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Hispanic and Latino Americans
César ChávezRaquel WelchDavid Farragut
Sonia SotomayorFranklin Chang-DiazRomana Acosta Bañuelos
Alex RodriguezHilda SolisIsabel Allende
John LeguizamoJuan BandiniGloria Estefan
César Chávez • Raquel Welch • David Farragut
Sonia Sotomayor • Franklin Chang-Diaz • Romana Acosta Bañuelos
Alex Rodriguez • Hilda Solis • Isabel Allende
John Leguizamo • Juan Bandini • Gloria Estefan
Total population
Hispanic and Latino Americans
46,891,456[1]
15.4% of the U.S. population (2008)
Regions with significant populations
Predominantly the Southwest • Florida • Chicago • Northeast Megalopolis of the Northeast
Languages
Predominantly American English and Spanish
Religion
Predominantly .Roman Catholicism;
significantly Protestantism;
Islam, Judaism and others.
^ Roman Catholicism ; minority Protestantism , Judaism and others .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mostly Protestantism , Catholicism , and Judaism .
  • Mixed Martials Arts | Subfighter Mixed Martial Arts Social Network 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.subfighter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Christianity (predominantly Roman Catholicism with Protestantism and Santeria ), Islam , Judaism , Atheism and Agnosticism .
  • ClownsFun @ Dikkedeur.dyndns.org - ClownsFun @ Dikkedeur.dyndns.org 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC dikkedeur.dyndns.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Related ethnic groups
.Hispanic and Latino Americans are Americans with origins in the Hispanic countries of Latin America or in Spain.^ Race and Hispanic/Latino origin .
  • Population of the United States by Race and Hispanic/Latino Origin, Census 2000 and July 1, 2005 — FactMonster.com 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term “Latino” emphasizes Latin American origin.
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hispanic and Latino Americans are Americans of Hispanic or Latino descent , which comprises ancestry or origins in Hispanic America or in Spain .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2][3][4] .The group encompasses distinct sub-groups by national origin and race, with ancestries from all continents represented.^ The group encompasses distinct sub–groups b...
  • Most Populated Cities in the United States - Ask.com 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People of Mexican origin represented the largest group of Hispanic Americans/Latinos, at 66.8 percent, followed by Puerto Ricans (8.6 percent), Cuban Americans (3.8 percent), and other Hispanic (20.8 percent).
  • Hispanic/Latino American Demographics in a Changing America 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC councilspp.scouting.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The individuals featured on the site represent a variety of races, countries of origin, disability types, genders, age groups, geographic locations, types of success and life circumstances.
  • Hispanic/Latino — World Institute on Disability 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.wid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5][6][7] .Some members of the community prefer Hispanic and others Latino, the latter being more common in the western United States and the former in the eastern.^ Hispanics are also united by their location within the United States.
  • Hispanic-Americans 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC frontpage.wiu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hispanic population in the United States: 2004.
  • Within-Group Differences in Depression Among Older Hispanics Living in the United States -- Yang et al. 63 (1): P27 -- Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC psychsoc.gerontologyjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Latinas : Hispanic women in the United States / .

[3]
.Hispanics and Latinos constitute 15.4% of the total United States population, or 46.9 million people,[1][8] forming the second largest ethnic group, after non-Hispanic White Americans (a group which is also composed of dozens of sub-groups).^ California is the state with the biggest Latino population.
  • Latinos in the United States, An Internet Lesson by Gabriela Garger 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.clta.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanic Americans to the United States and to celebrate Hispanic heritage and culture.
  • KU to celebrate Hispanic Heritage Month with more than 25 special events - KU News 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.news.ku.edu [Source type: General]

^ The Hispanic population in the United States: 2004.
  • Within-Group Differences in Depression Among Older Hispanics Living in the United States -- Yang et al. 63 (1): P27 -- Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC psychsoc.gerontologyjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[9] .Again, Hispanic and Latino Americans are the largest ethnic minority in the United States; Black Americans, in turn, are the largest racial minority, after White Americans in general (non-Hispanic and Hispanic).^ Rates of diagnosed diabetes for racial and ethnic minorities generally exceeded that of non-Hispanic whites.
  • Changes in Age at Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the United States, 1988 to 2000 -- Koopman et al. 3 (1): 60 -- Annals of Family Medicine 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.annfammed.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hispanics are also united by their location within the United States.
  • Hispanic-Americans 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC frontpage.wiu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanic Americans to the United States and to celebrate Hispanic heritage and culture.
  • KU to celebrate Hispanic Heritage Month with more than 25 special events - KU News 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.news.ku.edu [Source type: General]

[10] .Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, Colombian Americans, Dominican Americans, Puerto Rican Americans, Spanish Americans, and Salvadoran Americans are some of the Hispanic and Latino American sub-groups.^ She is the first Cuban-American and the first Hispanic woman to serve in the U.S. Congress.
  • Hispanic Americans in Congress -- Introduction 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ For African descent population of Latin America, see Afro-Latin American Black Hispanic and Latino Americans .
  • ClownsFun @ Dikkedeur.dyndns.org - ClownsFun @ Dikkedeur.dyndns.org 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC dikkedeur.dyndns.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mexican Americans Puerto Rican Americans Cuban Americans Central/South Americans Within the United States, different ethic groups tend to gravitate toward various geographic centers.
  • Hispanic American Diversity - Research Paper - Juice 20 September 2009 15:15 UTC www.allfreeessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

People of Hispanic or Latino heritage have lived continuously[11][12][13][14] in the territory of the present-day United States since the 1565 founding of St. Augustine, Florida by the Spanish, the longest among European American ethnic groups and second-longest of all U.S. ethnic groups, after American Indians. .Hispanics have also lived continuously in the Southwest since near the end of the 16th century, with settlements in New Mexico that began in 1598, and which were transferred to the area of El Paso, Texas in 1680.[15] Spanish settlement of New Mexico resumed in 1692, and new ones were established in Arizona and California in the 18th century.^ Number of states where at least one-in-five residents spoke Spanish at home in 2007 - Arizona,California, New Mexico and Texas.
  • By the numbers: Meet Hispanic America - NBC-2.com WBBH News for Fort Myers, Cape Coral & Naples, Florida 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.nbc-2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And we just have three states there: California, Texas, and New Mexico.
  • The 2008 Elections and the Hispanic Vote 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC 2002-2009-fpc.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevada, as a new settlement within the southwest, is one of these new areas.
  • The 2008 Elections and the Hispanic Vote 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC 2002-2009-fpc.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

[16][17] The Hispanic presence can even be said to date from half a century earlier than St. Augustine, if San Juan, Puerto Rico is considered to be the oldest Spanish settlement, and the oldest city, in the U.S.[18]
.For the U.S. government and others, Hispanic or Latino identity is voluntary, as in the United States Census, and in some market research.^ The Hispanic population in the United States: 2004.
  • Within-Group Differences in Depression Among Older Hispanics Living in the United States -- Yang et al. 63 (1): P27 -- Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC psychsoc.gerontologyjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Race in the 2000 United States Census .
  • Top40-Charts.com - 40 Top 20 & Top 40 Music Charts from 25 Countries 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.top40-charts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Latinas : Hispanic women in the United States / .

[19]

Contents

Terminology

Part of a series of articles on
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Groups
Argentine Americans
Bolivian Americans
Chilean Americans
Colombian Americans
Costa Rican Americans
Cuban Americans
Dominican Americans
Ecuadorian Americans
Guatemalan Americans
Honduran Americans
Mexican Americans
Nicaraguan Americans
Panamanian Americans
Paraguayan Americans
Peruvian Americans
Puerto Ricans (stateside)
Salvadoran Americans
Spanish Americans
Uruguayan Americans
Venezuelan Americans
History
History of Hispanic and Latino Americans
History of Mexican-Americans
Religions
Christian Hispanics and Latinos · Catholicism · Hispanic and Latino Muslims · Santeria
Political movements
Hispanic and Latino American politics
Chicano Movement
Organizations
National Hispanic Institute
NALEO · RNHA
Congressional Hispanic Caucus
Congressional Hispanic Conference
LULAC · NALFO · SHPE
National Council of La Raza
Association of Hispanic Arts · MEChA · UFW
Culture
Hispanic culture
Literature · Studies · Music
Languages
English · Spanish in the United States
Spanish · Spanglish
Lists
Communities with Hispanic majority
Puerto Rico-related topics
Notable Hispanics
Related topics
Portals
Latino and Hispanic Portal

.The term Hispanic was first adopted by the United States government during the administration of Richard Nixon,[20] and has since been used in local and federal employment, mass media, academia, and business market research.^ Hispanics are also united by their location within the United States.
  • Hispanic-Americans 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC frontpage.wiu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hispanic population in the United States: 2004.
  • Within-Group Differences in Depression Among Older Hispanics Living in the United States -- Yang et al. 63 (1): P27 -- Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC psychsoc.gerontologyjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ State and local government - Political process .
  • United States :: The Hispanics -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.It has been used in the U.S. Census since 1980.[21] Due to the popular use of "Latino" in the western portion of the United States, the government adopted this term as well in 1997, and it was used in the 2000 census.^ Race in the 2000 United States Census .
  • Mixed Martials Arts | Subfighter Mixed Martial Arts Social Network 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.subfighter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Immigrants in the United States-2000.
  • Safety is Seguridad: A Workshop Summary 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Due to the widespread, popular use of "Latino", the government adopted this term as well in 1997, and it was used in the 2000 census.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3][4]
Previously, Hispanics were categorized as "Spanish-Americans", "Spanish-speaking Americans", and "Spanish-surnamed Americans". These terms, however, proved misleading or inaccurate,[citation needed] since:
.
  • Although a large majority of Hispanics have Spanish ancestry, most Hispanics are not of direct (non–Latin American) Spanish descent; many are not primarily of Spanish descent; and some are not of Spanish descent at all.^ Although many are bilingual, most speak Spanish.

    ^ Although a large majority of Hispanics have Spanish ancestry, most Hispanics are not of direct (non-Latin American) Spanish descent; many are not primarily of Spanish descent; and some Hispanics are not of Spanish descent at all.
    • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some Hispanic surnames are not Spanish.
    • Latino/Hispanic Culture & Health 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.health.ri.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .For example, there are Hispanics of other European ancestries (e.g.^ For example, there are Hispanics of other European ancestries (e.g.
    • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There are hundreds of Internet media outlets targeting U.S. Hispanic consumers, some of which are online versions of their printed counterparts and others online exclusively.
    • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There were numerous other anti-Hispanic comments made in the Miami District Office on an everyday basis.
    • IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.judicialwatch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Italian, German, Polish), as well as Middle Eastern (e.g.^ It includes people who indicate their race as "White" or report entries such as Irish , German , Italian , Lebanese , Near Easterner , Arab , or Polish ."
    • Race and ethnicity in the United States Census - Familypedia 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Italian , German , Polish ), as well as Middle Eastern (e.g.
    • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We might be Italians from Genoa, Middle Easterners from Lebanon, or Jews from the Eastern European borderlands, people who came to the New World to start afresh.
    • Nieman Reports | The Elusive Hispanic / Latino Identity 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nieman.harvard.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Lebanese), Black, Amerindian/Native American, Asian, and mixed race ancestries — of the latter, Mestizo (White and Amerindian/Native American) and Mulatto (White and Black) are the most common;
  • Most U.S. Hispanics can speak Spanish, not all; and most Spanish-speaking people are Hispanic, not all (e.g., many U.S. Hispanics by the fourth generation no longer speak Spanish, while some who are Spanish-speaking may not identify themselves with Spanish-speaking Americans as a group;
  • Many, perhaps most, Hispanics have a Spanish surname, not all do (notable examples of the latter include New Mexico governor Bill Richardson and NFL star Jim Plunkett), and most Spanish-surnamed people are Hispanic, not all.^ Native Americans, Asian Americans, Alaska Natives and Latinos benefit most from this provision.
    • UFCW | Latino Civil Rights Timeline 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.ufcw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For the United States, the analysis groups were white, black, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian.
    • A Cross-National Comparison of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Low Birth Weight in the United States and England -- Teitler et al. 120 (5): e1182 -- Pediatrics 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Lebanese ), Black , Amerindian/Native American , Asian , and mixed race ancestries — of the latter, Mestizo (White and Indigenous/Native American) and Mulatto (White and Black) are the most common.
    • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .For example, there are many Filipino Americans, Chamorros (Guamanians and Northern Mariana Islanders), Palauans, Micronesians (FSM), and Marshallese with Spanish surnames in the United States who, however, have their own, non-Hispanic ethnic identities.^ Hispanic Americans to the United States and to celebrate Hispanic heritage and culture.
    • KU to celebrate Hispanic Heritage Month with more than 25 special events - KU News 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.news.ku.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ The Hispanic population in the United States: 2004.
    • Within-Group Differences in Depression Among Older Hispanics Living in the United States -- Yang et al. 63 (1): P27 -- Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC psychsoc.gerontologyjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Non-hispanic Asian and Pacific Islander .
    • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Likewise, while a number of Louisiana Creole people have Spanish surnames, they identify with the mostly French – though partially Spanish – culture of the region.
The terms Hispanic and Latino are held to be mutually distinct by some authorities of American English, as seen in the following quotation:
."Though often used interchangeably in American English, Hispanic and Latino are not identical terms, and in certain contexts the choice between them can be significant.^ The terms Hispanic and Latino are used interchangeably but often debated vigorously.
  • Hispanic-Latino Digestive Health 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.gastro.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For me it is just a name and I use Latino and Hispanic interchangeably throughout the site.
  • HispanicTrending: Latino or Hispanic? 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC juantornoe.blogs.com [Source type: General]

^ Back in Miami, the commonly used term is Hispanic, not Latino.

.Hispanic, from the Latin word for "Spain," has the broader reference, potentially encompassing all Spanish-speaking peoples in both hemispheres and emphasizing the common denominator of language among communities that sometimes have little else in common.^ Hispanic , from the Latin word for "Spain," has the broader reference, potentially encompassing all Spanish-speaking peoples in both hemispheres and emphasizing the common denominator of language among communities that sometimes have little else in common.
  • 'Hispanic' Or 'Latino'? - Public Eye - CBS News 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: General]
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spanish-speaking Latin America .
  • Mixed Martials Arts | Subfighter Mixed Martial Arts Social Network 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.subfighter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Latinos" are hispanics since some people from Latin America don't speak Spanish).
  • How is Latino or hispanic NOT a race? Serious answers please? - Yahoo! Answers 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.Latino—which in Spanish means "Latin" but which as an English word is probably a shortening of the Spanish word latinoamericano—refers more exclusively to persons or communities of Latin American origin.^ Latino—which in Spanish means "Latin" but which as an English word is probably a shortening of the Spanish word latinoamericano—refers more exclusively to persons or communities of Latin American origin.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-Latina! Dance y Entertainment de Espanol! 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term “Latino” emphasizes Latin American origin.
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Latino which in Spanish means "Latin" but which as an English word is probably a shortening of the Spanish word latinoamericano refers more exclusively to persons or communities of Latin American origin.
  • 'Hispanic' Or 'Latino'? - Public Eye - CBS News 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: General]

.Of the two, only Hispanic can be used in referring to Spain and its history and culture; a native of Spain residing in the United States is a Hispanic, not a Latino, and one cannot substitute Latino in the phrase the Hispanic influence on native Mexican cultures without garbling the meaning.^ The Hispanic population in the United States: 2004.
  • Within-Group Differences in Depression Among Older Hispanics Living in the United States -- Yang et al. 63 (1): P27 -- Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC psychsoc.gerontologyjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ He's one of the best known Latino journalists in the United States.
  • Chicanísima: Latino politics, news and culture: Hispanic Archives 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: General]

^ Demography of the United States · Demographic history .
  • Educational attainment in the United States - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In practice, however, this distinction is of little significance when referring to residents of the United States, most of whom are of Latin American origin and can theoretically be called by either word."^ Spanish speaking in the United States is widespread and accepted by most Americans.

^ The Hispanic American almanac: a reference work on Hispanics in the United States .
  • Princeton University Library | Latino Studies 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC firestone.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But most were born in the United States.
  • The 2008 Elections and the Hispanic Vote 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC 2002-2009-fpc.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

[22]
.Neither term refers to race, as a person of Latino or Hispanic origin can be of any race.^ Exploring race: Hispanic or Latino, what's in a name?

^ The term used should be "Hispanic or Latino ."
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/1997standards.html 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How is Latino or hispanic NOT a race?
  • How is Latino or hispanic NOT a race? Serious answers please? - Yahoo! Answers 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

[4][23]
.As employed by the Census Bureau, Hispanic or Latino does not include Brazilian Americans,[3][4][24] and specifically refers to "Spanish culture or origin";[3][4] Brazilian Americans appear as a separate ancestry group.^ The National Bureau of Census does not include Hispanic or Latino as race.
  • Hispanic? Latino? Or What? - Times Topics Blog - NYTimes.com 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC topics.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is a Brazilian a Latino too, or must Latinos speak Spanish?
  • 'Hispanic' Or 'Latino'? - Public Eye - CBS News 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Census Bureau, Census 2000 Brief: Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin, 2000 .
  • OMHD|Populations|HL 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

[25] The twenty-eight Hispanic or Latino American groups in the Census Bureau's reports are the following:[4][26][27] Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican Republic; Central American: Costa Rican, Guatemalan, Honduran, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Salvadoran, Other Central American; South American: Argentinian, Bolivian, Chilean, Colombian, Ecuadorian, Paraguayan, Peruvian, Uruguayan, Venezuelan, Other South American; Other Hispanic or Latino: Spaniard, Spanish, Spanish American, All other Hispanic.

History

Flag of Hispanicity
.A continuous Hispanic/Latino presence in the territory of the United States has existed since the 16th century,[11][12][13][14] earlier than any other group after the Native Americans.^ Hispanic Americans to the United States and to celebrate Hispanic heritage and culture.
  • KU to celebrate Hispanic Heritage Month with more than 25 special events - KU News 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.news.ku.edu [Source type: General]

^ The Hispanic population in the United States: 2004.
  • Within-Group Differences in Depression Among Older Hispanics Living in the United States -- Yang et al. 63 (1): P27 -- Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC psychsoc.gerontologyjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hispanics constitute the largest ethnic minority group in the United States.
  • Hispanics in the workforce 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.grounds-mag.com [Source type: Original source]

.Spaniards pioneered the present-day United States.^ Hispanic colonists settled Florida, Louisiana, and New Mexico, and two of the oldest communities within present‐day United States—St.
  • Hispanic Americans - History of Hispanic Americans | Encyclopedia.com: Oxford Companion to United States History 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not until recently was anything said about the Spaniard Bernardo de Galvez , who earned a special place in the history of the United States .

^ Hispanic Population of the United States U.S. Census Bureau A presentation that highlights past, present and future trends of the Hispanic population.
  • Chicano Literature and Culture 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC usa.usembassy.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first confirmed European landing in the continental U.S. was by Juan Ponce de León, who landed in 1513 at a lush shore he christened La Florida.^ The first confirmed European landing in the continental U.S. was by Juan Ponce de León , who landed in 1513 at a lush shore he christened La Florida .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within three decades of Ponce de León's landing, the Spanish became the first Europeans to reach the Appalachian Mountains , the Mississippi River , the Grand Canyon and the Great Plains .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tells the story of Blas Maris de la Garza Falcon who was a leading settler in the Rio Grande area of south Texas.
  • Hispanic American Contributions to the World of Agriculture 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within three decades of Ponce de León's landing, the Spanish became the first Europeans to reach the Appalachian Mountains, the Mississippi River, the Grand Canyon and the Great Plains.^ Spanish were among the first European explorers in what is today the U.S. .
  • VDARE.com: 05/19/09 - Memo From Middle America (Formerly Known As Memo From Mexico): Hispanic Triumphalism, Globalism In School Spanish Textbooks�Courtesy of U.S. Taxpayer 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.vdare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains .
  • Geography and Map of the the United States 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A significant number of the Hispano lives in New Mexico along the Rio Grande Valley and in the northern Sangre de Cristo mountain range.
  • Hispanic newspapers magazines publications from across the United States 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.allied-media.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Spanish ships sailed along the East Coast, penetrating to present-day Bangor, Maine, and up the Pacific Coast as far as Oregon.^ Spanish ships sailed along the East Coast , penetrating to present-day Bangor, Maine , and up the Pacific Coast as far as Oregon .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We admire Henry Hudson and John Cabot, both of whom searched for the Northwest Passage, yet almost unrecorded in U.S. history are the exploits of the Spanish pilot, Estban Gmez , who explored the Eastern seaboard as far north as Maine in 1525, and the Spanish explorers on the West Coast who reached the site of the present-day San Francisco in 1542, Oregon in 1543, and Denver in 1600.

^ The Waldron resumed normal operations along the east coast and in the West Indies under his command after having completed a circumnavigation of the globe.
  • Hispanics in the United States Navy By Tony 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From 1528 to 1536, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and three other castaways from a Spanish expedition (including an African named Estevanico) journeyed all the way from Florida to the Gulf of California, 267 years before the Lewis and Clark Expedition.^ From 1528 to 1536, four castaways from a Spanish expedition, including a " Moor ", journeyed all the way from Florida to the Gulf of California , 267 years before the Lewis and Clark Expedition .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only seven states experienced decrease in Hispanic population, while forty three states experienced considerable growth, including the states where Hispanic population is greater (California, 69 percent; Texas, 45 percent; Florida, 83 percent; and New York, 33 percent).
  • Evangelization Across Cultures in the United States 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ethnicharvest.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other Spanish explorers of the US make up a long list that includes, among others: Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón , Pánfilo de Narváez , Sebastián Vizcaíno , Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo , Gaspar de Portolà , Pedro Menéndez de Avilés , Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca , Tristán de Luna y Arellano and Juan de Oñate .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1540 Hernando de Soto undertook an extensive exploration of the present U.S., and in the same year Francisco Vázquez de Coronado led 2,000 Spaniards and Mexican Indians across today's Arizona–Mexico border and traveled as far as central Kansas, close to the exact geographic center of what is now the continental United States.^ Ernestina came to the United States from Mexico when she was 3 years old.
  • Chicanísima: Latino politics, news and culture: Hispanic Archives 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: General]

^ Shortly afterwards, another Spaniard, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado , led an expedition through the present-day states of New Mexico , Oklahoma and Kansas .

^ In 1540 Hernando de Soto undertook an extensive exploration of the present U.S., and in the same year Francisco Vásquez de Coronado led 2,000 Spaniards and Mexican Indians across today's Arizona – Mexico border and traveled as far as central Kansas , close to the exact geographic center of what is now the continental United States.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other Spanish explorers of the US make up a long list that includes, among others: Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón, Pánfilo de Narváez, Sebastián Vizcaíno, Gaspar de Portolà, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Tristán de Luna y Arellano and Juan de Oñate, but also non-Spanish explorers working for the Spanish Crown like Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo.^ Other languages include Spanish.
  • Race and Ethnicity: Reports from SAMHSA's Office of Applied Studies website 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.drugabusestatistics.samhsa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other Spanish explorers of the US make up a long list that includes, among others: Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón , Pánfilo de Narváez , Sebastián Vizcaíno , Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo , Gaspar de Portolà , Pedro Menéndez de Avilés , Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca , Tristán de Luna y Arellano and Juan de Oñate .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The web sites include a wide range of topics like business and economy, community, culture, media, music, and others.
  • Chicano Literature and Culture 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC usa.usembassy.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In all, Spaniards probed half of today's lower 48 states before the first English colonization attempt at Roanoke Island in 1585.
The Spanish created the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States, at St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565. Santa Fe, New Mexico also predates Jamestown, Virginia (founded in 1607) and Plymouth Colony (of Mayflower and Pilgrims fame; founded in 1620). .Later came Spanish settlements in San Antonio, Texas, Tucson, Arizona, San Diego, California, Los Angeles, California and San Francisco, California, to name just a few.^ There were Spanish settlements from Mexico to Alaska, including many in what are today the states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and California, to name just a few.
  • The Hispanic Legacy in the Independence of the United States 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: General]

^ Later came Spanish settlements in San Antonio, Texas , Tucson, Arizona , San Diego, California , Los Angeles, California and San Francisco, California , to name just a few.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between 1850 and 1880, between 25 and 38 percent of Spanish-surnamed households in Los Angeles, California, Santa Fe, New Mexico, and Tucson, Arizona were headed by women – when just four to nine percent of White Non-Hispanic households had a female head.
  • Hispanic-American Families 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.pobronson.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Spanish even established a Jesuit mission in Virginia's Chesapeake Bay 37 years before the founding of Jamestown.^ The Spanish even established a Jesuit mission in Virginia 's Chesapeake Bay 37 years before the founding of Jamestown.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Spanish settlements, presidios , villas, pueblos, and missions throughout the Americas pre-date Jamestown by at least one hundred years, the origins of a comprehensive Latino/Hispanic entity began well before the massive migrations and immigrations of the present.
  • The Origins and Evolution of Latino History | Virginia Sanchez Korrol | OAH Magazine of History 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.oah.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Santa Fe, New Mexico also predates Jamestown, Virginia (founded in 1607) and Plymouth Colony (of Mayflower and Pilgrims fame; founded in 1620).
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two iconic American stories have Spanish antecedents, too.^ Hispanics as a percentage of the US population ( 2000 Census Data ) Two iconic American stories have Spanish antecedents, too.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "A Tale Tale of Two Cities: The City Past and Present in Spanish and Latin American Cinema," Cine-Lit II, Portland, February 1994.
  • Department of Hispanic Languages and Literature - Kathleen Vernon 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.stonybrook.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Almost 80 years before John Smith's alleged rescue by Pocahontas, a man by the name of Juan Ortiz told of his remarkably similar rescue from execution by an Indian girl.^ Almost 80 years before John Smith 's alleged rescue by Pocahontas , a man by the name of Juan Ortiz told of his remarkably similar rescue from execution by an Indian girl.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 2007–08 season, he was named the NBA Sixth Man of the Year.
  • Notable Hispanic and Latino Americans - Part II | Translation Blog 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC transpanish.biz [Source type: General]

^ John Arthur Smith, a Deming Democrat and chairman of the Senate Finance Committee, said with the state's budget crisis, any new programs will be heavily scrutinized this year.

Spaniards also held a thanksgiving — 56 years before the famous Pilgrims festival — when they feasted near St. Augustine with Florida Indians, probably on stewed pork and garbanzo beans. .As late as 1783, at the end of the American Revolutionary War (a conflict in which Spain aided and fought alongside the United States), Spain held claim to roughly half of today's continental United States; in 1775, Spanish ships even reached Alaska.^ The road to war - - - The United States at war .
  • United States :: The Hispanics -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Roughly 41.3 million people in the United States today are Hispanic.
  • Diabetes and Hispanic Americans: More Than Just Genetics 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.organicconsumers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Spanish language is the second language of the United States.
  • VDARE.com: 05/19/09 - Memo From Middle America (Formerly Known As Memo From Mexico): Hispanic Triumphalism, Globalism In School Spanish Textbooks�Courtesy of U.S. Taxpayer 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.vdare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From 1819 to 1848, the United States (through treaties, purchase, diplomacy, and the Mexican-American War) increased its area by roughly a third at Spanish and Mexican expense, acquiring three of today's four most populous states — California, Texas and Florida — and several smaller ones.^ The Hispanic population in the United States: 2004.
  • Within-Group Differences in Depression Among Older Hispanics Living in the United States -- Yang et al. 63 (1): P27 -- Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC psychsoc.gerontologyjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Names of events (Spanish-American War) .
  • The Learning Page - Community Center - Hispanic American Heritage 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC memory.loc.gov:8081 [Source type: Reference]

^ In the United States, 75.1% of the population is white.
  • A Cross-National Comparison of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Low Birth Weight in the United States and England -- Teitler et al. 120 (5): e1182 -- Pediatrics 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.Hispanics became the first American citizens in these new territories, and remained a majority in several Southwestern states until the 20th century.^ Hispanic Americans in the Humanities: 20th Century .
  • Honoring Hispanic Heritage: Online Resources by Breitlinks 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC madisonvoices.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ State or Territory, subjects, or causes to be subjected, any citizen .
  • Steven H. Wilson | Brown over "Other White": Mexican Americans' Legal Arguments and Litigation Strategy in School Desegregation Lawsuits | Law and History Review, 21.1 | The History Cooperative 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, Farragut became the first Hispanic-American admiral in the United States Navy.
  • Hispanics in the United States Navy By Tony 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(See also Viceroyalty of New Spain.)
.The Hispanic and Latino role in the history and present of the United States is addressed in more detail below (See Notables and their contributions).^ The Hispanic population in the United States: 2004.
  • Within-Group Differences in Depression Among Older Hispanics Living in the United States -- Yang et al. 63 (1): P27 -- Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC psychsoc.gerontologyjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mortality by Hispanic status in the United States.
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Military history of the United States .
  • Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On September 17, 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson designated a week in mid-September as National Hispanic Heritage Week, with Congress's authorization.^ Forty years ago, in 1968, the United States Congress first authorized President Lyndon B. Johnson to proclaim National Hispanic Heritage Week.
  • Remarks: The U.S. Hispanic Community: Promoting Diversity of Thought in the Public Sector - Congressional Hispanic Leadership Institute 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.chli.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Provided by the US Cenus Bureau In September 1968, Congress authorized President Lyndon B. Johnson to proclaim National Hispanic Heritage Week, which was observed during the week that included Sept.
  • By the numbers: Meet Hispanic America - NBC-2.com WBBH News for Fort Myers, Cape Coral & Naples, Florida 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.nbc-2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Poster recognizing diversity in the USMC On September 17, 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson designated a week in mid-September as National Hispanic Heritage Week.
  • Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1988, President Ronald Reagan extended the observance to a month, designated Hispanic Heritage Month.^ Hispanic Heritage Month: Hispanic Engineer magazine .
  • Honoring Hispanic Heritage: Online Resources by Breitlinks 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC madisonvoices.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On August 17, 1988, President Ronald Regan extended the celebration to a month.
  • Kentucky: Personnel Cabinet - Hispanic American Heritage Month 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC personnel.ky.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1988, President Ronald Reagan extended that week to a month-long observance.
  • Hispanics in the United States Navy By Tony 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28]

Demographics

Hispanic Population by state (2006)[29]
State Population % of state
population
New Mexico New Mexico 860,687 44.0
California California 13,074,155 35.9
Texas Texas 8,385,118 35.7
Arizona Arizona 1,803,377 29.2
Nevada Nevada 610,051 24.4
Florida Florida 3,642,989 20.1
Colorado Colorado 934,410 19.7
New York New York 3,139,590 16.3
New Jersey New Jersey 1,364,699 15.6
Illinois Illinois 1,888,439 14.7
.As of July 1, 2007, Hispanics accounted for 15.1% of the national population, or around 45.4 million people.^ Nationwide, Hispanics number about 45.5 million, or 15 percent of the population.
  • Latino News | Tag Archive | Latino Politics 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC mylatinonews.com [Source type: News]

^ Hispanics constituted 15 percent of the nation's total population.
  • By the numbers: Meet Hispanic America - NBC-2.com WBBH News for Fort Myers, Cape Coral & Naples, Florida 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.nbc-2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanic Population Passes 40 Million.
  • Hispanic-Latino Digestive Health 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.gastro.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Hispanic growth rate over the April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007 period was 28.7% — about four times the rate of the nation's total population (at 7.2%).^ The growth rate of the Hispanic workforce is four times that of the non-Hispanic workforce.
  • Hispanics in the workforce 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.grounds-mag.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hispanics constituted 15 percent of the nation's total population.
  • By the numbers: Meet Hispanic America - NBC-2.com WBBH News for Fort Myers, Cape Coral & Naples, Florida 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.nbc-2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Percentage of total population younger than 5 that was Hispanic as of July 1, 2006.
  • US Census Press Releases 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.census.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30] .The growth rate from July 1, 2005 to July 1, 2006 alone was 3.4%[31] — about three and a half times the rate of the nation's total population (at 1.0%).^ The Hispanic growth rate over the July 1 , 2005 to July 1 , 2006 period was 3.4% — higher than any other minority group in the United States, [ 23 ] and in fact three and a half times the rate of the nation's total population (at 1.0%).
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Population growth rate and Age distribution .
  • ISPUB - Leading Health Risks, Diseases And Causes Of Mortality Among Hispanics In United States Of America (USA) 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Percentage of total population younger than 5 that was Hispanic as of July 1, 2006.
  • US Census Press Releases 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.census.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30] .The projected Hispanic population of the United States for July 1, 2050 is 102.6 million people, or 24.4% of the nation's total projected population on that date.^ States ranked by Hispanic population in 1998.
  • CMHS Programs: Special Populations - National Congress for Hispanic Mental Health - The Mental Health Needs of Hispanics in the United States 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC mentalhealth.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ An historic date for the Hispanics of the United States was the year 2003.
  • VDARE.com: 05/19/09 - Memo From Middle America (Formerly Known As Memo From Mexico): Hispanic Triumphalism, Globalism In School Spanish Textbooks�Courtesy of U.S. Taxpayer 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.vdare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hispanic population in the United States: 2004.
  • Within-Group Differences in Depression Among Older Hispanics Living in the United States -- Yang et al. 63 (1): P27 -- Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC psychsoc.gerontologyjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[32]
.Of the nation's total Hispanic or Latino population, 49% (21.5 million) lives in California or Texas.^ The national pastime for millions of Latinos was baseball .
  • Hispanic Americans - History of Hispanic Americans | Encyclopedia.com: Oxford Companion to United States History 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The percentage of the Hispanic-origin population that lived in California or Texas in 2008.
  • By the numbers: Meet Hispanic America - NBC-2.com WBBH News for Fort Myers, Cape Coral & Naples, Florida 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.nbc-2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanics constituted 15 percent of the nation's total population.
  • By the numbers: Meet Hispanic America - NBC-2.com WBBH News for Fort Myers, Cape Coral & Naples, Florida 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.nbc-2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Not counting Puerto Rico — which is a Commonwealth of the United States — New Mexico is the state with the highest ratio of Hispanics, 44.7%.^ It's about a couple that moves from Puerto Rico to the United States.
  • Chicanísima: Latino politics, news and culture: Hispanic Archives 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: General]

^ The Hispanic population in the United States: 2004.
  • Within-Group Differences in Depression Among Older Hispanics Living in the United States -- Yang et al. 63 (1): P27 -- Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC psychsoc.gerontologyjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ New Mexico had 891,000 Hispanics.
  • By the numbers: Meet Hispanic America - NBC-2.com WBBH News for Fort Myers, Cape Coral & Naples, Florida 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.nbc-2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Next are California and Texas, with 35.9% and 35.6%, respectively.^ At the local level, many Texas and New Mexico counties had continual Mexican American representation; California differed in this respect.
  • Hispanics and the Future of America 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Next are California and Texas, with 35.9 and 35.6, respectively.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33]
Density of Hispanic or Latino residents (2000 Census data)
Percentage of Hispanic or Latino residents by county (2000 Census data)
.The overwhelming majority of Mexican Americans are concentrated in the Southwest, primarily in California, Texas, Arizona, Nevada, and New Mexico.^ And we just have three states there: California, Texas, and New Mexico.
  • The 2008 Elections and the Hispanic Vote 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC 2002-2009-fpc.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Mexican Americans observe this holiday in California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas .

^ National Guard units, with large proportions of Mexican-Americans, served from Arizona , Texas , New Mexico , and California .
  • Americans of Hispanic Heritage 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.neta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The majority of the Hispanic population in the Southeast, concentrated in Florida, are of Cuban origin.^ Though Hispanic communities can be found throughout Florida, the Northeast, and other parts of the country, the greatest concentration s of Hispanics are in the southwestern states from Texas to California.
  • OMHD|Populations|HL 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ People of Mexican origin represented the largest group of Hispanic Americans, at 58.5 percent, followed by Puerto Ricans (9.6 percent), and Cuban Americans (3.5 percent).
  • Hispanic/Latino Focus 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.scouting.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Overall, Puerto Ricans are the second largest group of Hispanics in the 50 states and District of Columbia — they make up 9% of the mainland Hispanic population, well behind the Mexican-origin share of 64%, but ahead of the 3.5% share of Cubans.
  • Hispanic? Latino? Or What? - Times Topics Blog - NYTimes.com 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC topics.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Hispanic population in the Northeast, concentrated in New York, New Jersey, and Eastern Pennsylvania, is composed mostly of Puerto Ricans; however, the Dominican population has risen considerably since the mid-1990s.^ New Jersey is the same with the native-born Puerto Rican population.
  • The 2008 Elections and the Hispanic Vote 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC 2002-2009-fpc.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Dominican · Jewish · Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii · Puerto Rican migration to New York · .
  • http://danpritchard.com/wiki/Puerto_Rican_people 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC danpritchard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Overall, Puerto Ricans are the second largest group of Hispanics in the 50 states and District of Columbia — they make up 9% of the mainland Hispanic population, well behind the Mexican-origin share of 64%, but ahead of the 3.5% share of Cubans.
  • Hispanic? Latino? Or What? - Times Topics Blog - NYTimes.com 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC topics.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The remainder of Hispanics and Latinos may be found throughout the country, though South Americans tend to concentrate on the East Coast and Central Americans on the West Coast.^ The remainder were of some other Central American, South American or other Hispanic or Latino origin.
  • By the numbers: Meet Hispanic America - NBC-2.com WBBH News for Fort Myers, Cape Coral & Naples, Florida 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.nbc-2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The remaining participants were from other South and Central American countries.
  • The Pedestrian and Bicyclist Highway Safety Problem As It Relates to the Hispanic Population in the United States+ - FHWA Safety Program 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC safety.fhwa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanic and Latino Americans estadounidenses hispanos y latinos .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Hispanic population of Los Angeles County, California, numbering 4.7 million, is the largest of any county in the nation,[34] comprising 47 percent of the county's ten million residents.^ Nationwide, Hispanics number about 45.5 million, or 15 percent of the population.
  • Latino News | Tag Archive | Latino Politics 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC mylatinonews.com [Source type: News]

^ Number of the nation's 3,142 counties that are majority-Hispanic.
  • By the numbers: Meet Hispanic America - NBC-2.com WBBH News for Fort Myers, Cape Coral & Naples, Florida 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.nbc-2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, Hispanics number roughly 47 million or nearly 16% of our national population.
  • Remarks: The U.S. Hispanic Community: Promoting Diversity of Thought in the Public Sector - Congressional Hispanic Leadership Institute 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.chli.org [Source type: Original source]

[35]
.As of 2000, the ten most populous places with Hispanic majorities were East Los Angeles (97% Hispanic), Laredo, Texas (94%), Brownsville, Texas (91%) Hialeah, Florida (90%), McAllen, Texas (80%), El Paso, Texas (77%), Santa Ana, California (76%), El Monte, California (72%) Oxnard, California (66%), and Miami (66%).^ Age distribution 7.1 As per US Census 2000, Hispanic population has the lowest median age (25.8 years) compared to other groups.
  • ISPUB - Leading Health Risks, Diseases And Causes Of Mortality Among Hispanics In United States Of America (USA) 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hispanic American: U.S. population by state, 2000 :: United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia Search Site: Advanced Search .
  • Hispanic American: U.S. population by state, 2000 :: United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of these issues will be relevant in sampling other Hispanic and Latino target populations.
  • Smoking and Tobacco Use :: Surveys :: Hispanic/Latino Adult Tobacco Survey Guide :: C. Sampling and Weighting :: Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) :: CDC 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC origin.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

[36]

Population by national origin (2007)
(self-identified ethnicity, rather than birthplace)[37]
Hispanic Group Population %
Mexico Mexican 29,189,334 64.3
Puerto Rico Puerto Rican 4,114,701 9.1
Cuba Cuban 1,608,835 3.5
El Salvador Salvadoran 1,473,482 3.2
Dominican Republic Dominican 1,198,849 2.6
Guatemala Guatemalan 859,815 1.9
Colombia Colombian 797,195 1.8
Honduras Honduran 527,154 1.2
Ecuador Ecuadorian 523,108 1.2
Peru Peruvian 470,519 1.0
Spain Spanish 353,008 0.8
Nicaragua Nicaraguan 306,438 0.7
Argentina Argentine 194,511 0.4
Venezuela Venezuelan 174,976 0.4
Panama Panamanian 138,203 0.3
Costa Rica Costa Rican 115,960 0.3
Chile Chilean 111,461 0.2
Bolivia Bolivian 82,434 0.2
Uruguay Uruguayan 48,234 0.1
Paraguay Paraguayan 20,432 0.04
Other Central American 111,513 0.2
Other South American 77,898 0.2
All other 2,880,536 6.3
Total 45,378,596 100
.Some 64% of the nation's Hispanic population are of Mexican origin (see table).^ Some 64% of the nation's Hispanic population are of Mexican ancestry (see table).
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also were asked if the sample person's main national origin or ancestry was Puerto Rican; Cuban; Mexican, Mexicano, Mexican American, or Chicano; other Latin American; or other Spanish.
  • Research Findings #12: Health Care Expenses in the United States, 1996 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.meps.ahrq.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Overall, Puerto Ricans are the second largest group of Hispanics in the 50 states and District of Columbia — they make up 9% of the mainland Hispanic population, well behind the Mexican-origin share of 64%, but ahead of the 3.5% share of Cubans.
  • Hispanic? Latino? Or What? - Times Topics Blog - NYTimes.com 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC topics.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another 9% are of Puerto Rican origin, with about 3% each of Cuban, Salvadoran and Dominican origins.^ Another 9% are of Puerto Rican background, with about 3% each of Cuban , Salvadoran and Dominican origins.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The survey also explored differences in the attitudes and experiences of Latinos from various places of origin including Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Dominicans, Salvadorans, and Colombians.
  • El Noticiero de IUPLR 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC iuplr.nd.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Overall, Puerto Ricans are the second largest group of Hispanics in the 50 states and District of Columbia — they make up 9% of the mainland Hispanic population, well behind the Mexican-origin share of 64%, but ahead of the 3.5% share of Cubans.
  • Hispanic? Latino? Or What? - Times Topics Blog - NYTimes.com 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC topics.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The remainder are of other Central American or South American origin, or of origin directly from Spain.^ The remaining participants were from other South and Central American countries.
  • The Pedestrian and Bicyclist Highway Safety Problem As It Relates to the Hispanic Population in the United States+ - FHWA Safety Program 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC safety.fhwa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The remainder are of other Central American or South American descent, or of descent directly from Spain.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Central and South Americans ratio is 4.2 percent.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About 7% are of unspecified national origins.^ About 7% are of unspecified national origins.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, Brown was about race segregation, which he considered inapplicable to the Mexican American complaint, while Hernandez specifically referred to national origin.
  • Steven H. Wilson | Brown over "Other White": Mexican Americans' Legal Arguments and Litigation Strategy in School Desegregation Lawsuits | Law and History Review, 21.1 | The History Cooperative 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.It should be noted that these figures pertain to ethnic self-identification, since the same dataset (abstracted from the 2007 American Community Survey) indicates that 60.2% of all Hispanic and Latino Americans were born in the United States.^ All Americans should be concerned.
  • Chicanísima: Latino politics, news and culture: Hispanic Archives 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: General]

^ My parents were born in the United States.

^ The Hispanic population in the United States: 2004.
  • Within-Group Differences in Depression Among Older Hispanics Living in the United States -- Yang et al. 63 (1): P27 -- Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC psychsoc.gerontologyjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[38]
.There are few recent immigrants directly from Spain.^ While there is a great deal of agreement that children and seniors are more at risk, participants were more divided as to whether recent immigrants really are at increased risk.
  • The Pedestrian and Bicyclist Highway Safety Problem As It Relates to the Hispanic Population in the United States+ - FHWA Safety Program 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC safety.fhwa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But there is a group of evangelical pastors telling undocumented immigrants they shouldn't be counted, according to a recent story in the Los Angeles Times.
  • Chicanísima: Latino politics, news and culture: Hispanic Archives 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: General]

.In the 2000 Census, 299,948 Americans, of whom 83% were native-born,[39] specifically reported their ancestry as Spaniard.^ Additionally, in the 2000 Census some 2,187,144 Americans reported "Spanish" as their ancestry.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 2000 Census, 299,948 Americans specifically reported their ancestry as Spaniard .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The report, entitled The New Constituents: How Latinos are Shaping Census 2010 & Congressional Reapportionment , suggests that since the last census in 2000, the Latino population has grown dramatically.
  • Hispanic / Latino | NDN 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC ndn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40][41]
.In northern New Mexico and southern Colorado live peoples who trace their ancestry to Spanish settlers of the late 16th century through the 17th century.^ These peoples trace their ancestry to Spanish settlers who arrived in the region during the late 16th century through the 17th century.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One example is the Hispanic population of northern New Mexico and southern Colorado .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Americans of European, American Indian, African, Asian, and mixed ancestry who share certain historical background and cultural traditions - in particular, the Spanish language.

.People from this background often self-identify as "Hispano", "Spanish", or "Hispanic". Many of these settlers also intermarried with local Amerindians, creating a mestizo population.^ New Mexicans usually self-identify as Hispanic or Hispanos.
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Of these, 112 identified themselves as Hispanic.
  • NCADI: Substance Abuse Resource Guide for Hispanic/Latino Americans 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Many of these settlers also intermarried with local Amerindians, creating a mestizo population.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42] .Likewise, southern Louisiana is home to communities of people of Canary Islands descent, known as Isleños, in addition to other people of Spanish ancestry.^ Likewise, southern Louisiana is home to communities of people of Canary Islands descent, known as Isleños , in addition to other people of Spanish ancestry.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to the United States, Americans and people of American descent can be found internationally such as in Canada , Mexico , Australia , and throughout Europe , South America , and the Caribbean .
  • Top40-Charts.com - 40 Top 20 & Top 40 Music Charts from 25 Countries 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.top40-charts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also were asked if the sample person's main national origin or ancestry was Puerto Rican; Cuban; Mexican, Mexicano, Mexican American, or Chicano; other Latin American; or other Spanish.
  • Research Findings #12: Health Care Expenses in the United States, 1996 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.meps.ahrq.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hispanics are almost uniformly Christian, with Catholicism the majority confession and an increasing Protestant community.^ Hispanics are projected to increase in size from nearly 32 million in 1999 (11.6% of the U.S.), to 97 million, almost 25% of the 2050 population.
  • CMHS Programs: Special Populations - National Congress for Hispanic Mental Health - The Mental Health Needs of Hispanics in the United States 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC mentalhealth.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the proportion of Hispanic men reporting three or more problems almost doubled between the two time periods (increasing from 9 percent to 16 percent).
  • Alcohol Use and Related Problems Among Ethnic Minorities in the United States 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC pubs.niaaa.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Building on the efforts of the SBA, Vice President Gore unveiled aggressive plans to increase lending and business services to the Hispanic and African American business communities nationwide.
  • Supporting Hispanic Americans 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC clinton4.nara.gov [Source type: News]

Race

.Hispanic or Latino origin is independent of race and is termed "ethnicity" by the United States Census Bureau.^ United States Census Bureau (2008-07-16).
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hispanic population in the United States: 2004.
  • Within-Group Differences in Depression Among Older Hispanics Living in the United States -- Yang et al. 63 (1): P27 -- Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC psychsoc.gerontologyjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Neither term refers to race , as a person of Latino or Hispanic descent can be of any race.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The racial categories are: American Indian and Alaska Native, White, Black or African American, Asian, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, Some other race, and Two or more races.^ Non-hispanic Asian and Pacific Islander .
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For the United States, the analysis groups were white, black, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian.
  • A Cross-National Comparison of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Low Birth Weight in the United States and England -- Teitler et al. 120 (5): e1182 -- Pediatrics 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The name of the Black category should be changed to "Black or African American."
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/1997standards.html 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The distinction made by government agencies for those within the population of each race category is between those of Hispanic or Latino origin, and all others of Non-Hispanic or Latino origin.^ Race a and Hispanic origin .
  • The Poor in Developed Countries - The United States 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.libraryindex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The grouping of Hispanic or non-Hispanic population also differs.
  • Arch Dermatol -- UV Radiation, Latitude, and Melanoma in US Hispanics and Blacks, July 2004, Hu et al. 140 (7): 819 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC archderm.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hispanic and a non-Hispanic origin.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/1997standards.html 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
.The majority of Hispanic and Latino Americans are white, in both sets of government estimates: 54% are white per the American Community Survey,[6] while the ratio rises to 92% in the Population Estimates Program, which are the official estimates.^ Hispanics were the majority of the population in 19 communities of 100,000 or more.
  • ECRP. Vol 6 No 2. Toward an Early Care and Education Agenda for Hispanic Children. 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanic and Latino Americans estadounidenses hispanos y latinos .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the government's population reports do not include Brazilian Americans with Hispanics and Latinos.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .The much larger official figure is due to the absence of the Some other race category from these estimates, which instead reallocate that category among the five standard, minimum, single-race categories, mostly the white category.^ As a result, there will be five categories in the minimum set for data on race.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/1997standards.html 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is due to the absence of the Some other race category from the official estimates, which instead reallocate it among the five standard, minimum race categories, mostly the white category.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, there are five categories in the minimum set for data on race.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/1997standards.html 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .The complete 2007 Hispanic or Latino racial breakdown is as follows:[5][6] White 92% (official) or 54% (ACS); Black or African American 3.8% (official) or 1.5% (ACS); American Indian and Alaska Native 1.4% (official) or 0.8% (ACS); Asian 0.6% (official) or 0.3% (ACS); Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 0.3% (official) or 0.07% (ACS); Some other race 40% (ACS only; not an official race); Two or more races 0.6% (official) or 3.8% (ACS).^ High immigration rates and relatively high birth rates have boosted the growth rate of the Hispanic population above that of any other major U.S. racial or ethnic group except Asians.
  • Generations of Diversity: Latinos in the United States - Population Reference Bureau 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.prb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The attempt to enumerate all American Indians started in 1890; however, the "general enumeration" with the standard census questionnaire included only American Indians who were taxed.
  • Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990,For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.census.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Rates of diagnosed diabetes for racial and ethnic minorities generally exceeded that of non-Hispanic whites.
  • Changes in Age at Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the United States, 1988 to 2000 -- Koopman et al. 3 (1): 60 -- Annals of Family Medicine 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.annfammed.org [Source type: Academic]

.Though comprising very small percentages of the overall Hispanic and Latino American population, and even more so in comparison to the total U.S. population, some of the preceding racial subgroups make up large minorities among the respective racial groups.^ Hispanic men also make up a high percentage of the very small private household industry.
  • Safety is Seguridad: A Workshop Summary 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hispanic American populations in the United States and percentage with diabetes .
  • Diabetes in Hispanic Americans 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.your-doctor.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hispanic and Latino American groups .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9DdWJhbl9BbWVyaWNhbg%3D%3D 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Aspca Careers Wiki 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.careercube.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For instance, Hispanics and Latinos who are American Indian or Alaska Native compose 15% of all American Indians and Alaska Natives (per the ACS estimates).^ Hispanic and Latino Americans estadounidenses hispanos y latinos .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanics are an “American” minority- and the largest of all minorities at that!
  • Life in The United States » Latino Opinion 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.latinoopinion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ American Indian, Alaska native, Asian or Pacific Islander, Black, or Hispanic only.
  • Hispanic Pilot Project | Resource Links | Hispanic/Minority Scholarships 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Meanwhile, the 120,000 Hispanics and Latinos who are of Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race compose 22% of this entire race nationally (per the Population Estimates).^ Non-hispanic Asian and Pacific Islander .
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ People who are Hispanic may be of any race.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders the three-year average was 13.2%.
  • The Poor in Developed Countries - The United States 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.libraryindex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Again, nearly a third of the overall 'Two or more race' population is Hispanic or Latino (ACS).^ The fact is Hispanic or Latino is not a race but a culture.

^ Exploring race: Hispanic or Latino, what's in a name?

^ According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the Hispanic-Latino population in the United States grew 38.8% to more than 31 million and has a median income of $28,330 in the year 2000.
  • Coaching Hispanic Latino Teams And Audiences Transcript 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Coaching for Hispanic/Latino Teams and Audiences Transcript 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.ieconsulting.biz [Source type: Original source]

[5][6]

Notables and their contributions

.Hispanic and Latino Americans have made distinguished contributions to the United States in all major fields, such as politics, the military, music, literature, philosophy, sports, business and economy, and science.^ The majority of Hispanics in the United States are second-generation immigrants.
  • Arch Dermatol -- UV Radiation, Latitude, and Melanoma in US Hispanics and Blacks, July 2004, Hu et al. 140 (7): 819 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC archderm.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Major topics in the United States .
  • Educational attainment in the United States - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Biographical dictionary of Hispanic literature in the United States.
  • Research Guides: Latin American and Latino Studies 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.library.fordham.edu [Source type: Academic]

Business

.The total number of Hispanic-owned businesses in 2002 was 1.6 million, having grown at triple the national rate for the preceding five years.^ Among Hispanic women, acculturation is positively associated with drinking at all and with frequent “high maximum” drinking (drinking once a week, or more often, and having five or more drinks at a sitting at least once a year).
  • Alcohol Use and Related Problems Among Ethnic Minorities in the United States 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC pubs.niaaa.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Nationwide, Hispanics number about 45.5 million, or 15 percent of the population.
  • Latino News | Tag Archive | Latino Politics 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC mylatinonews.com [Source type: News]

^ Mortality rates for Hispanics compared with non-Hispanics were 19.2 versus 26 per 100 patient-years at risk for those with diabetes and were 14.7 versus 22.7 per 100 patient-years at risk for those without diabetes.
  • Survival Advantage of Hispanic Patients Initiating Dialysis in the United States Is Modified by Race -- Murthy et al. 16 (3): 782 -- Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC jasn.asnjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[28]
.Hispanic and Latino business leaders include Cuban immigrant Roberto Goizueta, who rose to head of The Coca-Cola Company.^ They too include pockets of politicians who have been hostile to immigrants and Latinos.
  • Hispanic / Latino | NDN 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC ndn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A list of Latinos/Hispanics who might be covered could include the mural artist Diego Rivera, the labor leader Cesar Chavez, the government leader Henry Cisneros, Representative Lucille Roybal-Allard, the baseball player Roberto Clemente, and many others.
  • 97.02.06: Understanding Hispanic/Latino Culture and History Through the Use of Children�s Literature 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.cis.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These factors would include: the geographic location, the availability of jobs, location of relatives, and the security offered by an existing Latino/Hispanic population.
  • 97.02.06: Understanding Hispanic/Latino Culture and History Through the Use of Children�s Literature 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.cis.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44] .Advertising magnate Arte Moreno became the first Hispanic to own a major league team in the United States when he purchased the Los Angeles Angels baseball club.^ The majority of Hispanics in the United States are second-generation immigrants.
  • Arch Dermatol -- UV Radiation, Latitude, and Melanoma in US Hispanics and Blacks, July 2004, Hu et al. 140 (7): 819 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC archderm.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Major topics in the United States .
  • Educational attainment in the United States - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Epidemiology of cancer among Hispanics in the United States.
  • Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Risk in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women -- Gilliland et al. 154 (5): 442 -- American Journal of Epidemiology 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC aje.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[45] .Also a major sports team owner is Linda G. Alvarado, president and CEO of Alvarado Construction, Inc and co-owner of the Colorado Rockies baseball team.^ Dallas, whose majority owner and co-founder, John Sanchez, incorporated the company in 2000.
  • Zunch Named Sixth Fastest Growing Hispanic Owned Business in United States 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.zunch.com [Source type: General]

.The largest Hispanic-owned food company in the U.S. is Goya Foods, which position it attained under World War II hero Joseph A. Unanue, the son of the company's founders.^ World War II Plus 55.
  • Hispanics in the United States Navy By Tony 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World War II - - - The road to war .
  • United States :: The Hispanics -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Buoyed by victories in World Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the US remains the world's most powerful nation state.
  • NationMaster - Statistics on United States. facts and figures, stats and information on American economy, crime, people, government, health and education. 1212 maps and 2582 flags 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.nationmaster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Geography and Map of the the United States 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46] .Angel Ramos was the founder of Telemundo, Puerto Rico's first television station[47] and now the second largest Spanish language television network in the United States, with an average viewership over one million in primetime.^ It's about a couple that moves from Puerto Rico to the United States.
  • Chicanísima: Latino politics, news and culture: Hispanic Archives 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: General]

^ Language barriers in Medicine in the United States.
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Preaching in Spanish as a second language, by K Davis.

Samuel A. Ramirez, Sr. made Wall Street history by becoming the first Hispanic to launch a successful investment banking firm, Ramirez & Co.[48][49] .Nina Tassler is president of CBS Entertainment since September 2004. She is the highest-profile Latina in network television and one of the few executives who has the power to greenlight series.^ But when we look at Hispanic income levels, it's important to note a few things: one, immigrants who are starting out and, of course, the education.
  • The 2008 Elections and the Hispanic Vote 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC 2002-2009-fpc.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Ralph W. Yarborough, who led the liberals in Texas, had been in the U.S. Senate for only one year but became Texas's senior senator when Johnson became vice-president in 1961.
  • Steven H. Wilson | Brown over "Other White": Mexican Americans' Legal Arguments and Litigation Strategy in School Desegregation Lawsuits | Law and History Review, 21.1 | The History Cooperative 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the accidents were serious (one participant knew of someone who had been killed and another where a man's leg was broken), but they also reported minor incidents.
  • The Pedestrian and Bicyclist Highway Safety Problem As It Relates to the Hispanic Population in the United States+ - FHWA Safety Program 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC safety.fhwa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Government and politics

.As of 2007 there were more than five thousand elected officeholders in the United States who were of Latino origin.^ But more unsettling to the United States is the future.
  • Recent Education Reform in the United States 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ascd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A primary difference is that there is more traffic in general in the United States.
  • The Pedestrian and Bicyclist Highway Safety Problem As It Relates to the Hispanic Population in the United States+ - FHWA Safety Program 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC safety.fhwa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pew: More than one in five U.S. children are Latino .
  • Chicanísima: Latino politics, news and culture: Hispanic Archives 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: General]

[50]
.In the House of Representatives, Hispanic and Latino representatives have included Ladislas Lazaro, Antonio M. Fernández, Henry B. Gonzalez, Kika de la Garza, Herman Badillo, Romualdo Pacheco, and Manuel Lujan, Jr., out of almost two dozen former Representatives.^ Velda de La-Garza.
  • Hispanic American Influence on the U. S. Food Industry 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This election proves Latinos are no longer just a political sideshow,” says Henry Cisneros, former secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
  • Latino News | Tag Archive | Latino Politics 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC mylatinonews.com [Source type: News]

^ If church membership is excluded, approximately one-third of Latinos are members of community-based organizations (de la Garza and Lu, 1998).
  • Hispanics and the Future of America 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Current Representatives include Luis Gutiérrez, Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Nydia Velázquez, Joe Baca, Loretta Sanchez, Silvestre Reyes, Rubén Hinojosa, Linda Sánchez, and John Salazar – in all, they number twenty-three.^ Current Representatives include Ileana Ros-Lehtinen , Joe Baca , Silvestre Reyes , Nydia Velázquez , Rubén Hinojosa , Linda Sánchez , and John Salazar ; in all, they number twenty-three.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Senators include former senators Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo , Dennis Chavez , and Joseph Montoya and current senators Mel Martinez , Ken Salazar , and Bob Menendez .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A large number of Indians watched these proceedings and imitated all they saw done.
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales: The Founding of St.Augustine, 1565 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Former senators are Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo, Mel Martinez, Dennis Chavez, Joseph Montoya, and Ken Salazar.^ The latter scenario has been enhanced by the win in the Florida U.S. Senate race by former Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Mel Martinez, the win in the Colorado U.S. Senate race by Attorney General Ken Salazar, and the appointment of Representative Robert Menendez to the U.S. Senate from New Jersey.
  • Hispanics and the Future of America 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Senators include former senators Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo , Dennis Chavez , and Joseph Montoya and current senators Mel Martinez , Ken Salazar , and Bob Menendez .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Governors include former governors Romualdo Pacheco , Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo, and Bob Martinez , as well as current New Mexico governor Bill Richardson.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bob Menendez is the only current senator.^ Senators include former senators Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo , Dennis Chavez , and Joseph Montoya and current senators Mel Martinez , Ken Salazar , and Bob Menendez .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Numerous Hispanics and Latinos hold elective and appointed office in state and local government throughout the United States.^ State and local government - Political process .
  • United States :: The Hispanics -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Mortality by Hispanic status in the United States.
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Numerous Hispanic or Latino mayors and local executives , and state and local legislators have held and currently hold office throughout the United States.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51] .Governors include former governors Romualdo Pacheco, Bob Martinez, and current New Mexico governor Bill Richardson.^ Governors include former governors Romualdo Pacheco , Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo, and Bob Martinez , as well as current New Mexico governor Bill Richardson.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Senators include former senators Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo , Dennis Chavez , and Joseph Montoya and current senators Mel Martinez , Ken Salazar , and Bob Menendez .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanics and Latinos in the Federal Cabinet include, among others, Lauro Cavazos , former Secretary of Education ; Alberto Gonzales , former United States Attorney General ; Carlos Gutierrez , Secretary of Commerce ; and Bill Richardson , former Secretary of Energy and Ambassador to the United Nations .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since 1988, when Ronald Reagan appointed the first Hispanic federal Cabinet member Lauro Cavazos as Secretary of Education, Hispanic Americans have had an increasing presence in the cabinet.^ A nationally recognized executive and management consult, Rosemary was the first Latino in Illinois history to be appointed to the governor's cabinet as Director of the Department of Human Rights.
  • Coaching Hispanic Latino Teams And Audiences Transcript 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ CN: DNAL LB1585.3.T73--1993 PY: 1993 LA: English DE: Hispanic-Americans-Education.
  • Bibliography on Information with Hispanic Emphasis 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The National Hispanic Heritage Month is a time for Americans to educate themselves about the influences Hispanic culture has had on society.
  • Hispanics in the United States Navy By Tony 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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Serving there have been Ken Salazar, current Secretary of the Interior; Hilda Solis, current United States Secretary of Labor; Alberto Gonzales, former United States Attorney General; Carlos Gutierrez, Secretary of Commerce; Federico Peña, former Secretary of Energy; Henry Cisneros, former Secretary of Housing and Urban Development; Manuel Lujan, Jr., former Secretary of the Interior; and Bill Richardson, former Secretary of Energy and Ambassador to the United Nations.
.In 2009, Sonia Sotomayor became the first Supreme Court Associate Justice of Hispanic or Latino origin.^ Sotomayor can be the first Latina Supreme Court Justice.
  • Hispanic? Latino? Or What? - Times Topics Blog - NYTimes.com 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC topics.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor is on the cover of Latina magazine.
  • Chicanísima: Latino politics, news and culture: Hispanic Archives 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: General]

^ Supreme Court (its nine justices are appointed for life on condition of good behavior by the president with confirmation by the Senate); United States Courts of Appeal; United States District Courts; State and County Courts .
  • Geography and Map of the the United States 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Congressional Hispanic Caucus (CHC), founded in December 1976, and the Congressional Hispanic Conference (CHC), founded on March 19, 2003, are two organizations that promote policy of importance to Americans of Hispanic descent.^ Nonprofit organization associated with the Congressional Hispanic Caucus.
  • Center for Latin American, Caribean and Latino Studies - UMASS Amherst 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Largest organized group of American military veterans of Hispanic descent.
  • Center for Latin American, Caribean and Latino Studies - UMASS Amherst 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As of April 2007, twenty two Hispanic-Americans have reached the rank of Rear Admiral and of this number two reached the rank of Admiral and thirteen were graduates of the USNA. .
  • Hispanics in the United States Navy By Tony 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are divided into the two major American political parties: The Congressional Hispanic Caucus is composed entirely of Democratic representatives, whereas the Congressional Hispanic Conference is composed entirely of Republican representatives.^ Cubans and Colombians tend to favor conservative political ideologies and support the Republicans, while Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominicans tend to favor liberal views and support the Democrats; however, because the latter groups are far more numerous, Mexican Americans alone are 64% of Hispanics and Latinos, the Democratic Party is considered to be in a far stronger position among Hispanics overall.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 2006 midterm election , however, due to the unpopularity of the Iraq War , the heated debate concerning illegal immigration , and Republican-related Congressional scandals, Latinos went as strongly Democratic as they have since the Clinton years.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So these motivational factor has been used very strongly by the -- especially by the Democratic Party, and they are saying if Hispanics voted 40 percent for Bush in 2004, then 30 percent in the congressional election in 2006, now they're saying the primaries, the Republican Party got 22 percent.
  • The 2008 Elections and the Hispanic Vote 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC 2002-2009-fpc.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Literature and journalism

Among the distinguished Hispanic and Latino authors and their works may be noted:
Rubén Salazar

Military

Antonia Novello is the first woman and first Hispanic to serve as Surgeon General.
Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez at a press conference in Baghdad, Iraq
.Hispanics and Latinos have participated in the military of the United States and in every major military conflict from the American Revolution onward.^ Hispanic and Latino Americans estadounidenses hispanos y latinos .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Epidemiology of cancer among Hispanics in the United States.
  • Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Risk in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women -- Gilliland et al. 154 (5): 442 -- American Journal of Epidemiology 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC aje.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hispanic and Latino American groups .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9DdWJhbl9BbWVyaWNhbg%3D%3D 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Top40-Charts.com - 40 Top 20 & Top 40 Music Charts from 25 Countries 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.top40-charts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] .As of date forty-three Hispanics and Latinos have been awarded the nation's highest military distinction, the Medal of Honor (also known as the Congressional Medal of Honor).^ Thirteen Marines of Hispanic descent have been awarded the Medal of Honor the highest military decoration of the United States: .
  • Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cameron Diaz Created in 1995 The American Latino Media Arts Award, or ALMA Award is a distinction awarded given to Latino performers (actors, film and television directors, and musicians) by the National Council of La Raza .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coalition of the most prominent national Hispanic organizations working to ensure that there is an equitable participation of the Latino community in Corporate America commensurate with the Latino purchasing power.
  • Center for Latin American, Caribean and Latino Studies - UMASS Amherst 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Tens of thousands of Latinos are deployed in the Iraq War, the Afghanistan War, and U.S. military missions and bases elsewhere.^ Tens of thousands of Latinos are deployed in the Iraq War , the Afghanistan War , and US military missions and bases elsewhere.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The war in March/April 2003 between a US-led coalition and Iraq, and the subsequent occupation of Iraq, required major shifts in national resources to the military.
  • Geography and Map of the the United States 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the military campaigns of Afghanistan and Iraq , in what the United States and its allies refer to as the War on Terrorism .
  • Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hispanics and Latinos have not only distinguished themselves in the battlefields, but have also reached the high echelons of the military, serving their country in sensitive leadership positions on domestic and foreign shores.^ Hispanics have also reached the top ranks of the Navy, serving their country in sensitive leadership positions on domestic and foreign shores.
  • Hispanics in the United States Navy By Tony 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanics in sensitive domestic leadership positions .
  • Hispanics in the United States Navy By Tony 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanics and Latinos identify themselves as Republicans .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The following is a list of some notable Hispanics/Latinos in the military:
  • Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen, Sr. (1888–1969) was the commanding general of the 1st Infantry Division in North Africa and Sicily during World War II, and was made commander of the 104th Infantry Division.
  • Lieutenant General Edward D. Baca. .In 1994, Baca became the first Hispanic Chief of the National Guard Bureau.
  • Sergeant First Class Agustin Ramos Calero was the most decorated soldier in the European Theatre of World War II.
  • Vice Admiral Richard Carmona, M.D., Public Health Service Commissioned Corps.^ World War II Plus 55.
    • Hispanics in the United States Navy By Tony 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ U.S.A. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has also coordinated several initiatives to reduce health disparities, with public non-profit minority and Hispanic organizations in the US as well as the Healthy People 2010.
    • ISPUB - Leading Health Risks, Diseases And Causes Of Mortality Among Hispanics In United States Of America (USA) 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Also noted in U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Fulfilling the Letter and Spirit of the Law: Desegregation of the Nation's Public Schools (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976), 108.
    • Steven H. Wilson | Brown over "Other White": Mexican Americans' Legal Arguments and Litigation Strategy in School Desegregation Lawsuits | Law and History Review, 21.1 | The History Cooperative 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Carmona served as the 17th Surgeon General of the United States, under President George W. Bush.
  • Major General Luis R. Esteves, U.S. Army.^ Veteran U.S. District Judge James V. Allred, who prior to his appointment to the federal bench had served as attorney general and then as governor of Texas, presided in the case.
    • Steven H. Wilson | Brown over "Other White": Mexican Americans' Legal Arguments and Litigation Strategy in School Desegregation Lawsuits | Law and History Review, 21.1 | The History Cooperative 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On July 3 , 2002 , President George W. Bush issued an order to speed up the process of citizenship for immigrants serving in the nation's military services.
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    • Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Acab was a Sergeant in the United States Marine Corps Reserves where he served for six years.
    • Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In 1915, Esteves became the first Hispanic to graduate from the United States Military Academy ("West Point").^ Epidemiology of cancer among Hispanics in the United States.
    • Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Risk in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women -- Gilliland et al. 154 (5): 442 -- American Journal of Epidemiology 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC aje.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Mortality by Hispanic status in the United States.
    • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ United States Naval Academy website .
    • Hispanics in the United States Navy By Tony 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Esteves also organized the Puerto Rican National Guard.
  • Lieutenant Jorge Farragut Mesquida (1755–1817) participated in the American Revolution as a lieutenant in the South Carolina Navy.
  • David Glasgow Farragut (1801–1870), American Civil War hero and the first-ever Admiral in the United States Navy
  • Major General Salvador E. Felices, U.S. Air Force.^ Farragut is thought to be one of the first Hispanic Revolutionary War heroes.
    • Hispanics in the United States Navy By Tony 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Puerto Rican experience in the United States is markedly different from that of Mexican Americans.
    • United States :: The Hispanics -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Lieutenant Jorge Farragut Mesquida , ( 1755 1817 ) was a Spanish Catalan by descent and a Minorquin by birth.
    • Hispanics in the United States Navy By Tony 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In 1953, Felices flew in 19 combat missions over North Korea, during the Korean War.^ Of the 46 Navy Crosses awarded by the Navy during the Korean War, one went to a Hispanic sailor, Robert Serrano, a Hospital Corpsman from El Paso, Texas .
    • Hispanics in the United States Navy By Tony 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They flew combat missions in support of allied operations during both operations.
    • Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Loria flew 42 combat missions in support of allied operations during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm.
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    .In 1957, he participated in "Operation Power-Flite", a historic project that was given to the Fifteenth Air Force by the Strategic Air Command headquarters.^ Moreover, air conditioning consumes additional electrical power, adding hidden costs to the expense of installing and operating such environmental control systems.
    • Report to the President on the Use of Technology to Strengthen K-12 Education in the United States | PCAST 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ostp.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ He then led the Belleau Wood Strike Group (BWDESG) through a 6-month deployment in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom where he was assigned as Commander Task Force 58.
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    ^ Commander, Mine Warfare Command, headquartered at Naval Air Station (NAS) Corpus Christi, Texas .
    • Hispanics in the United States Navy By Tony 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Operation Power-Flite was the first around the world flight by an all-jet aircraft.
  • PFC Guy Gabaldon, USMC captured over a thousand prisoners during the World War II Battle of Saipan.
  • Captain Linda Garcia Cubero, United States Air Force became in 1990 the first Hispanic woman graduate of the United States Air Force, and of any military academy.
  • First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez is the only Hispanic graduate of the United States Naval Academy ("Annapolis") to be awarded the Medal of Honor.
  • Brigadier General Joseph V. Medina, USMC made history by becoming the first Marine Corps officer to take command of a Naval flotilla.
  • Vice Admiral Antonia Novello, M.D., Public Health Service Commissioned Corps.^ The majority of Hispanics in the United States are second-generation immigrants.
    • Arch Dermatol -- UV Radiation, Latitude, and Melanoma in US Hispanics and Blacks, July 2004, Hu et al. 140 (7): 819 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC archderm.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Gabaldon joined the Marines when he was only 17 years old; he was a Private First Class (PFC) when his unit was engaged in the Battle of Saipan in 1944.
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    ^ Among them PFC Guy Gabaldon who single-handed captured over 1,000 prisoners.
    • Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    In 1990, Novello became the first Hispanic (and first female) U.S. Surgeon General.
  • First Lieutenant Oscar Francis Perdomo, of the 464th Fighter Squadron, 507th Fighter Group was the last "Ace in a Day" for the United States in World War II.
  • Colonel Miguel E. Pino helped defeat the attempted invasion of New Mexico by the Confederate Army.
  • Lieutenant General Elwood R. Quesada, (1904–1993) commanding general of the 9th Fighter Command, where he established advanced headquarters on the Normandy beachhead on D-Day plus one, and directed his planes in aerial cover and air support for the Allied invasion of the European continent during World War II. He was the foremost proponent of "the inherent flexibility of air power", a principle he helped prove during the war.
  • Captain Marion Frederic Ramirez de Arellano (1913–1980), the first Hispanic submarine commanding officer during World War II.
  • Admiral Horacio Rivero, Jr., second Hispanic four-star Admiral, was the commander of the American fleet sent by President John F. Kennedy to set up a quarantine (blockade) of the Soviet ships during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
  • Brigadier General Angela Salinas made history when she became the first Hispanic female to obtain a general rank in the Marines.
  • Lieutenant General Ricardo Sanchez, top commander of the Coalition forces during the first year of the occupation of Iraq, 2003–2004, during the Iraq War
  • Lieutenant General Pedro del Valle, the first Hispanic to reach the rank of Lieutenant General. He played an instrumental role in the seizure of Guadalcanal and Okinawa as Commanding General of the U.S. 1st Marine Division during World War II.
Jose Rodriguez, a native of Puerto Rico, was the Deputy Director of Operations and subsequently Director of the National Clandestine Service, two senior positions in the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), between 2004 and 2007.[53]

Performing arts

.Created in 1995, the American Latino Media Arts Award, or ALMA Award is a distinction given to Latino performers (actors, film and television directors, and musicians) by the National Council of La Raza.^ That American classrooms will continue to be multiculturally diverse and pluralistic is a given: 30% of the K-12 population consists of culturally, ethnically, and linguistically distinct students; Latinos/as represent well over 40% of the growth while Asians and Pacific Islanders have increased 116% (Garca, 1995).
  • Hispanic Dropout Project 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC education.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A nationally recognized executive and management consult, Rosemary was the first Latino in Illinois history to be appointed to the governor's cabinet as Director of the Department of Human Rights.
  • Coaching Hispanic Latino Teams And Audiences Transcript 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Coaching for Hispanic/Latino Teams and Audiences Transcript 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.ieconsulting.biz [Source type: Original source]

^ Each of the major Hispanic organizations—the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund, the League of United Latin American Citizens, the National Council of La Raza, the National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials (NALEO), the Tomás Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI),2 and the Congressional Hispanic Caucus, as examples—has a board of directors that reflects the diversity of the Latino community and focuses their energies on issues that unite Latino communities.
  • Hispanics and the Future of America 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Music

.There are many Hispanic American musicians that have achieved international fame, such as Jennifer Lopez, Joan Baez, Linda Ronstadt, Zack de la Rocha, Fergie, Gloria Estefan, Kat DeLuna, Selena, Ricky Martin, Carlos Santana, Marc Anthony, Demi Lovato, Selena Gomez, Adrienne Bailon, Christina Aguilera, Enrique Iglesias, Shakira, Ritchie Valens, Los Lonely Boys, Frankie J, Jerry Garcia, and Robert Trujillo.^ Cocina de la Familia: More than 200 Authentic Recipes from Mexican-American Home Kitchens.
  • Hispanic American Influence on the U. S. Food Industry 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ CN: DNAL LB1585.3.T73--1993 PY: 1993 LA: English DE: Hispanic-Americans-Education.
  • Bibliography on Information with Hispanic Emphasis 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, in Texas where there is a large Mexican American population, the identifiers Hispanic or Mexican American are primarily used.
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The most prestigious Latin music awards are the Latin Grammy Awards, launched in 2000. Billboard Magazine also honors these artists, with the Billboard Latin Music Awards.^ In addition to the Latin Grammy Awards Billboard Magazine also honors this artis in the Billboard Latin Music Awards .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most prestigious Latin music awards today are the Latin Grammy Awards launched in 2000.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Differences between the Latin Grammy Awards and the Billbord Latin Music Awards are that the Billboard Latin Music Awards nominees and winners are a result of performance on Billboard's sales and radio charts and the Latin Grammy Awards nominees and winners are selected by the Latin Recording Academy (LARAS).
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The latter's nominees and winners are a result of performance on Billboard's sales and radio charts, while the Latin Grammy Awards nominees and winners are selected by the Latin Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences (LARAS).^ Differences between the Latin Grammy Awards and the Billbord Latin Music Awards are that the Billboard Latin Music Awards nominees and winners are a result of performance on Billboard's sales and radio charts and the Latin Grammy Awards nominees and winners are selected by the Latin Recording Academy (LARAS).
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition the Latin Grammy Awards airs on Univision while the Billboard Latin Music Awards airs on Telemundo , the two major Spanish-language television network competitors in the United States.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most prestigious Latin music awards today are the Latin Grammy Awards launched in 2000.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Film, radio, stage, and television

Dolores del Río. The Mexican actress was the first female Latin American star in Hollywood.
.Hispanics and Latinos have also contributed some prominent actors and others in the film industry, a few of whom includes actors Anthony Quinn, Cameron Diaz, Martin Sheen, Salma Hayek, Dolores del Río, Rita Hayworth, Antonio Banderas, Raquel Welch, Benicio del Toro, Penelope Cruz, Eva Mendes, Zoe Saldana, Edward James Olmos, Maria Montez, Ramon Novarro, Ricardo Montalbán, Rosie Perez, Katy Jurado, Rita Moreno, Lupe Vélez, Esai Morales, Andy García, Rosario Dawson, John Leguizamo, and, behind the camera, director, producer, and cinematographer Robert Rodriguez.^ Edward James Olmos, and others.
  • Hispanic American Contributions to the World of Agriculture 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanics and Latinos have also contributed many prominent actors and entertainers in the television and film industries , past and present, a few of whom includes Jessica Alba , Jennifer Lopez , Ricardo Montalban , Tamala Jones , Alexis Bledel , Eva Mendes , Frankie J , Cameron Diaz , Jimmy Smits , Salma Hayek , Benicio Del Toro , Martin Sheen , Rita Hayworth , Eva Longoria Parker , Joaquin Phoenix , George Lopez , Maria Montez , Andy Garcia , Edward James Olmos , Rita Moreno , Anthony Quinn , Raquel Welch , Desi Arnaz , Robert Rodriguez , Erik Estrada , and Marquita Rivera the first Puerto Rican actress to appear in a major Hollywood feature film.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edward James Olmos et al.
  • Hispanic American Influence on the U. S. Food Industry 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.
Charlie Sheen is the highest-paid sitcom star on TV, earning a record $825,000 per episode.
^ In black males, the highest rates were observed in California and Florida (1.3 per 100 000 for 1995-1999 and 1.3 per 100 000 for 1989-1995, respectively).
  • Arch Dermatol -- UV Radiation, Latitude, and Melanoma in US Hispanics and Blacks, July 2004, Hu et al. 140 (7): 819 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC archderm.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Expenses were highest among people with combined Medicare and other public coverage; their average was $7,727 per person with an expense, of which only 5 percent was paid out of pocket.
  • Research Findings #12: Health Care Expenses in the United States, 1996 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.meps.ahrq.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Florida also had the highest melanoma rate for black females (1.6 per 100 000).
  • Arch Dermatol -- UV Radiation, Latitude, and Melanoma in US Hispanics and Blacks, July 2004, Hu et al. 140 (7): 819 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC archderm.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

He also won an ALMA Award in 2008 for the comedy.[54][55]
.Some of the Hispanic or Latino actors who achieved notable success in U.S. television include Desi Arnaz, Lynda Carter, Jimmy Smits, Eva Longoria Parker, George Lopez, Benjamin Bratt, Ricardo Montalbán, America Ferrera, Erik Estrada, Cote de Pablo, Freddie Prinze, Lauren Vélez, and Charlie Sheen.^ The production has featured such renowned actors as Edward James Olmos, Erik Estrada, Maria Conchita Alonso and Christina.
  • Press | Babbalu.com 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.babbalu.com [Source type: General]

^ Hispanics and Latinos have also contributed many prominent actors and entertainers in the television and film industries , past and present, a few of whom includes Jessica Alba , Jennifer Lopez , Ricardo Montalban , Tamala Jones , Alexis Bledel , Eva Mendes , Frankie J , Cameron Diaz , Jimmy Smits , Salma Hayek , Benicio Del Toro , Martin Sheen , Rita Hayworth , Eva Longoria Parker , Joaquin Phoenix , George Lopez , Maria Montez , Andy Garcia , Edward James Olmos , Rita Moreno , Anthony Quinn , Raquel Welch , Desi Arnaz , Robert Rodriguez , Erik Estrada , and Marquita Rivera the first Puerto Rican actress to appear in a major Hollywood feature film.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Published in Hispanic , media , television and tagged Carlos Santana , Ellen , Eva Longoria Parker , George Lopez , Jamie Foxx , Jennifer Lopez , Mo'Nique , Sammy Sosa , Sonia Sotomayor , talk show , Wanda Sykes .
  • Chicanísima: Latino politics, news and culture: Hispanic Archives 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: General]

.Kenny Ortega is an Emmy Award-winning producer, director, and choreographer who has choreographed many major television events such as Super Bowl XXX, the 72nd Academy Awards, and Michael Jacksons memorial service.^ One of those programs is El Navy whose principal aim is to attract those who speak Spanish and as a consequence many Hispanics have applied for entrance to the Academy.
  • Hispanics in the United States Navy By Tony 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition the Latin Grammy Awards airs on Univision while the Billboard Latin Music Awards airs on Telemundo , the two major Spanish-language television network competitors in the United States.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With honesty and rare grace, award-winning author Francisco Jimenez shares his most poignant Christmas memory in this remarkable book.

.The fictional Hispanic/Latina Dora stars in Dora the Explorer, a very successful animated television series.^ A 1990 U.S television mini-series about Camarena, starring Treat Williams and Benicio del Toro , was produced ( Drug Wars: The Camarena Story ).
  • Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This poses a serious threat to the quality of life older Hispanic/Latina women face and suggests they struggle economically in their old age.
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Hispanics and Latinos are underrepresented in U.S. television, radio, and film.^ Hispanics in Hollywood: an encyclopedia of film and television.
  • Research Guides: Latin American and Latino Studies 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.library.fordham.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The National Hispanic Media Coalition (NHMC) has been a leader since its founding in 1986 in advocating for Latino inclusion in television, radio and film.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Obama campaign spent heavily to court Latino voters, spending some $20 million, more than half of it on Spanish-language television and radio.
  • Latino News | Tag Archive | Latino Politics 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC mylatinonews.com [Source type: News]

.This is combatted by organizations such as the National Hispanic Media Coalition (NHMC), founded in 1986.[56] Together with numerous Latino civil rights organizations, the NHMC led a "brownout" of the national television networks in 1999, after discovering that there were no Latinos in any of their new prime time shows that year.^ The National Hispanic Media Coalition (NHMC) has been a leader since its founding in 1986 in advocating for Latino inclusion in television, radio and film.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is one of the leading Latino civil rights organizations in the United States.
  • Chicanísima: Latino politics, news and culture: Hispanic Archives 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1999, along with a board coalition of national Latino organizations, the NHMC led a "brownout" of the national television networks after discovering that there were no Latinos in any of their new prime time shows that year.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57] .This resulted in the signing of historic diversity agreements with ABC, CBS, Fox, and NBC that have since increased the hiring of Hispanic and Latino talent and other staff in all of the networks.^ This resulted in the signing of historic diversity agreements with ABC , CBS , Fox , and NBC that have increased the hiring of Hispanic and Latino talent and other staff in all of the networks since then.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main articles: American culture and Hispanic culture The geographic, political, social, economic, and racial diversity of Hispanic and Latino Americans extends to culture, as well.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Preferences for living with others has been well documented in the literature for all Hispanic/Latino ethnic groups (Aranda & Miranda, 1997; Sotomayor & Applewhite, 1988; Sanchez-Ayendez, 1988; Cubillos, 1987; Delgado, 1982).
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Latino Public Broadcasting (LPB) funds programs of educational and cultural significance to Hispanic Americans.^ Hispanic and Latino Americans estadounidenses hispanos y latinos .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact is Hispanic or Latino is not a race but a culture.

^ Also prominent in this area is Latino Public Broadcasting , which funds programs of educational and cultural significance to Hispanic Americans.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These programs are distributed to various public television stations throughout the United States.^ The subgroups vary by their patterns of geographic distribution in the United States.
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These LPB-funded projects are distributed to various public television stations throughout the United States.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States: The people ) distribution .
  • United States :: The Hispanics -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Science, engineering, and technology

.Among Hispanic Americans who have excelled in science are Luis Walter Alvarez, Nobel Prize-winning physicist, and his son Walter Alvarez, a geologist.^ AMS Limited to Hispanic, African American, or Native American freshmen planning a career in atmospheric science.
  • Hispanic Pilot Project | Resource Links | Hispanic/Minority Scholarships 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the United States, adjusting for SES somewhat reduced the disparities between white mothers and those who are black, Hispanic, and American Indian.
  • A Cross-National Comparison of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Low Birth Weight in the United States and England -- Teitler et al. 120 (5): e1182 -- Pediatrics 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Our country would be poorer were we deprived of the patriotism, industry and decency of Hispanic Americans who have made this country better and stronger.
  • Statements on Hispanic Heritage Month show which candidate is just not that into the Latino community (Latina Lista) 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.latinalista.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They first proposed that an asteroid impact on the Yucatán Peninsula caused the extinction of the dinosaurs.
.Several other Hispanics and Latinos have made their names in aeronautics, including several NASA astronauts:[58] Franklin Chang-Diaz was the first Latin American NASA astronaut, is co-recordholder for the most flights into outer space, and is the leading researcher on the plasma engine for rockets; France A. Córdova, former NASA chief scientist; Juan R. Cruz, NASA aerospace engineer; Lieutenant Carlos I. Noriega is NASA mission specialist and computer scientist; Ellen Ochoa is a pioneer of spacecraft technology and astronaut.^ Hispanic and Latino Americans estadounidenses hispanos y latinos .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Latin Americans , Spaniards , and others .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Exploring race: Hispanic or Latino, what's in a name?

.Joseph Acaba, Fernando Caldeiro, Sidney Gutierrez, Jose Hernández, Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Olivas, and George Zamka are all current or former astronauts.^ Senators include former senators Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo , Dennis Chavez , and Joseph Montoya and current senators Mel Martinez , Ken Salazar , and Bob Menendez .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Retrieved February 3, 2008 ^ The California State Military Museum , Retrieved February 3, 2008 ^ Astronaut Bio: George Zamka .
  • Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Astronaut Bio: Joseph Acaba .
  • Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sports

Manny Ramirez is a professional baseball player.
.The large number of Hispanic and Latino American stars in Major League Baseball (MLB) includes players Manny Ramirez, Lefty Gomez, Ivan Rodriguez, Alex Rodriguez, Roberto Clemente, José Canseco, David Ortiz, Fernando Valenzuela, Nomar Garciaparra, Albert Pujols, Omar Vizquel, managers Al Lopez, Ozzie Guillén, and Felipe Alou, and General Manager Omar Minaya.^ As of April 2007, twenty two Hispanic-Americans have reached the rank of Rear Admiral and of this number two reached the rank of Admiral and thirteen were graduates of the USNA. .
  • Hispanics in the United States Navy By Tony 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, in Texas where there is a large Mexican American population, the identifiers Hispanic or Mexican American are primarily used.
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Substance Abuse Resource Guide: Hispanic/Latino Americans Section 3 -- Groups, Organizations, & Programs .
  • NCADI: Substance Abuse Resource Guide for Hispanic/Latino Americans 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

.There have been far fewer football and basketball players, let alone star players, but Tom Flores was the first Hispanic head coach and the first Hispanic quarterback in American professional football, and won Super Bowls as a player, as assistant coach and as head coach for the Oakland Raiders.^ For example, in Texas where there is a large Mexican American population, the identifiers Hispanic or Mexican American are primarily used.
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Basketball shoes and apparel for kids, fans, players and coaches ranging from Air Jordans, LeBron James, NIKE, Adidas, AND1, hats, collectibles and memoralbilia!
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-Latina! Dance y Entertainment de Espanol! 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Confidential May 19, 2008 Page 29 Coaching Hispanic/Latino Teams and Audiences Transcript + Tom Floyd , 10 months ago .
  • Coaching Hispanic Latino Teams And Audiences Transcript 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Anthony Muñoz is enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, ranked #17 on Sporting News's 1999 list of the 100 greatest football players, and was the highest-ranked offensive lineman.^ Boxing champion Oscar De La Hoya , National Football League Pro Football Hall of Fame player Anthony Muñoz , National Soccer Hall of Fame player Tab Ramos , tennis legend Pancho Gonzales , and World Golf Hall of Fame golfers Juan "Chi-Chi" Rodríguez and Lee Trevino are all Hispanic or Latino Americans who have distinguished themselves in their respective fields of sport.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In black males, the highest rates were observed in California and Florida (1.3 per 100 000 for 1995-1999 and 1.3 per 100 000 for 1989-1995, respectively).
  • Arch Dermatol -- UV Radiation, Latitude, and Melanoma in US Hispanics and Blacks, July 2004, Hu et al. 140 (7): 819 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC archderm.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lummus, was a former Baylor University and New York Giants football player who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.
  • Hispanics in the United States Navy By Tony 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Jim Plunkett won the Heisman Trophy and was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame, and Joe Kapp is inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame and College Football Hall of Fame. .Steve Van Buren, Martin Gramatica, Tony Gonzalez, Marc Bulger, Tony Romo and Mark Sanchez can also be cited among successful Hispanics and Latinos in the National Football League (NFL).^ This national Hispanic survey was conducted among 1,000 Hispanic adults by Latino Opinions during the week of Sept.
  • Diversidad! Hispanic / Latino Community and Cultural News - DverCITY Magazine for Latin Americans 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.dvercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While these patterns diminish somewhat among immigrants with longer periods of U.S. residence and over successive generations, national origin remains the primary personal identity for the majority of Latinos.
  • Hispanics and the Future of America 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As more elected national Hispanic leaders emerge, however, Latinos will have a clearer image of what Latino politics is and leaders who can shape that agenda in the public eye.
  • Hispanics and the Future of America 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Trevor Ariza, Mark Aguirre, Carmelo Anthony, Carlos Arroyo, Gilbert Arenas, Pau Gasol, Jose Calderon, and Charlie Villanueva can be cited in the National Basketball Association (NBA).^ Mark Aguirre-NBA-Dallas!
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-Latina! Dance y Entertainment de Espanol! 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bill Walton- UCLA & the NBA! 227's YouTubbe "LeBron!"-LeBron James YouTubbe "Melo!"-Carmelo Anthony!
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-Latina! Dance y Entertainment de Espanol! 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ List of NBA Players: A List of National Basketball Association Players: B List of National Basketball Association Players: C List of National Basketball Association Players: D List of National Basketball Association Players: E-F List of National Basketball Association Players: G List of National Basketball Association Players: H List of National Basketball Association Players: I-J List of National Basketball Association Players: K List of National Basketball Association Players: L List of National Basketball Association Players: M List of National Basketball Association Players: N-O List of National Basketball Association Players: P-Q List of National Basketball Association Players: R List of National Basketball Association Players: S List of National Basketball Association Players: T-V List of National Basketball Association Players: W-Z 227's-Hip Hop (YOUTUBE CHILI!)!
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-Latina! Dance y Entertainment de Espanol! 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rebecca Lobo was a major star and champion of collegiate and Olympic basketball and played professionally in the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA).^ Atlanta Association of Media Women Scholarship Amount: $1,000 P.O. Box 4132 Atlanta, GA 30302 This scholarship is offered to undergraduate minority females majoring in mass communications.
  • Hispanic Pilot Project | Resource Links | Hispanic/Minority Scholarships 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Diana Taurasi became just the seventh player ever to win a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) title, a WNBA title, and as well an Olympic gold medal.^ "My victims  are black and Hispanic," said Alvarez who became a founding member of the National Hispanic Prosecutors Association.
  • Chicanísima: Latino politics, news and culture: Hispanic Archives 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1999 Scott Gomez became the first Hispanic player in the National Hockey League .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ National Collegiate Athletic Association Amount: $1,400/month Ethnic Minority Enhancement Program P.O. Box 6222 Indianapolis, IN 46206-6222 317-917-6222 www.ncaa.org This program is for minority students who intend to pursue a career in intercollegiate athletics.
  • Hispanic Pilot Project | Resource Links | Hispanic/Minority Scholarships 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

Oscar De La Hoya has generated more money than any other boxer in the history of boxing.
.Boxing's first Hispanic world champion was Panama Al Brown.^ Among those killed was Trujillo who became the first Hispanic Marine casualty of World War II. [26] .
  • Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanic immigrants bring near–Third World levels of fertility to America, coupled with what were once thought to be First World levels of illegitimacy.
  • Hispanic Family Values? by Heather Mac Donald, City Journal Autumn 2006 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American (sometimes the term first like "American-Mexican") American of Mexican descent Hispanic Hispanic American Hispano /a Latino /a Latin American Mexican(o/a) Mexican American Spanish Spanish American "Brown" people, race, pride, etc.
  • Aspca Careers Wiki 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.careercube.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some other champions include Oscar De La Hoya, Miguel Cotto, Bobby Chacon, BJ Flores, Michael Carbajal, John Ruiz, and Olympic medallist Paul Gonzales.^ Miguel A. De La Torre teaches social ethics at Iliff School of Theology in Denver, where he directs the school’s Justice and Peace Institute.
  • A guide to Hispanics and religion in the U.S. | ReligionLink 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.religionlink.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pacquiao’s Triumphal Return while De La Hoya suffers the humiliation!
  • Tilo Rivas: Representing with Honor the Hispanic Community in the United States! « Rafael Román Martel 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC rafaelmartel.com [Source type: General]

^ Oscar de la Hoya Many Hispanic Americans have excelled in sports.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1999 Scott Gomez became the first Hispanic player in the National Hockey League (NHL) and won the NHL Rookie of the Year Award.^ Two years later (1864), Farragut became a vice admiral and in 1866 the Navy's first full admiral.
  • Hispanics in the United States Navy By Tony 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among those killed was Trujillo who became the first Hispanic Marine casualty of World War II. [26] .
  • Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.somosprimos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanic 9-year-olds' scores on National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading tests were 13% behind scores of non-Hispanic Whites (a gap of 28 points), and the gap did not decrease over the testing periods between 1975 and 1999.
  • ECRP. Vol 6 No 2. Toward an Early Care and Education Agenda for Hispanic Children. 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59]
Tennis legend Pancho Gonzales and Olympic tennis champions and professional players Mary Joe Fernandez and Gigi Fernández; soccer players in the Major League Soccer (MLS) Tab Ramos, Claudio Reyna, Marcelo Balboa and Carlos Bocanegra; figure skater Rudy Galindo; golfers Chi Chi Rodríguez, Nancy Lopez, and Lee Trevino; softball player Lisa Fernandez; and Paul Rodriguez Jr., X Games professional skateboarder, are all Hispanic or Latino Americans who have distinguished themselves in their sports.

Other

.In the world of fashion, notable Hispanic and Latino designers includes Oscar de la Renta, Marisol Deluna, Carolina Herrera, and Narciso Rodriguez among others.^ Ramirez RR, de la Cruz GP. The Hispanic Population of the United States: March 2002.
  • Arch Dermatol -- Comparison of Stage at Diagnosis of Melanoma Among Hispanic, Black, and White Patients in Miami-Dade County, Florida, June 2006, Hu et al. 142 (6): 704 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC archderm.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Since the Hispanic grouping can include black Hispanic, white Hispanic, and other Hispanic, the race categories of black, white, and other do not include Hispanic people.
  • Research Findings #12: Health Care Expenses in the United States, 1996 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.meps.ahrq.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If church membership is excluded, approximately one-third of Latinos are members of community-based organizations (de la Garza and Lu, 1998).
  • Hispanics and the Future of America 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Socioeconomic circumstances

Education

.The high school graduation rate is highest among Cuban Americans (68.7 percent) and lowest among Mexican Americans (48.7 percent).^ Cuban Americans have the highest attainment of graduate degrees among all Hispanic groups, with 6.7 percent.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High school graduation rates are highest among Cuban Americans (68.7 percent) and lowest among Mexican Americans (48.7 percent).
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans have the highest asthma prevalence rates while Mexican Americans have the lowest rate.
  • ISPUB - Leading Health Risks, Diseases And Causes Of Mortality Among Hispanics In United States Of America (USA) 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Puerto Rican rate is 63.2 percent, Central and South American Americans' is 60.4 percent, and the Dominican American is 51.7 percent.^ Other Hispanic groups fall in–between, including Puerto Ricans (63.2 percent), Central and South Americans (60.4 percent) and Dominican Americans (51.7 percent).
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Central Americans) was most at risk, however.
  • The Pedestrian and Bicyclist Highway Safety Problem As It Relates to the Hispanic Population in the United States+ - FHWA Safety Program 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC safety.fhwa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Central and South Americans ratio is 4.2 percent.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to the 2000 census, Cuban Americans and Central and South Americans had the highest college graduation rates, with 19.4 percent of Cuban Americans and 16 percent of Central and South Americans 25 years and older possessing a 4-year college degree.^ Cuban Americans have the highest attainment of graduate degrees among all Hispanic groups, with 6.7 percent.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of those 25 years and older only 3.1 percent of Puerto Ricans, 1.8 percent of Dominican Americans and 1.4 percent of Mexican Americans have attained a graduate level degree.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All workers (16 years and older) .
  • The Poor in Developed Countries - The United States 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.libraryindex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the other hand, only 6.2 percent of Mexican Americans, 9.9 of Puerto Ricans and 10.9 of Dominican Americans had achieved a 4-year degree.^ Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Central Americans) was most at risk, however.
  • The Pedestrian and Bicyclist Highway Safety Problem As It Relates to the Hispanic Population in the United States+ - FHWA Safety Program 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC safety.fhwa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also were asked if the sample person's main national origin or ancestry was Puerto Rican; Cuban; Mexican, Mexicano, Mexican American, or Chicano; other Latin American; or other Spanish.
  • Research Findings #12: Health Care Expenses in the United States, 1996 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.meps.ahrq.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also were asked if each family member’s main national origin or ancestry was Puerto Rican; Cuban; Mexican, Mexicano, Mexican American, or Chicano; other Latin American; or other Spanish.
  • Research Findings #22: Restricted-activity Days in the United States, 1997 and 2001 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.meps.ahrq.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In comparison non-Hispanic Asian Americans (43.3 percent) and non-Hispanic White Americans (26.1 percent) had higher rates than any Hispanic American group.^ Non-hispanic Asian and Pacific Islander .
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Rates for Hispanics and Native Americans were significantly lower than the rate for non-Hispanic whites, while the rate for African Americans and Asians was significantly higher.
  • A Qualitative Review of Studies of Diabetes Preventive Care Among Minority Patients in the United States, 1993-2003 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ajmc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For the United States, the analysis groups were white, black, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian.
  • A Cross-National Comparison of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Low Birth Weight in the United States and England -- Teitler et al. 120 (5): e1182 -- Pediatrics 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.Non-Hispanic Black Americans (14.4 percent) had a lower graduation rate than Cuban Americans and Central and South Americans, but had a higher rate than Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominican Americans.^ Cuban Americans have the highest attainment of graduate degrees among all Hispanic groups, with 6.7 percent.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Black non-Hispanic .
  • The Poor in Developed Countries - The United States 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.libraryindex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among Hispanics, rates of diabetes are 8.2 percent for Cubans, 11.9 percent for Mexican-Americans, and 12.6 percent for Puerto Ricans.
  • Diversidad! Hispanic / Latino Community and Cultural News - DverCITY Magazine for Latin Americans 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.dvercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.Cuban Americans have the highest attainment of graduate degrees among all Hispanic or Latino groups, with 6.7 percent.^ Hispanic and Latino Americans estadounidenses hispanos y latinos .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanics are an “American” minority- and the largest of all minorities at that!
  • Life in The United States » Latino Opinion 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.latinoopinion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuban Americans have the highest attainment of graduate degrees among all Hispanic groups, with 6.7 percent.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Central and South American ratio is 4.2 percent.^ The Central and South Americans ratio is 4.2 percent.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study will emphasize differences among Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, and Central/South Americans.
  • ISPUB - Leading Health Risks, Diseases And Causes Of Mortality Among Hispanics In United States Of America (USA) 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other Hispanic groups fall in–between, including Puerto Ricans (63.2 percent), Central and South Americans (60.4 percent) and Dominican Americans (51.7 percent).
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both are lower than those of non-Hispanic Asian Americans (15.6 percent) and non-Hispanic White Americans (8.7 percent).^ Non-hispanic Asian and Pacific Islander .
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In comparison, the income of the average Hispanic American is lower than the national average.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rate of mental disorders among Hispanic Americans is similar to that of non-Hispanic White Americans.
  • ISPUB - Leading Health Risks, Diseases And Causes Of Mortality Among Hispanics In United States Of America (USA) 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

.Non-Hispanic Black Americans (4.1 percent) have a lower percentage of graduate-level degrees than most Hispanic or Latino groups.^ Cuban Americans have the highest attainment of graduate degrees among all Hispanic groups, with 6.7 percent.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Black non-Hispanic .
  • The Poor in Developed Countries - The United States 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.libraryindex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Latinos generally have a lower level of education.
  • Life in The United States » Latino Opinion 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.latinoopinion.com [Source type: Original source]

.Of Hispanics and Latinos 25 years and older, only 3.1 percent of Puerto Ricans, 1.8 percent of Dominican Americans and 1.4 percent of Mexican Americans have attained a graduate-level degree.^ Latino voices: Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban perspectives on American politics.
  • Hispanics and the Future of America 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuban Americans have the highest attainment of graduate degrees among all Hispanic groups, with 6.7 percent.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans and Dominican Americans had considerably lower college graduation rates, with only 6.2 percent of Mexican Americans, 9.9 of Puerto Ricans and 10.9 of Dominican Americans achieving a 4–year college degree.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Workforce and average income

Personal and household income (US Census 2005)
Percent of households with six-figure incomes and individuals with incomes in the top 10%, exceeding $77,500.
.In 2002, the average individual income among Hispanic and Latino Americans was highest for Cuban Americans ($38,733), and lowest for Dominican Americans ($28,467) and Mexican Americans ($27,877).^ Hispanic and Latino Americans estadounidenses hispanos y latinos .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In comparison, the income of the average Hispanic American is lower than the national average.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans have the highest asthma prevalence rates while Mexican Americans have the lowest rate.
  • ISPUB - Leading Health Risks, Diseases And Causes Of Mortality Among Hispanics In United States Of America (USA) 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

.For Puerto Ricans it was $33,927, and $30,444 for Central and South Americans.^ The study will emphasize differences among Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, and Central/South Americans.
  • ISPUB - Leading Health Risks, Diseases And Causes Of Mortality Among Hispanics In United States Of America (USA) 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Central and South Americans ratio is 4.2 percent.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also were asked if the sample person's main national origin or ancestry was Puerto Rican; Cuban; Mexican, Mexicano, Mexican American, or Chicano; other Latin American; or other Spanish.
  • Research Findings #12: Health Care Expenses in the United States, 1996 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.meps.ahrq.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In comparison, the income of the average Hispanic American is lower than the national average.^ Overall, the injury rate for Hispanic Americans is lower than for non-Hispanics.
  • ISPUB - Leading Health Risks, Diseases And Causes Of Mortality Among Hispanics In United States Of America (USA) 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In comparison, the average poverty rates for European Americans (6.3 percent) and Asian Americans (7.1 percent) were lower than that of any Hispanic group.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In comparison, the income of the average Hispanic American is lower than the national average.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among Hispanics, Cuban Americans (28.5 percent) had the highest percentage in professional–managerial occupations.^ Cuban Americans have the highest attainment of graduate degrees among all Hispanic groups, with 6.7 percent.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among Hispanics, Cuban Americans (28.5 percent) had the highest percentage in professional–managerial occupations, but that percentage was lower than the average for non–Hispanics (36.2 percent).
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2002, the average individual income for Hispanics was highest amongst Cuban Americans ($38,733), and lowest amongst Dominican Americans ($28,467) and Mexican Americans ($27,877).
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The percentage for Puerto Ricans was 20.7, Central and South Americans' was 16.8 percent, and Mexican Americans' was 13.2 percent.^ The study will emphasize differences among Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, and Central/South Americans.
  • ISPUB - Leading Health Risks, Diseases And Causes Of Mortality Among Hispanics In United States Of America (USA) 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In comparison, the percentage for Puerto Ricans was 20.7, Central and South Americans' was 16.8 percent and Mexican Americans' was 13.2 percent.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuban American are smokers compared to 20.1% of Puerto Ricans, 17.3% Mexican-Americans, 13.0 % of Dominicans and 11.8 % of Central-South Americans.
  • ISPUB - Leading Health Risks, Diseases And Causes Of Mortality Among Hispanics In United States Of America (USA) 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

.All these are lower than the average for non-Hispanics (36.2 percent).^ In comparison, the income of the average Hispanic American is lower than the national average.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Overall, the injury rate for Hispanic Americans is lower than for non-Hispanics.
  • ISPUB - Leading Health Risks, Diseases And Causes Of Mortality Among Hispanics In United States Of America (USA) 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Among Hispanics, Cuban Americans (28.5 percent) had the highest percentage in professional–managerial occupations, but that percentage was lower than the average for non–Hispanics (36.2 percent).
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Poverty

.According to the ACS,[60] among Hispanic groups the poverty rate is highest among Dominican Americans (28.1 percent), Honduran Americans and Puerto Ricans (23.7 percent both), and Mexican Americans (23.6 percent).^ Among Hispanics, rates of diabetes are 8.2 percent for Cubans, 11.9 percent for Mexican-Americans, and 12.6 percent for Puerto Ricans.
  • Diversidad! Hispanic / Latino Community and Cultural News - DverCITY Magazine for Latin Americans 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.dvercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The median age of Mexican Americans is 23.6, followed by Puerto Ricans with a median age of 26.8 and Central/South Americans with 28.4.
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Other Hispanic groups fall in–between, including Puerto Ricans (63.2 percent), Central and South Americans (60.4 percent) and Dominican Americans (51.7 percent).
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is lowest among South Americans, such as Colombian Americans (10.6 percent) and Peruvian Americans (13.6 percent), and relatively low poverty rates are also found among Salvadoran Americans (15.0 percent) and Cuban Americans (15.2 percent).^ South Americans- Colombian Americans (10.6 percent) [ 36 ] and Peruvian Americans (13.6 percent) [ 36 ] - had the lowest poverty rates among Hispanic groups.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2002, the average individual income for Hispanics was highest amongst Cuban Americans ($38,733), and lowest amongst Dominican Americans ($28,467) and Mexican Americans ($27,877).
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is startling especially when you consider a recent Gallup poll found the president only has a 39 percent approval rating among whites.
  • Chicanísima: Latino politics, news and culture: Hispanic Archives 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: General]

.In comparison, the average poverty rates for non-Hispanic White Americans (8.8 percent)[60] and Asian Americans (7.1 percent) were lower than those of any Hispanic group.^ Non-hispanic Asian and Pacific Islander .
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For the United States, the analysis groups were white, black, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian.
  • A Cross-National Comparison of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Low Birth Weight in the United States and England -- Teitler et al. 120 (5): e1182 -- Pediatrics 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In comparison non–Hispanic Asian Americans (43.3 percent) and non–Hispanic White Americans (26.1 percent) had a higher graduation rate than all Hispanic American groups.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.African Americans (21.3 percent) have a higher poverty rate than most Hispanic or Latino groups.^ Hispanic and Latino Americans estadounidenses hispanos y latinos .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Overall, the injury rate for Hispanic Americans is lower than for non-Hispanics.
  • ISPUB - Leading Health Risks, Diseases And Causes Of Mortality Among Hispanics In United States Of America (USA) 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ African Americans (21.3 percent) have a higher poverty rate than all Hispanic groups, with the exception of Dominican Americans and Puerto Ricans.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hispanophobia

.Hispanophobia has existed in various degrees throughout U.S. history, based largely on ethnicity, race, culture, Anti-Catholicism, and use of the Spanish language.^ See also: Discrimination against Mexican Americans Hispanophobia has existed in various degrees throughout U.S. history, based largely on ethnicity, race, culture, Anti-Catholicism , and use of the Spanish language .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based on non-imputed race/ethnicity.
  • Safety is Seguridad: A Workshop Summary 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ RACE/ETHNICITY DEFINITION AND STUDY POPULATION The terms Hispanic and Latino are used interchangeably by the US Census Bureau to identify people who indicate that they originate from a Spanish-speaking country.
  • Arch Dermatol -- Comparison of Stage at Diagnosis of Melanoma Among Hispanic, Black, and White Patients in Miami-Dade County, Florida, June 2006, Hu et al. 142 (6): 704 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC archderm.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

[61][62][63][64] .In 2006, Time Magazine reported that the number of hate groups in the United States increased by 33 percent since 2000, primarily due to anti-illegal immigrant and anti-Mexican sentiment.^ In the United States, an increasing number of restrictions have been imposed on civil rights.
  • prc state council, "human rights record of the united states in 2008," feb. 27, 2009 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.china.usc.edu [Source type: News]

^ Immigrants in the United States-2000.
  • Safety is Seguridad: A Workshop Summary 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In 2006, Time Magazine reported that the number of hate groups in the United States increased by 33 percent since 2000, primarily due to anti-illegal immigrant and anti-Mexican sentiment.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65] .According to Federal Bureau of Investigation statistics, the number of anti-Latino hate crimes increased by 35 percent since 2003. In California, the state with the largest Latino population, the number of hate crimes against Latinos almost doubled.^ In California, the state with the largest Latino population, the number of hate crimes against Latinos has almost doubled.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Alabama, Latinos are 2.7 percent and in Iowa 4 percent of the population.
  • Chicanísima: Latino politics, news and culture: Hispanic Archives 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: General]

^ Minutemen murder and hate crimes against Latinos rise .
  • Chicanísima: Latino politics, news and culture: Hispanic Archives 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: General]

[66]

Political trends

.Hispanics and Latinos differ on their political views depending on their location and background, but the majority (57%)[67] either identify themselves as or support the Democrats, and 23% identify themselves as Republicans.^ Of these, 112 identified themselves as Hispanic.
  • NCADI: Substance Abuse Resource Guide for Hispanic/Latino Americans 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Hispanics and Latinos identify themselves as Republicans .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They differ on their political views depending on their location and background, but the majority (57%) [ 43 ] identify themselves as Democrats or support the Democrats, as reflected in the voting results of recent decades.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67] .This 34 point gap as of December, 2007 was an increase from the gap of 21 points 16 months earlier.^ In December 2008, 19of the 25 American cities surveyed reported some kind of increase in homelessness between October 1, 2007 and October 30, 2008.
  • prc state council, "human rights record of the united states in 2008," feb. 27, 2009 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.china.usc.edu [Source type: News]

^ FBI: Attacks against Hispanics on rise Attacks on Hispanics grew 40 percent from 2003 to 2007, outpacing the estimated 16 percent increase in the Hispanic population in the U.S. , according to FBI statistics.
  • Ohio Commission on Hispanic / Latino Affairs 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC ochla.ohio.gov [Source type: News]

.Cuban Americans and Colombian Americans tend to favor conservative political ideologies and support the Republicans, while Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominican Americans tend to favor liberal views and support the Democrats.^ Cubans and Colombians tend to favor conservative political ideologies and support the Republicans, while Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominicans tend to favor liberal views and support the Democrats; however, because the latter groups are far more numerous, Mexican Americans alone are 64% of Hispanics and Latinos, the Democratic Party is considered to be in a far stronger position among Hispanics overall.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Latino voices: Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban perspectives on American politics.
  • Hispanics and the Future of America 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cultures studied in this book include Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban.
  • Hispanic American Influence on the U. S. Food Industry 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.However, because the latter groups are far more numerous – as, again, Mexican Americans alone are 64% of Hispanics and Latinos – the Democratic Party is considered to be in a far stronger position with the group overall.^ Cubans and Colombians tend to favor conservative political ideologies and support the Republicans, while Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominicans tend to favor liberal views and support the Democrats; however, because the latter groups are far more numerous, Mexican Americans alone are 64% of Hispanics and Latinos, the Democratic Party is considered to be in a far stronger position among Hispanics overall.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanic and Latino Americans estadounidenses hispanos y latinos .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the Hispanic or Latino/Latina respondents, Mexican Americans were by far the largest group, accounting for 73.3%.
  • Asthma Prevalence in Hispanic and Asian American Ethnic Subgroups: Results From the California Healthy Kids Survey -- Davis et al. 118 (2): e363 -- Pediatrics 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Presidency of George W. Bush had a significant impact on the political leanings of Hispanics and Latinos.^ President Bill Clinton 's Latino Appointees in 1998 The Presidency of George W. Bush has had a significant impact on the political leanings of Hispanics and Latinos.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Though often used interchangeably in American English, Hispanic and Latino are not identical terms, and in certain contexts the choice between them can be significant.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main articles: American culture and Hispanic culture The geographic, political, social, economic, and racial diversity of Hispanic and Latino Americans extends to culture, as well.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a former Governor of Texas, Bush regarded this growing community as a potential source of growth for the conservative movement and the Republican Party,[citation needed] and he made some gains for the Republicans among the group.^ As a former Governor of Texas , President Bush has regarded this growing community as a potential source of growth for the conservative movement and the Republican Party, [ citation needed ] and he made some gains for the Republican Party among the group.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The author describes, in bilingual text and illustrations, her experiences growing up in a Hispanic community in Texas .

^ This march also is indicative of a growing frustration in the Latino community and some say the Obama Administration is not moving fast enough to pass immigration reform.
  • Chicanísima: Latino politics, news and culture: Hispanic Archives 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: General]

President Bill Clinton and his Hispanic and Latino appointees in 1998
.In the 1996 presidential election, 72% of Hispanics and Latinos backed President Bill Clinton, but in 2000 the Democratic total fell to 62%, and went down again in 2004, with Democrat John Kerry winning Hispanics 58–40 against Bush.^ In the 2008 U.S. Presidential election , Hispanics and Latinos have been participating in large numbers in the Democratic primary .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1996 presidential election , 72% of Hispanics backed President Bill Clinton , but in 2000, that Democratic total fell to 62%, and down further to 58% in 2004, with Democrat John Kerry winning Hispanics 58-40 over Bush.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 2006 midterm election , however, due to the unpopularity of the Iraq War , the heated debate concerning illegal immigration , and Republican-related Congressional scandals, Latinos went as strongly Democratic as they have since the Clinton years.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hispanics in the West, especially in California, were much stronger for the Democratic Party than in Texas and Florida.^ Hispanics a key to Texas Democratic deadlock .
  • Hispanic and Latino Issues: News & Videos about Hispanic and Latino Issues - CNN.com 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Hispanics in the West, especially in California, were much stronger for the Democratic Party than in Texas and Florida.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanics constituted more than 6% of the population in 21 states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Kansas, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming).
  • ECRP. Vol 6 No 2. Toward an Early Care and Education Agenda for Hispanic Children. 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.California Latinos voted 63–32 for Kerry in 2004, and both Arizona and New Mexico Latinos by a smaller 56–43 margin; but Texas Latinos were split nearly evenly, favoring Kerry 50–49, and Florida Latinos (mostly being Cuban American) backed Bush, by a 54–45 margin.^ And we just have three states there: California, Texas, and New Mexico.
  • The 2008 Elections and the Hispanic Vote 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC 2002-2009-fpc.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Counting on the Latino vote: Latinos as a new electorate.
  • Hispanics and the Future of America 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mexican Americans observe this holiday in California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas .

.In the 2006 midterm election, however, due to the unpopularity of the Iraq War, the heated debate concerning illegal immigration, and Republican-related Congressional scandals, Hispanics and Latinos went as strongly Democratic as they have since the Clinton years.^ In the 2006 midterm election , however, due to the unpopularity of the Iraq War , the heated debate concerning illegal immigration , and Republican-related Congressional scandals, Latinos went as strongly Democratic as they have since the Clinton years.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanics and Latinos identify themselves as Republicans .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both Republicans and Democrats are courting the Latino vote in this year's election.
  • Hispanic and Latino Issues: News & Videos about Hispanic and Latino Issues - CNN.com 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.Exit polls showed the group voting for Democrats by a lopsided 69–30 margin, with Florida Latinos for the first time split evenly.^ Exit polls showed Hispanic and Latino Americans voting for Democrats by a lopsided 69-30 margin, with Florida Latinos for the first time split evenly.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, when we say -- I say Hispanics lean Democrat, in a public opinion poll of Hispanics that we do every year, the Pew Hispanic Center, we asked registered Latino voters -- first we ask them if they're registered to vote, then we ask them what party they identify with or lean towards.
  • The 2008 Elections and the Hispanic Vote 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC 2002-2009-fpc.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ On his second show Tuesday night Lopez joked that he wasn't the only Latino first this year.
  • Chicanísima: Latino politics, news and culture: Hispanic Archives 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: General]

.The runoff election in Texas' 23rd congressional district was seen as a bellwether of Latino politics, and Democrat Ciro Rodriguez's unexpected (and unexpectedly decisive) defeat of Republican incumbent Henry Bonilla was seen as proof of a leftward lurch among Latino voters, as heavily Latino counties overwhelmingly backed Rodriguez, and heavily Anglo counties overwhelmingly backed Bonilla.^ The runoff election in Texas' 23rd congressional district was seen as a bellwether of Latino politics, and Democrat Ciro Rodriguez 's unexpected (and unexpectedly decisive) defeat of Republican incumbent Henry Bonilla was seen as proof of a leftward lurch among Latino voters, as heavily Latino counties overwhelmingly backed Rodriguez, and heavily Anglo counties overwhelmingly backed Bonilla.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 2006 midterm election , however, due to the unpopularity of the Iraq War , the heated debate concerning illegal immigration , and Republican-related Congressional scandals, Latinos went as strongly Democratic as they have since the Clinton years.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compare that to Texas; 83 percent of Latino eligible voters are native born.
  • The 2008 Elections and the Hispanic Vote 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC 2002-2009-fpc.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Although during 2008 the economy and employment were top concerns for Hispanics and Latinos, immigration was "never far from their minds": almost 90% of Latinos rated immigration as "somewhat important" or "very important" in a poll taken after the election.^ In the 2006 midterm election , however, due to the unpopularity of the Iraq War , the heated debate concerning illegal immigration , and Republican-related Congressional scandals, Latinos went as strongly Democratic as they have since the Clinton years.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Immigration is somewhat more commonly mentioned, but Latino positions are very different from those of non-Hispanics in that both express concern about the volume of contemporary migration.
  • Hispanics and the Future of America 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This bibliography links to and provides citations for some key research resources that focus on important contemporary Latino or Hispanic issues such as: health, education, employment, immigration, media, politics, identity, family and gender.
  • Latinos or Hispanics in the United States: A Bibliography 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC libraries.uta.edu [Source type: Academic]

[68] .There is "abundant evidence" that the heated Republican opposition to the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 has done significant damage to the party's appeal to Hispanics and Latinos in the years to come, especially in the swing states such as Florida, Nevada, and New Mexico.^ There has been talk in the media that the heated Republican opposition to the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 may have done significant damage to the Republican party's appeal to Hispanics and Latinos in the years to come, especially in the swing states such as Florida , Nevada , and Colorado .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But we must enact comprehensive immigration reform.
  • Statements on Hispanic Heritage Month show which candidate is just not that into the Latino community (Latina Lista) 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.latinalista.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And we just have three states there: California, Texas, and New Mexico.
  • The 2008 Elections and the Hispanic Vote 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC 2002-2009-fpc.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

[68] .In a Gallup poll of 4,604 registered Hispanic voters taken in the final days of June 2008, only 18% of participants identified themselves as Republicans.^ Hispanics and Latinos identify themselves as Republicans .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of these, 112 identified themselves as Hispanic.
  • NCADI: Substance Abuse Resource Guide for Hispanic/Latino Americans 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Republicans in the same Gallup poll that polled 4,604 registered Hispanic voters.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[69]

2008 election

.In the 2008 Presidential election's Democratic primary Hispanics and Latinos participated in larger numbers than before, with Hillary Clinton receiving most of the group's support.^ And in this primary, the Hispanic voters prefer Hillary Clinton.
  • The 2008 Elections and the Hispanic Vote 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC 2002-2009-fpc.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 2008 U.S. Presidential election , Hispanics and Latinos have been participating in large numbers in the Democratic primary .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What I do know is that Hispanic participation in the Democratic primaries was very strong compared to other groups, and compared to their participation in previous elections.
  • The 2008 Elections and the Hispanic Vote 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC 2002-2009-fpc.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

[70] .Pundits discussed whether a large percentage of Hispanics and Latinos would vote for an African American candidate, in this case Barack Obama, Clinton's opponent.^ Hispanic and Latino Americans estadounidenses hispanos y latinos .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Obama courts the Latino vote .
  • Hispanic and Latino Issues: News & Videos about Hispanic and Latino Issues - CNN.com 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ In the 2008 election, 66% of Hispanics and Latinos voted for Barack Obama, which is 23% higher than George Bush's [ 46 ] and 32% voted for McCain [ 47 ] with a relatively stronger turnout than previous elections in states such as Colorado, New Mexico and Florida and helping him carry states such as Nevada , Virginia , Colorado and New Mexico .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71] Hispanics/Latinos voted 2 to 1 for Mrs. Clinton, even among the younger demographic, which in the case of other groups was an Obama stronghold.[72] .Among Hispanics, 28% said race was involved in their decision, as opposed to 13% for (non-Hispanic) whites.^ The reference category for race/ethnicity is white, non-Hispanic.
  • Hispanics and the Future of America 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ According to the US Census, Hispanics 24 and blacks 43 were almost twice as likely to work as operators and laborers than non-Hispanic whites.
  • Arch Dermatol -- UV Radiation, Latitude, and Melanoma in US Hispanics and Blacks, July 2004, Hu et al. 140 (7): 819 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC archderm.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer screening among Hispanics are now comparable to non-Hispanic Whites.
  • ISPUB - Leading Health Risks, Diseases And Causes Of Mortality Among Hispanics In United States Of America (USA) 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

[72]
Obama defeated Clinton. .In the matchup between Obama and Republican candidate John McCain for the presidency, Hispanics and Latinos supported Obama with 59% to McCain's 29% in the Gallup tracking poll as of June 30, 2008.[69] This surprised some analysts, since a higher than expected percentage of Latinos and Hispanics favored Obama over McCain, who had been a leader of the comprehensive immigration reform effort.^ Obama, McCain battle for Latino voters .
  • Hispanic and Latino Issues: News & Videos about Hispanic and Latino Issues - CNN.com 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Obama calls for immigration reform .
  • Chicanísima: Latino politics, news and culture: Hispanic Archives 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: General]

^ McCain reassures Latinos on immigration reform .
  • Hispanic and Latino Issues: News & Videos about Hispanic and Latino Issues - CNN.com 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

[73] .However, McCain had retracted during the Republican primary, stating that he would not support the bill if it came up again.^ In the case of less common disabilities, even the typical state is unlikely to have the resources that would be necessary to independently provide the necessary support.
  • Report to the President on the Use of Technology to Strengthen K-12 Education in the United States | PCAST 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.ostp.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Some analysts believed that this move hurt his chances among Hispanics and Latinos.^ To work effectively with Hispanic/Latino elders, clinicians need to have some background knowledge about the significant factors affecting the population.
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some political organizations associated with Hispanic and Latino Americans are LULAC , the United Farm Workers , the Cuban American National Foundation , and the National Institute for Latino Policy .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some studies have reported that elderly Hispanic/Latinos expect their children to provide support as found (Cox & Monk, 1990; Markides, Boldt, and Ray, 1986).
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[74] Obama took advantage of the situation by running ads aimed at the ethnic group, in Spanish, in which he mentioned McCain's about-face.[75]
.In the general election, 67% of Hispanics and Latinos voted for Obama[76] and 31% voted for McCain,[77] with a relatively stronger turnout than in previous elections in states such as Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, and Virginia helping Obama carry those formerly Republican states.^ Obama, McCain battle for Latino voters .
  • Hispanic and Latino Issues: News & Videos about Hispanic and Latino Issues - CNN.com 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Democrats vie for Nevada's Latino vote .
  • Hispanic and Latino Issues: News & Videos about Hispanic and Latino Issues - CNN.com 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Counting on the Latino vote: Latinos as a new electorate.
  • Hispanics and the Future of America 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Obama won 70% of non-Cuban Hispanics and 35% of the traditionally Republican Cuban Americans that have a strong presence in Florida, while the changing state demographics towards a more non-Cuban Hispanic community also contributed to his carrying Florida's Latinos with 57% of the vote.^ Barack Obama won 75% of non-Cuban Hispanics and 35% of traditionally conservative Cuban-Americans that have strong presence in Florida and the changing demographic of Florida to more non-Cuban Hispanics also contributed in him carrying the state of Florida by 57% over McCain [ 48 ] .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanics and Latinos identify themselves as Republicans .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Obama courts the Latino vote .
  • Hispanic and Latino Issues: News & Videos about Hispanic and Latino Issues - CNN.com 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

[76][78]
.Some political organizations associated with Hispanic and Latino Americans are LULAC, the NCLR, the United Farm Workers, the Cuban American National Foundation, and the National Institute for Latino Policy.^ Substance Abuse Resource Guide: Hispanic/Latino Americans Section 3 -- Groups, Organizations, & Programs .
  • NCADI: Substance Abuse Resource Guide for Hispanic/Latino Americans 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Main articles: American culture and Hispanic culture The geographic, political, social, economic, and racial diversity of Hispanic and Latino Americans extends to culture, as well.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ National Association of Hispanic Journalist s .
  • US Hispanic #1 Business and Media Network - LatinVision.com 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.latinvision.com [Source type: General]

Culture

Las Damas Panamericanas, a Hispanic women's club in Los Angeles, 1948
.The geographic, political, social, economic, and racial other diversity of Hispanic and Latino Americans extends to culture, as well.^ Main articles: American culture and Hispanic culture The geographic, political, social, economic, and racial diversity of Hispanic and Latino Americans extends to culture, as well.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanic and Latino Americans estadounidenses hispanos y latinos .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hispanic and Latino American politics Chicano Movement .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yet several features tend to unite Hispanics and Latinos from these diverse backgrounds.^ Yet several features tend to unite Hispanics and Latinos from these diverse backgrounds.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main articles: American culture and Hispanic culture The geographic, political, social, economic, and racial diversity of Hispanic and Latino Americans extends to culture, as well.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A special feature of the anthology is that it includes interviews and oral histories of Latinos from diverse walks of life and geographical areas.
  • Hispanic American Influence on the U. S. Food Industry 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Language

.With 40% of Hispanic and Latino Americans being immigrants,[79] and with many of the 60% who are U.S.-born being the children or grandchildren of immigrants, bilingualism is the norm in the community at large: at home, at least 69% of all Hispanic and Latino Americans over age five are bilingual in English and Spanish, whereas up to 22% are monolingual English-speakers, and 9% are monolingual Spanish-speakers; another 0.4% speak a language other than English and Spanish at home.^ The Email format is in English, Spanish, Portuguese and many other languages.
  • Press | Babbalu.com 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.babbalu.com [Source type: General]

^ All Latino children have a right to be educated.
  • Life in The United States » Latino Opinion 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.latinoopinion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hispanics are an “American” minority- and the largest of all minorities at that!
  • Life in The United States » Latino Opinion 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.latinoopinion.com [Source type: Original source]

[80] .In all, a full 90% of all Hispanic and Latino Americans speak English, and at least 78% of all Hispanic and Latino Americans speak Spanish.^ Margaret speaks English but not Spanish.

^ Hispanic and Latino Americans estadounidenses hispanos y latinos .
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Margarita speaks Spanish but not English.

[80] Spanish is the oldest European language in the United States, spoken uninterruptedly for four and a half centuries, since the foundation of St. Augustine.[11][12][13][14]
.The usual pattern is monolingual Spanish use among new migrants or older foreign-born Hispanics, complete bilingualism among long-settled immigrants and the children of immigrants, and the sole use of English, or both English and either Spanglish or colloquial Spanish by the third generation and beyond.^ The usual pattern is monolingual Spanish usage among new migrants or older foreign–born Hispanics, complete bilingualism among long settled immigrants and the children of immigrants (children and grandchildren of immigrants often speak mostly English with some Spanish words and phrases thrown in), and the use of English and/or Spanglish and colloquial Spanish within long established Hispanic communities by the third generation and beyond.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Though often used interchangeably in American English, Hispanic and Latino are not identical terms, and in certain contexts the choice between them can be significant.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, multivariate analyses based on these NHES data show that, regardless of mother’s educational attainment and household income, Hispanic parents who speak only Spanish at home are less likely to read to their children than other Hispanic parents (both bilingual parents and those who speak only English).5 However, NHES data indicate 2 Income brackets were constructed by recoding the NHES household income variable into quartiles.
  • Hispanics and the Future of America 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

Media

.The United States is home to thousands of Spanish language media outlets, which range in size from giant commercial broadcasting networks and major magazines with circulations numbering in the millions, to low-power AM radio stations with listeners numbering in the hundreds.^ Language barriers in Medicine in the United States.
  • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ About 46 million in the United States.
  • The 2008 Elections and the Hispanic Vote 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC 2002-2009-fpc.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ It is the largest Spanish-language newspaper in the United States.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are hundreds of Internet media outlets targeting U.S. Hispanic consumers.^ There are hundreds of Internet media outlets targeting U.S. Hispanic consumers, some of which are online versions of their printed counterparts and others online exclusively.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethnic Data - Ethnic Database - Focus USA Consumer Targeted Hispanic American Mailing Lists - Focus USA brings Ethnicity segmentation to a higher level.
  • Ethnic Data - Ethnic Database - Focus USA Consumer Targeted Hispanic American Mailing Lists - Focus USA brings Ethnicity segmentation to a higher level. Within our database we've identified a wider range of U.S. Ethnic groups and sub groups by name. Each Ethnic category has several individualized mailing lists, each with a host of selection possibilities including age, income, homeowners, credit cards, children and mail order buyer data. 17 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.focus-usa-1.com [Source type: News]

.Some of the outlets are online versions of their printed counterparts and some online exclusively.^ There are hundreds of Internet media outlets targeting U.S. Hispanic consumers, some of which are online versions of their printed counterparts and others online exclusively.
  • Hispanic and Latino Americans - Robert Mugabe 15 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.w2.freedom.edu.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An analysis of 34,452 stories that included print, online, radio and broadcast outlets found that less than 2 percent actually referenced Hispanics, the study found.
  • Chicanísima: Latino politics, news and culture: Hispanic Archives 22 January 2010 14:36 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: General]

Among the noteworthy Spanish-language media outlets are:
.
  • Univision, the largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally;
  • Telemundo, the second-largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally;
  • La Opinión, a Spanish-language daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the six counties of Southern California.^ Language barriers in Medicine in the United States.
    • Health and Health care of Hispanic/Latino American 12 October 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Preaching in Spanish as a second language, by K Davis.

    ^ The majority of Hispanics in the United States are second-generation immigrants.
    • Arch Dermatol -- UV Radiation, Latitude, and Melanoma in US Hispanics and Blacks, July 2004, Hu et al. 140 (7): 819 31 January 2010 12:58 UTC archderm.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

    It is the largest Spanish-language newspaper in the United States;
  • El Nuevo Herald and Diario Las Americas, both Spanish-language daily newspapers serving the greater Miami, Florida market;
  • Hispanic Business, an English-language business magazine about Hispanics;
  • Vida Latina, a Spanish-language entertainment magazine distributed throughout the Southern United States;
  • ConSentido TV, a television, radio, and newspaper network in North Texas.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b "B03001. HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN". 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-ds_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_&-_lang=en&-mt_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G2000_B03001&-format=&-CONTEXT=dt. Retrieved 2009-12-29. 
  2. ^ "American FactFinder Help: Hispanic or Latino origin". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/home/en/epss/glossary_h.html#hispanic_or_latino_origin. Retrieved 2008-10-05. "For Census 2000, American Community Survey: People who identify with the terms "Hispanic" or "Latino" are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the Census 2000 or ACS questionnaire - "Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban" - as well as those who indicate that they are "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino." Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any race.
    1990 Census of Population and Housing: A self-designated classification for people whose origins are from Spain, the Spanish-speaking countries of Central or South America, the Caribbean, or those identifying themselves generally as Spanish, Spanish-American, etc. Origin can be viewed as ancestry, nationality, or country of birth of the person or person's parents or ancestors prior to their arrival in the United States."
     
  3. ^ a b c d e Office of Management and Budget. "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Federal Register Notice October 30, 1997". http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/1997standards.html. Retrieved 2008-01-11. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Grieco, Elizabeth M.; Rachel C. Cassidy. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/cenbr01-1.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-27. 
  5. ^ a b c d "T4-2007. Hispanic or Latino By Race [15]". 2007 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-ds_name=PEP_2007_EST&-mt_name=PEP_2007_EST_G2007_T004_2007&-CONTEXT=dt&-redoLog=true&-currentselections=PEP_2006_EST_G2006_T004_2006&-geo_id=01000US&-format=&-_lang=en. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  6. ^ a b c d "B03002. HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY RACE". 2007 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-ds_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_&-mt_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G2000_B03002&-CONTEXT=dt&-redoLog=true&-currentselections=PEP_2006_EST_G2006_T004_2006&-geo_id=01000US&-format=&-_lang=en. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  7. ^ Tafoya, Sonya (2004-12-06). "Shades of Belonging" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/35.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  8. ^ "S0201. Selected Population Profile in the United States Population Group: Hispanic or Latino (of any race)". 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. http://www.factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-geo_id=NBSP&-qr_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_S0201&-qr_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_S0201PR&-qr_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_S0201T&-qr_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_S0201TPR&-ds_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_&-reg=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_S0201:400;ACS_2008_1YR_G00_S0201PR:400;ACS_2008_1YR_G00_S0201T:400;ACS_2008_1YR_G00_S0201TPR:400&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-format=. Retrieved 2010-01-27. 
  9. ^ "Hispanics and Latinos: A Culture - Not a Race!". The Writing of F. Lennox Campello. Tripod.com. http://members.tripod.com/~Campello/hispanic.html. Retrieved 01-06-2009. 
  10. ^ United States - QT-P4. Race, Combinations of Two Races, and Not Hispanic or Latino: 2000
  11. ^ a b c Small, Lawrence M (2002-08-01). "Latino Legacies". Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institution. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/people-places/10009021.html. Retrieved 2008-04-28. "There was a Hispanic presence on the continent for more than 200 years before 13 colonies on the eastern coast declared their independence from England ... By 1607, when the British established their first successful settlement, at Jamestown, Virginia, writes historian Bernard Bailyn, "Spain's American dominion extended nearly 8,000 miles, from Southern California to the Straits of Magellan..." 
  12. ^ a b c "A Brief History of St. Augustine". City of St. Augustine. http://www.ci.st-augustine.fl.us/visitors/history_fullprint.html. Retrieved 2008-04-28. "Founded in 1565, St. Augustine is the oldest continuously occupied settlement of European origin in the United States. Forty-two years before the English colonized Jamestown and fifty-five years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock, the Spanish established at St. Augustine this nation's first enduring settlement." 
  13. ^ a b c "A Spanish Expedition Established St. Augustine in Florida". America's Library. Library of Congress. http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/jb_date.cgi?day=08&month=09. Retrieved 2008-04-28. "On September 8, 1565, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés landed on the shore of what is now called Matanzas Bay and began the founding of the Presidio of San Agustin. Later the settlement would be called St. Augustine, Florida. Built on the site of an ancient Native American village, and near the place where Ponce de Leon, the European discoverer of Florida, landed in 1513 in search of the legendary Fountain of Youth, it has been continually inhabited since its founding." 
  14. ^ a b c Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales. "The Founding of St. Augustine, 1565". Modern History Sourcebook. Fordham University. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1565staugustine.html. Retrieved 2008-04-28. 
  15. ^ The Encyclopedia Americana. Encyclopedia Americana Corp. 1919. pp. 151. http://books.google.com/books?id=B_kUAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA151&dq=%22San+Gabriel%22+%22El+Paso%22+%22New+Mexico%22+Texas+1598+1680&output=html. 
  16. ^ "Documents in Mexican American History". University of Houston. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/modules/mex_am/chronology.html. Retrieved 2008-06-11. 
  17. ^ "Cuartocentennial of Colonization of New Mexico". New Mexico State University. http://web.nmsu.edu/~publhist/ccintro.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-11. 
  18. ^ "Oldest U.S. City — Infoplease.com". http://www.infoplease.com/askeds/oldest-us-city.html. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  19. ^ "Who are they?". Hispanic Research Inc.. http://hispanic-research.com/home/who_are_they.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-28. 
  20. ^ "A Cultural Identity". 1997-06-18. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/essays/june97/rodriguez_6-18.html. Retrieved 2006-12-27. 
  21. ^ Gibson, Campbell (09 2002). "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Working Paper Series No. 56. http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0056/twps0056.html. Retrieved 2006-12-07. 
  22. ^ "American Heritage Dictionary". http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Hispanic. Retrieved 2007-03-18. 
  23. ^ United States Census Bureau. "U.S. Census Bureau Guidance on the Presentation and Comparison of Race and Hispanic Origin Data". http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/compraceho.html. Retrieved 2007-03-18. "Race and Hispanic origin are two separate concepts in the federal statistical system. People who are Hispanic may be of any race. People in each race group may be either Hispanic or Not Hispanic. Each person has two attributes, their race (or races) and whether or not they are Hispanic." 
  24. ^ In contrast, some dictionary definitions may include Brazilian Americans and/or Brazilian people in general.
  25. ^ "Select Population Groups". 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, Selected Population Profile. U.S. Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IPCharIterationServlet?_lang=en&_ts=286824996026. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  26. ^ "B03001. Hispanic or Latino Origin by Specific Origin". 2006 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_&-mt_name=ACS_2006_EST_G2000_B03001. Retrieved 2008-01-20. 
  27. ^ "American FactFinder Help; Spanish/Hispanic/Latino". http://factfinder.census.gov/home/en/epss/glossary_s.html#spanish_hispanic_latino. Retrieved 2008-12-29. 
  28. ^ a b "US Census Press Releases; Hispanic Heritage Month 2009: Sept. 15 – Oct. 15". http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/013984.html. Retrieved 2010-01-26. 
  29. ^ "Fact Sheet 2006 American Community Survey". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=&geo_id=01000US&_geoContext=01000US%7C04000US48&_street=&_county=&_cityTown=&_state=04000US48&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&ActiveGeoDiv=geoSelect&_useEV=&pctxt=fph&pgsl=040&_submenuId=factsheet_1&ds_name=ACS_2006_SAFF&_ci_nbr=null&qr_name=null&reg=null%3Anull&_keyword=&_industry=. Retrieved 2008-06-24. 
  30. ^ a b "T1. Population Estimates [10]; Data Set: 2007 Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-ds_name=PEP_2007_EST&-redoLog=true&-mt_name=PEP_2007_EST_G2007_T001&-format=&-CONTEXT=dt. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  31. ^ "US Census Press Releases". United States Census Bureau. 2008-07-16. http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/010327.html. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  32. ^ "Census Bureau Projects Tripling of Hispanic and Asian Populations in 50 Years; Non-Hispanic Whites May Drop To Half of Total Population". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/population/001720.html. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  33. ^ "Hispanic Population by State: 2006" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. http://pewhispanic.org/files/factsheets/hispanics2006/Table-12.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  34. ^ "US Census Press Releases; More Than 300 Counties Now "Majority-Minority"". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/population/010482.html. Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  35. ^ "Los Angeles County, California - ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2006". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-qr_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_DP5&-geo_id=05000US06037&-ds_name=&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false. Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  36. ^ "Ten Places with Highest Percent Hispanic: 2000". U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/mso/www/rsf/hisorig/sld023.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  37. ^ "Detailed Hispanic Origin: 2007" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. http://pewhispanic.org/files/factsheets/hispanics2007/Table-5.pdf. Retrieved 2009-04-13. 
  38. ^ "Detailed Hispanic Origin: 2007" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. http://pewhispanic.org/files/factsheets/hispanics2007/Table-3.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-30. 
  39. ^ "United States - Selected Population Profile in the United States (Spaniard)". 2007 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IPTable?_bm=y&-qr_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201&-qr_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201PR&-qr_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201T&-qr_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201TPR&-geo_id=01000US&-reg=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201:423;ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201PR:423;ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201T:423;ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201TPR:423&-ds_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_&-_lang=en&-format=. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  40. ^ Brittingham, Angela; G. Patricia de la Cruz (June 2004). "Ancestry: 2000. Census 2000 Brief" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/c2kbr-35.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-13. 
  41. ^ Additionally, in the 2000 Census some 2,187,144 Americans reported "Spanish" as their ancestry. For more about this group, see Spanish American.
  42. ^ "New Mexico CultureNet - Cuartocentenario". New Mexico CultureNet. http://www.nmculturenet.org/heritage/cuartocentenario/spanish_view.php. Retrieved 2008-05-13. 
  43. ^ "Technical Documentation for the Census 2000 Modified Race Data Summary File". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/archives/files/MRSF-01-US1.html. Retrieved 2008-05-14. 
  44. ^ "04/13/1998 I'D LIKE THE WORLD TO BUY A COKE". The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. http://www.businessweek.com/1998/15/b3573108.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-13. 
  45. ^ "Arturo Moreno - TIME". Time Inc.. http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1093635,00.html. Retrieved 2008-12-13. 
  46. ^ "Joseph Unanue". Smithsonian Institution. http://latino.si.edu/virtualgallery/OJOS/bios/bios_Unanue.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-13. 
  47. ^ "Biografía de Ángel Ramos Torres". http://www.manati.info/biografias/ramos/angel_ramos.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-16. 
  48. ^ "Samuel A. Ramirez & Company, Inc. Introduces The Ramirez Hispanic Index Equally-Weighted Portfolio". http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/news/2004/2/12/samuel_a_ramirez.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-16. 
  49. ^ "Making Wall Street History" (PDF). http://www.ramirezco.com/site/News/HispanicTrendsArticle.pdf. Retrieved 2009-04-16.  Scan of cover story in Hispanic Trends, issue of December, 2005 – January 2006.
  50. ^ "Directory of Latino Elected Officials". http://www.naleo.org/directory.html. Retrieved 2010-01-27. 
  51. ^ "History of NALEO". http://www.naleo.org/history.html. Retrieved 2010-01-27. 
  52. ^ [1], [2], [3]
  53. ^ "HPSCI Chairman Reyes Honors D/NCS Jose Rodriguez — Central Intelligence Agency". https://www.cia.gov/news-information/press-releases-statements/press-release-archive-2007/hpsci-chairman-reyes-honors-d-ncs-jose-rodriguez.html. Retrieved 2010-03-09. 
  54. ^ American Latino Media Arts - Charlie Sheen
  55. ^ Charlie Sheen highest paid sitcom actor.
  56. ^ "National Hispanic Media Coalition: About Us". http://www.nhmc.org/about/. Retrieved 2008-06-12. 
  57. ^ Noriega, Chon. "Politics and Culture: Making a Difference". Connecticut College. http://aspen.conncoll.edu/politicsandculture/page.cfm?key=145. Retrieved 2008-06-12. 
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  80. ^ a b "B16006. LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME BY ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH FOR THE POPULATION 5 YEARS AND OVER (HISPANIC OR LATINO)". 2006 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. http://www.factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_&-CONTEXT=dt&-mt_name=ACS_2006_EST_G2000_B16006&-redoLog=false&-geo_id=01000US&-format=&-_lang=en&-SubjectID=14829562. Retrieved 2008-06-12.  [There were 39.5 million Hispanic and Latino Americans aged 5 or more in 2006. 8.5 million of them, or 22%, spoke only English at home, and another 156,000, or 0.4%, spoke neither English nor Spanish at home. The other 30.8 million, or 78%, spoke Spanish at home. Of these, 3.7 million spoke no English, while the overwhelming majority, 27.2 million, did, at these levels: 15.5 million "very well", 5.8 million "well", and 5.9 million "not well". These 27.2 million bilingual speakers represented 69% of all (39.5 million) Hispanic and Latino Americans aged five or over in 2006, while the 3.7 million monolingual Spanish-speakers represented 9%.]

Further reading

  • Miguel A. De La Torre, "Encyclopedia on Hispanic American Religious Culture", Volume 1 & 2, ABC-CLIO Publishers, 2009.

External links


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Hispanic and Latino Americans, which are similar to those in the above article.








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