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Territories occupied by different dynasties as well as modern political states throughout the history of China
History of China
History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2100–1600 BCE
Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BCE
Zhou Dynasty 1045–256 BCE
 Western Zhou
 Eastern Zhou
   Spring and Autumn Period
   Warring States Period
IMPERIAL
Qin Dynasty 221 BCE–206 BCE
Han Dynasty 206 BCE–220 CE
  Western Han
  Xin Dynasty
  Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220–280
  Wei, Shu & Wu
Jin Dynasty 265–420
  Western Jin 16 Kingdoms
304–439
  Eastern Jin
Southern & Northern Dynasties
420–589
Sui Dynasty 581–618
Tang Dynasty 618–907
  ( Second Zhou 690–705 )
5 Dynasties &
10 Kingdoms

907–960
Liao Dynasty
907–1125
Song Dynasty
960–1279
  Northern Song W. Xia
  Southern Song Jin
Yuan Dynasty 1271–1368
Ming Dynasty 1368–1644
Qing Dynasty 1644–1911
MODERN
Republic of China 1912–1949
People's Republic
of China

1949–present
Republic
of China

(Taiwan)
1945–present
.Chinese civilization originated in various regional centers both along the Yellow River and the Yangtze River valleys in the Neolithic era.^ The Chinese both originated and .
  • Indus River Valley Civilizations 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The early Chinese live by farming around the Yellow River Valley.
  • ANCIENT CHINA TIMELINE 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC blue.butler.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maps of Yangtze Maps of Yangtze river regions and cities.
  • China - People's Republic of China - PRC - Zhongguo - Tourism - Geography - People 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nationsonline.org [Source type: News]

.The written history of China can be found as early as the Shang Dynasty (ca.^ History of China From ancient dynasties to the present.

^ Shang Dynasty (ca.
  • Timeline of Chinese History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC afe.easia.columbia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BCE) while written material is available from as early as the Shang period (ca.
  • History of Science Society | Links 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hssonline.org [Source type: Academic]

1700 BCE – ca. 1046 BCE).[1] .Oracle Bones with ancient Chinese writing from the Shang Dynasty have been carbon dated to as early as 1500 BCE.[2] The origins of Chinese culture, literature and philosophy, developed during the Zhou Dynasty (1045 BCE to 256 BCE).^ Oracle bones dating to the Shang Dynasty (about 1800-1200 B.C.E.) also survive.
  • ephemeris.com Early History of Astronomy - Ancient China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC ephemeris.com [Source type: General]

^ SUNY series in Chinese philosophy and culture.
  • Women in Chinese History -- Bibliography 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC hua.umf.maine.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Early Chinese Literature - 1500 BC to 770 BC .
  • History of Sex: Ancient China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.bigeye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Zhou Dynasty began to bow to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BCE. The ability of the Zhou to control its regional lords lessened, and the kingdom eventually broke apart into individual smaller states, beginning in the Spring and Autumn Period and reaching full expression in the Warring States period.^ Warring States that ended the Chou Dynasty .
  • A Brief History Of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BC – Warring states period.
  • History Today - Timeline of China : Explore the history of China. 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.historytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They came the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods (i.e., the Eastern Zhou Dynasty), periods of transition from slave to feudal society.

.In 221 BCE, Qin Shi Huang united the various warring kingdoms and created the first Chinese empire.^ This was the first big expansion of Chinese empire.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Qin Shi Huang is regarded as China's first emperor .
  • History of China : Imperial Period 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.kinabaloo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first centralized Chinese empire was the proud .
  • A Brief History Of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Successive dynasties in Chinese history developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the Emperor of China to directly control vast territories.^ History of China From ancient dynasties to the present.

^ The South was ruled by successive "Chinese" dynasties.
  • Timeline of Chinese History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC afe.easia.columbia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Successive dynasties developed a system of bureaucratic control which gave the agrarian-based Chinese an advantage over neighboring nomadic and hill cultures.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The conventional view of Chinese history is that of a dynasty alternating between periods of political unity and disunity and occasionally becoming dominated by other inner Asian peoples, most of whom were in turn assimilated into the Han Chinese population.^ I will not have other people tell me what I can and can't view.
  • Step away from the porn, Senator | The Geek | Brisbane Times Blogs 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC blogs.brisbanetimes.com.au [Source type: General]

^ The reason is that in the most periods of the Chinese history China had got an army of mercenaries.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China is the world's most populous country, with a population of over 1.3 billion people, most of whom are said to be of Han Chinese ethnicity.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cultural and political influences from many parts of Asia, carried by successive waves of immigration, expansion, and cultural assimilation, are part of the modern culture of China.^ Modern China, East Asia; political, social, intellectual .
  • Faculty Directory - Department of History - University of Michigan 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.lsa.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Faculty Directory - Department of History - University of Michigan 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.lsa.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Modern China: political, cultural, intellectual, historiography.
  • Faculty Directory - Department of History - University of Michigan 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.lsa.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Faculty Directory - Department of History - University of Michigan 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.lsa.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hercules - The Legends and stories of this mythical son of Zeus are an still a part of our modern culture.
  • History's Happening Ancient World History Page 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.loeser.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Prehistory

.What is now China was inhabited by Homo erectus more than a million years ago.^ You are comparing Tibet more than 70 years ago.
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of more than a crisis in China .
  • the __earthinc » PRC 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC maddruid.com [Source type: General]

^ They also give more than $6 million of their own dollars each year.
  • CSR@Intel · Where Does Philanthropy Fit in the CSR Spectrum? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC blogs.intel.com [Source type: Original source]

[3] .Recent study shows that the stone tools found at Xiaochangliang site are magnetostratigraphically dated 1.36 million years ago.^ The earliest evidence of a fully modern human in China comes from Liujiang County , Guangxi , where a cranium has been found and dated to approximately 67,000 years ago.

^ In the Ancient Age, more than a million years ago, primitive human beings lived on the land now called China.
  • History of China :: Lychee Travel - China Tour Operator 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC lycheetravel.com [Source type: News]

^ Archaeological material which has been found indicates that people were already living in the territory of today’s China one million years ago.
  • History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.regit.com [Source type: Original source]

[4] .The archaeological site of Xihoudu in Shanxi Province is the earliest recorded use of fire by Homo erectus, which is dated 1.27 million years ago.^ The earliest evidence of a fully modern human in China comes from Liujiang County , Guangxi , where a cranium has been found and dated to approximately 67,000 years ago.

^ China, as one of the areas where civilization developed earliest, has a recorded history of nearly 5,000 years.
  • History of China :: Lychee Travel - China Tour Operator 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC lycheetravel.com [Source type: News]

^ About 400,000 to 500,000 years ago, the Peking Man, a primitive man that lived in Zhoukoudian, southwest of Beijing, was able to walk with the body erect, to make and use simple tools, and use fire.
  • History of China :: Lychee Travel - China Tour Operator 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC lycheetravel.com [Source type: News]

[3] .The excavations at Yuanmou and later Lantian show early habitation.^ Han Suyin deals with Mao's later struggles with Stalin during the 1930s and early 1940s and shows how Mao succeeded against Stalin's agents in those years.
  • The Class Character of the USSR (1977) : THE HISTORY OF USSR-CHINA RELATIONS 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.workers.org [Source type: Original source]

Perhaps the most famous specimen of Homo erectus found in China is the so-called Peking Man discovered in 1923-27.
Three pottery pieces were unearthed at Liyuzui Cave in Liuzhou, Guangxi Province dated 16,500 and 19,000 BCE.[5]

Neolithic

.The Neolithic age in China can be traced back to between 12,000 and 10,000 BCE[6] Early evidence for proto-Chinese millet agriculture is carbon-dated to about 7,000 BCE.[7] The Peiligang culture of Xinzheng county, Henan was excavated in 1977.[8] With agriculture came increased population, the ability to store and redistribute crops, and to support specialist craftsmen and administrators.^ China dating back to the New Stone Age.

^ A webquest for grades 10-12 on the Chinese Cultural Revolution.
  • WEB SITES ON ANCIENT CHINA & CHINESE HISTORY 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: News]

^ Population of mainland china is 583,000,000 .
  • History Today - Timeline of China : Explore the history of China. 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.historytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .In late Neolithic times, the Yellow River valley began to establish itself as a cultural center, where the first villages were founded; the most archaeologically significant of those was found at Banpo, Xi'an.^ Yang Shao culture) appeared in the Yellow River valley .
  • A Brief History Of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, from the late 1970's, the unified archaeological picture of Neolithic China originating in the Yellow River Valley faced increasing challenges as new evidence from outlying archaeological cultures emerged.
  • JapanFocus 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC japanfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Around the first century BC, strong trading links were established with China and India, and these had a major impact on the culture, language and social customs of the country.
  • History of Malaysia - Malaysia History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.2malaysia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .The Yellow River was so named because of the loess that would build up on the bank and down in the earth then sink, creating a yellowish tint to the water.^ This discussion might focus on building materials such as stone (which would need to be quarried), earth and brick, and the armies of builders needed to construct such a massive structure.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thousands of bodies were dumped into ponds and moats, as well as into the nearby Yangtze River, where corpses washed up along the banks like driftwood.
  • Nanjing, China » HistoryNet 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.historynet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unless one is talking to Chinese people (who go by last name followed by first name), or putting down his name on official document, he would never go by the family name first.
  • Hmong History in China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hmongnet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]
.The early history of China is complicated by the lack of a written language during this period coupled with the existence of documents from later time periods attempting to describe events that occurred several centuries before.^ China was changing in the early 20th century.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was a verbal period in China history.

^ Acupuncture.During this time period .

.The problem in some sense stems from centuries of introspection on the part of the Chinese people which has blurred the distinction between fact and fiction in regards to this early history.^ The main problem is cultural difference between Chinese and western people.
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Studies in 20th Century Chinese History .
  • Department of History - University of Michigan 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.lsa.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But the problems with Chinese history far predate the People's Republic.
  • Perception of Chinese long history 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.sacu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 7000 BCE, the Chinese were farming millet, giving rise to the Jiahu culture.^ Information on artifacts found in ancient Chinese tombs which give insights into Chinese culture at the time.
  • WEB SITES ON ANCIENT CHINA & CHINESE HISTORY 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: News]

At Damaidi in Ningxia, 3,172 cliff carvings dating to 6,000-5,000 BCE have been discovered "featuring 8,453 individual characters such as the sun, moon, stars, gods and scenes of hunting or grazing." These pictographs are reputed to be similar to the earliest characters confirmed to be written Chinese.[12][13] Later Yangshao culture was superseded by the Longshan culture around 2500 BCE.

Ancient era

.Xia Dynasty (ca.^ Xia/Hsia Dynasty (ca.
  • Timeline of Chinese History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC afe.easia.columbia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

2,100-ca. 1,600 BCE)

.The Xia Dynasty of China (from ca.^ Brief History of China Two Ancient China Around 2070 BC - Xia Dynasty Xiayu was famous for solving Chinas flooding problem.

^ The legendary Xia was possibly China's first dynasty , though its existence has yet to be confirmed by concrete historical documentation.
  • History of China : Imperial Period 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.kinabaloo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the long perod of primitive existence, the Xia Dynasty, the first in Chinese history, was established in the 21st century B.C., heralding the beginning of a slave society in China.

.2,100 BCE to 1,600 BCE) is the first dynasty to be described in ancient historical records such as Records of the Grand Historian and Bamboo Annals.^ Historical record has it that two Buddhist missionaries from India in 68 AD, arrived at the court of Emperor Ming (58-75) of Han Dynasty .
  • Timeline of Buddhist History: Major Events 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.buddhanet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The historians described a Chinese political pattern of dynasties, one following another in a cycle of ascent, achievement, decay, and rebirth under a new family.
  • Chinese food history and culture page 2 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC asiarecipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Historical Records by Sima Qian, a famous historian of the Han Dynasty (206 B.C. - 220), reports that Yi Yin, the first famous prime minister in known Chinese history, helped Tang (the first ruler of the Shang Dynasty, enthroned 1766 B.C. 1760 B.C.) destroy Jie (the last ruler of the Xia Dynasty, enthroned 1818 B.C. 1766 B.C.).
  • The History of Chinese Imperial Food 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.china.org.cn [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1][14]
.Although there is disagreement regarding the actual existence of the dynasty, there is some archaeological evidence pointing to its possible existence.^ There is archaeological evidence of 'Lantian Man', an upright walking hominid and the more advanced 'Peking Man' dating back 600,000 years.
  • History of China : Imperial Period 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.kinabaloo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is archaeological evidence that the local Native Americans also ate abalone, but their populations were largely gone by this time.
  • History of Hopkins Marine Station 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www-marine.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tang Dynasty (618 - 907) The Tang dynasty (A.D. 618-907), with its capital at Chang'an, is regarded by historians as a high point in Chinese civilization--equal, or even superior, to the Han period.
  • Chinese Dynasties 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatravelz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The historian Sima Qian (145 BCE-90 BCE), who wrote the Shiji or Records of the Grand Historian and the so-called Bamboo Annals date the founding of the Xia Dynasty to 4,200 years ago, but this date has not been corroborated.^ Chronology Sima Qian: Extracts from Records of the Grand Historian , two biographies.
  • Brooklyn College Core 9: Chinese Culture Page 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is true that the Mongols who founded the Yuan Dynasty in China were partially assimilated into the Chinese way of life before their overthrow by the Ming.
  • Perception of Chinese long history 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.sacu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term 'Miao" appeared in the Chinese Classics and early historical records such as the 'Zhanguo ce' ("Intrigues of the Warring States") and the "Shiji' ("Records of the Historians).
  • Hmong History in China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hmongnet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most archaeologists now connect the Xia to excavations at Erlitou in central Henan province,[15] where a bronze smelter from around 2000 BCE was unearthed.^ In 2000, interpreting was made a compulsory course for all undergraduates majoring in English, and is now taught in most BA programmes as a one-year course in the fourth year.
  • Conference Interpreting in Mainland China 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.aiic.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In regard to the Xia,it was difficult to separate myth from reality.By now, archaeologists have uncovered urban sites, bronze implements, and tombs that point to the existence of Xia civilization in the same locations cited in ancient Chinese historical texts.
  • Chinese Dynasties 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatravelz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Dynasties in Chinese history Chinese tradition names the first dynasty Xia , but it was considered mythical until scientific excavations found early bronze-age sites at Erlitou in Henan Province.

.Early markings from this period found on pottery and shells are thought to be ancestors of modern Chinese characters.^ Early traditions, dating from the Shang, include divinations written in the precursor to modern Chinese script on flat bones and turtle shell (“oracle bones”) and technically-advanced bronze castings.
  • History of Science Society | Links 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hssonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Two important events of the period were the development of a writing system, as revealed in archaic Chinese inscriptions found on tortoise shells and flat cattle bones, and the use of bronze metallurgy.
  • Chinese Dynasties 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatravelz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chinese posters on this site are divided in three sections: the early years (1949-1965), the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) and the period of modernization up to the present (1977-1997).
  • WEB SITES ON ANCIENT CHINA & CHINESE HISTORY 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: News]

[16] .With few clear records matching the Shang oracle bones or the Zhou bronze vessel writings, the Xia era remains poorly understood.^ The Shang and Zhou dynasties succeeded the Xia.
  • History of China : Imperial Period 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.kinabaloo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shang era, and the Zhou .
  • Indus River Valley Civilizations 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Shang writing is found on thousands of "oracle bones," fragments of .
  • A Brief History Of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to mythology, the dynasty ended around 1600BC due to the Battle of Mingtiao.^ The old Song dynasty finally came to an end in 1279 when the Mongols won a naval battle.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Shang Dynasty (ca. 1700-1046 BCE)

Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang found in the Yellow River Valley
.The earliest discovered written record of Chinese past dates from the Shang Dynasty in perhaps the 13th century BCE, and takes the form of inscriptions of divination records on the bones or shells of animals—the so-called oracle bones.^ (The Chinese sign for the Shang dynasty.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BC) were written on animal bones and tortoise shells.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Organizing lower-form cooperatives, called collectives, the peasants pooled animals, land and their labor.
  • 81.02.05: China: Portrait of Change 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Archeological findings providing evidence for the existence of the Shang Dynasty, c 1600-1046 BCE are divided into two sets.^ The existence of this dynasty has been disputed, though some archeological evidence for it has been discovered.

^ Shang Dynasty (1600 BC - 1046 BCE) .
  • History of Chinese Religion - ReligionFacts 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.religionfacts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Han Dynasty is divided into two sections: .
  • ANCIENT CHINA TIMELINE 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC blue.butler.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first set, from the earlier Shang period (ca.1750-1045 BCE) comes from sources at Erligang, Zhengzhou and Shangcheng.^ BCE) while written material is available from as early as the Shang period (ca.
  • History of Science Society | Links 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hssonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The first unified Chinese state was established by the Qin Dynasty in 221 BCE, when the office of the Emperor was set up and the Chinese language was forcibly standardized.

^ This religious liberalism was extended to all; Christianity first made headway in China in this period, with the first Roman Catholic arch-bishopric set up in Beijing in 1307.
  • The Silk Road 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ess.uci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The second set, from the later Shang or Yin (殷) period, consists of a large body of oracle bone writings.^ Most Shang writing is found on thousands of "oracle bones," fragments of .
  • A Brief History Of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This writing, called "Jia Gu Wen" (Oracle-Bone Scripture), was the earliest evidence of the Chinese use of the written word.
  • Acupuncture.Com - QiGong / Tuina - A Brief History of Qigong 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.acupuncture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such early forms of Chinese became known through the discovery by archaeologists of oracle bones, which were bones with writings inscribed on them.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Anyang, in modern-day Henan, has been confirmed as the last of the Shang's nine capitals (c 1300-1046 BCE).^ In 1766-1154 B.C. (the Shang dynasty), the Chinese capital was located in today's An Yang in Henan province.
  • Acupuncture.Com - QiGong / Tuina - A Brief History of Qigong 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.acupuncture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shang Dynasty (1600 BC - 1046 BCE) .
  • History of Chinese Religion - ReligionFacts 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.religionfacts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 771 B.C, The capital was moved eastward to Luoyang in present-day Henan Province.
  • Chinese Dynasties 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatravelz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Shang Dynasty featured 31 kings, from Tang of Shang to King Zhou of Shang.^ The Shang and Zhou dynasties succeeded the Xia.
  • History of China : Imperial Period 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.kinabaloo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 1050 BC the Shang dynasty were defeated by a neighbour country called Zhou.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shang Dynasty and Western Zhou ----771 BC .

.In this period, the Chinese worshiped many different gods - weather gods and sky gods - and also a supreme god, named Shangdi, who ruled over the other gods.^ I, and many sincere Chinese people are the people who least want to see the potential conflict between China and USA. Both are great countries, it will be a disaster for human being if two countries fight each other in the future, due to what?
  • seattlepi.com: Sound Off 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.seattlepi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With Hong Kong returning to Chinese rule, Roger Thompson looks at when the colony influenced reformers who tried to bring the ballot box to the Middle Kingdom.
  • History Today - Timeline of China : Explore the history of China. 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.historytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is pro-partial birth abortion, and promises to appoint Supreme Court justices who will rule any restriction on it unconstitutional.
  • Obama Brings War Back Home 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: General]

.Those who lived during the Shang Dynasty also believed that their ancestors - their parents and grandparents - became like gods when they died, and that their ancestors wanted to be worshipped too, like gods.^ Like those who retire etc.
  • Liberal Conspiracy » Does socialism really cause racism? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC liberalconspiracy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the custom during the Shang Dynasty.
  • The History of Chinese Imperial Food 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.china.org.cn [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Shang worship their ancestors, who intercede with the gods on behalf of the living.
  • ANCIENT CHINA TIMELINE 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC blue.butler.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each family worshiped its own ancestors.^ Ancestor Worship and Respect for the Aged (extended families).
  • 81.02.05: China: Portrait of Change 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Family was extremely important, as one’s ancestors would give help and guidance to dutiful descendants, and one would someday be receiving offerings from one’s own sons and grandsons.

^ Ancestor worship is an important part of the religion, and it is common Buddhist practice to have a small altar in the house dedicated to deceased family members.
  • Culture of China - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Around 1500 BCE, the Chinese began to use written oracle bones to predict the future.^ The Chinese began using paper, made from rice straw, for toilet purposes in the sixth century, AD. Also, the Chinese began to have a paper currency in the early 9th century.
  • The impact of China on the history of technology 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.engr.sjsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This writing, called "Jia Gu Wen" (Oracle-Bone Scripture), was the earliest evidence of the Chinese use of the written word.
  • Acupuncture.Com - QiGong / Tuina - A Brief History of Qigong 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.acupuncture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early traditions, dating from the Shang, include divinations written in the precursor to modern Chinese script on flat bones and turtle shell (“oracle bones”) and technically-advanced bronze castings.
  • History of Science Society | Links 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hssonline.org [Source type: Academic]

.By the time of the Zhou Dynasty (about 1100 BCE), the Chinese were also worshiping a natural force called tian, which is usually translated as Heaven.^ (The Chinese sign for the Zhou dynasty.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The period known as the Eastern Zhou dynasty (771- ca 453 BCE), when the Zhou moved their capital from the Wei valley to Loyang in the east of China, was when the Chinese world view was beginning to take shape.
  • History of Science Society | Links 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hssonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ BC) / Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770 - 221 BC) According to standard Chinese accounts, the last Shang ruler, a despot was overthrown by a chieftain of a frontier tribe called Zhou, which had settled in the Wei Valley in modern Shaanxi Province.
  • Chinese Dynasties 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatravelz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Like Shangdi, Heaven ruled over all the other gods, and it decided who would rule China, called the Mandate of Heaven.^ This IRC channel would be called #china.

^ China is ruled by an emperor, who claims to have control over all of China.
  • ANCIENT CHINA TIMELINE 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC blue.butler.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My main problem with him is that he tends to give almost god-like powers and intelligence to insurgents and the other “bad guys” (for lack of a better term).
  • Inside the Brave New War, Part 1 | Danger Room | Wired.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

.The ruler could rule as long as he or she had the Mandate of Heaven; it was believed that the emperor or empress had lost the Mandate of Heaven when natural disasters occurred in great number, and when, more realistically, the sovereign had apparently lost his concern for the people.^ The Great Leap forced the abandonment of farming activities, leading to widespread famine in which more than 20 million people died of malnutrition.
  • China: History, Geography, Government, & Culture — FactMonster.com 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: News]

^ Dynasty followed dynasty, as old regimes would lose the " mandate of heaven ;" it was believed that each emperor ruled only with the approval of heaven, and a ruler who was unfit to rule would curse the nation until replaced.
  • China - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CE) illustrates a strongly realistic view of nature which attempts to channel the Confucian tradition into less superstitious and more rational directions.
  • History of Science Society | Links 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hssonline.org [Source type: Academic]

.In response, the royal house would be overthrown, and a new house would rule, having been granted the Mandate of Heaven.^ Heaven would choose somebody else to rule.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dynasty followed dynasty, as old regimes would lose the " mandate of heaven ;" it was believed that each emperor ruled only with the approval of heaven, and a ruler who was unfit to rule would curse the nation until replaced.
  • China - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Introduced one of the most enduring imperial period concepts: the ' Mandate of Heaven ' - that heaven grants authority to strong and wise rulers and repeals the mandate from rulers who fail.
  • History of China : Imperial Period 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.kinabaloo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Records of the Grand Historian states that the Shang Dynasty moved its capital six times.^ In 1766-1154 B.C. (the Shang dynasty), the Chinese capital was located in today's An Yang in Henan province.
  • Acupuncture.Com - QiGong / Tuina - A Brief History of Qigong 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.acupuncture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Records of civilization in China date back to around 1766 B.C.E. and the Shang Dynasty.
  • Culture of China - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tang Dynasty (618 - 907) The Tang dynasty (A.D. 618-907), with its capital at Chang'an, is regarded by historians as a high point in Chinese civilization--equal, or even superior, to the Han period.
  • Chinese Dynasties 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatravelz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The final (and most important) move to Yin in 1350 BCE led to the dynasty's golden age.^ The most important thing to know about this dynasty is that it was very short (by dynastic standards) and that it did a pretty good job of re-unifying China.
  • Chinese History, China History, A Brief History of China, Chinese Chronology 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatour.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Zhou dynasty there lived two of the most important Chinese philosophs: Laozi and Confucius.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The railroad is the most important mode of transportation in China, moving some two-thirds of the passenger traffic and half the freight traffic.
  • CHINA 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term Yin Dynasty has been synonymous with the Shang dynasty in history, although it has lately been used to specifically refer to the latter half of the Shang Dynasty.^ An archeological dig there at a late Shang dynasty burial ground called Yin Xu discovered more than 160,000 pieces of turtle shell and animal bone which were covered with written characters.
  • Acupuncture.Com - QiGong / Tuina - A Brief History of Qigong 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.acupuncture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Full article: China, history Although archaeologists have found settlements in China dating to 5000 BCE , the earliest nation that can be dated in the area of modern China is the Shang Dynasty , approximately 2000 BCE .
  • China - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name "Zhongguo" appeared first in the Classic of History (6th Century BCE), and was used to refer to the late Zhou Dynasty , as they believed that they were the "center of civilization" [1] , while peoples in the four cardinals were called Eastern Yi , Southern Man , Western Rong and Northern Di respectively.

.Chinese historians living in later periods were accustomed to the notion of one dynasty succeeding another, but the actual political situation in early China is known to have been much more complicated.^ Later the situation in China could be stabilized.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examination of Chinese history will begin in a period known as the Early Zhou.
  • Acupuncture.Com - Education - Theory - History of Acupuncture 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.acupuncture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students also may wish to look at China Google, where thcey can see how information on the Tiananmen massacre is blocked, or the political uses of the 1937 Nanjing Massacre that killed more than 200,000 Chinese.
  • China’s Encounter with the West: A History Institute for Teachers - FPRI 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.fpri.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hence, as some scholars of China suggest, the Xia and the Shang can possibly refer to political entities that existed concurrently, just as the early Zhou is known to have existed at the same time as the Shang.^ Northeast China or simply “the Northeast” are therefore the preferred terms, and among Chinese scholars are the only acceptable references (Hosoya 1990: 105, cited in Elliot 2000: 607).
  • JapanFocus 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.japanfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The overland 'silk route' to China had been open for many centuries and merchants had for some time traveled into China and central Asia, following in the footsteps of Marco Polo.
  • Acupuncture: The History of Acupuncture in China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.healthy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Origins of Imperial China Historians date the first known prehistoric dynasty in mainland China, called Xia, to the 21st century BC. The first confirmed historical dynasty is the Shang dynasty, which existed from 1700 to 1027 BC in the Huang He Valley and was founded by a rebel leader who supposedly overthrew the Xia leader.
  • Democracy Web | Freedom of Expression: China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC democracyweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Written records found at Anyang confirm the existence of the Shang dynasty.^ The Shang achievements can be readily seen from the remnants of its spectacular palaces, well-crafted giant bronze cauldrons, refined jade carvings, and massive written records.
  • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its successor, the Shang, or Yin, dynasty (c.1766–c.1122 BC ), which ruled over the valley of the Yellow River, left written records cast in bronze or inscribed on tortoiseshell and bone.
  • History - China - tax, issues, growth, area, farming, system, future, power 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nationsencyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Records of civilization in China date back to around 1766 B.C.E. and the Shang Dynasty.
  • Culture of China - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, Western scholars are often hesitant to associate settlements contemporaneous with the Anyang settlement with the Shang dynasty.^ No archaeological record, however, confirms this story; the Shang is the earliest dynasty for which reliable historical evidence exists.
  • CHINA 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However Chinese civilisation only really began with the Shang Dynasty.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Western Chou lasts from 1050-771 BC. The Chou Dynasty inherits the culture of the Shang Dynasty because the Chou is less advanced.
  • ANCIENT CHINA TIMELINE 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC blue.butler.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, archaeological findings at Sanxingdui suggest a technologically advanced civilization culturally unlike Anyang.^ Recent archaeological finds suggest that the earliest human habitation of northern Vietnam was about 500, 000 years ago.
  • History of Vietnam - Lonely Planet Travel Information 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the neolithic sites of the Yangshao culture along the midsection of the Yellow River confirm the traditional view that the river basin was the cradle of the Chinese civilization.
  • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the Koguryo murals have been hailed as illustrative of the early formation of an advanced culture in East Asia.
  • JapanFocus 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC japanfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The evidence is inconclusive in proving how far the Shang realm extended from Anyang. .The leading hypothesis is that Anyang, ruled by the same Shang in the official history, coexisted and traded with numerous other culturally diverse settlements in the area that is now referred to as China proper.^ Information on the tea trade in China and its history.
  • WEB SITES ON ANCIENT CHINA & CHINESE HISTORY 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: News]

^ China traded much with other countries.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feed A Shanghai Eye : Artist's paintblog, some art news, interviews and other stuff Categories: Culture , Diary ( Greater China » Mainland China » Shanghai ) .
  • China Blog List: Blogs about Greater China 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.chinabloglist.org [Source type: News]

Zhou Dynasty (1066-ca. 221 BCE)

Bronze ritual vessel (You), Western Zhou Dynasty
.The Zhou Dynasty was the longest dynasty in Chinese history, from 1066 to approximately 221 BCE. By the end of the 1st millennium BCE, the Zhou Dynasty began to emerge in the Yellow River valley, overrunning the Shang.^ (The Chinese sign for the Zhou dynasty.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (The Chinese sign for the Shang dynasty.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The early Chinese live by farming around the Yellow River Valley.
  • ANCIENT CHINA TIMELINE 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC blue.butler.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Zhou appeared to have begun their rule under a semi-feudal system.^ China "is a socialist republic (specifically a people's democratic dictatorship according to its constitution) ruled by the Communist Party of China under a single-party system," .
  • Columbia Suspends Environmental Journalism Program : CJR 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.cjr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the highly organized feudal society, the Zhou royal family ruled over hundreds of feudal states.
  • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The banking system is largely under government control, although rules were eased in the mid-1990s to allow greater foreign and private participation in the financial sector.
  • CHINA 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Zhou were a people who lived west of Shang, and the Zhou leader had been appointed "Western Protector" by the Shang.^ "Such associations united people from one city or one area who lived in another city.
  • Powelson Chapter 11 - China: The Puzzles of History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC tqe.quaker.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, western education, medicine, social service and philosophy brought by missionaries ameliorated lives of Chinese people living in open ports.
  • WHKMLA : History of China's Open Ports 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.zum.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This fun, illustrated article examines each of the major peoples who lived in the Middle East in ancient times.
  • History's Happening Ancient World History Page 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.loeser.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ruler of the Zhou, King Wu, with the assistance of his brother, the Duke of Zhou, as regent managed to defeat the Shang at the Battle of Muye.^ During the Zhou period there was a class of officials who advised kings and rulers on the right way to behave and also how to carry out rituals.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nobles under the Zhou king effectively became independent rulers.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shang kings and nobles lived in imposing buildings, went to battle in .
  • A Brief History Of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The king of Zhou at this time invoked the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to legitimize his rule, a concept that would be influential for almost every successive dynasty.^ Heaven would choose somebody else to rule.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At that time the Chinese concept of heaven emerged.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dynasty followed dynasty, as old regimes would lose the " mandate of heaven ;" it was believed that each emperor ruled only with the approval of heaven, and a ruler who was unfit to rule would curse the nation until replaced.
  • China - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Zhou initially moved their capital west to an area near modern Xi'an, near the Yellow River, but they would preside over a series of expansions into the Yangtze River valley.^ Yellow River plain and outlying areas.
  • History Today - Timeline of China : Explore the history of China. 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.historytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This tied everybody in the Yangtze River area, anybody who grew, ate, or traded in rice, into the international system.
  • China’s Encounter with the West: A History Institute for Teachers - FPRI 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.fpri.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At Kunming, the capital of Yunnan Province, they turned north, past Chengdu in Sichuan Province, and eventually ended up in Shaanxi, near Yan'an.
  • Chinese History, China History, A Brief History of China, Chinese Chronology 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatour.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This would be the first of many population migrations from north to south in Chinese history.^ Many Chinese fled from the north to the south of the country.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following Huangdi, historians believe that the Xia Dynasty (2100-1600 B.C.) was the first dynasty of China and marked the beginning of Chinese history.
  • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If Hakka were actually sinicized "non-Han", then Hakka migration from north to south would not be "fleeing" the "northern foreign invasion" to "preserve" their own culture.
  • History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.asiawind.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Spring and Autumn Period (722-481 BCE)

Chinese pu vessel with interlaced dragon design, Spring and Autumn Period.
.In the 8th century BCE, power became decentralized during the Spring and Autumn Period, named after the influential Spring and Autumn Annals.^ The Red Army's exploits during the Long March became legendary and remain a potent symbol of the spirit and prowess of the Red Army and its successor, the PLA. During that period, Mao's political power and his strategy of guerrilla warfare gained ascendancy in the party and the Red Army.

^ Many strong, independent states continually waged war with each other in the Spring and Autumn period , only occasionally deferring to the Zhou king.

^ During the war period from 1914-18, business became extremely limited due to a large majority of the labor force joining the Forces and the danger of naval transportation.

.In this period, local military leaders used by the Zhou began to assert their power and vie for hegemony.^ Zhou’s death precipitated a struggle for power between moderate and radical leaders.
  • CHINA 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Selfishness of local-provincial gentry and militarists - Political decentralization and the rise in power of the military leaders made really democratic government difficult to carry out.
  • Early Republic and Warlord Period 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thecorner.org [Source type: Original source]

^ PLA leaders began to call for military preparedness to fight "limited war under high-tech conditions."
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The situation was aggravated by the invasion of other peoples from the northwest, such as the Qin, forcing the Zhou to move their capital east to Luoyang.^ In 771 the Rong, a people from the west, invaded and the Zhou moved their capital to Luoyang.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The capital was moved east to Luoyang.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The period known as the Eastern Zhou dynasty (771- ca 453 BCE), when the Zhou moved their capital from the Wei valley to Loyang in the east of China, was when the Chinese world view was beginning to take shape.
  • History of Science Society | Links 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hssonline.org [Source type: Academic]

.This marks the second large phase of the Zhou dynasty: the Eastern Zhou.^ Within the Eastern Zhou Dynasty were periods known as Spring and Autumn Period--from the title of a book, “Annals of Spring and Autumn” and the Warring States Period.

^ In 771 BC, the Zhou king was killed, his son put on the throne, and the capital was moved, dividing the Zhou Dynasty into the Western Zhou and the Eastern Zhou.

^ A complete organization was responsible for the imperial food served in the Zhou Dynasty palace; it included a large staff and a clear division of labor.
  • The History of Chinese Imperial Food 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.china.org.cn [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In each of the hundreds of states that eventually arose, local strongmen held most of the political power and continued their subservience to the Zhou kings in name only.^ Afterwards the power of the Zhou kings declined.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The government states that it opposes physical compulsion to submit to abortion or sterilization, but instances of coercion have reportedly continued as local officials strive to meet population targets.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many strong, independent states continually waged war with each other in the Spring and Autumn period , only occasionally deferring to the Zhou king.

.Local leaders for instance started using royal titles for themselves.^ In 1901 King Edward VII conferred on the company the double honour of the royal warrant and the specific - as opposed to the assumed - right to use the title "Royal".

^ Some European factories, including Bohemian factories started using a bindenschild (beehive) in their marks similar to the Imperial and Royal Porcelain Manufactory Vienna's mark.
  • Ginni's Bohemian & Czech Porcelain History & Information 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.collectorscircle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Hundred Schools of Thought of Chinese philosophy blossomed during this period, and such influential intellectual movements as Confucianism, Taoism, Legalism and Mohism were founded, partly in response to the changing political world.^ A third school of political thought that flourished during the same period and subsequently exercised a lasting influence on Chinese civilization was legalism.
  • CHINA 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A number of more authoritarian strains of thought have also been influential, such as Legalism .

^ Confucianism, Taoism, Legalism and Moism all had their origins in this period.
  • History of Science Society | Links 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hssonline.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Spring and Autumn Period is marked by a falling apart of the central Zhou power.^ Many strong, independent states continually waged war with each other in the Spring and Autumn period , only occasionally deferring to the Zhou king.

^ The problem is that the central government is scared it might lose control and all of China fall apart like the Soviet Union...
  • China Bans Foreign Tourists From Tibet 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC digg.com [Source type: News]

^ Later, "Shi Ji" (Historical Record) in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods (770-221 B.C.) also described more complete methods of breath training.
  • Acupuncture.Com - QiGong / Tuina - A Brief History of Qigong 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.acupuncture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.China now consists of hundreds of states, some only as large as a village with a fort.^ It has a massive population, which represents not only a large domestic market but also a cheap labour source of some eight hundred million people.
  • China: the Emerging Superpower 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With population consisting of 850,000 Canadian citizens of Chinese descent, the Canadian focus on China will only grow larger.
  • China: the Emerging Superpower 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following is a brief review of some major rose groupings that have evolved from the China rose hybrids, again as described by Hurst and presented with only minor editing by Thomas.
  • The History and Legacy of the China Rose < QuarryHill Botanical Garden 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.quarryhillbg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Warring States Period (476-221 BCE)

.After further political consolidation, seven prominent states remained by the end of 5th century BCE, and the years in which these few states battled each other are known as the Warring States Period.^ Warring States that ended the Chou Dynasty .
  • A Brief History Of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BC – Warring states period.
  • History Today - Timeline of China : Explore the history of China. 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.historytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The era is known as the Period of the Warring States (403–221 bc ).
  • CHINA 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though there remained a nominal Zhou king until 256 BCE, he was largely a figurehead and held little real power.^ Current President Hu Jintao’s role remains largely ceremonial, while real power is vested with the Premier Wen Jiabao.
  • China Country Profile | China Economy | History, Culture & Economy | Thomas White Funds 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thomaswhite.com [Source type: News]

^ There was such a diversity of viewpoints, especially of foreign-educated students, that the Chinese intellectuals were required to give up their monopoly of power and really associate with the masses.
  • 81.02.05: China: Portrait of Change 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Communists realized that there were little or no medical services in the 'liberated areas' and actively encouraged the use of traditional Chinese remedies to keep their troops on the move.
  • Acupuncture: The History of Acupuncture in China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.healthy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As neighboring territories of these warring states, including areas of modern Sichuan and Liaoning, were annexed, they were governed under the new local administrative system of commandery and prefecture (郡縣/郡县).^ Local government functioned under .
  • A Brief History Of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many civil wars broke out, and in 1949, the Chinese Communists under Mao Zedong established New China - the People's Republic of China.
  • Top China Tour|Specialist for China Travel|Tour Operator & Travel Agency|《》     14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.topchinatour.com [Source type: News]

^ The government states that it opposes physical compulsion to submit to abortion or sterilization, but instances of coercion have reportedly continued as local officials strive to meet population targets.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This system had been in use since the Spring and Autumn Period and parts can still be seen in the modern system of Sheng & Xian (province and county, 省縣/省县).^ Hercules - The Legends and stories of this mythical son of Zeus are an still a part of our modern culture.
  • History's Happening Ancient World History Page 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.loeser.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In prison, the slightest excuse was used to dispense with people — all to the good, since the prisoners were a drain on the system, so far as those in charge were concerned.
  • The Death Camp of Communist China - Llewellyn H. Rockwell Jr. - Mises Institute 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later, "Shi Ji" (Historical Record) in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods (770-221 B.C.) also described more complete methods of breath training.
  • Acupuncture.Com - QiGong / Tuina - A Brief History of Qigong 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.acupuncture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The final expansion in this period began during the reign of Ying Zheng, the king of Qin.^ It was only during the last three decades of the Warring States Period that the Qin eventually managed to overpower its rivals by force and consequently unified China.
  • EH.Net Encyclopedia: Economic History of Premodern China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC eh.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Zhou period there was a class of officials who advised kings and rulers on the right way to behave and also how to carry out rituals.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After an early period during which considerable freedom of speech was allowed, the post-Mao leadership began to warn against destructive criticism.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His unification of the other six powers, and further annexations in the modern regions of Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi in 214 BCE enabled him to proclaim himself the First Emperor (Qin Shi Huang).^ BC - 210 BC First Emperor Shi Huang-ti reigns (b.

^ The kingdom included Fujian, Guangdong to Guangxi.
  • History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.asiawind.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The terra cotta figures, dating from 210 BCE, were discovered in 1974 by several local farmers drilling a water well near Xi'an, Shaanxi province, China near the the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor.

Imperial era

Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE)

.Historians often refer to the period from Qin Dynasty to the end of Qing Dynasty as Imperial China.^ The Republic of China was created, ending the Qing dynasty’s rule.
  • China Country Profile | China Economy | History, Culture & Economy | Thomas White Funds 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thomaswhite.com [Source type: News]

^ The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of imperial China and ran from 1644 to 1911.
  • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

^ The first of these dynasties was the Xia (approx 2000BC) but it was later the Qin Dynasty which first unified China in 221 BC. The last dynasty, the Qing , ended in 1911 with the founding of the Republic of China (ROC) by the Nationalist Kuomintang (KMT).
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
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.Though the unified reign of the Qin Emperor lasted only 12 years, he managed to subdue great parts of what constitutes the core of the Han Chinese homeland and to unite them under a tightly centralized Legalist government seated at Xianyang (close to modern Xi'an).^ At the beginning the Han dynasty used parts of the system of government of the Qin dynasty.
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^ The last Qin emperor was executed.
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^ The Qin emperors also continued their legalist policies.
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.The doctrine of legalism that guided the Qin emphasized strict adherence to a legal code and the absolute power of the emperor.^ (The Qin emperors were keen to keep civil and military power in separate hands!
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.This philosophy of Legalism, while effective for expanding the empire in a military fashion, proved unworkable for governing it in peace time.^ However, the Party retains effective control over government appointments: in the absence of meaningful opposition, the CPC wins by default most of the time.
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^ From Tang times until the closing days of the Qing empire in 1911, scholar officials functioned often as intermediaries between the grassroots level and the government.
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^ Long years of inactivity in peaceful times and the lack of training reduced government troops to paper soldiers.
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.The Qin presided over the brutal silencing of political opposition, including the event known as the burning and burying of scholars.^ The subsequent period in Chinese history is the Qin dynasty (-221 to -206), also known as the period of book burning.
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.This would be the impetus behind the later Han Synthesis incorporating the more moderate schools of political governance.^ Taxes were lowered, government control was loosened, power was decentralized, policies were humanized, and the social and political elite was broadened to include more of the population.
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^ The Chinese government's commitment to economic opening, it was hoped, would inevitably produce a political opening, whether Chinese leaders wanted it or not.
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^ This coalition paved the way for a more moderate party and government leadership in the late 1970s and 1980s (see The First Wave of Reform, 1979-84, ch.
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.The Qin Dynasty is well known for beginning the Great Wall of China, which was later augmented and enhanced during the Ming Dynasty.^ The Chinese wall of today is from the Ming dynasty.
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^ This gate was known as the "Great Ming Gate" during the Ming Dynasty, "Great Qing Gate" during the Qing Dynasty, and "Gate of China" during the Republic of China era.

^ Great Wall of China (250) .
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.The other major contributions of the Qin include the concept of a centralized government, the unification of the legal code, written language, measurement, and currency of China after the tribulations of the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods.^ BC – Warring states period.
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^ Warring States period.
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^ Period of Warring States), who .
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.Even something as basic as the length of axles for carts had to be made uniform to ensure a viable trading system throughout the empire.^ The economic and military strength of the T’ang Empire was founded on a system of equal land allotments made to the adult male population.
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^ In 1564, King Phillip ordered that cannabis be cultivated throughout the Spanish empire to ensure the supply of cloth, rope and canvas.
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^ A standardized system of written characters was adopted, and its use was made compulsory throughout the empire.
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[17]

Han Dynasty (202 BCE–220 CE)

A Han Dynasty oil lamp with a sliding shutter, in the shape of a kneeling female servant, 2nd century BCE
.The Han Dynasty (202 BCE – 220 CE) emerged in 206 BCE, with its founder Liu Bang proclaimed emperor in 202. It was the first dynasty to embrace the philosophy of Confucianism, which became the ideological underpinning of all regimes until the end of imperial China.^ The Han Dynasty was the first dynasty to embrace Confucianism, which became the ideological underpinning of all regimes until the end of imperial China.
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^ He was the first emperor of China.
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^ The first Han emperor was called Gaozi.
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.Under the Han Dynasty, China made great advances in many areas of the arts and sciences.^ During that time great advances were made.
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^ In 1279, Kublai Khan (r.1279–94) led the Mongols to bring all of China under their control and became the first ruler of the Mongols' Yuan dynasty (1279–1368).
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^ During Han dynasty, Xiongnu became a major tribe in the north, covering Xinjiang to northeast China, driving Wuyuan and Xianbei to Liaodong F , Liaoxi .
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.Emperor Wu consolidated and extended the Chinese empire by pushing back the Xiongnu (identified with the Huns) into the steppes of modern Inner Mongolia, wresting from them the modern areas of Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai.^ It took its present form in 1954 when the former provinces of Hinggan (兴安 Xing'an ) and Nenjiang (嫩江) were incorporated into it, if you don't count a bit in the northwest which has been swapped back and forth with Inner Mongolia a couple of times.
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^ This large country covers a vast and diverse landscape, from the steppes and deserts of Inner Mongolia in the north to the tropical island of Hainan in the south and the Himalayas in the southwest.
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^ Those built far out in the steppe may have been bases for colonial occupation, as in the fourth century BC, before there even was a Chinese empire.

.This enabled the first opening of trading connections between China and the West, the Silk Road.^ Open conflict between China and USSR. .
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^ The Silk Road was used to open trade between Ancient China and Rome.
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^ Britain's desire to continue its illegal opium trade with China collided with imperial edicts prohibiting the addictive drug, and the First Opium War erupted in 1840.
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.Han Dynasty general Ban Chao expanded his conquests across the Pamirs to the shores of the Caspian Sea.^ In the Han dynasty there were also conquests.
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^ The following Western Han emperors revamp the failing economy and culture that failed during the chaos at the end of the Ch'in Dynasty.
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^ Kashgar became the new crossroads of Asia; from here the routes again divided, heading across the Pamirs to Samarkand and to the south of the Caspian Sea, or to the South, over the Karakorum into India; a further route split from the northern route after Kuqa and headed across the Tianshan range to eventually reach the shores of the Caspian Sea, via Tashkent.
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[18] The first of several Roman embassies to China is recorded in Chinese sources, coming from the sea route in 166, and a second one in 284.
.Nevertheless, land acquisitions by elite families gradually drained the tax base.^ Although land was held privately and peasants could determine what to grow and how to grow it, nevertheless they were burdened by rents and taxes so heavy as to consume the investable surplus.
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^ Land tax was cut in half and was progressively based on its size and productivity.
  • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.In CE 9, the usurper Wang Mang founded the short-lived Xin ("New") Dynasty and started an extensive program of land and other economic reforms.^ Wang Mang's overambitious reform program alienated him from the landlords.
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^ In 9 CE Wang Mang took the throne, proclaiming the Xin (New) dynasty.
  • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Wang Mang decreed that the land was the .
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.These programs, however, were never supported by the land-holding families, for they favored the peasants.^ They used the land to support their needs.
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^ Even among the poorer families, which have neither financial security nor decent housing, keeping the family intact and close and doing all they can to support their children are also priorities.
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^ With Russia cut off, however, it's questionable how long they would be able to maintain a campaign without foreign support.
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The instability brought about chaos and uprisings.
.Emperor Guangwu reinstated the Han Dynasty with the support of land-holding and merchant families at Luoyang, east of Xi'an.^ This capital is located east of their old lands in a town called Loyang (or Luoyang).
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^ I do not know a great deal on the East, I am more a western history man, what was Chinas military like in the second century AD?" i was talking about the han dynasty.
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^ Like the Qin the Han emperors distrusted merchants and taxed them heavily.
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.This new era would be termed the Eastern Han Dynasty.^ The journal was founded in 1994 with the purpose of advancing the understanding in all disciplines of the "Period of Disunity," and of developments during the later Han and Tang dynasties that are related to the era.
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^ Various rebel forces coalesced into a new dynasty, the Western Han.
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^ The definition of Han should be traced to Han dynasty as a conglomeration of the various tribes Hua , XiaL , ManZ , Yii , Rong , Dif during the Chunqiu-Zhanguo K era.
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.Han power declined again amidst land acquisitions, invasions, and feuding between consort clans and eunuchs.^ Toward the end of the Later Han, power struggles between the eunuchs and the landlord-officials were prolonged and destructive.
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^ Han garrisons occupied the Gansu corridor until the middle of the 2nd century when Han power began to decline.
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^ Tension between the two powers mounted further as the Chinese accused Soviet leaders of imperialism after the Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968.
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.The Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out in 184, ushering in an era of warlords.^ As a result rebellions broke out.
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^ Two rebellions began in 84 AD, the Yellow Turbans rebellion and the Five Pecks of Grain rebellion.
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^ Rebellion broke out in Guangxi Province in 1851.
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.In the ensuing turmoil, three states tried to gain predominance in the Period of the Three Kingdoms.^ The best known of these is undoubtedly the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, a fictional account of the period which draws heavily on history.
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^ The Three Kingdoms period is also one of the bloodiest period in the history of China.
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^ BC - 221 BC Period of the Warring States, fragmentation of Zhou kingdom.

.This time period has been greatly romanticized in works such as Romance of the Three Kingdoms.^ Although relatively short, this historical period has been greatly romanticized in the cultures of China, Japan, Korea and throughout Southeast Asia.
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^ The best known of these is undoubtedly the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, a fictional account of the period which draws heavily on history.
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^ The Three Kingdoms period is also one of the bloodiest period in the history of China.
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Wei and Jin Period (265–420 CE)

.After Cao Cao reunified the North in 208 CE, his son proclaimed the Wei dynasty in 220 CE. Soon, Wei's rivals Shu and Wu proclaimed their independence, leading China into the Three Kingdoms Period.^ So China was divided into three kingdoms.
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^ The Eastern Han came to an end, and the empire was divided into the three kingdoms of Wei, Shu Han, and Wu.
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^ Chin dynasty in north China, soon destroyed the Khitan regime .
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.This period was characterized by a gradual decentralization of the state that had existed during the Qin and Han Dynasties, and an increase in the power of great families.^ In the Eastern Han dynasty the great land owners had much power, again.
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^ During the Han dynasty there was a paging.
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^ During Han dynasty, Xiongnu became a major tribe in the north, covering Xinjiang to northeast China, driving Wuyuan and Xianbei to Liaodong F , Liaoxi .
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.Although the Three Kingdoms were reunified by the Jin Dynasty in 280 CE, this structure was essentially the same until the Wu Hu uprising.^ The three major symbols of the Japanese Kingdom : bronze mirror, sword, and the royal seal stone are exactly the same as the Qin symbols.
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^ The Eastern Han came to an end, and the empire was divided into the three kingdoms of Wei, Shu Han, and Wu.
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^ In the kingdom Wei the rich families took the power and Sima Yan had founded the Jin dynasty in 265.
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Wu Hu Period (304–439 CE)

.Taking advantage of civil war in the Jin Dynasty, the contemporary non-Han Chinese (Wu Hu) ethnic groups controlled much of the country in the early 4th century and provoked large-scale Han Chinese migrations to south of the Chang Jiang.^ During the Han dynasty Chinese civilisation crystallised.
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^ (The Chinese sign for the Han dynasty.
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^ China was changing in the early 20th century.
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.In 303 the Di people rebelled and later captured Chengdu, establishing the state of Cheng Han.^ Later the Han thought that this policy is harmful for China and so about 120 BC these peoples were defeated.
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^ He later established Han kingdom ~ (304-318 AD, which is NOT to be confused with the Han dyansty).
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^ The Han emperor firmly established the Chinese state under Confucianism and created an educational and civil service system that remained in use until 1911.
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.Under Liu Yuan the Xiongnu rebelled near today's Linfen County and established the state of Han Zhao.^ Finally the Xiongnu decendent Liu Yao B ` changed the name of the kingdom to Zhao (e ^ , and abandoned the Liu Bang "Han" ancestry.
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^ The Xiongnu "Han" kingdom was later conquered by Hou Zhao led by Shi Le of a Jie~ tribe.
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^ Liu Yuan claimed to be a nephew of the Liu family of Han dynasty and adopted Han emperors as his ancestors.
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.His successor Liu Cong captured and executed the last two Western Jin emperors.^ The last Qin emperor was executed.
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^ With the throne empty, he was succeeded by Cixi's handpicked heir, his two year old nephew Puyi , who became the Xuantong Emperor, the last Chinese emperor .

^ The next year the Xi Xia agreed to be the vassal of the Jin, who also captured the last Liao emperor Tianzo in 1125, reducing him to a prince.
  • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Sixteen kingdoms were a plethora of short-lived non-Chinese dynasties that came to rule the whole or parts of northern China in the 4th and 5th centuries.^ Four dynasties established by the Chinese ruled in the south during the 4th and 5th centuries.
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^ The north of China was ruled by 5 short-lived dynasties.
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^ For the next 50 years, North China was again ruled by non-Chinese dynasties.
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.Many ethnic groups were involved, including ancestors of the Turks, Mongolians, and Tibetans.^ Non-Sinitic languages spoken widely by ethnic minorities include Zhuang (Thai), Mongolian , Tibetan , Uyghur (Turkic), Hmong and Korean .

^ Non-Chinese languages spoken widely by ethnic minorities include Mongolian, Tibetan, Uygur and other Turkic languages (in Xinjiang), and Korean (in the northeast).
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^ By this authors theory, then wouldn't Asians (including himself) be responsible for oppressing other ethnic groups in the U.S. including White Americans who make less?
  • Al Jazeera English - Americas - China decries US 'moral authority' 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC english.aljazeera.net [Source type: Original source]

.Most of these nomadic peoples had to some extent been "Sinicized" long before their ascent to power.^ Dinosaurs - Learn about these huge animals that lived on the Earth long before man appeared.
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^ These are the Societies that brought you IKEA, SAAB, Volvo, Nokia, all sorts of other hightech and some of the most advanced shipbuilding in the world.
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^ These copyright laws and consequences have become more powerful against consumers than most laws and consequences for other more devastating crimes.
  • Will piracy crackdown bring iPod border checks? - The Red Tape Chronicles - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC redtape.msnbc.com [Source type: General]

.In fact, some of them, notably the Ch'iang and the Xiong-nu, had already been allowed to live in the frontier regions within the Great Wall since late Han times.^ In time and importance, the Han corresponded to the late .
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^ This idea captured the imagination of Westerners, and by the late 19th century a visit to the ‘Great Wall of China’ had become a staple of the Western tourist’s itinerary.

^ His name is synonymous with Okinawan martial arts and Naha-te, and his spirit is destined to live on forever as a great and valued treasure within Okinawan culture.
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A limestone statue of the Bodhisattva, from the Northern Qi Dynasty, 570 AD, made in what is now modern Henan province.

Southern and Northern Dynasties (420–589 CE)

.Signaled by the collapse of East Jin Dynasty in 420, China entered the era of the Southern and Northern Dynasties.^ Divided under Northern and Southern dynasties.

^ One is used to defend Beijing and the rich lands in central and southern China from invasion and pillage by Mongolians and other northern nomads.
  • Phil Qiu: The Great Fire Wall of China comes down - but for how long? | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ How, then, to explain why many non-Chinese regimes who ruled parts or all of North China and the southern steppe – notably the Jin dynasty, founded by the semi-nomadic Jurchen of Manchuria – also built walls?

.The Han people managed to survive the military attacks from the nomadic tribes of the north, such as the Xian Bei, and their civilization continued to thrive.^ During Han dynasty, Xiongnu became a major tribe in the north, covering Xinjiang to northeast China, driving Wuyuan and Xianbei to Liaodong F , Liaoxi .
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^ Huns, Turks and nomadic tribes invade the north.

^ Other foreign religions that had also been tolerated, such as Zoroastrians, Nestorian Christians, and Manichaeans were closed down, though Jews and Muslims managed to survive.
  • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.In Southern China, fierce debates about whether Buddhism should be allowed to exist were held frequently by the royal court and nobles.^ This growth came about through expanded rice cultivation in central and southern China, along with its production of abundant food surpluses.

^ Elsewhere in China, Confucianism held that a well-run state should be administered by the same precepts governing a family: mutual obligation and respect.
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^ Mr Hatzistergos said a NSW Supreme Court judge would decide whether a bikie group should be banned after an application from the police commissioner.
  • Warning!!! Wake up!!!!!! [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Finally, near the end of the Southern and Northern Dynasties era, both Buddhist and Taoist followers compromised and became more tolerant of each other.^ Divided under Northern and Southern dynasties.

^ His followers also destroyed Buddhist and Taoist temples.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One is used to defend Beijing and the rich lands in central and southern China from invasion and pillage by Mongolians and other northern nomads.
  • Phil Qiu: The Great Fire Wall of China comes down - but for how long? | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.In 589, Sui annexed the last Southern Dynasty, Chen, through military force, and put an end to the era of Southern and Northern Dynasties.^ It was the last of the Southern dynasties.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chen dynasty lasted till 581, so till the beginning of the Sui dynasty.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Divided under Northern and Southern dynasties.

Sui Dynasty (589–618 CE)

.The Sui Dynasty, which managed to reunite the country in 589 after nearly four centuries of political fragmentation, played a role more important than its length of existence would suggest.^ NATO is playing an increasingly important role in crisis management and peacekeeping.?
  • Europe 1945 to present: September 2007 Archives 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC blog.lib.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China was reunited under the rule of the Sui dynasty (589–618).
  • CHINA 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Han dynasty plays a very important role in Chinese history.
  • Chinese History, China History, A Brief History of China, Chinese Chronology 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatour.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Sui brought China together again and set up many institutions that were to be adopted by their successors, the Tang.^ How many has he set up since he got in?
  • Step away from the porn, Senator | The Geek | Brisbane Times Blogs 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC blogs.brisbanetimes.com.au [Source type: General]

^ China also set up a satellite direct broadcasting experimental platform to transmit digital television to 189,000 dishes in China's vast rural areas.

^ There are many means of subverting the Golden Shield including using a proxy server outside of China or setting up a VPN connection to a server outside of the country.
  • Perspectives - Wednesday, 09 April 2008 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC perspectives.mvdirona.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Like the Qin, however, the Sui overused their resources and collapsed. .Also similar to the Qin, traditional history has judged the Sui somewhat unfairly, as it has stressed the harshness of the Sui regime and the arrogance of its second emperor, giving little credit for the Dynasty's many positive achievements.^ The History Timeline gives a Timeline of Chinese history by dynasty.
  • WEB SITES ON ANCIENT CHINA & CHINESE HISTORY 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: News]

^ The second emperor of the Qin dynasty was the son of Qin Shi Huangdi.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So Yang Guang became the second Sui emperor as Yang Di (r.
  • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

Tang Dynasty (618–907 CE)

.
A Chinese Tang Dynasty tri-colored glaze porcelain horse (ca.
^ (The Chinese sign for the Tang dynasty.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Chinese Tang Dynasty (618–907) sculpture of the Buddha seated in meditation .

^ In the early 7th century, Eastern Turkic khan Kat-Il khan surrendered to the Chinese Tang dynasty.
  • Mongolia history, all about Genghis Khan and the Mongolian empire on e-Mongol 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.e-mongol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

700 CE)
.On June 18, 618, Gaozu took the throne, and the Tang Dynasty was established, opening a new age of prosperity and innovations in arts and technology.^ Tang Dynasty Empire 618-906 .
  • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Landscape art and portrait paintings were brought to new levels of maturity and complexity since the Tang Dynasty, and social elites gathered to view art, share their own, and make trades of precious artworks.

^ A Chinese Tang Dynasty (618–907) sculpture of the Buddha seated in meditation .

.Buddhism, which had gradually been established in China from the first century, became the predominant religion and was adopted by the imperial family and many of the common people.^ Buddhism, which appeared in China during the first century A.D., provided .
  • A Brief History Of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the local peoples, the Huihe included, adopted Buddhism as their own religion.
  • The Silk Road 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ess.uci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the PLA became a national armed force with the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, it was an unwieldy, 5-million-strong peasant army.
  • United Kingdom Manpower Question - Page 2 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

.Chang'an (modern Xi'an), the national capital, is thought to have been the world's largest city at the time.^ The T'ang capital of Chang'an was one of the greatest commercial and cosmopolitan cities in the world at that time.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beijing is closely connected with the Mongolian rich history as once it served as the capital city of Great Mongolian Empire in the 13-14th century when the Mongols ruled the world.
  • China Wonders - Wonders of China | The Best Cultural Sites of China - Guided Tour in China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.selenatravel.com [Source type: General]

^ A second problem in the dispute is that it projects the modern nation-state onto ancient times, reconstructing ancient history within the framework of national history.
  • JapanFocus 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.japanfocus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Tang and the Han are often referred to as the most prosperous periods of Chinese history.^ The reason is that in the most periods of the Chinese history China had got an army of mercenaries.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The journal was founded in 1994 with the purpose of advancing the understanding in all disciplines of the "Period of Disunity," and of developments during the later Han and Tang dynasties that are related to the era.
  • UCLA Center for East Asian Studies: Journals, China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.isop.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Adding pressure internally was the worsening condition of the Chinese Peasants which culminated in one of the most devastating uprisings in Chinese history.
  • 81.02.05: China: Portrait of Change 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Tang, like the Han, kept the trade routes open to the west and south and there was extensive trade with distant foreign countries and many foreign merchants settled in China.^ Many foreigners like to come to China to make money.
  • Why Teresa Teng Could Not Visit Mainland China 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.zonaeuropa.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By this process, the route to the west was opened up.
  • The Silk Road 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ess.uci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China traded much with other countries.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Tang introduced a new system into the Chinese government, called the "equal-field system". This system gave families land grants from the Emperor based on their needs, not their wealth.^ Based on this, I assumed that new radios were coming into the system.
  • prc25legend 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.fernblatt.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ D. Penetration into the government's New Army .
  • The Chinese Revolution of 1911 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thecorner.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1971, the government introduced a new family planning policy.
  • China - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From about 860 the Tang Dynasty began to decline due to a series of rebellions within China itself, and in the previously subject Kingdom of Nanzhao to the south.^ Tang dynasty (618-907 A.D.) to North Song/Liao2 (960-1127 A.D.) - Particularly due to Huang Chao rebellion (880 A.D.), Hakkas migrated further south from Henan toward south Anhui, southeast Jiangxi, southwest Fujian and north of Guangdong.
  • History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.asiawind.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leon Poon (U. Maryland) The People's Republic of China (1 of a series of overview articles on Communist China, within larger history of China site) .
  • VoS: History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC vos.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He thus ended the Tang dynasty and founded the Later Liang dynasty (907-23) during which wars continued to ravage northern China.
  • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.One of the warlords, Huang Chao, captured Guangzhou in 879, killing most of the 200,000 inhabitants including most of the large colony of foreign merchant families there.^ Let there be a referendum as a family would if one son wishes to leave the fold prematurely.
  • Chinadaily BBS - China Watch - Taiwan needs the Mainland 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC bbs.chinadaily.com.cn [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1783 they captured Saigon from the Nguyen Lords as well as the rest of the South, killing the reigning prince and his family.
  • History of Vietnam - Lonely Planet Travel Information 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 89 after they had 13,000 killed, 81 Xiongnu tribes totaling 200,000 people surrendered to the Han army.
  • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

[19] In late 880 Luoyang surrendered to him and on 5 January, 881 he conquered Chang'an. .The emperor Xizong fled to Chengdu and Huang established a new temporary regime, which was eventually destroyed by Tang forces, but another time of political chaos followed.^ Eventually politicians are forced to change their politics.
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Confucius also codified the status of the ruler in Chinese political thought; the Emperor was the Son of Heaven (while Heaven in a Western context is a place, Heaven in the Chinese context is a divine/natural force) and had the Mandate of Heaven to rule.
  • Chinese History, China History, A Brief History of China, Chinese Chronology 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatour.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early in its first decade, in a time that saw the launching of many New York-based magazines (notably Time and the New Yorker ), Foreign Affairs was established and thriving.
  • History of Foreign Affairs - Council on Foreign Relations 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cfr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907–960 CE)

.The period of political disunity between the Tang and the Song, known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, lasted little more than half a century, from 907 to 960. During this brief era, when China was in all respects a multi-state system, five regimes succeeded one another rapidly in control of the old Imperial heartland in northern China.^ The Five Dynasties period followed, during which the empire once again split.
  • Culture of China - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Tang dynasty that lasted from 618 to 907 was one of China's greatest eras.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dynasties held by the five generals do not last.
  • ANCIENT CHINA TIMELINE 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC blue.butler.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During this same time, 10 more stable regimes occupied sections of southern and western China, so the period is also referred to as that of the Ten Kingdoms.^ From 1916 to 1928, China had more than 7 heads of state, another 7 brief periods of caretaker governments, and 25 cabinets in quick succession.
  • Early Republic and Warlord Period 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thecorner.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The attitude of the Western powers towards China (England, Russia, Germany, France, and the United States, were, more or less, the primary players) was strangely ambivalent.
  • Chinese History, China History, A Brief History of China, Chinese Chronology 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatour.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lets also not forget that during the Western Cold war alliance with Islamic terrorism against Russia, that China were also aiding the mujahideen (against the Soviets).
  • Afternoon Headlines – 06 May 2009 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC maxkeiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Song Dynasty and Liao, Jin, Western Xia (960–1234 CE)

Homeward Oxherds in Wind and Rain, by Li Di, 12th century
.In 960, the Song Dynasty (960-1279) gained power over most of China and established its capital in Kaifeng (later known as Bianjing), starting a period of economic prosperity, while the Khitan Liao Dynasty ruled over Manchuria, present-day Mongolia, and parts of Northern China.^ General Zhao Kuangyin has founded the Song dynasty in 960 in Kaifeng.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Song Dynasty (960–1279) was another artistically prolific era.
  • Culture of China - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Period of Northern Wei Dynasty, established by the Toba in northern China mid-8th century .
  • Mongolia history, all about Genghis Khan and the Mongolian empire on e-Mongol 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.e-mongol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1115 the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) emerged to prominence, annihilating the Liao Dynasty in 10 years.^ Liao, Xi Xia, and Jin Dynasties 907-1234 .
  • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mongols looted the capital in 1233, and the next year Aizong committed suicide to avoid being captured, ending the Jin dynasty.
  • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jurchens were a Manchu-speaking nation that paid tribute to the Liao dynasty.
  • Mongolia history, all about Genghis Khan and the Mongolian empire on e-Mongol 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.e-mongol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Meanwhile, in what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of Gansu, Shaanxi, and Ningxia, there emerged a Western Xia Dynasty from 1032 up to 1227, established by Tangut tribes.^ At Kunming, the capital of Yunnan Province, they turned north, past Chengdu in Sichuan Province, and eventually ended up in Shaanxi, near Yan'an.
  • Chinese History, China History, A Brief History of China, Chinese Chronology 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatour.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Dynasties in Chinese history Chinese tradition names the first dynasty Xia , but it was considered mythical until scientific excavations found early bronze-age sites at Erlitou in Henan Province.

^ Following Huangdi, historians believe that the Xia Dynasty (2100-1600 B.C.) was the first dynasty of China and marked the beginning of Chinese history.
  • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Jin Dynasty also took power over northern China and Kaifeng from the Song Dynasty, which moved its capital to Hangzhou (杭州).^ Hangzhou, capital of Song China falls to the Mongols .
  • Mongolia history, all about Genghis Khan and the Mongolian empire on e-Mongol 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.e-mongol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The government had not got much power and so the generals took the power and in 420 the Jin dynasty was over.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Song dynasty could reunified China.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Southern Song Dynasty also suffered the humiliation of having to acknowledge the Jin Dynasty as formal overlords.^ For this reason the Song dynasty is divided into 2 periods, the Northern Song period before China was split in two and the Southern Song period afterwards.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the downfall of West Jin dynasty, the Han people cross the yangtze River and settled in southern China, bringing with them some Xiongnu soldiers and servants.
  • History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.asiawind.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the winter of 1142 the Jin dynasty made a treaty with the Song that gave them annual tribute and diplomatic respect.
  • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the ensuing years China was divided between the Song Dynasty, the Jin Dynasty and the Tangut Western Xia.^ The Song dynasty could reunified China.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JSYS (ISSN 1059-3152) is an annual publication devoted to promoting scholarship in all disciplines related to the Sung (Song), Liao, Chin (Jin), Hsia (Xia), and Yuan dynasties in China.
  • UCLA Center for East Asian Studies: Journals, China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.isop.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Following Huangdi, historians believe that the Xia Dynasty (2100-1600 B.C.) was the first dynasty of China and marked the beginning of Chinese history.
  • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Southern Song experienced a period of great technological development which can be explained in part by the military pressure that it felt from the north.^ He also felt under tremendous pressure politically to improve living standards, and he undoubtedly understood that technological gaps would eventually threaten Chinese national security.
  • The Geopolitics of China: A Great Power Enclosed | STRATFOR 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.stratfor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How, then, to explain why many non-Chinese regimes who ruled parts or all of North China and the southern steppe – notably the Jin dynasty, founded by the semi-nomadic Jurchen of Manchuria – also built walls?

^ The Development of Chinese Philosophy The Warring States period is a particularly interesting time in Chinese history and has exerted a great deal of influence on Chinese thought.
  • Acupuncture: The History of Acupuncture in China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.healthy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This included the use of gunpowder weapons, which played a large role in the Song Dynasty naval victories against the Jin in the Battle of Tangdao and Battle of Caishi on the Yangtze River in 1161. Furthermore, China's first permanent standing navy was assembled and provided an admiral's office at Dinghai in 1132, under the reign of Emperor Renzong of Song.^ At first bronze was only used for weapons.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Song dynasty could reunified China.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China was the first state to pledge "no first use" of nuclear weapons.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Song Dynasty is considered by many to be classical China's high point in science and technology, with innovative scholar-officials such as Su Song (1020–1101) and Shen Kuo (1031–1095).^ The Song dynasty could reunified China.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The officials in the Song dynasty were very important, too.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The work of the astronomer Shen Kuo (1031–1095) alone was most impressive, as he theorized that the sun and moon were spherical, corrected the position of the polestar with his improved sighting tube, discovered the concept of true north , wrote of planetary motions such as retrogradation , and compared the orbital paths of the planets to points on the shape of a rotating willow leaf.

.There was court intrigue with the political rivals of the Reformers and Conservatives, led by the chancellors Wang Anshi and Sima Guang, respectively.^ Reform began when Emperor Shenzong (r.1068-85) appointed poet Wang Anshi (1021-86) prime minister.
  • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Under Jiang's leadership it looks like economic reforms will continue, however, there seems to be little prospect for political change.
  • China: the Emerging Superpower 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the mid to late 13th century the Chinese had adopted the dogma of Neo-Confucian philosophy formulated by Zhu Xi.^ Whenever China was conquered by nomadic tribes, as it was by the Mongols in the 13th century, the conquerors sooner or later adopted the ways of the "higher" Chinese civilization and staffed the bureaucracy with Chinese.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The motivation for the elite is to force the world to adopt a repressive form of capitalism, which is the Chinese neo-Fascist model.
  • Afternoon Headlines – 06 May 2009 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC maxkeiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the late 19th century the Chinese government made some attempts to introduce European technology.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There were enormous literary works compiled during the Song Dynasty, such as the historical work of the Zizhi Tongjian.^ All this happened during the Song dynasty.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Han dynasty there was a paging.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were also enormous works of historiography and large encyclopedias, such as Sima Guang 's Zizhi Tongjian of 1084 CE or the Four Great Books of Song fully compiled and edited by the 11th century.

.Culture and the arts flourished, with grandiose artworks such as Along the River During Qingming Festival and Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute, while there were great Buddhist painters such as Lin Tinggui.^ This concept of culture includes an understanding of the art, literature, and history of a society, but also less tangible aspects such as attitudes, prejudices, folklore and so forth.
  • Brooklyn College Core 9: Chinese Culture Page 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were also enormous works of historiography and large encyclopedias, such as Sima Guang 's Zizhi Tongjian of 1084 CE or the Four Great Books of Song fully compiled and edited by the 11th century.

^ The Song Dynasty was also a period of great scientific literature, such as Su Song 's Xin Yixiang Fayao and Shen Kuo 's Dream Pool Essays .

Yuan Dynasty (1234–1305 CE)

Yang Guifei Mounting a Horse, by Qian Xuan (1235-1305 CE).
.Jurchen tribes' Jin Dynasty, whose names are also rendered "Jin" in pinyin, was defeated by the Mongols, who then proceeded to defeat the Southern Song in a long and bloody war, the first war where firearms played an important role.^ The Han dynasty plays a very important role in Chinese history.
  • Chinese History, China History, A Brief History of China, Chinese Chronology 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatour.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Mongols in 1368 and founded the Ming Dynasty .

^ Princeton Travelers believes that our hands-on programs play an important role in encouraging new friendships and fostering mutual understanding between the West and Asia.
  • Foreign Language Schools - Chinese Language Schools in China: Mainland China 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.multilingualbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the era after the war, later called the Pax Mongolica, adventurous Westerners such as Marco Polo travelled all the way to China and brought the first reports of its wonders to Europe.^ Marco Polo arrives in China .
  • Mongolia history, all about Genghis Khan and the Mongolian empire on e-Mongol 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.e-mongol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Venetian traveler Marco Polo.
  • A Brief History Of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A lesson plan for grades 3-5 on Marco Polo and his travels to China .
  • WEB SITES ON ANCIENT CHINA & CHINESE HISTORY 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: News]

.In the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols were divided between those who wanted to remain based in the steppes and those who wished to adopt the customs of the Chinese.^ To those who are against Chinese: .
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I, and many sincere Chinese people are the people who least want to see the potential conflict between China and USA. Both are great countries, it will be a disaster for human being if two countries fight each other in the future, due to what?
  • seattlepi.com: Sound Off 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.seattlepi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1271, the Mongol leader and the fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty , with the last remnant of the Song Dynasty falling to the Yuan in 1279.

.Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, wanting to adopt the customs of China, established the Yuan Dynasty.^ In 1211 Genghis Khan, a Mongolian leader, began the invasion into China from the north, but the conquest was not completed until 1279 under Kublai Khan, his grandson, who established the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) in China.
  • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1271, the Mongol leader and the fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty , with the last remnant of the Song Dynasty falling to the Yuan in 1279.

^ His multiple victories over the mighty Mongol Yuan Dynasty under Kublai Khan are considered among the greatest military feats in world history.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was the first dynasty to rule the whole of China from Beijing as the capital.^ The first capital of the Ming dynasty was Nanjing.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Information for students on Beijing , the capital of China .
  • WEB SITES ON ANCIENT CHINA & CHINESE HISTORY 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: News]

^ Duke University Study in China Program Duke University , in cooperation with Capital Normal University in Beijing , will offer its twenty-fifth annual program of study in the People's Republic of China in the summer of 2006.
  • Foreign Language Schools - Chinese Language Schools in China: Mainland China 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.multilingualbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Beijing had been ceded to Liao in CE 938 with the Sixteen Prefectures of Yan Yun.^ The Liao demanded sixteen prefectures in northern China from the Later Jin and gained nineteen prefectures by invading the capital at Kaifeng in March 947, ending the Later Jin dynasty.
  • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Before that, it had been the capital of the Jin, who did not rule all of China.^ It was some time before he ruled all of China.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How, then, to explain why many non-Chinese regimes who ruled parts or all of North China and the southern steppe – notably the Jin dynasty, founded by the semi-nomadic Jurchen of Manchuria – also built walls?

^ WHO says: Of all children alive today in China, around 50 million will die prematurely from tobacco use related disease.
  • China Timeline - A Chronology of Key Events in China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.china-profile.com [Source type: Academic]

.Before the Mongol invasion, Chinese dynasties reportedly had approximately 120 million inhabitants; after the conquest was completed in 1279, the 1300 census reported roughly 60 million people.^ In 1211 Genghis Khan, a Mongolian leader, began the invasion into China from the north, but the conquest was not completed until 1279 under Kublai Khan, his grandson, who established the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) in China.
  • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1271, the Mongol leader and the fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty , with the last remnant of the Song Dynasty falling to the Yuan in 1279.

^ According to the Ministry of Water Resources , roughly 300 million Chinese are drinking unsafe water.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

[20] .The 14th century epidemics of plague (Black Death) is estimated to have killed 30% of the population of China.^ Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size.

^ The government's goal is to stabilize the population early in the 21st century, although some current projections estimate a population of 1.6 billion by 2025.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Estimates of excess deaths in China from environmental pollution (apart from smoking) are placed at 760,000 people per annum from air and water pollution (including indoor air pollution ).
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

[21][22]

Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 CE)

Court Ladies of the Former Shu, by Ming painter Tang Yin (1470-1523).
.Throughout the Yuan Dynasty, which lasted less than a century, there was relatively strong sentiment among the populace against the Mongol rule.^ Mongol rule in China lasted less than a century.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1271, the Mongol leader and the fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty , with the last remnant of the Song Dynasty falling to the Yuan in 1279.

^ There were numerous small-scale rebellions against Chinese rule – which was characterised by tyranny, forced labour and insatiable demands for tribute – from the 3rd to 6th centuries, but all were crushed.
  • History of Vietnam - Lonely Planet Travel Information 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The frequent natural disasters since the 1340s finally led to peasant revolts.^ So have frequent natural disasters such as floods and famine, typhoons and droughts.
  • 81.02.05: China: Portrait of Change 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China's history) led a widespread peasant revolt inspired .
  • A Brief History Of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Yuan Dynasty was eventually overthrown by the Ming Dynasty in 1368.
.Urbanization increased as the population grew and as the division of labor grew more complex.^ An increased production of crops due to communally managed irrigation systems allowed for more of the population to be fed by fewer laborers, which in turn allowed for the conscription of larger armies from the peasantry and a victory over the Shang.
  • Acupuncture.Com - Education - Theory - History of Acupuncture 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.acupuncture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only way to build [the Congo-Ocean Railway] more quickly was to get more labor and the only regions with dense enough populations to supply labor were Ubangi-Shari and Chad.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More food and rising population brought increasing .
  • A Brief History Of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Large urban centers, such as Nanjing and Beijing, also contributed to the growth of private industry.^ Beijing, the capital, is the second largest urban center.
  • Culture of China - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urban centers develop around the industrial activities and forest resources that local people depend upon are rapidly depleted, he said.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, the room for industry growth is very large as the penetration rate [13] is still very low ?
  • Eurekahedge - Institutional Investors in Mainland China 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.eurekahedge.com [Source type: News]

.In particular, small-scale industries grew up, often specializing in paper, silk, cotton, and porcelain goods.^ Furthermore, she was not interested in trade with the West because the West had nothing to match her silk, porcelain, cotton cloth or tea.
  • 81.02.05: China: Portrait of Change 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Industries like iron, ceramics, silk, lacquer and paper making flourished.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In practice, it is likely that silk and other goods were beginning to filter into Europe before this time, though only in very small quantities.
  • The Silk Road 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ess.uci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For the most part, however, relatively small urban centers with markets proliferated around the country.^ Research conducted by the American Center for International Policy Studies (AMCIPS) found that Russian and Ethiopian women are the most common prostitutes, as well as women from some African countries, while Indian prostitutes are part of a well organized trans-Oceanic prostitution network.
  • Information about Dubai 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC wiki.trytop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Karl Marx had developed his theories based upon highly industrialized economies, and the industrial sector in China was small and relatively primitive.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We now have modular components from most major server vendors and Mike’s talk yesterday at Data Center World market the first publically announced modular facility.
  • Perspectives - Wednesday, 09 April 2008 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC perspectives.mvdirona.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Town markets mainly traded food, with some necessary manufactures such as pins or oil.^ If indeed Chinese cities served mainly the imperial court and the army, nevertheless great markets were held next to town walls, especially for trade with nomads of the north.
  • Powelson Chapter 11 - China: The Puzzles of History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC tqe.quaker.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Overall J-13 is believed to be in the same class of American F/A-18E. Some parts of J-13 such as landing gear have already been manufactured.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Keery Oils & Grains owns some of China’s famous cooking oil brands, such as Arawana.
  • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

.Despite the xenophobia and intellectual introspection characteristic of the increasingly popular new school of neo-Confucianism, China under the early Ming Dynasty was not isolated.^ Ming Dynasty thinkers such as Wang Yangming would further critique and expand Neo-Confucianism with ideas of individualism and innate morality that would have tremendous impact on later Japanese thought.

^ In recent years, a number of New Confucians (not to be confused with Neo-Confucianism) have advocated that democratic ideals and human rights are quite compatible with traditional Confucian "Asian values".

^ China also has decided not to engage in new nuclear cooperation with Iran (even under safeguards), and will complete existing cooperation, which is not of proliferation concern, within a relatively short period.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Foreign trade and other contacts with the outside world, particularly Japan, increased considerably.^ In the 1950s, the main trading partners were other communist countries; however, the decline of the Soviet Union as a world power changed that.
  • Culture of China - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also includes links to other related sites such as the World Bank and the World Trade Organization.

^ Other significant collections include trade catalogs...and the world's fair and exhibition literature collected from fairs held from the mid-nineteenth century to the present day."
  • The History of Technology-Science Tracer Bullet 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Chinese merchants explored all of the Indian Ocean, reaching East Africa with the voyages of Zheng He.^ In the first century of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) the government sent out voyages to trade with the ports of the Indian Ocean and as far away as Africa.
  • WEB SITES ON ANCIENT CHINA & CHINESE HISTORY 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: News]

^ During these expeditions, the Chinese sailed the South Pacific, the Indian Ocean, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Nile in the east, the southward expansion of agriculture proceeded without great hindrance until the margins of the equatorial forest were reached.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Zhu Yuanzhang or (Hong-wu, the founder of the dynasty, laid the foundations for a state interested less in commerce and more in extracting revenues from the agricultural sector.^ The attitude of the Western powers towards China (England, Russia, Germany, France, and the United States, were, more or less, the primary players) was strangely ambivalent.
  • Chinese History, China History, A Brief History of China, Chinese Chronology 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatour.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Mongols in 1368 and founded the Ming Dynasty .

^ And from the early eighties on there has been a more or less constant neoliberal onslaught on the welfare state.
  • Liberal Conspiracy » Does socialism really cause racism? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC liberalconspiracy.org [Source type: Original source]

.Perhaps because of the Emperor's background as a peasant, the Ming economic system emphasized agriculture, unlike that of the Song and the Mongolian Dynasties, which relied on traders and merchants for revenue.^ A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Mongols in 1368 and founded the Ming Dynasty .

^ The first Sui emperor, Wen Ti, introduced a series of economic reforms, such as reduction of the peasants' taxes, a careful census for equitable tax collection, and restoration of the equal allocation system used in the Northern Wei.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This so called emperor's canal was also used in the Ming and the Qing dynasty and is used until today.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Neo-feudal landholdings of the Song and Mongol periods were expropriated by the Ming rulers.^ The early Ming dynasty also ushered in a period of relative internal stability and — once the Mongols had definitely been defeated in 1425 — external peace.
  • Powelson Chapter 11 - China: The Puzzles of History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC tqe.quaker.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the Song dynasty, 960 to 1264, China went through a stage named the period of Neo-Confucianism.
  • Acupuncture.Com - Education - Theory - History of Acupuncture 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.acupuncture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The period of Mongol or Yuan ruler was not a happy one for China.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Land estates were confiscated by the government, fragmented, and rented out.^ While safeguarding the system of government-owned land, he allowed individual farmers to rent land and gave them more freedom in decision making.
  • Culture of China - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Private slavery was forbidden. Consequently, after the death of Emperor Yong-le, independent peasant landholders predominated in Chinese agriculture. .These laws might have paved the way to removing the worst of the poverty during the previous regimes.^ So if you realize that this is the source of these protest, you might think about this in a different way.
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The Southern Poverty Law Center is totally off base to think in any way that the book is neo-Confederate."
  • EastSouthWestNorth: History Textbooks in China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.zonaeuropa.com [Source type: Original source]

Ming China under the reign of the Yongle Emperor
.The dynasty had a strong and complex central government that unified and controlled the empire.^ The empire was divided into provinces and counties, which were governed by centrally appointed governors and magistrates.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This practice was continued by succeeding dynasties, resulting in a further concentration of power in the central imperial government.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The powerful warlords governed territories beyond the control of the powerless republican Central government in Peking.
  • Early Republic and Warlord Period 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thecorner.org [Source type: Original source]

.The emperor's role became more autocratic, although Zhu Yuanzhang necessarily continued to use what he called the "Grand Secretaries" (内阁) to assist with the immense paperwork of the bureaucracy, including memorials (petitions and recommendations to the throne), imperial edicts in reply, reports of various kinds, and tax records.^ The imperial court in Hué , although quite corrupt, was a centre of nationalist sentiment and the French orchestrated a game of musical thrones, as one emperor after another turned against their patronage.
  • History of Vietnam - Lonely Planet Travel Information 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Britain's desire to continue its illegal opium trade with China collided with imperial edicts prohibiting the addictive drug, and the First Opium War erupted in 1840.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the throne empty, he was succeeded by Cixi's handpicked heir, his two year old nephew Puyi , who became the Xuantong Emperor, the last Chinese emperor .

.It was this same bureaucracy that later prevented the Ming government from being able to adapt to changes in society, and eventually led to its decline.^ I have great faith in the Chinese people and this government is being changed as all previous governments have been changed by the forces of the Chinese culture.
  • BBC - Richard Black's Earth Watch: Hu's talking: Who's listening? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Two centuries later, the same society looked for a return of the Buddha to end the suffering.
  • Powelson Chapter 11 - China: The Puzzles of History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC tqe.quaker.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The decline of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) led to the conquest of China for the second time by a foreign power, the Manchu, from the northeast.
  • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Emperor Yong-le strenuously tried to extend China's influence beyond its borders by demanding other rulers send ambassadors to China to present tribute.^ Europe tried to have more and more influence in China.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cotton did not arrive in China until the 9th century AD, when female ambassadors from Indochina presented the Emperor with tribute made from "refined water fragrant hemp" that probably was cotton, not cannabis.
  • Hemp & Hemp and History (The Great Book of Hemp): The Early History of Hemp (by Robert A. Nelson)The Early History of Hemp 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.rexresearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The wall in itself extends for over 4,000 miles across China and was built to keep hoarding nomadic tribes, huns, and other invaders from encroaching on the people of China.

.A large navy was built, including four-masted ships displacing 1,500 tons.^ (About 35,000 tons displacement compared to Langley's 11,500 tons.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Navy continued to carry out projects such as building mine sweepers, constructing logistic support ships and new large-scale amphibious ships and submarines.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Socada now has four seed-extracting factories, two in the west (20,500 tons treated this year), and two in the east (14,600 tons treated this year).
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A standing army of 1 million troops (some estimate as many as 1.9 million) was created.^ The People's Liberation Army is the world's largest standing army with 2.5 million troop .
  • POLITICO Forums:Politics: Clinton, journalists arrive in U.S. - POLITICO.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The army was supported by a national militia of some 12 million and by a security force of more than 1.8 million.
  • CHINA 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only one problem - why german army have "too many deads and POW's, too few technic, etc" if it's lost only, as you say, 2.5 or 3.5 millions?
  • Communist tactics in Korean War [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Chinese armies conquered Vietnam for around 20 years, while the Chinese fleet sailed the China seas and the Indian Ocean, cruising as far as the east coast of Africa.^ They sailed to India, Arabia and the east coast of Africa.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Vietnam’s economic boom has caught Beijing ’s attention and it sees northern Vietnam as the fastest route from Yunnan and Sichuan to the South China Sea.
  • History of Vietnam - Lonely Planet Travel Information 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whenever China was conquered by nomadic tribes, as it was by the Mongols in the 13th century, the conquerors sooner or later adopted the ways of the "higher" Chinese civilization and staffed the bureaucracy with Chinese.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Chinese gained influence in Eastern Turkestan.^ Today the descendants of the Hui, Ughirs, and Qarluq populate the Westernmost Chinese province of Xinjiang and are agitating for a separate Islamic state called Eastern Turkestan.
  • History of Jihad against the Buddhist Chinese (651-751-Ongoing) 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

.Several maritime Asian nations sent envoys with tribute for the Chinese emperor.^ International relations, if they were to exist at all, in the Chinese view, had to take the form of a tributary system, with British envoys approaching the Chinese court as tribute bearers.
  • CHINA 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1793 they sent Lord McCartney to try and negotiate a trade treaty with the Chinese emperor.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chinese emperor sent gold and silk, and the Xiongnu tribute included jade, horses, and wine.
  • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

Domestically, the Grand Canal was expanded, and proved to be a stimulus to domestic trade. .Over 100,000 tons of iron per year were produced.^ In 1928 there were 77 factories employing 19,500 people producing 35,000 tons of porcelain annually.
  • Ginni's Bohemian & Czech Porcelain History & Information 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.collectorscircle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Jesuits' activities produced 300,000 converts in 200 years, not a great number among a population of more than 100 million.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is planned that about 100 Su30MKI will have been produced by the year 2010; 7.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many books were printed using movable type.^ Movable type, which would later revolutionize Europe, was little used in East .
  • A Brief History Of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Printing and Language China developed the art of printing in the Sui and Tang dynasties, although it was not widely used during these periods as most books were copied by hand.
  • Acupuncture: The History of Acupuncture in China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.healthy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paper was invented in China in the first century B.C.E. , woodblock printing in the eighth century C.E. , and movable type in the eleventh century.
  • Culture of China - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The imperial palace in Beijing's Forbidden City reached its current splendor.^ The imperial palace, which is also known as the Forbidden City, was built at this time.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our school could not be better located, it is within the Imperial Gardens in the Wen Hua Gong - the cultural palace of Beijing, surrounded by the silence of the forbidden city.
  • Foreign Language Schools - Chinese Language Schools in China: Mainland China 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.multilingualbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This area, forming part of the imperial palace, is surrounded by the concealed yet imposing beauty of the Forbidden City, with trees hundreds of years old and garden landscaping in typical Chinese style.
  • Foreign Language Schools - Chinese Language Schools in China: Mainland China 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.multilingualbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was also during these centuries that the potential of south China came to be fully exploited.^ During this period, China came into contact with the Roman Empire and with India.
  • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During these expeditions, the Chinese sailed the South Pacific, the Indian Ocean, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Buddhism, which appeared in China during the first century A.D., provided .
  • A Brief History Of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.New crops were widely cultivated and industries such as those producing porcelain and textiles flourished.^ New industries such as the electronic and petrochemical industries were established one after another.
  • Resolution on CPC History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rice yields were doubled in the 11th century when a new strain from Champa (Vietnam) produced two or three crops per year.
  • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, subsequent increases in the price of imported fuel have driven price increases in all other products, including those necessities produced in the CAR such as sugar and soap.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1449 Esen Tayisi led an Oirat Mongol invasion of northern China which culminated in the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor at Tumu.^ One is used to defend Beijing and the rich lands in central and southern China from invasion and pillage by Mongolians and other northern nomads.
  • Phil Qiu: The Great Fire Wall of China comes down - but for how long? | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ After the death of Genghis Khan in 1226 the Mongols invaded northern China and by 1234 they had conquered it all.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Mongols were the first of the northern barbarians to rule all of China.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1542 the Mongol leader Altan Khan began to harass China along the northern border.^ In 1211 Genghis Khan, a Mongolian leader, began the invasion into China from the north, but the conquest was not completed until 1279 under Kublai Khan, his grandson, who established the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) in China.
  • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1271, the Mongol leader and the fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty , with the last remnant of the Song Dynasty falling to the Yuan in 1279.

^ In the 13th century, the Mongols under Ghenghis Khan invaded and occupied parts of Han China until the 15th century, when the Han reasserted their authority.
  • The Geopolitics of China: A Great Power Enclosed | STRATFOR 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.stratfor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1550 he even reached the suburbs of Beijing. .The empire also had to deal with Japanese pirates attacking the southeastern coastline;[23] General Qi Jiguang was instrumental in defeating these pirates.^ The next year General Yue Fei led a daring attack against the puppet regime of Qi that had occupied territory north of the Yangzi.
  • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.The deadliest earthquake of all times, the Shaanxi earthquake of 1556 that killed approximately 830,000 people, occurred during the Jiajing Emperor's reign.^ Emperor Xuanzog reigned in this time.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm sure people do it all the time.
  • Question for the Buddhists [Archive] - thebigview.com 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.thebigview.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At all times it was subject to the incomplete ability of the emperor to control his people.
  • Powelson Chapter 11 - China: The Puzzles of History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC tqe.quaker.org [Source type: Original source]

.During the Ming dynasty the last construction on the Great Wall was undertaken to protect China from foreign invasions.^ The Chinese wall of today is from the Ming dynasty.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The foreign policy of great-power China."
  • China: the Emerging Superpower 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Zhou era parts of the Great Wall of China were built.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the Great Wall had been built in earlier times, most of what is seen today was either built or repaired by the Ming.^ May 21st, 2009 Neither the Qin wall nor the Ming fortifications were called the “Great Wall of China” by their Chinese contemporaries.

^ The Great Wall is probably China’s best-known monument and one of its most popular tourist destinations.

^ This task involved connecting the separate walls that were built by former northern states to form the famous Great Wall.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The brick and granite work was enlarged, the watch towers were redesigned, and cannons were placed along its length.

Qing Dynasty (1644–1911 CE)

"The reception of the Diplomatique (Macartney) and his suite, at the Court of Pekin". Drawn and engraved by James Gillray, published in September 1792.
Territory of Qing China in 1892
.The Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) was founded after the defeat of the Ming, the last Han Chinese dynasty, by the Manchus.^ (The Chinese sign for the Han dynasty.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Manchu established the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) and again expanded China's borders.
  • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chinese wall of today is from the Ming dynasty.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Manchus were formerly known as the Jurchen. .When Beijing was captured by Li Zicheng's peasant rebels in 1644, the last Ming Emperor Chongzhen committed suicide.^ Finally in 1644 the last Ming emperor committed suicide.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Mongols looted the capital in 1233, and the next year Aizong committed suicide to avoid being captured, ending the Jin dynasty.
  • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first Ming emperor Hongwu captured Beijing in 1368 but he moved the capital to Nanjing.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Manchu then allied with Ming Dynasty general Wu Sangui and seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the Qing dynasty.^ Yangtze, the new dynasty had its capital at Chang-an.
  • A Brief History Of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first capital of the Ming dynasty was Nanjing.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because he was an offical in Beijing before Beijing became the new capital.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Manchus adopted the Confucian norms of traditional Chinese government in their rule of China proper.^ Foundations of East Asian Civilizations (4) Introduction to traditional China and Japan; Confucianism, Buddhism, Daoism; floating worlds; family and gender; traditional views of the body; literati class; samurai; Mongols and Manchus.
  • History | 2009–10 University of Oregon Catalog 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC uocatalog.uoregon.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The goal of this project is to produce interview manuscripts dealing with the interaction of Western values with traditional Chinese values which led to the emergence of modern China.
  • Oral History Catalogue at Claremont Graduate University / China Missionaries Project 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC web.cgu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whenever China was conquered by nomadic tribes, as it was by the Mongols in the 13th century, the conquerors sooner or later adopted the ways of the "higher" Chinese civilization and staffed the bureaucracy with Chinese.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Manchus enforced a 'queue order' forcing the Han Chinese to adopt the Manchu queue hairstyle and Manchu-style clothing.^ Chinese-style clothing and customs were adopted, and Chinese was made the official language of the court.
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^ In 1644 a Chinese general believed the Manchu's or Qing were more likely to restore order in China than the rebel leaders so he let them through the wall.
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^ In Manchuria the Manchus (Pinyin: Manzhous) had organized a Chinese-style state and strengthened their forces under a unique form of military organization called the banner system.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The traditional Han clothing, or Hanfu was also replaced by Manchu-style clothing Qipao (bannermen dress and Tangzhuang).^ The high ranking officials dress in Chinese style while lower ranking officials dress western style clothing.
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.Emperor Kangxi ordered the creation of the most complete dictionary of Chinese characters ever put together at the time.^ Includes a dictionary of over 4,000 Chinese characters.
  • WEB SITES ON ANCIENT CHINA & CHINESE HISTORY 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: News]

^ The Zhen Jiu Da Cheng and Li Shi-zhen's Ben Cao Gang Mu together comprise the most comprehensive volumes of Chinese medical knowledge before modern times.
  • Acupuncture.Com - Education - Theory - History of Acupuncture 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.acupuncture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chinese dowager empress Tz'u-hsi, the aunt of Emperor Kuang-hsu, ordered her troops to block the advance of this expedition.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Qing dynasty set up the "Eight Banners" system that provided the basic framework for the Qing military organization.^ Huang Hsing's revolutionary uprising in Central China - In 1903, Huang Hsing, who was an overseas student from the province of Hunan, set up a revolutionary organization there to work for the overthrow of the Ch'ing dynasty.
  • The Chinese Revolution of 1911 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thecorner.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Me: In China, the system is set up so that the Chinese government should build these schools, right?
  • Cameron Postelwait / perceptum 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC cameronpostelwait.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Manchuria the Manchus (Pinyin: Manzhous) had organized a Chinese-style state and strengthened their forces under a unique form of military organization called the banner system.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bannermen were prohibited from participating in trade and manual labour unless they petitioned to be removed from banner status.^ Revoking or conditioning normal trade status and tariff treatment would remove a beneficial influence for creating a more open China.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They were considered a form of nobility and were given preferential treatment in terms of annual pensions, land and allotments of cloth.^ Consider, for example, how the print unions were able, over time, to negotiate terms and conditions for their members far above the market rate for the job they were doing?
  • Liberal Conspiracy » Does socialism really cause racism? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC liberalconspiracy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The state and society ensure the livelihood of disabled members of the armed forces, provide pensions to the families of martyrs and give preferential treatment to the families of military personnel.

^ They were angry to learn that the newly formed cabinet consisted mostly of Manchu nobles.
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French political cartoon from the late 1890s. A pie representing China and is being divided between UK, Germany, Russia, France and Japan.
.Over the next half-century, the Qing consolidated control of some areas originally under the Ming, including Yunnan.^ At great expense in blood and treasure, the Manchus over the next half century gained control of many border areas, including Xinjiang, Yunnan, Tibet, Mongolia, and Taiwan.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This list groups faculty (including Five College, adjunct, and full-time visiting faculty) by subject area and indicates particular teaching and research focus (note that some faculty are listed under more than one field).
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst - Department of History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Sung retained control south of the Huai River, where they ruled for another one and a half centuries.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They also stretched their sphere of influence over Xinjiang, Tibet and Mongolia.^ Various dynasties also expanded into peripheral territories like Inner Mongolia , Manchuria , Xinjiang , and Tibet .

^ They would be much better off cooperating (if at least by agreeing of spheres of influence and upholding to that.
  • Let's Play WW3 Scenario: You are the United States of America [Archive] - Guild Wars Forums - GW Guru 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guildwarsguru.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1697 they had conquered Mongolia and in 1720 Tibet was made a protectorate.
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.But during the nineteenth century, Qing control weakened.^ During the 19th century, Qing control weakened, and prosperity diminished.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country began to fall behind during the nineteenth century, and as the infrastructure and economy weakened, it could no longer keep up with the Western powers.
  • Culture of China - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This attitude was maintained throughout the Ming and Qing dynasties, and only started to change after the Western powers began making inroads into China in the nineteenth century.
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.Britain's desire to continue its opium trade with China collided with imperial edicts prohibiting the addictive drug, and the First Opium War erupted in 1840. Hong Kong was ceded to Britain in 1842 under the Treaty of Nanking.^ The first Opium War of 1840-42 was followed by a second conflict.
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^ Britain's desire to continue its illegal opium trade with China collided with imperial edicts prohibiting the addictive drug, and the First Opium War erupted in 1840.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another result of the Opium Wars was the loss of Hong Kong to the British.
  • Culture of China - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A large rebellion, the Taiping Rebellion (1851–1864), involved around a third of China falling under control of the Taiping Tianguo, a quasi-Christian religious movement led by the "Heavenly King" Hong Xiuquan.^ From the invasion by Japan, which began in 1931, to a strong insurgent movement led by Communist Mao Tse-tung, the Chiang regime was severely undermined and eventually ousted from China in 1949, retreating to Taiwan under U.S. military protection.
  • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was introduced into China around the middle of the first century AD (probably about the same time that the early Christians were writing the Gospels), but really didn't catch on until the fall of the Han dynasty.
  • Chinese History, China History, A Brief History of China, Chinese Chronology 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatour.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In northern China a rebellion broke out led by 2 peasants, Chen Sheng and Wu Yang.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only after fourteen years were the Taipings finally crushed - the Taiping army was destroyed in the Third Battle of Nanking in 1864. The death toll during the 15 years of the rebellion was about 20 million.^ The Taiping Rebellion continued for fourteen years, despoiled seventeen provinces, and took about 20 million lives.
  • Powelson Chapter 11 - China: The Puzzles of History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC tqe.quaker.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ninety-six percent of children attend kindergarten and elementary school, and about two-thirds continue on to secondary school, which lasts for three years.
  • Culture of China - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our Resolution for the New Year - Realize, Learn and Implement the only way to destroy Terrorism - Attack the Hajj, pulverize Mecca .
  • History of Jihad against the Buddhist Chinese (651-751-Ongoing) 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

[24]
.In addition, more costly rebellions in terms of human lives and economics followed with the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars, Nien Rebellion, Muslim Rebellion, Panthay Rebellion and the Boxer Rebellion.^ This was followed by a century of skirmishes between the Muslims and the Chinese which culminated in the seminal war between the two forces at the battle of the Talas river in 751.
  • History of Jihad against the Buddhist Chinese (651-751-Ongoing) 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Other revolts erupted at about the same time: the Nien Rebellion in the northeast and Muslim rebellions in the southwest and the northwest.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Chinese peasant rebellions were more often all-out violent war than the intermittent fighting and mutual concessions characteristic of Japanese peasants and lords.
  • Powelson Chapter 11 - China: The Puzzles of History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC tqe.quaker.org [Source type: Original source]

[25] .In many ways, the rebellions and the unequal treaties the Qing were forced to sign with the imperialist powers are symptomatic of the Qing's inability to deal with the new challenges of the 19th century.^ By the 19th century, the population explosion caused a shortage of food supplies; a number of wars and rebellions finally led to the dismantling of the empire and the chaotic birth of the new Chinese Republic.
  • Acupuncture.Com - Education - Theory - History of Acupuncture 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.acupuncture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 19th century the Qing Dynasty adopted a defensive posture towards European imperialism , even though it engaged in imperialistic expansion into Central Asia itself.

^ The British were not interested in those till the discover of gold towards the end of the 19th century and the imperialist ideals of CJ Rhodes.
  • Milliband says terrorism is justified in some cases. [Archive] - Broadband & ADSL Forums - Internet, Gaming, Hardware, Software 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC mybroadband.co.za [Source type: Original source]

.By the 1860s, the Qing Dynasty had put down the rebellions at enormous cost and loss of life.^ The Qing Dynasty waged war and genocide against Muslims in the Dungan revolt and Panthay rebellion .
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ The foreign conquests of the Ch’in and the wall building and other public works were accomplished at an enormous cost of wealth and human life.
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^ Subsequently, the SFIO was instrumental also in revivifying political activity in Madagascar, which had been out of the mainstream after the 1947 rebellion there had been put down with much bloodshed.
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.This undermined the credibility of the Qing regime and, spearheaded by local initiatives by provincial leaders and gentry, contributed to the rise of warlordism in China.^ Local-provincial gentry and merchants - .
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^ The rise of warlords in China, 1916-1928.
  • Early Republic and Warlord Period 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thecorner.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His death left the republican government all but shattered, ushering in the era of the "warlords" during which China was ruled and ravaged by shifting coalitions of competing provincial military leaders.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Qing Dynasty under the Emperor Guangxu proceeded to deal with the problem of modernization through the Self-Strengthening Movement.^ From the 11th to 13th centuries, Vietnamese independence was consolidated under the enlightened emperors of the Ly dynasty, founded by Ly Thai To.
  • History of Vietnam - Lonely Planet Travel Information 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Self-Strengthening Movement (1862-94), a modern army and navy were developed.
  • The Chinese Revolution of 1911 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thecorner.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This so called emperor's canal was also used in the Ming and the Qing dynasty and is used until today.
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.However, between 1898 and 1908 the Empress Dowager Cixi had the reformist Guangxu imprisoned for being 'mentally disabled'[citation needed].^ However the Empress Dowager (a retired empress) Cixi put a stop to it.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1901 the Empress Dowager, Cixi, changed her mind and decided some reform was needed after all.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both the Empress Dowager and the Emperor Kuang-hsu died in 1908.
  • The Chinese Revolution of 1911 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thecorner.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Empress Dowager, with the help of conservatives, initiated a military coup, effectively removed the young Emperor from power, and overturned most of the more radical reforms.^ This program struck at the entrenched power of a clique of Manchu officials appointed by Dowager Empress Tz’u Hsi, who had recently retired.
  • CHINA 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chinese dowager empress Tz'u-hsi, the aunt of Emperor Kuang-hsu, ordered her troops to block the advance of this expedition.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (The Qin emperors were keen to keep civil and military power in separate hands!
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He died one day before the death of the Empress Dowager (some believe Guangxu was poisoned by Cixi).^ However the Empress Dowager (a retired empress) Cixi put a stop to it.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This may be a man who foolishly believes himself to be a god, believes he has been appointed by a god to be an incarnation of some form of a god, or the man who doesn't believe there is any existence beyond his own death and uses that as an excuse to justify the world ending after he dies.
  • Let's Play WW3 Scenario: You are the United States of America [Archive] - Guild Wars Forums - GW Guru 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guildwarsguru.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wang Mang, nephew of the empress dowager Wang and championing Confucian principles, consolidated his power in the reign of the boy Ping Di by marrying his daughter to the emperor.
  • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Official corruption, cynicism, and imperial family quarrels made most of the military reforms useless.^ The gentry-merchant leaders in Szechwan were the most angry, as much of their money for railway construction had already been lost through corrupt official management.
  • The Chinese Revolution of 1911 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thecorner.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Empowered with unprecedented imperial grants of financial, administrative, and military authority, certain of the Chinese officials had noteworthy success in implementing their programs.
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^ Tz’u Hsi and the Manchu officials seized the emperor, and with the aid of loyal military leaders, put down the reform movement.
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.As a result, the Qing's "New Armies" were soundly defeated in the Sino-French War (1883-1885) and the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895).^ In 1894 Japanese efforts to remove Korea from Chinese suzerainty resulted in the Sino-Japanese War.
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^ First Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) .
  • VoS: History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC vos.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Anniversary of start of Sino - Japanese war .
  • China stamps. China PRC mint stamps, used China stamps, souvenir sheets, booklets, China New Year Greeting stamps, China First Day Covers for sale. Buying China stamps. 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.siyer.com [Source type: Academic]

.At the start of the 20th century, the Boxer Rebellion threatened northern China.^ China was changing in the early 20th century.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In northern China a rebellion broke out led by 2 peasants, Chen Sheng and Wu Yang.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A large-scale rebellion broke out in northern China under the leadership of a group known as the Red Eyebrows.
  • CHINA 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was a conservative anti-imperialist movement that sought to return China to old ways.^ When the news reached China, a mass anti-Japanese protest demonstration, the May Fourth Movement of 1919, erupted at Beijing University and swept through the country.
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^ Anti-imperialist propaganda - As the overseas students were mostly anti-imperialist in attitude, Sun wrote many articles to newspapers and journals to discuss the problem of imperialism in China.
  • The Chinese Revolution of 1911 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thecorner.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately these elements will not ally themselves with revolutionary People's China, or if they do, only as a way-station to a different class alliance -- with the imperialist United States.
  • The Class Character of the USSR (1977) : THE HISTORY OF USSR-CHINA RELATIONS 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.workers.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Empress Dowager, probably seeking to ensure her continued grip on power, sided with the Boxers when they advanced on Beijing.^ This program struck at the entrenched power of a clique of Manchu officials appointed by Dowager Empress Tz’u Hsi, who had recently retired.
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^ This policy continued after they took power and was complete by 1952.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chinese dowager empress Tz'u-hsi, the aunt of Emperor Kuang-hsu, ordered her troops to block the advance of this expedition.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In response, a relief expedition of the Eight-Nation Alliance invaded China to rescue the besieged foreign missions.^ In response, China worked vigorously to expand its relations with foreign countries, and by late 1990, had reestablished normal relations with almost all nations.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The German minister to China was assassinated, and Boxer rebels began an eight-week attack on the walled foreign compound in Peking.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mission of the navy during peacetime is not only to deter war, but also to protect national and maritime sovereignty, and perform activities that support national foreign policies and enhance national prestige.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Consisting of British, Japanese, Russian, Italian, German, French, US and Austrian troops, the alliance defeated the Boxers and demanded further concessions from the Qing government.^ In 1900 after an expeditionary force consisting of British, French, Japanese, Russian, and American troops had crushed the BOXER REBELLION, (q.v.
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^ Indonesian German Spanish French Italian Malagasy Dutch Portuguese Swahili Polish Macedonian Russian Arabic Bangla Chinese (Simplified) Chinese (Traditional) Japanese This site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License Please read our attribution policy .
  • Global Voices Online » China: Mainland Blogger’s ironic review of shabby government buildings in Taiwan 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: General]
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^ In June an expeditionary force, made up of Russian, British, German, French, American, and Japanese troops, was organized to proceed to Peking (now Beijing), put .
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Modern era

Republic of China

.Frustrated by the Qing court's resistance to reform and by China's weakness, young officials, military officers, and students—inspired by the revolutionary ideas of Sun Yat-sen —began to advocate the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the creation of a republic.^ Sun Yat-sen's turn to the overseas students for support - (See above) .
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^ So began the Qing dynasty.
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^ A. Sun Yat-sen's revolutionary strategy .
  • The Chinese Revolution of 1911 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thecorner.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sun Yat-sen, founder and first president of the Republic of China.
Slavery in China was abolished in 1910.[26]
.A revolutionary military uprising, the Wuchang Uprising, began on October 10, 1911 in Wuhan.^ A revolutionary military uprising on October 10, 1911, led to the abdication of the last Qing monarch.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Sun and the revolutionaries contributed considerably to the Chinese revolutionary movement in general, the part that they played in the 1911 Wuhan Uprising in particular was small.
  • The Chinese Revolution of 1911 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thecorner.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plans of a military revolt in the Wuhan areas, 1911 - Soldiers of the New Army units in the Wuhan areas (consisting of Wuchang, Hanyang and Hankow) were particularly active in forming such revolutionary study groups.
  • The Chinese Revolution of 1911 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thecorner.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The provisional government of the Republic of China was formed in Nanjing on March 12, 1912 with Sun Yat-sen as President, but Sun was forced to turn power over to Yuan Shikai, who commanded the New Army and was Prime Minister under the Qing government, as part of the agreement to let the last Qing monarch abdicate (a decision Sun would later regret).^ Then Sun Yat-sen resigned as Provisional President, to be succeeded by Yuan after a formal election.
  • The Chinese Revolution of 1911 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thecorner.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus in the negotiations with Yuan, Sun made it clear that the presidency of the Republic would be given to Yuan if Yuan forced the Manchus to abdicate.
  • The Chinese Revolution of 1911 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thecorner.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sun Yat-sen's turn to the overseas students for support - (See above) .
  • The Chinese Revolution of 1911 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thecorner.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over the next few years, Yuan proceeded to abolish the national and provincial assemblies, and declared himself emperor in late 1915. Yuan's imperial ambitions were fiercely opposed by his subordinates; faced with the prospect of rebellion, he abdicated in March 1916, and died in June of that year.^ He died in June 1916 a broken man.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1915, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China but was forced to abdicate and return the state to a republic when he realized it was an unpopular move, not only with the population but also his own Beiyang Army and its commanders.

^ After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916, China was politically fragmented, with an internationally recognized but virtually powerless national government seated in Peking (modern day Beijing).

.His death left a power vacuum in China; the republican government was all but shattered.^ His death left the republican government all but shattered, ushering in the era of the "warlords" during which China was ruled and ravaged by shifting coalitions of competing provincial military leaders.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Yuan's death, a number of his proteges took positions of power in the Beijing government or ruled as warlords in outlying regions.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China, and that commies has done all the right thing for Vietnam when they themselves left Vietnam for FOOD .
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This ushered in the warlord era, during which much of the country was ruled by shifting coalitions of competing provincial military leaders.^ His death left the republican government all but shattered, ushering in the era of the "warlords" during which China was ruled and ravaged by shifting coalitions of competing provincial military leaders.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Really funding it need not have been the huge problem that it was in comparison to countries with much larger militaries.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Golden Age Spain (4) Spanish history during one of the most important eras of its past, when it was a cultural leader in Europe and a major world power.
  • History | 2009–10 University of Oregon Catalog 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC uocatalog.uoregon.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In 1919, the May Fourth Movement began as a response to the terms imposed on China by the Treaty of Versailles ending World War I, but quickly became a protest movement about the domestic situation in China.^ After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people.
  • CHINA NEWS CHINESE NEWS | HavenWorks.com/world/china capital: Beijing, People's Republic of China, PRC, P.R.C., Zhong Guo, Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo, Reference Source 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC havenworks.com [Source type: News]

^ It will examine the war from a global perspective, exploring all of its aspects – political, diplomatic, military and civilian — in the broad context of national differences, rivalries and conflicts extending from World War I and The Treaty of Versailles (1919) into the third quarter of the twentieth century.
  • Course Offerings | History Department | College of Liberal Studies | University of Wisconsin-La Crosse 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uwlax.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Holocaust U [ sample syllabus for 331 ] The historical background of the holocaust; dimensions of destruction; world response; post war trials; moral and philosophical issues.
  • History at OSU 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history.osu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The discrediting of liberal Western philosophy amongst Chinese intellectuals was followed by the adoption of more radical lines of thought.^ It applies to both sides of the propaganda but more so to the Western media outlets than to the Chinese side given the latest Tibet and Olympics chaos.
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Consequently, his ideas were a mixture of both Western and Chinese thoughts.
  • The Chinese Revolution of 1911 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thecorner.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Confucius also codified the status of the ruler in Chinese political thought; the Emperor was the Son of Heaven (while Heaven in a Western context is a place, Heaven in the Chinese context is a divine/natural force) and had the Mandate of Heaven to rule.
  • Chinese History, China History, A Brief History of China, Chinese Chronology 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatour.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This in turn planted the seeds for the irreconcilable conflict between the left and right in China that would dominate Chinese history for the rest of the century.^ I, and many sincere Chinese people are the people who least want to see the potential conflict between China and USA. Both are great countries, it will be a disaster for human being if two countries fight each other in the future, due to what?
  • seattlepi.com: Sound Off 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.seattlepi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whenever China was conquered by nomadic tribes, as it was by the Mongols in the 13th century, the conquerors sooner or later adopted the ways of the "higher" Chinese civilization and staffed the bureaucracy with Chinese.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other examples included the 'right' for foreign navies to sail up Chinese rivers and waterways, and extra-territoriality, which meant that if a British citizen committed a crime in Qing China, he would be tried in a British council under British law.
  • Chinese History, China History, A Brief History of China, Chinese Chronology 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatour.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 1920s, Sun Yat-Sen established a revolutionary base in south China, and set out to unite the fragmented nation.^ A. Sun Yat-sen's revolutionary strategy .
  • The Chinese Revolution of 1911 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thecorner.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this period, Sun Yat-sen was not yet an outright revolutionary.
  • The Chinese Revolution of 1911 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thecorner.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1920s, Sun Yat-sen established a revolutionary base in south China and set out to unite the fragmented nation.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With Soviet assistance, he entered into an alliance with the fledgling Communist Party of China.^ With Soviet assistance, he organized the Kuomintang (KMT or "Chinese Nationalist People's Party"), and entered into an alliance with the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yuri Andropov, General Secretary of Soviet Communist Party (1982-84), Soviet President, in power only 15 months, at 69.
  • This Day In Military History... - Page 104 - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They moved quickly to consolidate power by uniting the Social Democrats and Communists into a single party and imposing Stalin’s will on the Soviet Occupation Zone.
  • Europe 1945 to present: September 2007 Archives 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC blog.lib.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After Sun's death from cancer in 1925, one of his protégés, Chiang Kai-shek, seized control of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party or KMT) and succeeded in bringing most of south and central China under its rule in a military campaign known as the Northern Expedition.^ Chiang Kai-Shek and his government retreated.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China not unified under any one power.

^ Soon it became a military dictatorship led by Chiang Kai Shek.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Having defeated the warlords in south and central China by military force, Chiang was able to secure the nominal allegiance of the warlords in the North.^ The warlords in some of the northern provinces were defeated and by the end of 1926 large parts of northern China were brought back into the fold.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China directs the armed forces of the country.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After Sun's death in 1925, one of his proteges, Chiang Kai-shek, seized control of the KMT and succeeded in bringing most of south and central China under its rule.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1927, Chiang turned on the CPC and relentlessly chased the CPC armies and its leaders from their bases in southern and eastern China.^ In 1927, Chiang turned on the CCP and executed many of its leaders.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new empire had to achieve several tasks, such as dealing with Southern China and pacifying North-Eastern indigenous nations.
  • Mongolia history, all about Genghis Khan and the Mongolian empire on e-Mongol 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.e-mongol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then Kidans of Liao turned south and averted the Southern Chinese army.
  • Mongolia history, all about Genghis Khan and the Mongolian empire on e-Mongol 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.e-mongol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1934, driven from their mountain bases such as the Chinese Soviet Republic, the CPC forces embarked on the Long March across China's most desolate terrain to the northwest, where they established a guerrilla base at Yan'an in Shaanxi Province.^ He participated in the Long March of 1934-35.
  • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They established an imperial military force and a land-based .
  • A Brief History Of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1936 they had established a new base in the northwest.
  • CHINA 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the Long March, the communists reorganized under a new leader, Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung).^ Mao Tse-tung was the leader of this march which was over 10000 km long.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung).

^ During the "Long March," the Communists reorganized under a new leader, Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung).
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bitter struggle between the KMT and the CPC continued, openly or clandestinely, through the 14-year long Japanese occupation (1931–1945) of various parts of the country.^ The bitter struggle between the KMT and the CCP continued openly or clandestinely through the 14-year long Japanese invasion (1931-45), even though the two parties nominally formed a united front to oppose the Japanese invaders in 1937.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a long-stand point that the Chinese who have been through thousands of years of autarchy are not fitting for and also impossible to have democracy.
  • Global Voices Online » China: Taiwan election stirs mainland blogsphere 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: News]

^ Mongolian pro-independence leaders organized resistance in various parts of the country.
  • Mongolia history, all about Genghis Khan and the Mongolian empire on e-Mongol 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.e-mongol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The two Chinese parties nominally formed a united front to oppose the Japanese in 1937, during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), which became a part of World War II.^ This was the Chinese Japanese war, which China had lost.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chinese managed to hold their own during the Second World War.
  • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The war between the two parties resumed after the Japanese defeat in 1945.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following the defeat of Japan in 1945, the war between the KMT and the CPC resumed, after failed attempts at reconciliation and a negotiated settlement.^ The war between the two parties resumed after the Japanese defeat in 1945.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Doouglas MacArthur War Report: US Occupation of Japan (speech made on August 30, 1945; within larger speech archive) (History Channel.com) .
  • VoS: History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC vos.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It was the half of Germany, designated for British and American control at the Yalta conference following the defeat of Germany in World War II in February 1945.
  • Europe 1945 to present: September 2007 Archives 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC blog.lib.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1949, the CPC had occupied most of the country.^ By 1949, the CCP occupied most of the country.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(see Chinese Civil War)
.At the end of WWII in 1945 as part of the overall Japanese surrender, Japanese troops in Taiwan surrendered to Republic of China troops giving Chiang Kai-shek effective control of Taiwan.^ Chiang Kai-Shek and his government retreated.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taiwan is part of the sacred territory of the People's Republic of China.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Chiang Kai-Shek and his government had to escape to Taiwan.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .When Chiang was defeated by CPC forces in mainland China in 1949, he fled to Taiwan with his government and the remnants of his army, along with most of the KMT leadership and a large number of their supporters.^ Mil/KMT (from 8 Dec 1949 on Taiwan ) .

^ Chiang Kai-shek fled with the remnants of his KMT government and military forces to Taiwan, where he proclaimed Taipei to be China's "provisional capital" and vowed to reconquer the Chinese mainland.
  • Background Notes: China, August 1999 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ KMT (from 8 Dec 1949 on Taiwan ) .

1949 to Present

.With the CPC's victory, and their proclamation of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949, Taiwan was again politically separated from mainland China, and continues to be governed by the Republic of China to the present day.^ Oct 1949 People's Republic of China (from 8 Dec 1949, Republic of China continues on Taiwan only.

^ Taiwan is part of the sacred territory of the People%27s Republic of China.

^ On the 1 st of october 1949 the People's Republic of China was founded.
  • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.No peace treaty has ever been signed between the two opposing parties.^ Ukraine signs peace treaty.
  • This Day In Military History... - Page 104 - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a sign of goodwill, they have instituted measures such as the establishment of a hot line between the two capitals, the resolution of boundary disputes and an agreement on no first use of nuclear weapons.
  • China: the Emerging Superpower 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, the continuous reports on the controversies between the two Taiwan parties created an image of group tension rampant on the island.
  • Global Voices Online » China: Taiwan election stirs mainland blogsphere 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: News]

.For the history of the People's Republic of China since 1949, see History of the People's Republic of China.^ People's Republic of China and Republic of China (1949–present) .

^ China since 1949.
  • Course Offerings | History Department | College of Liberal Studies | University of Wisconsin-La Crosse 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uwlax.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ V: China since 1949.
  • History | 2009–10 University of Oregon Catalog 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC uocatalog.uoregon.edu [Source type: Academic]

.For the history of the Republic of China since 1949, see Republic of China on Taiwan (1949-present).^ V: China since 1949.
  • History | 2009–10 University of Oregon Catalog 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC uocatalog.uoregon.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Contemporary China Survey of Chinese history since 1949.
  • OU Department of History - Courses 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ou.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ China since 1949.
  • Course Offerings | History Department | College of Liberal Studies | University of Wisconsin-La Crosse 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uwlax.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Cultural History and Archaeology of China". Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, U.S. State Department. Archived from the original on 2007-12-15. http://web.archive.org/web/20071215094418/http://exchanges.state.gov/culprop/cn04sum.html. Retrieved 2008-01-12. 
  2. ^ Henry Cleere. Archaeological Heritage Management in the Modern World. 2005. Routledge. p. 318. ISBN 0415214483.
  3. ^ a b Rixiang Zhu, Zhisheng An, Richard Pott, Kenneth A. Hoffman (June 2003). "Magnetostratigraphic dating of early humans of in China" (PDF). Earth Science Reviews 61 (3-4): 191–361. http://www.paleomag.net/members/rixiangzhu/Earth-Sci%20Review.pdf. 
  4. ^ "Earliest Presence of Humans in Northeast Asia". Smithsonian Institution. http://www.mnh.si.edu/anthro/humanorigins/whatshot/2001/wh2001-3.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  5. ^ "The discovery of early pottery in China" by Zhang Chi, Department of Archaeology, Peking University, China
  6. ^ "Neolithic Period in China". Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art. October 2004. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/cneo/hd_cneo.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  7. ^ "Rice and Early Agriculture in China". Legacy of Human Civilizations. Mesa Community College. http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/dept/d10/asb/anthro2003/legacy/banpo/banpo.html. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  8. ^ "Peiligang Site". Ministry of Culture of the People's Republic of China. 2003. http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_artqa/2003-09/24/content_39079.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  9. ^ Pringle, Heather (1998). "The Slow Birth of Agriculture". Science. p. 1446. http://cas.bellarmine.edu/tietjen/images/neolithic_agriculture.htm. 
  10. ^ Wertz, Richard R. (2007). "Neolithic and Bronze Age Cultures". Exploring Chinese History. ibiblio. http://www.ibiblio.org/chinesehistory/contents/02cul/c03s04.html. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  11. ^ "Huang He". The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). 2007. http://www.bartleby.com/65/hu/HuangHe.html. 
  12. ^ BBC NEWS | Asia-Pacific | Chinese writing '8,000 years old'
  13. ^ "Carvings may rewrite history of Chinese characters". Xinhua online. 2007-05-18. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-05/18/content_6121225.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-19. 
  14. ^ "The Ancient Dynasties". University of Maryland. http://www-chaos.umd.edu/history/ancient1.html. Retrieved 2008-01-12. 
  15. ^ Bronze Age China at National Gallery of Art
  16. ^ Scripts found on Erlitou pottery (written in Simplified Chinese)
  17. ^ "Book "QINSHIHUANG"". http://www.uobuy.com/upload/2005/9/19/200591911278032621125.jpg. Retrieved 2007-07-06. 
  18. ^ Ban Chao, Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  19. ^ Kaifung Jews. University of Cumbria.
  20. ^ Ping-ti Ho, "An Estimate of the Total Population of Sung-Chin China", in Études Song, Series 1, No 1, (1970) pp. 33-53.
  21. ^ "Course: Plague". http://web.archive.org/web/20071118121009/http://chip.med.nyu.edu/course/view.php?id=13&topic=1. 
  22. ^ "Black Death - Consequences". http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Black_Death_-_Consequences/id/617544. 
  23. ^ "China > History > The Ming dynasty > Political history > The dynastic succession", Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2007
  24. ^ Userserols. "Userserols." Statistics of Wars, Oppressions and Atrocities of the Nineteenth Century. Retrieved on 2007-04-11.
  25. ^ Damsan Harper, Steve Fallon, Katja Gaskell, Julie Grundvig, Carolyn Heller, Thomas Huhti, Bradley Maynew, Christopher Pitts. Lonely Planet China. 9. 2005. ISBN 1-74059-687-0
  26. ^ "Commemoration of the Abolition of Slavery Project". http://web.archive.org/web/20071114095017/http://www.uclan.ac.uk/facs/class/cfe/ceth/abolition/history.htm. 
  27. ^ Surrender Order of the Imperial General Headquarters of Japan, 2 September 1945, "(a) The senior Japanese commanders and all ground, sea, air, and auxiliary forces within China (excluding Manchuria), Formosa, and French Indochina north of 16 degrees north latitude shall surrender to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek."

References

From hunter-gatherers to farmers
.
  • Magnetostratigraphic dating of early humans in China, by Rixiang zhu, Zhisheng An, Richard Potts, Kenneth A. Hoffman.^ The earliest evidence of a fully modern human in China comes from Liujiang County , Guangxi , where a cranium has been found and dated to approximately 67,000 years ago.

    ^ Such a practice has few parallels elsewhere at this early date in human history.
    • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest humans in China date from 2.24 million to 250,000 years ago.

    [1]
  • he Discovery of Early Pottery in China, by Zhang Chi, Department of Archaeology, Peking University, China. [2]
Prehistory
.
  • Discovery of residue from fermented beverage consumed up to 9,000 years ago in Jiahu, Henan Province, China.^ The earliest evidence of a fully modern human in China comes from Liujiang County , Guangxi , where a cranium has been found and dated to approximately 67,000 years ago.

    ^ "China announced a nationwide crackdown on slavery and child labor last year after reports that hundreds of poor farmers, children and mentally disabled were forced to work in kilns and mines in Shanxi province and neighboring Henan."
    • CHINA NEWS CHINESE NEWS | HavenWorks.com/world/china capital: Beijing, People's Republic of China, PRC, P.R.C., Zhong Guo, Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo, Reference Source 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC havenworks.com [Source type: News]

    ^ The Manchu rule in China ended after 267 years, and with it the 2,000-year-old imperial system.
    • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    By Dr. Patrick E McGovern, University of Pennsylvania archaeochemist and colleagues from China, Great Britain and Germany.
Xia Dynasty
.
  • David S. Nivison (1993), “Chu shu chi nien”, Early Chinese Texts: a bibliographical guide (editor—Loewe M.) p. 39–47 (Berkeley: Society for the Study of Early China).
  • James Legge (1865), The Chinese Classics III: The Shoo King Prolegomena (Taipei: Southern Materials Center).^ Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, 1992.
    • Women in Chinese History -- Bibliography 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC hua.umf.maine.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Early television: a bibliographic guide to 1940 .
    • The History of Technology-Science Tracer Bullet 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Gender and women studies in Chinese societies.
    • Women in Chinese History -- Bibliography 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC hua.umf.maine.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .(This contains an English translation of the Bamboo Annals.^ The Novogorod Chronicle : Selected Annals (in English translation, from the Internet Medieval Sourcebook) (Paul Halsall, U. North Florida) .
    • VoS: History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC vos.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

    )
Shang Dynasty
  • Stephen W. Durrant (1995), The Cloudy Mirror: Tension and Conflict in the Writings of Sima Qian. Albany : State University of New York Press.
Han Dynasty
  • de Crespigny, Rafe. .1977. The Ch’iang Barbarians and the Empire of Han: A Study in Frontier Policy.^ The Han built on the unified foundation laid by the Ch’in, modifying the policies that had resulted in the downfall of the Ch’in.
    • CHINA 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Papers on Far Eastern History 16, Australian National University.^ (Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1970).
    • China's Environment Syllabus 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC spot.colorado.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Sources for the history of technology: national comparisons: (conference papers) .
    • The History of Technology-Science Tracer Bullet 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Ming Gardens," Papers in Far Eastern History 22 (September 1980), 1-15.
    • Bibliography on Gardens in China: Sources in Western Languages 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC inside.bard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Canberra.
  • de Crespigny, Rafe. 1984. Northern Frontier. .The Policies and Strategies of the Later Han Empire.^ Later Han Empire .
    • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After the fall of the Later Han, the Chinese Empire remained divided for three and a half centuries.
    • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Rafe de Crespigny. .1984. Faculty of Asian Studies, Australian National University.^ China Economic Databases Project Center for China Studies, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan http://ics.nccu.edu.tw/eced/ .
    • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

    ^ (Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1970).
    • China's Environment Syllabus 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC spot.colorado.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Wellington, New Zealand: Asian Studies Insitute, Victoria University of Wellington, 2004.
    • Bibliography on Gardens in China: Sources in Western Languages 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC inside.bard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Canberra.
  • de Crespigny, Rafe. .1989. "South China under the Later Han Dynasty" (Chapter One from Generals of the South: the Foundation and early history of the Three Kingdoms state of Wu by Rafe de Crespigny, in Asian Studies Monographs, New Series No.^ So China was divided into three kingdoms.
    • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ China not unified under any one power.

    ^ We study history more seriously then that.
    • Communist tactics in Korean War [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: Original source]

    .16 Faculty of Asian Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra 1989)[3]
  • de Crespigny, Rafe.^ (Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1970).
    • China's Environment Syllabus 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC spot.colorado.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ China Economic Databases Project Center for China Studies, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan http://ics.nccu.edu.tw/eced/ .
    • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

    ^ "A Pluridisciplinary Research on Castiglione and the Emperor Ch'ien-lung's European Palaces," National Palace Museum Bulletin 24, 4 and 5 (September 1989), 1-12 (December 1989), 1-16.
    • Bibliography on Gardens in China: Sources in Western Languages 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC inside.bard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .1996. "Later Han Military Administration: An Outline of the Military Administration of the Later Han Empire."^ Later Han Empire .
    • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Administrative weakness and inefficiency plagued the Later or Eastern Han dynasty from the very beginning.
    • CHINA 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Han Dynasty expanded the empire's territory considerably with military campaigns reaching Korea , Vietnam , Mongolia and Central Asia , and also helped establish the Silk Road in Central Asia.

    Rafe de Crespigny. .Based on the Introduction to Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling being the Chronicle of Later Han for the years 189 to 220 CE as recorded in Chapters 59 to 69 of the Zizhi tongjian of Sima Guang, translated and annotated by Rafe de Crespigny and originally published in the Asian Studies Monographs, New Series No.^ Asian Studies Institute Translation Papers, no.
    • Bibliography on Gardens in China: Sources in Western Languages 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC inside.bard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ There were also enormous works of historiography and large encyclopedias, such as Sima Guang 's Zizhi Tongjian of 1084 CE or the Four Great Books of Song fully compiled and edited by the 11th century.

    ^ In recent years, a number of New Confucians (not to be confused with Neo-Confucianism) have advocated that democratic ideals and human rights are quite compatible with traditional Confucian "Asian values".

    .21, Faculty of Asian Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra 1996. [4]
  • Dubs, Homer H. 1938. The History of the Former Han Dynasty by Pan Ku.^ China Economic Databases Project Center for China Studies, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan http://ics.nccu.edu.tw/eced/ .
    • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

    ^ Cambridge studies in Chinese history, literature, and institutions (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge ; New York).
    • China's Environment Syllabus 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC spot.colorado.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1970).
    • China's Environment Syllabus 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC spot.colorado.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Vol. One
    . Baltimore. .Waverly Press, Inc.
  • Dubs, Homer H. 1944. The History of the Former Han Dynasty by Pan Ku.^ The Han dynasty plays a very important role in Chinese history.
    • Chinese History, China History, A Brief History of China, Chinese Chronology 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatour.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Tang are considered to be one of the great dynasties of Chinese history; many historians rank them right behind the Han.
    • Chinese History, China History, A Brief History of China, Chinese Chronology 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatour.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Vol. Two
    . Baltimore. .Waverly Press, Inc.
  • Dubs, Homer H. 1955. The History of the Former Han Dynasty by Pan Ku.^ The Han dynasty plays a very important role in Chinese history.
    • Chinese History, China History, A Brief History of China, Chinese Chronology 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatour.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Tang are considered to be one of the great dynasties of Chinese history; many historians rank them right behind the Han.
    • Chinese History, China History, A Brief History of China, Chinese Chronology 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinatour.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Vol. Three
    . Ithaca, New York. .Spoken Languages Services, Inc.
  • Hill, John E. (2009) Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE.^ He thus ended the Tang dynasty and founded the Later Liang dynasty (907-23) during which wars continued to ravage northern China.
    • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Han garrisons occupied the Gansu corridor until the middle of the 2nd century when Han power began to decline.
    • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Later Han Dynasty.
    • A Brief History Of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    John E. Hill. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1.
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue ?? by Yu Huan ??: .A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between CE 239 and 265. Draft annotated English translation.^ Assigned readings will be in English, but students with Chinese language skills are encouraged to introduce additional materials from China into the class discussions and annotated bibliographies.
    • China's Environment Syllabus 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC spot.colorado.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Fei Ch'i-hao The Boxer Rebellion, 1900 (English translation of Chinese historical text, within Paul Halsall's Modern History Sourcebook) .
    • VoS: History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC vos.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Forging the Garden: The Yuanye and the Significance of the Chinese Garden in the 17th Century," East and West 53, 1-4 (December 2003), 209-239.
    • Bibliography on Gardens in China: Sources in Western Languages 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC inside.bard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Archive copy at the Internet Archive
  • Hirth, Friedrich. 1875. China and the Roman Orient. .Shanghai and Hong Kong.^ Shanghai Hong Kong Wuhan Shenyang Nanchang .
    • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
    • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

    ^ The Wards lived in Shanghai until 1950 and from 1951 to 1958 they worked in Hong Kong and Taiwan.
    • Oral History Catalogue at Claremont Graduate University / China Missionaries Project 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC web.cgu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Of these cities, Chongqing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Qingdao, Guangzhou, Dalian, and Nanjing play significant roles as port cities.
    • CHINA 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Unchanged reprint. .Chicago, Ares Publishers, 1975.
  • Hulsewé, A. F. P. and Loewe, M. A. N. 1979. China in Central Asia: The Early Stage 125 BCE – CE 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty.^ Following Huangdi, historians believe that the Xia Dynasty (2100-1600 B.C.) was the first dynasty of China and marked the beginning of Chinese history.
    • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Chapter 1 The Early History of Hemp .
    • Hemp & Hemp and History (The Great Book of Hemp): The Early History of Hemp (by Robert A. Nelson)The Early History of Hemp 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.rexresearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although our socialist system is still in its early phase of development, China has undoubtedly established a socialist system and entered the stage of socialist society.
    • Resolution on CPC History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Leiden: E. J. Brill.
  • Twitchett, Denis and Loewe, Michael, eds.^ Rosenthal, Ed: The Herb ; 1971, E.J. Brill, Leiden.
    • Hemp & Hemp and History (The Great Book of Hemp): The Early History of Hemp (by Robert A. Nelson)The Early History of Hemp 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.rexresearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .1986. The Cambridge History of China.^ E   Return to the top Ebrey, Patricia B.  The Cambridge Illustrated History of China.
    • Women in Chinese History -- Bibliography 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC hua.umf.maine.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Volume I. The Ch’in and Han Empires, 221 BCE – CE 220
    .^ The Qin dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC) and the Han dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD) .
    • History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ CH'IN EMPIRE (221-206 BC) .
    • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Following the fall of the Han Empire in 220, China suffered three .
    • A Brief History Of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Cambridge University Press.
Jin, the Sixteen Kingdoms, and the Northern and Southern Dynasties
  • de Crespigny, Rafe. .1991. "The Three Kingdoms and Western Jin: A History of China in the Third Century AD." East Asian History, no.^ Kelley L. Ross (Los Angeles Valley C.) Emperors of the Sangoku, the "Three Kingdoms," of India, China, & Japan (article covering the general history of rule in these countries, with images, tables, and maps) .
    • VoS: History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC vos.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The forgotten fact is that there was fill-fledged Muslim invasion of Western China in the 7th and 8th centuries.
    • History of Jihad against the Buddhist Chinese (651-751-Ongoing) 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ R. Bin Wong (U. California, Irvine) "R. Bin Wong Examines Asia's Place in World History" (video of lecture at East Asian Institute, Columbia U.) .
    • VoS: History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC vos.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

    1 June 1991, pp. 1–36, & no. 2 December 1991, pp. 143–164. Australian National University, Canberra. [5]
  • Miller, Andrew. .1959. Accounts of Western Nations in the History of the Northern Chou Dynasty.^ The manner in which the Western Chou fell followed a pattern that was repeated throughout Chinese history.
    • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The account of the fall of the Shang dynasty that appears in traditional Chinese histories follows closely the story of the fall of the Hsia.
    • CHINA 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ainu: Spirit of a Northern People (virtual exhibit) (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC) .
    • VoS: History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC vos.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .University of California Press.^ Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1991.
    • Women in Chinese History -- Bibliography 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC hua.umf.maine.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
    • Women in Chinese History -- Bibliography 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC hua.umf.maine.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1995.
    • Women in Chinese History -- Bibliography 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC hua.umf.maine.edu [Source type: Academic]

Sui Dynasty
.
  • Wright, Arthur F. 1978. The Sui Dynasty: The Unification of China.^ Aside from the unification and expansion of China, the best-known achievement of the Ch’in dynasty was the completion of the GREAT WALL, (q.v.
    • CHINA 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The prolonged period of disunity finally ended when a general from the northwest united China by establishing the new dynasty of Sui.
    • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These included the overthrow of the Manchu Dynasty, the unification of China, and the establishment of a republic.
    • Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    CE 581-617
    . Alfred A. Knopf, New York. ISBN 0-394-49187-4 ; 0-394-32332-7 (pbk).
Tang Dynasty
  • Benn, Charles. .2002. China's Golden Age: Everyday Life in the Tang Dynasty.^ He thus ended the Tang dynasty and founded the Later Liang dynasty (907-23) during which wars continued to ravage northern China.
    • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ During the same time, China witnessed unprecedented progress in agriculture, science, and technology and reached the golden age of Chinese philosophy and literature.
    • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At the China Adolescents Life Education Forum, experts said that in China, suicide has become the top killer among people between the age of 15 and 34.
    • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

    .Oxford University Press.^ New York: Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 1995.
    • Women in Chinese History -- Bibliography 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC hua.umf.maine.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford (Oxfordshire), Clarendon Press; New York, Oxford University Press, 1982.
    • The History of Technology-Science Tracer Bullet 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford : Oxford University Press.
    • China's Environment Syllabus 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC spot.colorado.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-19-517665-0.
  • Pelliot, Paul. .1904. "Deux itinéraires de Chine en Inde à la fin du VIIIe siècle."^ Guide pratique du jardinier amateur en Chine au XVIIe siècle.
    • Bibliography on Gardens in China: Sources in Western Languages 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC inside.bard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Clapier, P.N. "Contribution à l'étude de la repartition des bilharzioses en Afrique équatoriale française."
    • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ C'est dire que l'intégralité du don alimentaire libyen prétendue destiné aux musulmans de Centrafrique a été confisqué par l'Ambassade de la Libye en Centrafrique.
    • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .BEFEO 4 (1904), pp. 131–413.
  • Schafer, Edward H. 1963. The Golden Peaches of Samarkand: A study of T’ang Exotics.^ Schafer, Edward: The Golden Peaches of Samarkand ; Univ.
    • Hemp & Hemp and History (The Great Book of Hemp): The Early History of Hemp (by Robert A. Nelson)The Early History of Hemp 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.rexresearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Schafer, Edward H. "Cosmos in Miniature: The Tradition of the Chinese Garden," Landscape 12, 3 (Spring 1963), 24-26.
    • Bibliography on Gardens in China: Sources in Western Languages 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC inside.bard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Schafer, Edward H. "The Idea of Created Nature in T'ang Literature," Philosophy East and West 15 (1965), 153-160.
    • Bibliography on Gardens in China: Sources in Western Languages 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC inside.bard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .University of California Press.^ Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1991.
    • Women in Chinese History -- Bibliography 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC hua.umf.maine.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
    • Women in Chinese History -- Bibliography 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC hua.umf.maine.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1995.
    • Women in Chinese History -- Bibliography 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC hua.umf.maine.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Berkeley and Los Angeles.^ Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1971.
    • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, USA: University of California Press, 1992, pp.
    • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994.
    • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    1st paperback edition. .1985. ISBN 0-520-05462-8.
  • Schafer, Edward H. 1967. The Vermilion Bird: T’ang Images of the South.^ Schafer, Edward H. "The Idea of Created Nature in T'ang Literature," Philosophy East and West 15 (1965), 153-160.
    • Bibliography on Gardens in China: Sources in Western Languages 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC inside.bard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.^ Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1991.
    • Women in Chinese History -- Bibliography 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC hua.umf.maine.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
    • Women in Chinese History -- Bibliography 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC hua.umf.maine.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Manas: Primary Documents for the Study of Indian HIstory, 1890-2000 (bibliiographies, arranged by topic) (Vinay Lal, U. California, Los Angeles) .
    • VoS: History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC vos.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Reprint 1985. ISBN 0-520-05462-8.
  • Shaffer, Lynda Norene. 1996. Maritime Southeast Asia to 1500. .Armonk, New York, M.E. Sharpe, Inc.^ Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 2007.
    • Women in Chinese History -- Bibliography 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC hua.umf.maine.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ NOTES       1 Richard Bernstein and Ross H. Munro, The Coming Conflict With China (New York: Alfred A. Knopf Inc, 1997), p 203.
    • China: the Emerging Superpower 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1997.
    • China: the Emerging Superpower 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 1-56324-144-7.
  • Wang, Zhenping. 1991. "T’ang Maritime Trade Administration." Wang Zhenping. Asia Major, Third Series, Vol. IV, 1991, pp. 7–38.
Song Dynasty
  • Ebrey, Walthall, Palais (2006). .East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History.^ Lanic: Argentina (links for research on the culture, history, and politics of Argentina) (U. Texas, Austin) .
    • VoS: History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC vos.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Europe in the Age of Imperialism, 1870 to 1914 Political, social and military history of Europe with particular attention to World War I and its origins.
    • OU Department of History - Courses 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ou.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Lanic: Cuba (links for research on the culture, history, and politics of Cuba) (U. Texas, Austin) .
    • VoS: History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC vos.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Shiba, Yoshinobu.^ New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000.
    • Women in Chinese History -- Bibliography 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC hua.umf.maine.edu [Source type: Academic]

    1970. Commerce and Society in Sung China. Originally published in Japanese as So-dai sho-gyo—shi kenkyu-. Tokyo, Kazama shobo-, 1968. Yoshinobu Shiba. Translation by Mark Elvin, Centre for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan.
Ming Dynasty
  • Duyvendak, J.J.L. China’s Discovery of Africa (London: Probsthain, 1949)
  • Sung, Ying-hsing. 1637. T’ien kung k’ai wu. .Published as Chinese Technology in the seventeenth century.^ In the late 19th century the Chinese government made some attempts to introduce European technology.
    • A Short History of China 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Translated and annotated by E-tu Zen Sun and Shiou-chuan Sun. 1996. Mineola. New York. Dover Publications.
The Social and Political Systems

Further reading

.
  • CLASSICAL HISTORIOGRAPHY FOR CHINESE HISTORY
  • Abramson, Marc S. (2008).^ Classical Historiography for Chinese History (articles and bibliographies) (Benjamin A. Elman, U. California, Los Angeles and Princeton U.) .
    • VoS: History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC vos.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Ethnic Identity in Tang China. .University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.^ Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.
    • Hemp & Hemp and History (The Great Book of Hemp): The Early History of Hemp (by Robert A. Nelson)The Early History of Hemp 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.rexresearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 978-0-8122-4052-8.
  • Ankerl, G. C. Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western.^ The Han Chinese are the result of China’s defeat at the battle of the Talas river when the Arab Muslims attacked Western China .
    • History of Jihad against the Buddhist Chinese (651-751-Ongoing) 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The silk route west was protected when the Chinese were aided by the Uighur tribes in taking the Tarim Basin from the Western Turks, who were also divided by a civil war in 630.
    • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The clash of the Chinese with the Muslims Arabs started in 651 wen the Arabs reached the South-Western borders of the Chinese empire after overrunning the Persian Sassanid empire.
    • History of Jihad against the Buddhist Chinese (651-751-Ongoing) 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

    INU PRESS Geneva, 2000. ISBN 2-88155-004-5.
  • Creel, Herrlee Glessner. The Birth of China. .1936.
  • Fairbank, John King, China : a new history, Cambridge, Mass. : Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992. ISBN 0674116704
  • Feis, Herbert, The China Tangle: The American Effort in China from Pearl Harbor to the Marshall Mission, Princeton University Press, 1953.
  • Hammond, Kenneth J. From Yao to Mao: 5000 Years of Chinese History.^ Following Huangdi, historians believe that the Xia Dynasty (2100-1600 B.C.) was the first dynasty of China and marked the beginning of Chinese history.
    • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1971.
    • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ News from China rarely filters out, but there have been reports of bus bombings, bomb blasts and stabbings in Western China and also some stabbing cases in Beijing the Chinese capital.
    • History of Jihad against the Buddhist Chinese (651-751-Ongoing) 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

    The Teaching Company, 2004. (A lecture on DVD.)
  • Giles, Herbert Allen. The Civilization of China. Project Gutenburg e-text. .A general history, originally published around 1911.
  • Giles, Herbert Allen.^ Chinese History (to Qing Dynasty) (general historical links, arranged by time period, to 1911) (East Asian Library, U. Southern California) .
    • VoS: History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC vos.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

    China and the Manchus. .Project Gutenberg e-text.^ W. Gilmore Simms The Life of Francis Marion (e-text biography of "the Swamp Fox" general) (Project Gutenberg, Champaign, IL) .
    • VoS: History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC vos.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Mary Rowlandson The Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson (downloadable e-text) (Project Gutenberg, U. Pennsylvania) .
    • VoS: History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC vos.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Covers the Qing (Manchu) dynasty, published shortly after the fall of the dynasty, around 1912.
  • Korotayev A., Malkov A., Khaltourina D. Introduction to Social Macrodynamics: Secular Cycles and Millennial Trends. Moscow: URSS, 2006. ISBN 5-484-00559-0 [6] (Chapter 2: Historical Population Dynamics in China).
  • Laufer, Berthold.^ Qing Decline 1799-1875 Qing Dynasty Fall 1875-1912 Republican China in Turmoil 1912-1926 Nationalist-Communist Civil War 1927-1937 China at War 1937-1949 Korea 1800-1949 Japan's Modernization 1800-1894 Imperial Japan 1894-1937 Japan's War and Defeat 1937-1949 .
    • Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Qing Dynasty (overview article and images, within larger site on ancient and imperial China) (Minnesota State U., Mankota) .
    • VoS: History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC vos.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Records of civilization in China date back to around 1766 B.C.E. and the Shang Dynasty.
    • Culture of China - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    1912. JADE: A Study in Chinese Archaeology & Religion. .Reprint: Dover Publications, New York.^ A War in Perspective, 1898-1998: Public Appeals, Memory, and the Spanish-American Conflict (exhibit materials, arranged by subject) (New York Public Library) .
    • VoS: History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC vos.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A War in Perspective, 1898-1998: Public Appeals, Memory, and the Spanish-American Conflict (New York Public Library) .
    • VoS: History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC vos.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Images of African Americans from the 19th Century (Schomburg Center, New York Public Library) .
    • VoS: History 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC vos.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .1974.
  • Terrill, Ross, 800,000,000: the real China, Boston, Little, Brown, 1972
  • Wilkinson, Endymion Porter, Chinese history : a manual, revised and enlarged.^ Reales 250.000 - Esperanziales 1.800.000 .
    • Escolar.net: Pancarteros 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.escolar.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Following Huangdi, historians believe that the Xia Dynasty (2100-1600 B.C.) was the first dynasty of China and marked the beginning of Chinese history.
    • Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes 14 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It was nice and we learned a little about Hong Kong (Chinese) History in the process.

    - Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University, Asia Center (for the Harvard-Yenching Institute), 2000, 1181 p., ISBN 0-674-00247-4; ISBN 0-674-00249-0

External links

.
.This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.^ Did you see that in other countries?
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ Articles containing traditional Chinese language text .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]


Territories occupied by different dynasties as well as modern political states throughout the history of China
History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2100–1600 BC
Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BC
Zhou Dynasty 1045–256 BC
 Western Zhou
 Eastern Zhou
   Spring and Autumn Period
   Warring States Period
IMPERIAL
Qin Dynasty 221 BC–206 BC
Han Dynasty 206 BC–220 AD
  Western Han
  Xin Dynasty
  Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220–280
  Wei, Shu & Wu
Jin Dynasty 265–420
  Western Jin 16 Kingdoms
304–439
  Eastern Jin
Southern & Northern Dynasties
420–589
Sui Dynasty 581–618
Tang Dynasty 618–907
  ( Second Zhou 690–705 )
5 Dynasties &
10 Kingdoms

907–960
Liao Dynasty
907–1125
Song Dynasty
960–1279
  Northern Song W. Xia
  Southern Song Jin
Yuan Dynasty 1271–1368
Ming Dynasty 1368–1644
Qing Dynasty 1644–1911
MODERN
Republic of China 1912–1949
People's Republic
of China

1949–present
Republic
of China

(Taiwan)
1945–present

Chinese civilization originated in various regional centers along both the Yellow River and the Yangtze River valleys in the Neolithic era, but the Yellow River is said to be the Cradle of Chinese Civilization. The written history of China can be found as early as the Shang Dynasty (ca. 1700 BC – ca. 1046 BC).[1] Oracle bones with ancient Chinese writing from the Shang Dynasty have been radiocarbon dated to as early as 1500 BC.[2] The origins of Chinese culture, literature and philosophy developed during the Zhou Dynasty (1045 BC-256 BC).

The Zhou Dynasty began to bow to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC. The ability of the Zhou to control its regional lords lessened, and the kingdom eventually broke apart into smaller states, beginning in the Spring and Autumn Period and reaching full expression in the Warring States period. In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang united the various warring kingdoms and created the first Chinese empire. Successive dynasties in Chinese history developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the Emperor of China to directly control vast territories.

The conventional view of Chinese history is that of alternating periods of political unity and disunity, with China occasionally being dominated by Inner Asian peoples, most of whom were in turn assimilated into the Han Chinese population. Cultural and political influences from many parts of Asia, carried by successive waves of immigration, expansion, and cultural assimilation, are part of the modern culture of China.

Contents

Prehistory

Paleolithic

What is now China was inhabited by Homo erectus more than a million years ago.[3] Recent study shows that the stone tools found at Xiaochangliang site are magnetostratigraphically dated to 1.36 million years ago.[4] The archaeological site of Xihoudu in Shanxi Province is the earliest recorded use of fire by Homo erectus, which is dated 1.27 million years ago.[3] The excavations at Yuanmou and later Lantian show early habitation. Perhaps the most famous specimen of Homo erectus found in China is the so-called Peking Man discovered in 1923-27.

Three pottery pieces were unearthed at Liyuzui Cave in Liuzhou, Guangxi Province dated 16,500 and 19,000 BC.[5]

Neolithic

The Neolithic age in China can be traced back to between 12,000 and 10,000 BC.[6] Early evidence for proto-Chinese millet agriculture is radiocarbon-dated to about 7000 BC.[7] The Peiligang culture of Xinzheng county, Henan was excavated in 1977.[8] With agriculture came increased population, the ability to store and redistribute crops, and the potential to support specialist craftsmen and administrators.[9] In late Neolithic times, the Yellow River valley began to establish itself as a cultural center, where the first villages were founded; the most archaeologically significant of those was found at Banpo, Xi'an.[10] The Yellow River was so named because of loess forming its banks gave a yellowish tint to the water.[11]

The early history of China is made obscure by the lack of written documents from this period, coupled with the existence of accounts written during later time periods that attempted to describe events that had occurred several centuries previously. In a sense, the problem stems from centuries of introspection on the part of the Chinese people, which has blurred the distinction between fact and fiction in regards to this early history.

By 7000 BC, the Chinese were farming millet, giving rise to the Jiahu culture. At Damaidi in Ningxia, 3,172 cliff carvings dating to 6000-5000 BC have been discovered "featuring 8,453 individual characters such as the sun, moon, stars, gods and scenes of hunting or grazing." These pictographs are reputed to be similar to the earliest characters confirmed to be written Chinese.[12][13] Later Yangshao culture was superseded by the Longshan culture around 2500 BC.

Ancient era

Xia Dynasty (ca. 2100-ca. 1600 BC)

The Xia Dynasty of China (from ca. 2100 BC to 1600 BC) is the first dynasty to be described in ancient historical records such as Records of the Grand Historian and Bamboo Annals.[1][14]

Although there is disagreement as to whether the dynasty actually existed, there is some archaeological evidence pointing to its possible existence. The historian Sima Qian (145-90 BC), who wrote the Shiji or Records of the Grand Historian, and the so-called Bamboo Annals date the founding of the Xia Dynasty to 4,200 years ago, but this date has not been corroborated. Most archaeologists now connect the Xia to excavations at Erlitou in central Henan province,[15] where a bronze smelter from around 2000 BC was unearthed. Early markings from this period found on pottery and shells are thought to be ancestral to modern Chinese characters.[16] With few clear records matching the Shang oracle bones or the Zhou bronze vessel writings, the Xia era remains poorly understood.

According to mythology, the dynasty ended around 1600 BC as a consequence of the Battle of Mingtiao.

Shang Dynasty (ca. 1700-1046 BC)

The earliest written record of Chinese past so far discovered dates from the Shang Dynasty in perhaps the 13th century BC and takes the form of inscriptions of divination records on the bones or shells of animals—the so-called oracle bones. Archaeological findings providing evidence for the existence of the Shang Dynasty, ca. 1600-1046 BC, are divided into two sets. The first set, from the earlier Shang period comes from sources at Erligang, Zhengzhou and Shangcheng. The second set, from the later Shang or Yin (殷) period, consists of a large body of oracle bone writings. Anyang, in modern-day Henan, has been confirmed as the last of the Shang's nine capitals (ca. 1300-1046 BC). The Shang Dynasty featured 31 kings, from Tang of Shang to King Zhou of Shang. In this period, the Chinese worshipped many different gods - weather gods and sky gods - and also a supreme god, named Shangdi, who ruled over the other gods. Those who lived during the Shang Dynasty also believed that their ancestors - their parents and grandparents - became like gods when they died, and that their ancestors wanted to be worshipped too, like gods. Each family worshipped its own ancestors.

Around 1500 BC, the Chinese began to use written oracle bones to predict the future. By the time of the Zhou Dynasty (about 1100 BC), the Chinese were also worshipping a natural force called tian, which is usually translated as Heaven. Like Shangdi, Heaven ruled over all the other gods, and it decided who would rule China, under the Mandate of Heaven. The ruler could rule as long as he or she had the Mandate of Heaven. It was believed that the emperor or empress had lost the Mandate of Heaven when natural disasters occurred in great number, and when, more realistically, the sovereign had apparently lost his concern for the people. In response, the royal house would be overthrown, and a new house would rule, having been granted the Mandate of Heaven.

The Records of the Grand Historian states that the Shang Dynasty moved its capital six times. The final (and most important) move to Yin in 1350 BC led to the dynasty's golden age. The term Yin Dynasty has been synonymous with the Shang dynasty in history, although it has lately been used to specifically refer to the latter half of the Shang Dynasty.

Chinese historians living in later periods were accustomed to the notion of one dynasty succeeding another, but the actual political situation in early China is known to have been much more complicated. Hence, as some scholars of China suggest, the Xia and the Shang can possibly refer to political entities that existed concurrently, just as the early Zhou is known to have existed at the same time as the Shang.

Written records found at Anyang confirm the existence of the Shang dynasty. However, Western scholars are often hesitant to associate settlements that are contemporaneous with the Anyang settlement with the Shang dynasty. For example, archaeological findings at Sanxingdui suggest a technologically advanced civilization culturally unlike Anyang. The evidence is inconclusive in proving how far the Shang realm extended from Anyang. The leading hypothesis is that Anyang, ruled by the same Shang in the official history, coexisted and traded with numerous other culturally diverse settlements in the area that is now referred to as China proper.

Zhou Dynasty (1066-256 BC)

ritual vessel (You), Western Zhou Dynasty]]

The Zhou Dynasty was the longest-lasting dynasty in Chinese history, from 1066 BC to approximately 256 BC. By the end of the 2nd millennium BC, the Zhou Dynasty began to emerge in the Yellow River valley, overrunning the territory of the Shang. The Zhou appeared to have begun their rule under a semi-feudal system. The Zhou were a people who lived west of the Shang, and the Zhou leader had been appointed "Western Protector" by the Shang. The ruler of the Zhou, King Wu, with the assistance of his brother, the Duke of Zhou, as regent, managed to defeat the Shang at the Battle of Muye. The king of Zhou at this time invoked the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to legitimize his rule, a concept that would be influential for almost every succeeding dynasty. The Zhou initially moved their capital west to an area near modern Xi'an, on the Wei River, a tributary of the Yellow River, but they would preside over a series of expansions into the Yangtze River valley. This would be the first of many population migrations from north to south in Chinese history.

Spring and Autumn Period (722-476 BC)

design, Spring and Autumn Period.]]

In the 8th century BC, power became decentralized during the Spring and Autumn Period, named after the influential Spring and Autumn Annals. In this period, local military leaders used by the Zhou began to assert their power and vie for hegemony. The situation was aggravated by the invasion of other peoples from the northwest, such as the Qin, forcing the Zhou to move their capital east to Luoyang. This marks the second major phase of the Zhou dynasty: the Eastern Zhou. In each of the hundreds of states that eventually arose, local strongmen held most of the political power and continued their subservience to the Zhou kings in name only. For instance, local leaders started using royal titles for themselves. The Hundred Schools of Thought of Chinese philosophy blossomed during this period, and such influential intellectual movements as Confucianism, Taoism, Legalism and Mohism were founded, partly in response to the changing political world. The Spring and Autumn Period is marked by a falling apart of the central Zhou power. China now consists of hundreds of states, some of them only as large as a village with a fort.

Warring States Period (476-221 BC)

After further political consolidation, seven prominent states remained by the end of 5th century BC, and the years in which these few states battled each other are known as the Warring States Period. Though there remained a nominal Zhou king until 256 BC, he was largely a figurehead and held little real power. As neighboring territories of these warring states, including areas of modern Sichuan and Liaoning, were annexed, they were governed under the new local administrative system of commandery and prefecture (郡縣/郡县). This system had been in use since the Spring and Autumn Period, and parts can still be seen in the modern system of Sheng & Xian (province and county, 省縣/省县). The final expansion in this period began during the reign of Ying Zheng, the king of Qin. His unification of the other six powers, and further annexations in the modern regions of Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi in 214 BC, enabled him to proclaim himself the First Emperor (Qin Shi Huang).

Imperial era

Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC)

[[File:|thumb|Qin Shi Huang]]

Historians often refer to the period from Qin Dynasty to the end of Qing Dynasty as Imperial China. Though the unified reign of the Qin Emperor lasted only 12 years, he managed to subdue great parts of what constitutes the core of the Han Chinese homeland and to unite them under a tightly centralized Legalist government seated at Xianyang (close to modern Xi'an). The doctrine of Legalism that guided the Qin emphasized strict adherence to a legal code and the absolute power of the emperor. This philosophy, while effective for expanding the empire in a military fashion, proved unworkable for governing it in peacetime. The Qin Emperor presided over the brutal silencing of political opposition, including the event known as the burning of books and burying of scholars. This would be the impetus behind the later Han synthesis incorporating the more moderate schools of political governance.

of Qin Shi Huang.]]

The Qin Dynasty is well known for beginning the Great Wall of China, which was later augmented and enhanced during the Ming Dynasty. The other major contributions of the Qin include the concept of a centralized government, the unification of the legal code, development of the written language, measurement, and currency of China after the tribulations of the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods. Even something as basic as the length of axles for carts had to be made uniform to ensure a viable trading system throughout the empire.[17]

Han Dynasty (202 BC–AD 220)

oil lamp with a sliding shutter, in the shape of a kneeling female servant, 2nd century BC]]

The Han Dynasty (202 BC – AD 220) emerged in 206 BC, with its founder Liu Bang proclaimed emperor in 202 BC. It was the first dynasty to embrace the philosophy of Confucianism, which became the ideological underpinning of all regimes until the end of imperial China. Under the Han Dynasty, China made great advances in many areas of the arts and sciences. Emperor Wu consolidated and extended the Chinese empire by pushing back the Xiongnu (identified with the Huns) into the steppes of modern Inner Mongolia, wresting from them the modern areas of Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai. This enabled the first opening of trading connections between China and the West, along the Silk Road. Han Dynasty general Ban Chao expanded his conquests across the Pamirs to the shores of the Caspian Sea.[18] The first of several Roman embassies to China is recorded in Chinese sources, coming from the sea route in AD 166, and a second one in AD 284.

Nevertheless, land acquisitions by elite families gradually drained the tax base. In AD 9, the usurper Wang Mang founded the short-lived Xin ("New") Dynasty and started an extensive program of land and other economic reforms. These programs, however, were never supported by the landholding families, because they favored the peasants. The instability brought about chaos and uprisings.

Emperor Guangwu reinstated the Han Dynasty with the support of landholding and merchant families at Luoyang, east of Xi'an. This new era would be termed the Eastern Han Dynasty. Han power declined again amidst land acquisitions, invasions, and feuding between consort clans and eunuchs. The Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out in AD 184, ushering in an era of warlords. In the ensuing turmoil, three states tried to gain predominance in the period of the Three Kingdoms. This time period has been greatly romanticized in works such as Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

Wei and Jin Period (AD 265–420)

After Cao Cao reunified the north in 208, his son proclaimed the Wei dynasty in 220. Soon, Wei's rivals Shu and Wu proclaimed their independence, leading China into the Three Kingdoms Period. This period was characterized by a gradual decentralization of the state that had existed during the Qin and Han dynasties, and an increase in the power of great families. Although the Three Kingdoms were reunified by the Jin Dynasty in 280, this structure was essentially the same until the Wu Hu uprising.

Wu Hu Period (AD 304–439)

Taking advantage of civil war in the Jin Dynasty, the contemporary non-Han Chinese (Wu Hu) ethnic groups controlled much of the country in the early 4th century and provoked large-scale Han Chinese migrations to south of the Yangtze River. In 303 the Di people rebelled and later captured Chengdu, establishing the state of Cheng Han. Under Liu Yuan, the Xiongnu rebelled near today's Linfen County and established the state of Han Zhao. Liu Yuan's successor Liu Cong captured and executed the last two Western Jin emperors. Sixteen kingdoms were a plethora of short-lived non-Chinese dynasties that came to rule the whole or parts of northern China in the 4th and 5th centuries. Many ethnic groups were involved, including ancestors of the Turks, Mongols, and Tibetans. Most of these nomadic peoples had, to some extent, been "sinicized" long before their ascent to power. In fact, some of them, notably the Qiang and the Xiongnu, had already been allowed to live in the frontier regions within the Great Wall since late Han times.

statue of the Bodhisattva, from the Northern Qi Dynasty, AD 570, made in what is now modern Henan province.]]

Southern and Northern Dynasties (AD 420–589)

Signaled by the collapse of East Jin Dynasty in 420, China entered the era of the Southern and Northern Dynasties. The Han people managed to survive the military attacks from the nomadic tribes of the north, such as the Xianbei, and their civilization continued to thrive.

In southern China, fierce debates about whether Buddhism should be allowed to exist were held frequently by the royal court and nobles. Finally, near the end of the Southern and Northern Dynasties era, both Buddhist and Taoist followers compromised and became more tolerant of each other.

In 589, Sui annexed the last Southern Dynasty, Chen, through military force, and put an end to the era of Southern and Northern Dynasties.

Sui Dynasty (AD 589–618)

The Sui Dynasty, which managed to reunite the country in 589 after nearly four centuries of political fragmentation, played a role more important than its length of existence would suggest. The Sui brought China together again and set up many institutions that were to be adopted by their successors, the Tang. Like the Qin, however, the Sui overused their resources and collapsed. Also similar to the Qin, traditional history has judged the Sui somewhat unfairly, as it has stressed the harshness of the Sui regime and the arrogance of its second emperor, giving little credit for the Dynasty's many positive achievements.

Tang Dynasty (AD 618–907)

tricolored glaze porcelain horse (ca. AD 700)]]

On June 18, 618, Gaozu took the throne, and the Tang Dynasty was established, opening a new age of prosperity and innovations in arts and technology. Buddhism, which had gradually been established in China from the 1st century AD, became the predominant religion and was adopted by the imperial family and many of the common people.

Chang'an (modern Xi'an), the national capital, is thought to have been the world's largest city at the time. The Tang and the Han dynasties are often referred to as the most prosperous periods of Chinese history.

The Tang, like the Han, kept the trade routes open to the west and south. There was extensive trade with distant foreign countries, and many foreign merchants settled in China.

The Tang introduced a new system into the Chinese government, called the "equal-field system". This system gave families land grants from the emperor based on their needs, not their wealth.

From about 860, the Tang Dynasty began to decline due to a series of rebellions within China itself and in the previously subject Kingdom of Nanzhao to the south. One of the warlords, Huang Chao, captured Guangzhou in 879, killing most of the 200,000 inhabitants, including most of the large colony of foreign merchant families there.[19] In late 880, Luoyang surrendered to him, and on 5 January 881 he conquered Chang'an. The emperor Xizong fled to Chengdu, and Huang established a new temporary regime, which was eventually destroyed by Tang forces, but another time of political chaos followed.

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (AD 907–960)

The period of political disunity between the Tang and the Song, known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, lasted little more than half a century, from 907 to 960. During this brief era, when China was in all respects a multi-state system, five regimes succeeded one another rapidly in control of the old Imperial heartland in northern China. During this same time, 10 more stable regimes occupied sections of southern and western China, so the period is also referred to as that of the Ten Kingdoms.

Song, Liao, Jin, and Western Xia Dynasties (AD 960–1234)

In 960, the Song Dynasty gained power over most of China and established its capital in Kaifeng (later known as Bianjing), starting a period of economic prosperity, while the Khitan Liao Dynasty ruled over Manchuria, present-day Mongolia, and parts of Northern China. In 1115, the Jurchen Jin Dynasty emerged to prominence, annihilating the Liao Dynasty in 10 years. Meanwhile, in what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of Gansu, Shaanxi, and Ningxia, there emerged a Western Xia Dynasty from 1032 to 1227, established by Tangut tribes.

The Jin Dynasty took power over northern China and Kaifeng from the Song Dynasty, which moved its capital to Hangzhou (杭州). The Southern Song Dynasty also suffered the humiliation of having to acknowledge the Jin Dynasty as formal overlords. In the ensuing years, China was divided between the Song Dynasty, the Jin Dynasty and the Tangut Western Xia. Southern Song experienced a period of great technological development which can be explained in part by the military pressure that it felt from the north. This included the use of gunpowder weapons, which played a large role in the Song Dynasty naval victories against the Jin in the Battle of Tangdao and Battle of Caishi on the Yangtze River in 1161. Furthermore, China's first permanent standing navy was assembled and provided an admiral's office at Dinghai in 1132, under the reign of Emperor Renzong of Song.

The Song Dynasty is considered by many to be classical China's high point in science and technology, with innovative scholar-officials such as Su Song (1020–1101) and Shen Kuo (1031–1095). There was court intrigue between the political rivals of the Reformers and Conservatives, led by the chancellors Wang Anshi and Sima Guang, respectively. By the mid-to-late 13th century the Chinese had adopted the dogma of Neo-Confucian philosophy formulated by Zhu Xi. There were enormous literary works compiled during the Song Dynasty, such as the historical work of the Zizhi Tongjian. Culture and the arts flourished, with grandiose artworks such as Along the River During the Qingming Festival and Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute, while there were great Buddhist painters such as Lin Tinggui.

Yuan Dynasty (AD 1271–1368)

Mounting a Horse, by Qian Xuan (1235-1305 AD).]]

The Jurchen-founded Jin Dynasty was defeated by the Mongols, who then proceeded to defeat the Southern Song in a long and bloody war, the first war in which firearms played an important role. During the era after the war, later called the Pax Mongolica, adventurous Westerners such as Marco Polo travelled all the way to China and brought the first reports of its wonders to Europe. In the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols were divided between those who wanted to remain based in the steppes and those who wished to adopt the customs of the Chinese.

Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, wanting to adopt the customs of China, established the Yuan Dynasty. This was the first dynasty to rule the whole of China from Beijing as the capital. Beijing had been ceded to Liao in AD 938 with the Sixteen Prefectures of Yan Yun. Before that, it had been the capital of the Jin, who did not rule all of China.

Before the Mongol invasion, Chinese dynasties reportedly had approximately 120 million inhabitants; after the conquest was completed in 1279, the 1300 census reported roughly 60 million people.[20] While it is tempting to attribute this major decline solely to Mongol ferocity, scholars today have mixed sentiments regarding this subject. Scholars such as Frederick W. Mote argue that the wide drop in numbers reflects an administrative failure to record rather than a de facto decrease whilst others such as Timothy Brook argue that the Mongols created a system of enserfment among a huge portion of the Chinese populace causing many to disappear from the census altogether. Other historians like William McNeill and David Morgan argue that the Bubonic Plague was the main factor behind the demographic decline during this period. The 14th century epidemics of plague (Black Death) is estimated to have killed 30% of the population of China.[21][22]

Ming Dynasty (AD 1368–1644)

(1470-1523).]]

[[File:|left|thumb|Hongwu Emperor, founder of the Ming Dynasty]] Throughout the Yuan Dynasty, which lasted less than a century, there was relatively strong sentiment among the populace against the Mongol rule. The frequent natural disasters since the 1340s finally led to peasant revolts. The Yuan Dynasty was eventually overthrown by the Ming Dynasty in 1368.

Urbanization increased as the population grew and as the division of labor grew more complex. Large urban centers, such as Nanjing and Beijing, also contributed to the growth of private industry. In particular, small-scale industries grew up, often specializing in paper, silk, cotton, and porcelain goods. For the most part, however, relatively small urban centers with markets proliferated around the country. Town markets mainly traded food, with some necessary manufactures such as pins or oil.

Despite the xenophobia and intellectual introspection characteristic of the increasingly popular new school of neo-Confucianism, China under the early Ming Dynasty was not isolated. Foreign trade and other contacts with the outside world, particularly Japan, increased considerably. Chinese merchants explored all of the Indian Ocean, reaching East Africa with the voyages of Zheng He.

Zhu Yuanzhang or (Hong-wu, the founder of the dynasty, laid the foundations for a state interested less in commerce and more in extracting revenues from the agricultural sector. Perhaps because of the Emperor's background as a peasant, the Ming economic system emphasized agriculture, unlike that of the Song and the Mongolian Dynasties, which relied on traders and merchants for revenue. Neo-feudal landholdings of the Song and Mongol periods were expropriated by the Ming rulers. Land estates were confiscated by the government, fragmented, and rented out. Private slavery was forbidden. Consequently, after the death of Emperor Yong-le, independent peasant landholders predominated in Chinese agriculture. These laws might have paved the way to removing the worst of the poverty during the previous regimes.

]] The dynasty had a strong and complex central government that unified and controlled the empire. The emperor's role became more autocratic, although Zhu Yuanzhang necessarily continued to use what he called the "Grand Secretaries" (内阁) to assist with the immense paperwork of the bureaucracy, including memorials (petitions and recommendations to the throne), imperial edicts in reply, reports of various kinds, and tax records. It was this same bureaucracy that later prevented the Ming government from being able to adapt to changes in society, and eventually led to its decline.

Emperor Yong-le strenuously tried to extend China's influence beyond its borders by demanding other rulers send ambassadors to China to present tribute. A large navy was built, including four-masted ships displacing 1,500 tons. A standing army of 1 million troops (some estimate as many as 1.9 million[who?]) was created. The Chinese armies conquered Vietnam for around 20 years, while the Chinese fleet sailed the China seas and the Indian Ocean, cruising as far as the east coast of Africa. The Chinese gained influence in East Turkestan. Several maritime Asian nations sent envoys with tribute for the Chinese emperor. Domestically, the Grand Canal was expanded and proved to be a stimulus to domestic trade. Over 100,000 tons of iron per year were produced. Many books were printed using movable type. The imperial palace in Beijing's Forbidden City reached its current splendor. It was also during these centuries that the potential of south China came to be fully exploited. New crops were widely cultivated and industries such as those producing porcelain and textiles flourished.

In 1449 Esen Tayisi led an Oirat Mongol invasion of northern China which culminated in the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor at Tumu. In 1542 the Mongol leader Altan Khan began to harass China along the northern border. In 1550 he even reached the suburbs of Beijing. The empire also had to deal with Japanese pirates attacking the southeastern coastline;[23] General Qi Jiguang was instrumental in defeating these pirates. The deadliest earthquake of all times, the Shaanxi earthquake of 1556 that killed approximately 830,000 people, occurred during the Jiajing Emperor's reign.

During the Ming dynasty the last construction on the Great Wall was undertaken to protect China from foreign invasions. While the Great Wall had been built in earlier times, most of what is seen today was either built or repaired by the Ming. The brick and granite work was enlarged, the watch towers were redesigned, and cannons were placed along its length.

Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911)

) and his suite, at the Court of Pekin". Drawn and engraved by James Gillray, published in September 1792.]]

in 1892]]

The Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) was founded after the defeat of the Ming, the last Han Chinese dynasty, by the Manchus. The Manchus were formerly known as the Jurchen. When Beijing was captured by Li Zicheng's peasant rebels in 1644, the last Ming Emperor Chongzhen committed suicide. The Manchu then allied with Ming Dynasty general Wu Sangui and seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the Qing dynasty. The Manchus adopted the Confucian norms of traditional Chinese government in their rule of China proper.

The Manchus enforced a 'queue order' forcing the Han Chinese to adopt the Manchu queue hairstyle and Manchu-style clothing. The traditional Han clothing, or Hanfu, was also replaced by Manchu-style clothing Qipao (bannermen dress and Tangzhuang). Emperor Kangxi ordered the creation of the most complete dictionary of Chinese characters ever put together at the time. The Qing dynasty set up the "Eight Banners" system that provided the basic framework for the Qing military organization. The bannermen were prohibited from participating in trade and manual labour unless they petitioned to be removed from banner status. They were considered a form of nobility and were given preferential treatment in terms of annual pensions, land and allotments of cloth.

from the late 1890s. A pie representing China and is being divided between UK, Germany, Russia, France and Japan.]]

Over the next half-century, the Qing consolidated control of some areas originally under the Ming, including Yunnan. They also stretched their sphere of influence over Xinjiang, Tibet and Mongolia. But during the 19th century, Qing control weakened. Britain's desire to continue its opium trade with China collided with imperial edicts prohibiting the addictive drug, and the First Opium War erupted in 1840. Hong Kong was ceded to Britain in 1842 under the Treaty of Nanking.

A large rebellion, the Taiping Rebellion (1851–1864), involved around a third of China falling under control of the Taiping Tianguo, a quasi-Christian religious movement led by the "Heavenly King" Hong Xiuquan. Only after fourteen years were the Taipings finally crushed - the Taiping army was destroyed in the Third Battle of Nanking in 1864. The death toll during the 15 years of the rebellion was about 20 million.[24]

In addition, more costly rebellions in terms of human lives and economics followed with the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars, Nien Rebellion, Muslim Rebellion, Panthay Rebellion and the Boxer Rebellion.[25] In many ways, the rebellions and the unequal treaties the Qing were forced to sign with the imperialist powers are symptomatic of the Qing's inability to deal with the new challenges of the 19th century.

]] By the 1860s, the Qing Dynasty had put down the rebellions at enormous cost and loss of life. This undermined the credibility of the Qing regime and, spearheaded by local initiatives by provincial leaders and gentry, contributed to the rise of warlordism in China. The Qing Dynasty under the Emperor Guangxu proceeded to deal with the problem of modernization through the Self-Strengthening Movement. However, between 1898 and 1908 the Empress Dowager Cixi had the reformist Guangxu imprisoned for being "mentally disabled"[citation needed]. The Empress Dowager, with the help of conservatives, initiated a military coup, effectively removed the young Emperor from power, and overturned most of the more radical reforms. Guangxu died one day before the death of the Empress Dowager (some believe he was poisoned by Cixi). Official corruption, cynicism, and imperial family quarrels made most of the military reforms useless. As a result, the Qing's "New Armies" were soundly defeated in the Sino-French War (1883-1885) and the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895).

At the start of the 20th century, the Boxer Rebellion threatened northern China. This was a conservative anti-imperialist movement that sought to return China to old ways. The Empress Dowager, probably seeking to ensure her continued grip on power, sided with the Boxers when they advanced on Beijing. In response, a relief expedition of the Eight-Nation Alliance invaded China to rescue the besieged foreign missions. Consisting of British, Japanese, Russian, Italian, German, French, US and Austrian troops, the alliance defeated the Boxers and demanded further concessions from the Qing government.

Modern era

Republic of China

Frustrated by the Qing court's resistance to reform and by China's weakness, young officials, military officers, and students—inspired by the revolutionary ideas of Sun Yat-sen When Sun Yat-sen was asked by one of the leading revolutionary generals to what he ascribed the success, he said, "To Christianity more than to any other single cause. Along with its ideals of religious freedom, and along with these it inculcates everyehere a doctrine of universal love and peace. These ideals appeal to the Chinese; they largely caused the Revolution, and they largely determined its peaceful character." —began to advocate the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the creation of a republic.

[[File:|thumb|Sun Yat-sen, founder and first president of the Republic of China.]] Slavery in China was abolished in 1910.[26]

A revolutionary military uprising, the Wuchang Uprising, began on October 10, 1911 in Wuhan. The provisional government of the Republic of China was formed in Nanjing on March 12, 1912 with Sun Yat-sen as President, but Sun was forced to turn power over to Yuan Shikai, who commanded the New Army and was Prime Minister under the Qing government, as part of the agreement to let the last Qing monarch abdicate (a decision Sun would later regret). Over the next few years, Yuan proceeded to abolish the national and provincial assemblies, and declared himself emperor in late 1915. Yuan's imperial ambitions were fiercely opposed by his subordinates; faced with the prospect of rebellion, he abdicated in March 1916, and died in June of that year. His death left a power vacuum in China; the republican government was all but shattered. This ushered in the warlord era, during which much of the country was ruled by shifting coalitions of competing provincial military leaders.

In 1919, the May Fourth Movement began as a response to the terms imposed on China by the Treaty of Versailles ending World War I, but quickly became a protest movement about the domestic situation in China. The discrediting of liberal Western philosophy amongst Chinese intellectuals was followed by the adoption of more radical lines of thought. This in turn planted the seeds for the irreconcilable conflict between the left and right in China that would dominate Chinese history for the rest of the century.

In the 1920s, Sun Yat-Sen established a revolutionary base in south China, and set out to unite the fragmented nation. With Soviet assistance, he entered into an alliance with the fledgling Communist Party of China. After Sun's death from cancer in 1925, one of his protégés, Chiang Kai-shek, seized control of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party or KMT) and succeeded in bringing most of south and central China under its rule in a military campaign known as the Northern Expedition. Having defeated the warlords in south and central China by military force, Chiang was able to secure the nominal allegiance of the warlords in the North. In 1927, Chiang turned on the CPC and relentlessly chased the CPC armies and its leaders from their bases in southern and eastern China. In 1934, driven from their mountain bases such as the Chinese Soviet Republic, the CPC forces embarked on the Long March across China's most desolate terrain to the northwest, where they established a guerrilla base at Yan'an in Shaanxi Province.

During the Long March, the communists reorganized under a new leader, Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung). The bitter struggle between the KMT and the CPC continued, openly or clandestinely, through the 14-year long Japanese occupation (1931–1945) of various parts of the country. The two Chinese parties nominally formed a united front to oppose the Japanese in 1937, during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), which became a part of World War II. Following the defeat of Japan in 1945, the war between the KMT and the CPC resumed, after failed attempts at reconciliation and a negotiated settlement. By 1949, the CPC had occupied most of the country. (see Chinese Civil War)

At the end of WWII in 1945 as part of the overall Japanese surrender, Japanese troops in Taiwan surrendered to Republic of China troops giving Chiang Kai-shek effective control of Taiwan.[27] When Chiang was defeated by CPC forces in mainland China in 1949, he retreated to Taiwan with his government and his most disciplined troops, along with most of the KMT leadership and a large number of their supporters.

1949 to Present

With the CPC's victory, and their proclamation of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949, Taiwan was again politically separated from mainland China, and continues to be governed by the Republic of China to the present day. No peace treaty has ever been signed between the two opposing parties. For the history of the People's Republic of China since 1949, see History of the People's Republic of China. For the history of the Republic of China since 1949, see Republic of China on Taiwan (1949-present).

See also

China portal

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Cultural History and Archaeology of China". Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, U.S. State Department. Archived from the original on 2007-12-15. http://web.archive.org/web/20071215094418/http://exchanges.state.gov/culprop/cn04sum.html. Retrieved 2008-01-12. [dead link]
  2. ^ Henry Cleere. Archaeological Heritage Management in the Modern World. 2005. Routledge. p. 318. ISBN 0415214483.
  3. ^ a b Rixiang Zhu, Zhisheng An, Richard Pott, Kenneth A. Hoffman (June 2003). "Magnetostratigraphic dating of early humans of in China" (PDF). Earth Science Reviews 61 (3-4): 191–361. http://www.paleomag.net/members/rixiangzhu/Earth-Sci%20Review.pdf. 
  4. ^ "Earliest Presence of Humans in Northeast Asia". Smithsonian Institution. http://www.mnh.si.edu/anthro/humanorigins/whatshot/2001/wh2001-3.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  5. ^ "The discovery of early pottery in China" by Zhang Chi, Department of Archaeology, Peking University, China
  6. ^ "Neolithic Period in China". Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art. October 2004. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/cneo/hd_cneo.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  7. ^ "Rice and Early Agriculture in China". Legacy of Human Civilizations. Mesa Community College. http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/dept/d10/asb/anthro2003/legacy/banpo/banpo.html. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  8. ^ "Peiligang Site". Ministry of Culture of the People's Republic of China. 2003. http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_artqa/2003-09/24/content_39079.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  9. ^ Pringle, Heather (1998). "The Slow Birth of Agriculture". Science. p. 1446. http://cas.bellarmine.edu/tietjen/images/neolithic_agriculture.htm. 
  10. ^ Wertz, Richard R. (2007). "Neolithic and Bronze Age Cultures". Exploring Chinese History. ibiblio. http://www.ibiblio.org/chinesehistory/contents/02cul/c03s04.html. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  11. ^ "Huang He". The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). 2007. http://www.bartleby.com/65/hu/HuangHe.html. 
  12. ^ "Chinese writing '8,000 years old'". BBC News. 2007-05-18. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6669569.stm. Retrieved 2010-05-04. 
  13. ^ "Carvings may rewrite history of Chinese characters". Xinhua online. 2007-05-18. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-05/18/content_6121225.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-19. 
  14. ^ "The Ancient Dynasties". University of Maryland. http://www-chaos.umd.edu/history/ancient1.html. Retrieved 2008-01-12. 
  15. ^ Bronze Age China at National Gallery of Art
  16. ^ Scripts found on Erlitou pottery (written in Simplified Chinese)
  17. ^ "Book "QINSHIHUANG"". http://www.uobuy.com/upload/2005/9/19/. Retrieved 2007-07-06. 
  18. ^ Ban Chao, Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  19. ^ Kaifung Jews. University of Cumbria.
  20. ^ Ping-ti Ho, "An Estimate of the Total Population of Sung-Chin China", in Études Song, Series 1, No 1, (1970) pp. 33-53.
  21. ^ "Course: Plague". http://web.archive.org/web/20071118121009/http://chip.med.nyu.edu/course/view.php?id=13&topic=1. 
  22. ^ "Black Death - Consequences". http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Black_Death_-_Consequences/id/617544. 
  23. ^ "China > History > The Ming dynasty > Political history > The dynastic succession", Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2007
  24. ^ Userserols. "Userserols." Statistics of Wars, Oppressions and Atrocities of the Nineteenth Century. Retrieved on 2007-04-11.
  25. ^ Damsan Harper, Steve Fallon, Katja Gaskell, Julie Grundvig, Carolyn Heller, Thomas Huhti, Bradley Maynew, Christopher Pitts. Lonely Planet China. 9. 2005. ISBN 1-74059-687-0
  26. ^ "Commemoration of the Abolition of Slavery Project". http://web.archive.org/web/20071114095017/http://www.uclan.ac.uk/facs/class/cfe/ceth/abolition/history.htm. 
  27. ^ Surrender Order of the Imperial General Headquarters of Japan, 2 September 1945, "(a) The senior Japanese commanders and all ground, sea, air, and auxiliary forces within China (excluding Manchuria), Formosa, and French Indochina north of 16 degrees north latitude shall surrender to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek."

Bibliography

Surveys

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  • Gernet, Jacques, J. R. Foster, and Charles Hartman. A History of Chinese Civilization (1996), called the best one-volume survey;
  • Hsü, Immanuel Chung-yueh. The Rise of Modern China, 6th ed. (Oxford University Press, 1999), highly detailed coverage of 1644-1999, in 1136pp.
  • Huang, Ray. China, a Macro History (1997) 335pp, an idiosyncratic approach, not for beginners; online edition from Questia
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  • full text of older histories (pre 1923)

Prehistory

  • Chang, Kwang-chih. The Archaeology of Ancient China, Yale University Press, 1986.
  • Discovery of residue from fermented beverage consumed up to 9,000 years ago in Jiahu, Henan Province, China. By Dr. Patrick E McGovern, University of Pennsylvania archaeochemist and colleagues from China, Great Britain and Germany.
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  • he Discovery of Early Pottery in China, by Zhang Chi, Department of Archaeology, Peking University, China. [2]

Shang Dynasty

  • Durant, Stephen W. The Cloudy Mirror: Tension and Conflict in the Writings of Sima Qian (1995),

Han Dynasty

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Jin, the Sixteen Kingdoms, and the Northern and Southern Dynasties

  • de Crespigny, Rafe. 1991. "The Three Kingdoms and Western Jin: A History of China in the Third Century AD." East Asian History, no. 1 June 1991, pp. 1–36, & no. 2 December 1991, pp. 143–164. Australian National University, Canberra. [5]
  • Miller, Andrew. Accounts of Western Nations in the History of the Northern Chou Dynasty. (1959)

Sui Dynasty

  • Wright, Arthur F. 1978. The Sui Dynasty: The Unification of China. CE 581-617. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. ISBN 0-394-49187-4 ; 0-394-32332-7 (pbk).

Tang Dynasty

  • Benn, Charles. 2002. China's Golden Age: Everyday Life in the Tang Dynasty. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517665-0.
  • Schafer, Edward H. 1963. The Golden Peaches of Samarkand: A study of T’ang Exotics. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles. 1st paperback edition. 1985. ISBN 0-520-05462-8.
  • Schafer, Edward H. 1967. The Vermilion Bird: T’ang Images of the South. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. Reprint 1985. ISBN 0-520-05462-8.
  • Shaffer, Lynda Norene. 1996. Maritime Southeast Asia to 1500. Armonk, New York, M.E. Sharpe, Inc. ISBN 1-56324-144-7.
  • Wang, Zhenping. 1991. "T’ang Maritime Trade Administration." Wang Zhenping. Asia Major, Third Series, Vol. IV, 1991, pp. 7–38.

Song Dynasty

  • Ebrey, Patricia. The Inner Quarters: Marriage and the Lives of Chinese Women in the Sung Period (1990)
  • Hymes, Robert, and Conrad Schirokauer, eds. Ordering the World: Approaches to State and Society in Sung Dynasty China, U of California Press, 1993; complete text online free
  • Shiba, Yoshinobu. 1970. Commerce and Society in Sung China. Originally published in Japanese as So-dai sho-gyo—shi kenkyu-. Tokyo, Kazama shobo-, 1968. Yoshinobu Shiba. Translation by Mark Elvin, Centre for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan.

Ming Dynasty

  • Brook, Timothy. The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China. (1998).
  • Brook, Timothy. The Troubled Empire: China in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties (2010) 329 pages. Focus on the impact of a Little Ice Age on the empire, as the empire, beginning with a sharp drop in temperatures in the 13th century during which time the Mongol leader Kubla Khan moved south into China.
  • Dardess, John W. A Ming Society: T'ai-ho County, Kiangsi, Fourteenth to Seventeenth Centuries. (1983); uses advanced "new social history" complete text online free
  • Farmer, Edward. Zhu Yuanzhang and Early Ming Legislation: The Reordering of Chinese Society Following the Era of Mongol Rule. E.J. Brill, 1995.
  • Goodrich, L. Carrington, and Chaoying Fang. Dictionary of Ming Biography. (1976).
  • Huang, Ray. 1587, A Year of No Significance: The Ming Dynasty in Decline. (1981).
  • Mann, Susan. Precious Records: Women in China's Long Eighteenth Century (1997)
  • Mote, Frederick W. and Twitchett, Denis, eds. The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644, Part 1. (1988). 976 pp.
  • Schneewind, Sarah. A Tale of Two Melons: Emperor and Subject in Ming China. (2006).
  • Tsai, Shih-shan Henry. Perpetual Happiness: The Ming Emperor Yongle. (2001).
  • Mote, Frederick W., and Denis Twitchett, eds. The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 7, part 1: The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644 (1988). 1008 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Twitchett, Denis and Frederick W. Mote, eds. The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 8: The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644, Part 1.
    • Twitchett, Denis and Frederick W. Mote, eds. The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 8: The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644, Part 2. (1998). 1203 pp.

Qing Dynasty

  • Fairbank, John K. and Liu, Kwang-Ching, ed. The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 2: Late Ch'ing, 1800–1911, Part 2. Cambridge U. Press, 1980. 754 pp.
  • Peterson, Willard J., ed. The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 9, Part 1: The Ch'ing Dynasty to 1800. Cambridge U. Press, 2002. 753 pp.
  • Rawski, Evelyn S. The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions (2001) complete text online free
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  • Struve, Lynn A., ed. Voices from the Ming-Qing Cataclysm: China in Tigers' Jaws (1998)
  • Yizhuang, Ding. "Reflections on the 'New Qing History' School in the United States," Chinese Studies in History, Winter 2009/2010, Vol. 43 Issue 2, pp 92–96, It drops the theme of "sinification" in evaluating the dynasty and the non-Han Chinese regimes in general. It seeks to analyze the success and failure of Manchu rule in China from the Manchu perspective and focus on how Manchu rulers sought to maintain the Manchu ethnic identity throughout Qing history.

Republican era

  • Bergere, Marie-Claire. Sun Yat-Sen (1998), 480pp, the standard biography
  • Boorman, Howard L., ed. Biographical Dictionary of Republican China. (Vol. I-IV and Index. 1967-1979). 600 short scholarly biographies excerpt and text search
    • Boorman, Howard L. "Sun Yat-sen" in Boorman, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Republican China (1970) 3: 170-89, complete text online
  • Dreyer, Edward L. China at War, 1901-1949. (1995). 422 pp.
  • Eastman Lloyd. Seeds of Destruction: Nationalist China in War and Revolution, 1937- 1945. (1984)
  • Eastman Lloyd et al. The Nationalist Era in China, 1927-1949 (1991)
  • Fairbank, John K., ed. The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 12, Republican China 1912-1949. Part 1. (1983). 1001 pp.
  • Fairbank, John K. and Feuerwerker, Albert, eds. The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 13: Republican China, 1912–1949, Part 2. (1986). 1092 pp.
  • Gordon, David M. The China-Japan War, 1931–1945. The Journal of Military History v70#1 (2006) 137-182; major historiographical overview of all important books and interpretations; in Project Muse
  • Hsiung, James C. and Steven I. Levine, eds. China's Bitter Victory: The War with Japan, 1937-1945 (1992), essays by scholars; online from Questia;
  • Hsi-sheng, Ch'i. Nationalist China at War: Military Defeats and Political Collapse, 1937–1945 (1982)
  • Hung, Chang-tai. War and Popular Culture: Resistance in Modern China, 1937-1945 (1994) complete text online free
  • Rubinstein, Murray A., ed. Taiwan: A New History (2006), 560pp
  • Shiroyama, Tomoko. China during the Great Depression: Market, State, and the World Economy, 1929-1937 (2008)
  • Shuyun, Sun. The Long March: The True History of Communist China's Founding Myth (2007)
  • Taylor, Jay. The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China. (2009) ISBN 978-0674033382
  • Westad, Odd Arne. Decisive Encounters: The Chinese Civil War, 1946-1950. (2003). 413 pp. the standard history

Communist era, 1949- present

  • Barnouin, Barbara, and Yu Changgen. Zhou Enlai: A Political Life (2005)
  • Baum, Richard D. "'Red and Expert': The Politico-Ideological Foundations of China's Great Leap Forward," Asian Survey, Vol. 4, No. 9 (Sep., 1964), pp. 1048–1057 in JSTOR
  • Becker, Jasper. Hungry Ghosts: China's Secret Famine (1996), on the "Great Leap Forward" of 1950s
  • Chang, Jung and Jon Halliday. Mao: The Unknown Story, (2005), 814 pages, ISBN 0-679-42271-4
  • Dittmer, Lowell. China's Continuous Revolution: The Post-Liberation Epoch, 1949-1981 (1989) online free
  • Dietrich, Craig. People's China: A Brief History, 3d ed. (1997), 398pp
  • Kirby, William C., ed. Realms of Freedom in Modern China. (2004). 416 pp.
  • Kirby, William C.; Ross, Robert S.; and Gong, Li, eds. Normalization of U.S.-China Relations: An International History. (2005). 376 pp.
  • Li, Xiaobing. A History of the Modern Chinese Army (2007)
  • MacFarquhar, Roderick and Fairbank, John K., eds. The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 15: The People's Republic, Part 2: Revolutions within the Chinese Revolution, 1966-1982. Cambridge U. Press, 1992. 1108 pp.
  • Meisner, Maurice. Mao's China and After: A History of the People’s Republic, 3rd ed. (Free Press, 1999), dense book with theoretical and political science approach.
  • Spence, Jonatham. Mao Zedong (1999)
  • Shuyun, Sun. The Long March: The True History of Communist China's Founding Myth (2007)
  • Wang, Jing. High Culture Fever: Politics, Aesthetics, and Ideology in Deng's China (1996) complete text online free
  • Wenqian, Gao. Zhou Enlai: The Last Perfect Revolutionary (2007)

Cultural Revolution, 1966-76

  • Clark, Paul. The Chinese Cultural Revolution: A History (2008), a favorable look at artistic production excerpt and text search
  • Esherick, Joseph W.; Pickowicz, Paul G.; and Walder, Andrew G., eds. The Chinese Cultural Revolution as History. (2006). 382 pp.
  • Jian, Guo; Song, Yongyi; and Zhou, Yuan. Historical Dictionary of the Chinese Cultural Revolution. (2006). 433 pp.
  • MacFarquhar, Roderick and Fairbank, John K., eds. The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 15: The People's Republic, Part 2: Revolutions within the Chinese Revolution, 1966-1982. Cambridge U. Press, 1992. 1108 pp.
  • MacFarquhar, Roderick and Michael Schoenhals. Mao's Last Revolution. (2006).
  • MacFarquhar, Roderick. The Origins of the Cultural Revolution. Vol. 3: The Coming of the Cataclysm, 1961-1966. (1998). 733 pp.
  • Yan, Jiaqi and Gao, Gao. Turbulent Decade: A History of the Cultural Revolution. (1996). 736 pp.

Economy and environment

  • Chow, Gregory C. China's Economic Transformation (2nd ed. 2007)
  • Elvin, Mark. Retreat of the Elephants: An Environmental History of China. (2004). 564 pp.
  • Elvin, Mark and Liu, Ts'ui-jung, eds. Sediments of Time: Environment and Society in Chinese History. (1998). 820 pp.
  • Ji, Zhaojin. A History of Modern Shanghai Banking: The Rise and Decline of China's Finance Capitalism. (2003. 325) pp.
  • Naughton, Barry. The Chinese Economy: Transitions and Growth (2007)
  • Rawski, Thomas G. and Lillian M. Li, eds. Chinese History in Economic Perspective, University of California Press, 1992 complete text online free
  • Sheehan, Jackie. Chinese Workers: A New History. Routledge, 1998. 269 pp.
  • Stuart-Fox, Martin. A Short History of China and Southeast Asia: Tribute, Trade and Influence. (2003). 278 pp.

Women and gender

  • Ebrey, Patricia. The Inner Quarters: Marriage and the Lives of Chinese Women in the Sung Period (1990)
  • Hershatter, Gail, and Wang Zheng. "Chinese History: A Useful Category of Gender Analysis," American Historical Review, Dec 2008, Vol. 113 Issue 5, pp 1404–1421
  • Hershatter, Gail. Women in China's Long Twentieth Century (2007), full text online
  • Hershatter, Gail, Emily Honig, Susan Mann, and Lisa Rofel, eds. Guide to Women's Studies in China (1998)
  • Ko, Dorothy. Teachers of Inner Chambers: Women and Culture in China, 1573-1722 (1994)
  • Mann, Susan. Precious Records: Women in China's Long Eighteenth Century (1997)
  • Wang, Shuo. "The 'New Social History' in China: The Development of Women's History," History Teacher, May 2006, Vol. 39 Issue 3, pp 315–323

Further reading

External links

This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.


Simple English

The History of China covers thousands of years. It covers many periods and dynasties. It may be divided into the following parts:

Contents

Hunting to farming

About a million years ago, living beings that were earlier forms of human beings had lived in China. These beings were called Homo erectus. Long after, about 65,000 years before, human beings (Homo sapiens) reached China from Africa. For food, they used to hunt wild animals. Then they also started to pick and to gather fruits. Then these ancient Chinese learnt farming.

Prehistory

Prehistory means history of a time before any written record. In such cases, it is very difficult to tell anything definite about the prehistory of China or any other country. Even then, historians believe some facts about the China of that period. By 5000 BC people had learnt farming. They had started cultivating millet, a type of grain, and possibly some more types of grains. By 2500 BC, Bronze Age has come to China. Ruling class with kings and queens had come into society.

Xia Dynasty

Some scholars think that about 4000 years ago, Xia dynasty ruled China. Xia was the first ruler of this dynasty. But, no one can say anything very definite about Xia and his time, and other rulers of his dynasty.

Ancient History

Shang Dynasty

From the time of the Shang Dynasty (13th century BC), some written history is available. Writings were done on Oracle Bones. Several such bones and shells have been found. Scholars believe that present day Henan was the last capital of kings of the Shang Dynasty. Henan was the last and the ninth capital.

Most of the Chinese historians of that time think that one dynasty came after another. But, it is possible that two dynasties were ruling in different parts of China at the same time. Therefore, some scholars think that Xia dynasty and Shang Dynasty may be ruling at the same time, but in different areas of China.

Zhou Dynasty

About 3000 years before, Zhou Dynasty defeated Shang dynasty, and came to power. They changed the capital from Henan to a place near present day Xi'an, near the Yellow River. The Zhou Dynasty also brought a new theory. This theory told the people that kings had the order of the gods to rule the country. Almost all dynasties of Chinese rulers continued to repeat this theory. The kings of this dynasty won many new areas. For the first time in the history of China, large number of persons also moved from one area to other area for settlement.

Spring and Autumn Period

Spring and Autumn Period is another period of history of China. The time was around 8th century BC. Zhou dynasty continued, but it lost its power. Many kings ruled different parts of China. China became like several small countries, each ruled by a different king. In some cases, a king ruled just a village with a small fort.

During this period of China, many new lines of thinking arose. Some of them still continue to be important. They are Confucianism, Taoism, Legalism (philosophy) and Mohism.

Warring States Period

Spring and Autumn Period continued for about 300 years. By the 5th century BC, only seven main Chinese rulers and states remained. They had taken over all the smaller areas. These states continued to fight each other. Historians call this period as Warring States Period due to wars and fights among these states. At last, a king named Ying Zheng united all the seven states. He made himself the Emperor of China and founded the Qin Dynasty.

Qin Dynasty

]] Qin Dynasty was a very important dynasty in the history of China. They followed philosophy of Legalist. Their capital was at Xianyang (in modern Xi'an). Under the kings of this dynasty, China became a powerful country. Many new things were done for the first time. A tight legal system was followed. Written language was developed. Common currency was used. The building of the Great Wall of China was started.

Han Dynasty

The Han Dynasty came to power in 202 BC. They followed the philosophy of Confucianism. Under this dynasty, china made much progress in arts and science. The empire also became larger and larger. China started trading with a number of other countries. Merchants used the Silk Road to reach China. The Han dynasty is important.

The Three Kingdoms

(221-280 AD), the Three Kingdoms period (traditional Chinese: 三國; simplified Chinese: 三国; pinyin: Sānguó) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties following immediately the loss of de facto power of the Han Dynasty emperors.

The Jin Period

Sui Dynasty

The Sui Dynasty ( Suí cháo; 581-618 AD) was founded by Emperor Wen, or Yang Jian. Its capital was Chang'an (present-day Xi'an). The dynasty is important because it reunited Southern and Northern China and the Grand Canal was build in that time.

Tang Dynasty

The Tang Dynasty was founded by the Li (李) family, who came to power during the fall of the Sui Empire. The dynasty was interrupted for a short time by the Second Zhou Dynasty (16 October 690–3 March 705) when Empress Wu Zetian managed to claim the throne, becoming the first and only Chinese Empress.

The capital of the Tang, Chang'an (today Xi'an), was the biggest city in the world at the time. Many historians see the Tang dynasty as a high point in Chinese civilization and as a golden age of cosmopolitan culture.

The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

Song Dynasty

Yuan Dynasty

The Yuan Dynasty was first ruled by Genghis Khan, a Mongolian leader who took control from the Song Dynasty. He was considered a barbarian and not civilized. His grandson, Kublai Khan, was one of the most famous and liked rulers of the Yuan dynasty. He opened up China to many other cultures and improved life for the Chinese very much.

Ming Dynasty

Qing Dynasty

Modern Era

The Republic of China

The Present: The People's Republic of China

Other pages

Other websites

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 25, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on History of China, which are similar to those in the above article.








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