United States. About three-quarters of Spanish speakers in the United States speak English "well" or "very well".[29]

White 79.96%, Black 12.85%, Asian 4.43%, Amerindian and Alaska native 0.97%, native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 0.18%, two or more races 1.61% (July 2007 estimate)

Note: a separate listing for Hispanic is not included because the U.S. Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean a person of Latin American descent (including persons of Cuban, Mexican, or Puerto Rican origin) living in the U.S. who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian, etc.); about 15.1% of the total U.S. population is Hispanic.

Alamo Mission, San Antonio.jpg [30]
Central America Belize Spanish 43%, Creole 37%, Mayan dialects 7.8%, English 5.6% (official), German 3.2%, Garifuna 2%, other 1.5% Mestizo 34%, Creole 25%, Spanish 15%, Maya 10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%, other 11% (2000 census) Belmopan Parliament.jpg [31]
Costa Rica Spanish (official), English White 85%, Mestizo 10%, Black 3%, Amerindian 1%, Chinese 1% 4- Vue San Jose.jpg [32]
El Salvador Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians) Mestizo 90%, White 9%, Amerindian 1% SanSalvadorVolcano.jpg [33]
Guatemala Spanish 70%, Amerindian languages 30% (23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and Xinca). Mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish - in local Spanish called Ladino) and European 59.4%, K'iche 9.1%, Kaqchikel 8.4%, Mam 7.9%, Q'eqchi 6.3%, other Mayan 8.6%, indigenous non-Mayan 0.2%, other 0.1% (2001 census) Catedral Metropolitana, Guatemala City.jpg [34]
Honduras Spanish, Amerindian dialects Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, Black 2%, White 1% TEGUZ---Plaza-Central-450.jpg [35]
Nicaragua Spanish 97.5% (official), Miskito 1.7%, other 0.8% (1995 census) (English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast). Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 69%, White 17%, Black 9%, Amerindian 5% Grana gF.JPG [36]
Panama Spanish (official), English 14% (many Panamanians bilingual) Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 70%, Amerindian and mixed (West Indian) 14%, White 10%, Amerindian 6% Balboa Avenue.JPG [37]
South America Argentina Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French White (mostly Spanish and Italian) 89%, Mestizo (mixed White and Amerindian ancestry), Amerindian, or other non-White groups 11% Palacio Legislativo de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Diagonal Julio A. Roca.jpg [38]
Bolivia Spanish 60.7% (official), Quechua 21.2% (official), Aymara 14.6% (official), foreign languages 2.4%, other 1.2% (2001 census) Quechua 30%, Mestizo (mixed White and Amerindian ancestry) 30%, Aymara 25%, White 15% Plaza del Estudiante La Paz Bolivia.jpg [39]
Chile Spanish (official), Mapudungun, German, English White 52,7%, Mestizo 44,1%, Amerindian 3,2% Centre-ville Santiago.jpg [40]
Colombia Spanish Mestizo 58%, White 20%, Mulatto 14%, Black 4%, mixed Black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1% Cartagena05.jpg [41]
Ecuador Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua) Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, Black 3% [42]
Paraguay Spanish (official), Guarani (official) Mestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) 95%, other 5% CDE Vista Aerea.JPG [43]
Peru Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages Amerindian 45%, Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 37%, White 15%, Black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3% San Martín Plaza.jpg [44]
Uruguay Spanish, Portuñol, or Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazilian frontier) White 88%, Mestizo 8%, Black 4%, Amerindian (practically nonexistent) Playa Pocitos.jpg [45]
Venezuela Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects Mestizos (mixed Amerindian and White), White, Africans and Amerindians. Caracas Cathedral 2.jpg [46]
Caribbean Islands Cuba Spanish White 65.1% (Spanish), Mulatto and Mestizo 24.8%, Black 10.1% (2002 census) Capitolio and Grand Teatro de La Habana.jpg [47]
Dominican Republic Spanish mixed 73%, White 16%, Black 11% Calle Colonial en Santo Domingo.jpg [48]
Puerto Rico
(Territory of the U.S. with Commonwealth status)
Spanish, English white (mostly Spanish origin) 76.2%, black 6.9%, Asian 0.3%, Amerindian 0.2%, mixed 4.4%, other 12% (2007) Historic house in Cabo Rojo, PR.jpg [49]
Africa Equatorial Guinea Spanish 67.6% (official), other 32.4% (includes the other 2 official languages - French and Portuguese, Fang, Bube, Annobonese, Igbo, Krio, Pichinglis, and English) (1994 census)
Note: Equatorial Guinea was the only Spanish colony in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Fang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 census) Malabo a 13-oct-01.jpg [50]
Polynesia Easter Island
Territory of Chile
Spanish (official), Rapanui Rapanui AhuTongariki.JPG [51]
The CIA World Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).[52]
Areas with Spanish cultural influence
Continent/Region Country/Territory Languages Spoken [22] Ethnic Groups [23] Picture References
Asia Philippines Chavacano, a Spanish-based creole language is still spoken in the Philippines by 600,000 people.[53] Spanish in the Philippines is natively spoken by 5,000 people but second- and third-language speakers range from 500,000 to 3,500,000.[54][55] Hispanic influences have impacted several aspects of native languages, scuh as Tagalog, Cebuano and IlocanoC[53] Filipino (Visayan, Tagalog, Ilocano, Bicolano, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Moro, mestizo, others) Intramuros 001.jpg [53]
Micronesia Guam Most former Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific no longer recognize Spanish as an official language. The predominant languages used in Guam are English, Chamorro and Filipino. Also, in Guam -a U.S. territory- and the Northern Mariana Islands, a commonwealth in political union with the U.S., a Malayo-Polynesian language called Chamorro is spoken, with numerous loanwords with Spanish etymological origins. However it is not a Spanish creole language.[56] Asians, Chamorro, and others Latte stones in Hagatna.jpg [56]
FSM Micronesia Micronesia's official language is English, although native languages, such as Chuukese, Kosraean, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro and Kapingamarangi are also prominent.[57] Asians, Micronesians, and others [57]
Northern Mariana Islands In the Northern Mariana Islands, a commonwealth in political union with the U.S., a Malayo-Polynesian language called Chamorro is spoken, with numerous loanwords with Spanish etymological origins. However it is not a Spanish creole language. The top four languages used in the Northern Mariana Islands are Filipino, Chinese, Chamorro and English.[58] Asians, Chamorro, and others [58]
Palau In Palau, Spanish is no longer used; instead, the people use their native languages, such as Palauan, Angaur, Sonsorolese and Tobian.[59] Asians, Palauan, and others [59]
The CIA World Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).[52]

Music

Folk and popular dance and music also varies greatly among Hispanics. For instance, the music from Spain is a lot different from the Hispanic American, although there is a high grade of exchange between both continents. In addition, due to the high national development of the diverse nationalities and regions of Spain, there is a lot of music in the different languages of the Peninsula (Catalan, Galician and Basque, mainly). See, for instance, Music of Catalonia or Rock català, Music of Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias, and Basque music.

On the other side of the ocean, Latin America is also home to a wide variety of music, even though "Latin" music is often erroneously thought of, as a single genre. Hispanic Caribbean music tends to favor complex polyrhythms of African origin. Mexican music shows combined influences of mostly Spanish and Native American origin, while traditional Northern Mexican music — norteño and banda — is more influenced by country-and-western music and the polka, brought by Central European settlers to Mexico. The music of Hispanic Americans — such as tejano music — has influences in rock, jazz, R&B, pop, and country music as well as traditional Mexican music such as Mariachi. Meanwhile, native Andean sounds and melodies are the backbone of Peruvian and Bolivian music, but also play a significant role in the popular music of most South American countries and are heavily incorporated into the folk music of Ecuador and Chile and the tunes of Colombia, and again in Chile where they play a fundamental role in the form of the greatly followed nueva canción. In U.S. communities of immigrants from these countries it is common to hear these styles. Latin pop, Rock en Español, Latin hip-hop, Salsa, Merengue, and Reggaeton styles tend to appeal to the broader Hispanic population, and varieties of Cuban music are popular with many Hispanics of all backgrounds.

Literature

Hispanic literature and folklore is very rich and is influenced by a variety of countries. There are thousands of writers from many places, and dating from the Middle Ages to the present. Some of the most recognized writers are Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (Spain), Lope de Vega (Spain), Calderón de la Barca (Spain), Octavio Paz (Mexico), George Santayana (US), José Martí (Cuba), Sabine Ulibarri (US), Federico García Lorca (Spain), Miguel de Unamuno (Spain), Gabriel García Márquez (Colombia), Horacio Quiroga (Uruguay), Rómulo Gallegos (Venezuela), Rubén Darío (Nicaragua), Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru), Giannina Braschi (Puerto Rico), Cristina Peri Rossi (Uruguay), Clarice Lispector (Brazil),Luisa Valenzuela (Argentina), Roberto Quesada (Honduras), Julio Cortázar (Argentina), Pablo Neruda (Chile), Gabriela Mistral (Chile), Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina), Pedro Henríquez Ureña (Dominican Republic), Carlos Fuentes (Mexico), Ernesto Sabato(Argentina) and Juan Tomás Ávila Laurel (Equatorial Guinea), Ciro Alegria (Peru), Joaquin Garcia Monge (Costa Rica), Jose Rizal (Philippines), Antonio Abad (Philippines) amongst many others.

Religion

With regard to religious affiliation among Hispanics, Christianity — specifically Roman Catholicism — is usually the first religious tradition that comes to mind. Indeed, the Spaniards took the Roman Catholic faith to Latin America, and Roman Catholicism continues to be the overwhelmingly predominant, but not the only, religious denomination amongst most Hispanics. A small but growing number of Hispanics belong to a Protestant denomination.

There are also Hispanic Jews, of which most are the descendants of Ashkenazi Jews who migrated from Europe (German Jews, Russian Jews, Polish Jews, etc.) to Latin America, particularly Argentina, Uruguay, Peru and Cuba (Argentina is host to the third largest Jewish population in the Western Hemisphere, after the United States and Canada)[60][61] in the 19th century and during and following World War II. Many Hispanic Jews also originate from the small communities of reconverted descendants of anusim — those whose Spanish and Portuguese Sephardi Jewish ancestors long ago hid their Jewish ancestry and beliefs in fear of persecution by the Spanish Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition in the Iberian Peninsula and Latin America. The Spanish Inquisition led to a large number of forced conversions of Spanish Jews. Genetic studies on the (male) Y chromosome conducted by the University of Leeds in 2008 appear to support the idea that the number of forced conversions have been previously underestimated significantly. They have determined that the current population of Spain has ancestry through the male line that is at least 20% Jewish.[62] This seems to imply there was much forced conversions than which was previously thought to be about 200,000. There are also the now Catholic-professing descendants of marranos and the Hispano crypto-Jews believed to exist in the once Spanish-held Southwestern United States and scattered through Latin America. Additionally, there are Sephardic Jews who are descendants of those Jews who fled Spain to Turkey, Syria, and North Africa, some of whom have now migrated to Latin America, holding on to some Spanish/Sephardic customs, such as the Ladino language which mixes Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic and others, though written with Hebrew and Latin characters.[63] Though, it should be noted, that Ladinos were also African slaves captive in Spain held prior to the colonial period in the Americas. (See also History of the Jews in Latin America and List of Latin American Jews.)

Among the Hispanic Catholics, most communities celebrate their homeland's patron saint, dedicating a day for this purpose with festivals and religious services. Some Hispanics syncretize Roman Catholicism and African or Native American rituals and beliefs. Such is the case of Santería, popular with Afro-Cubans and which combines old African beliefs in the form of Roman Catholic saints and rituals. Other syncretistic beliefs include Spiritism and Curanderismo.

While a tiny minority, there are some Latino Muslims in Latin America and the US.

In the United States some 70% of U.S. Hispanics report themselves Catholic, and 23% Protestant, with 6% having no affiliation.[64] A minority among the Roman Catholics, about one in five, are charismatics. Among the Protestant, 85% are "Born-again Christians" and belong to Evangelical or Pentecostal churches. Among the smallest groups, less than 4%, are U.S. Hispanic Jews.

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Harper, Douglas. "Online Etymology Dictionary; Hispanic". http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=Hispanic&searchmode=none. Retrieved 2009-02-10.  Also: etymology of "Spain", on the same site.
  2. ^ Anthon, Charles. A System of Ancient and Mediæval Geography for the Use of Schools and Colleges pg.14
  3. ^ Pohl, Walter; Helmut Reimitz (1998). Strategies of Distinction: The Construction of Ethnic Communities, 300-800. BRILL. pp. 117. ISBN ISBN 9004108467, 9789004108462. http://books.google.com/books?id=OAZ1WNWSockC&pg=PA117&lpg=PA117&dq=Hispano-Romans&source=web&ots=guGgdj2YJ3&sig=VP_iIaQ1aiGVUHIQ2Hcy4vSXluU&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result. 
  4. ^ Povos Pré-Romanos da Península Ibérica A map showing the various Pre-Roman peoples of Iberia.
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ [2]
  7. ^ Ask Oxford
  8. ^ Merriam Webster Online
  9. ^ MorDebe. uma Base de Dados Morfológica de Português
  10. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary Latino/Latinoamericano
  11. ^ http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0075/twps0075.html#f1 Aruthur R. Crese, Audrey Dianne Schmidley and Roberto R. Ramirez. Identification of Hispanic Ethnicity in Census 2000: Analysis of Data Quality for the Question on Hispanic Origin, Population Division Working Paper No. 75, U.S. Census Bureau, July 27, 2004 [Revised July 9, 2008].
  12. ^ OMB, Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity (1997)
  13. ^ http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/civilrights/faq.htm U.S. Department of Transportation Office of Civil Rights, What is a Disadvantaged Business Enterprise(DBE)?
  14. ^ 70 Fed. Reg. 71296
  15. ^ Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs FAQ-10 and FAQ-13
  16. ^ Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs FAQ-26
  17. ^ Hispanic Spaces, Latino Places: Community and Cultural Diversity in Contemporary America, 2004. Edited by Dan Arreola, found in Chapter 14 "Hispanization of Hereford, Texas"
  18. ^ US Bureau of the Census, 2004 (see page 10).
  19. ^ Hispanic Community Types and Assimilation in Mex-America 1998. Haverluk, Terrence W. The Professional Geographer, 50(4) pages 465-480.
  20. ^ Estimating the impact of demic diffusion
  21. ^ World Haplogroups Maps
  22. ^ a b CIA World Factbook Language Notes
  23. ^ a b CIA World Factbook Ethnicity Notes
  24. ^ Europeans and their Languages - Special Eurobarometer; resumen en castellano: [3] Encuesta realizada entre noviembre y diciembre de 2005 por la Comisión Europea. Universo: 1025 entrevistados en España. Nótese que los encuestados podían responder varias opciones simultáneamente, por lo que la suma total no es del 100%.
  25. ^ "Spain". www.ine.es. 2009-01-01. http://www.ine.es/prensa/np551.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-22. 
  26. ^ CIA World Factbook Spain
  27. ^ a b http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/379167/Mexico
  28. ^ CIA World Factbook Mexico
  29. ^ Census Bureau (2008): [4], [5]
  30. ^ CIA World Factbook The United States
  31. ^ "Belize 2000 Housing and Population Census". Belize Central Statistical Office. 2000. http://celade.cepal.org/cgibin/RpWebEngine.exe/PortalAction?&MODE=MAIN&BASE=CPVBLZ2000&MAIN=WebServerMain.inl. Retrieved 2008-10-11. 
  32. ^ CIA World Factbook Costa Rica
  33. ^ CIA World Factbook El Salvador
  34. ^ CIA World Factbook Guatemala
  35. ^ CIA World Factbook Honduras
  36. ^ CIA World Factbook Nicaragua
  37. ^ CIA World Factbook Panama
  38. ^ CIA World Factbook Argentina
  39. ^ CIA World Factbook Bolivia
  40. ^ "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI". http://books.google.cl/books?id=LcabJ98-t1wC&pg=PA93&lpg=PA93&dq=chile+60%25+blancos+Esteva-Fabregat&source=bl&ots=AMUjY09aVi&sig=3PCwfKDokrZYem3dcZ2gkToFIoE&hl=es&ei=k8WjSYT3HJaitgfGncnOBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPA110,M1. 
  41. ^ CIA World Factbook Colombia
  42. ^ CIA World Factbook Ecuador
  43. ^ CIA World Factbook Paraguay
  44. ^ CIA World Factbook Peru
  45. ^ CIA World Factbook Uruguay
  46. ^ CIA World Factbook Venezuela
  47. ^ CIA World Factbook Cuba
  48. ^ CIA World Factbook Dominican Republic
  49. ^ CIA World Factbook Puerto Rico
  50. ^ CIA World Factbook Equatorial Guinea
  51. ^ CIA World Factbook Chile (includes Easter Island)
  52. ^ a b CIA World Factbook Copyright notice
  53. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook Philippines
  54. ^ Ethnologue. There are 2,532 immigrants from Spain accordind to INE (1/1/2009)
  55. ^ 1,816,773 Spanish + 1,200,000 Spanish creole: Antonio Quilis "La lengua española en Filipinas", 1996 pag.234 cervantesvirtual.com, mepsyd.es (page 23), mepsyd.es (page 249), spanish-differences.com, aresprensa.com. The figure 2,900,000 Spanish speakers, we can find in "Pluricentric languages: differing norms in different nations" (page 45 by R.W.Thompson), or in sispain.org./ More than 2 million Spanish speakers and around 3 million with Chavacano speakers according to "Instituto Cervantes de Manila" (elcastellano.org)
  56. ^ a b CIA World Factbook Guam
  57. ^ a b CIA - The World Factbook -- Micronesia, Federated States of
  58. ^ a b CIA World Factbook Northern Mariana Islands
  59. ^ a b CIA World Factbook Palau
  60. ^ The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute; Annual Assessment, 2007
  61. ^ United Jewish Communities; Global Jewish Populations
  62. ^ Nicholas Wade, "Gene Test Shows Spain's Jewish and Muslim Mix", New York Times, 12/5/2008, p.A12
  63. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary Ladino
  64. ^ Espinosa, Gastón (2003-01). "Hispanic Churches in American Public Life: Summary of Findings" (PDF). http://www.pewtrusts.org/pdf/religion_hispanic_churches.pdf. Retrieved 2006-12-27. 

Bibliography

Notes

  1. ^ Despite the etymological roots of the term covering the entire Iberian Peninsula, in modern day discourse, when applied to people and culture, it is usually constrained to things related by the Spanish language. Thus not including Portuguese people or their diaspora in Brazil for instance.

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

From Hispania the Latin name for the Iberian peninsula including both present-day Spain and Portugal.

Pronunciation

Adjective

Hispanic (comparative more Hispanic, superlative most Hispanic)

Positive
Hispanic

Comparative
more Hispanic

Superlative
most Hispanic

  1. Of or related to Spain
  2. Pertaining to a Spanish-speaking people or culture, as in Latin America.
    Houses in New Mexico, California and Florida exhibit a strong Hispanic architectural influence.
  3. (historical) Of or pertaining to the Iberian peninsula, its people, its culture or its languages.

Noun

Singular
Hispanic

Plural
Hispanics

Hispanic (plural Hispanics)

  1. A Spanish-speaking person.
  2. A person residing in the United States, Latin America or worldwide of Spanish ancestry, generally but not always exclusive of Brazilians.

Related terms

See also








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