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香港
Hongkong / Hong Kong
British colony

 

1841 – 1941

1945 – 1997

 

Flag of Hong Kong (1959-1997) Coat of arms of Hong Kong (1959-1997)
Motto
"Dieu et mon droit"   (French)
"God and my right"
Anthem
God Save the King/Queen 
Location of Hong Kong
Capital Victoria City
Language(s) English
Chinese
Political structure Colony
Monarch
 - 1841–1901 Victoria
 - 1901–1910 Edward VII
 - 1910–1927 George V
 - 1936 Edward VIII
 - 1936-1952 George VI
 - 1952-1997 Elizabeth II
Governor
 - 1843-1844 Sir Henry Pottinger
 - 1941, 1946-1947 Sir Mark Aitchison Young
 - 1992-1997 The Rt. Hon. Chris Patten
Colonial Secretary/Chief Secretary1
 - 1843-1844 John Robert Morrison
 - 1941 Sir Franklin Charles Gimson
 - 1945-1949 David Mercer MacDougall
 - 1993-1997 Anson Chan
Legislature Legislative Council
Historical era 19th century
 - Convention of Chuenpee 20 January 1841
 - Treaty of Nanjing 29 August 1842
 - Convention of Beijing 18 October 1860
 - Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory 1 July 1898
 - Surrendered to Japan 25 December 1941
 - Transfer of sovereignty 30 June 1997
Area
 - 1848 80.4 km2 (31 sq mi)
 - 1901 1,042 km2 (402 sq mi)
Population
 - 1848 est. 24,000 
     Density 298.5 /km2  (773.1 /sq mi)
 - 1901 est. 283,978 
     Density 272.5 /km2  (705.9 /sq mi)
 - 1945 est. 750,000 
     Density 719.8 /km2  (1,864.2 /sq mi)
 - 1995 est. 6,300,000 
     Density 6,046.1 /km2  (15,659.2 /sq mi)
Currency Hong Kong dollar since 1937
1 The title changed from "Colonial Secretary" to "Chief Secretary" in 1976.

The British Hong Kong period began in the 19th century when the British, Dutch, French, Indians and Americans saw China as the world's largest untapped market. The British empire launched their first and one of the most aggressive expeditionary forces to claim the territory under Queen Victoria in 1840, three years after she became the queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The territory that would later be known as Hong Kong was gained from the last dynasty of Imperial China.[1]

In the short span of just a few decades, Hong Kong was transformed from a rocky undeveloped mountainous terrain to a major entrepot for global trade. Through the Opium Wars and a series of treaties, the British were able to legitimately claim the territory until 1997. Early social and economic problems did exist in the colony, as there were drastic differences between Eastern and Western philosophy and culture. Nonetheless Hong Kong seized the opportunity to become one of the first parts of East Asia to industrialise and modernise.

Contents

Territorial establishments

Beginning of trade

Streets of Hong Kong 1865

By the end of the 18th century the British Empire was already well-established in trade and conquest around the world. China was the main supplier of tea to the British, who were domestically consuming 30 million pounds of Chinese tea by 1830, averaging 2 pounds of leaves for every citizen.[2] From the British economy standpoint, Chinese tea was a crucial item since it provided massive wealth for the taipans (foreign, e.g. British, businessmen in China), and the duty on tea accounted for 10% of the government's income.[1]

The British diplomats have never been in favour of performing kowtow to the Emperor of China.[1] Many saw it as a religious pursuit and would rather be treated as equal. Though the members of the Qing Dynasty thrones and courts always saw the British envoys as uncivilised foreigners strictly here for tea, silk and other far east goods. At the time China's social structure, as passed down from Confucian philosophy, ranked merchants relatively low (below farmers and above slaves) since they were considered citizens who only enriched themselves.[1]

Some of the earliest items sold to China in exchange for tea were British clocks, watches and musical boxes. These were not enough to compensate for the unbalance trading of massive quantities of tea. China developed a strong demand for silver. After the 1757 territorial conquest of Bengal in India, the British had access to opium. Opium was used in western society as a tincture added to water for purification. The Chinese, on the other hand, smoked opium using the product for addictive narcotic means. A large fiscal deficit existed in Bengal and so opium export was used by the government to raise tax, though it would come at the price of creating a new drug addiction. Lin Zexu would be the Chinese commissioner who wrote a letter to Queen Victoria in 1839 taking a stance against the acceptance of opium in trade. He confiscated more than 20,000 chests of opium already at the port and supervised their destruction.[3]

Confrontation

Great Britain acquired Hong Kong Island in 1842, Kowloon Peninsula in 1860, and leased the New Territories in 1898.

The Queen saw the destruction of British products as an insult and sent the first expeditionary force to defend Britain's "ancient rights of commerce".[1] The First Opium War (1839–1842) began at the hands of Captain Charles Elliot of the Royal Navy and Capt. Anthony Blaxland Stransham of the Royal Marines. After a series of Chinese defeats, Hong Kong Island was occupied by the British on 20 January 1841. Sir Edward Belcher, aboard HMS Sulphur landed in Hong Kong, on 25 January 1841.[4] Possession Street still exists to mark the event, although its Chinese name is 水坑口街 ("Mouth of the ditch Street").[4]

Commodore Sir Gordon Bremer raised the Union Jack and claimed Hong Kong as a colony on 26 January 1841.[4] It erected naval store sheds there in April 1841.[5]

The island was first used by the British as a staging post during the war, and while the East India Company intended to establish a permanent base on the island of Zhoushan, Elliot took it upon himself to claim the island on a permanent basis. The ostensible authority for the occupation was negotiated between Captain Eliot and the Governor of Kwangtung Province. The Convention of Chuenpee was concluded but had not been recognised by the court of Qing Dynasty at Beijing. Subsequently, Hong Kong Island was ceded to Britain in 1842 under the Treaty of Nanking, at which point in time the territory became a Crown Colony.

The Opium War was ostensibly fought to liberalise trade to China. With a base in Hong Kong, British traders, opium dealers, and merchants launched the city which would become the 'free trade' nexus of the East. American opium traders and merchant bankers such as the Russell, Perkins and the Forbes family would soon join the trade. Britain was granted a perpetual lease on the Kowloon Peninsula under the 1860 Convention of Beijing, which formally ended hostilities in the Second Opium War (1856–1858).

In 1898 the United Kingdom was concerned that Hong Kong could not be defended unless surrounding areas were also under British control. In response a 99-year lease titled the Second Convention of Peking was drafted and executed, significantly expanding the size of the Hong Kong via the addition of the New Territories. The lease would set to expire at midnight, on 30 June 1997.

Demographics

1890 woman in traditional dress

Population

When the union flag was raised over Possession Point on 26 January 1841, the population of Hong Kong island was about 7,450, mostly Tanka fishermen and Hakka charcoal burners living in a number of coastal villages.[6][7] In the 1850s large numbers of Chinese would emigrate from China to Hong Kong due to the Taiping Rebellion. Other events such as floods, typhoons and famine in mainland China would also play a role in establishing Hong Kong as a place to escape the mayhem.

According to the census of 1865, Hong Kong had a population of 125,504, of which some 2,000 were Americans and Europeans.[6] In 1914 despite an exodus of 60,000 Chinese fearing an attack on the colony during World War I, Hong Kong's population continued to increase from 530,000 in 1916 to 725,000 in 1925 and 1.6 million by 1941.[8]

Segregation

The establishment of the free port made Hong Kong a major entrepôt from the start, attracting people from China and Europe alike. The society remained racially segregated and polarised due to British colonial policies and attitudes.[1][9] Despite the rise of a British-educated Chinese upper class by the late 19th century, race laws such as the Peak Reservation Ordinance prevented Chinese from living in elite areas like Victoria Peak.[10] Politically, the majority Chinese population also had little to no official governmental influence throughout much of the early years. There were, however, a small number of Chinese elites that the British governors relied on, including Sir Kai Ho and Robert Hotung.[10] They accepted their place in the Hong Kong hierarchy, and served as main communicators and mediators between the government and the Chinese population. Sir Kai Ho was an unofficial member of the Legislative Council. Robert Hotung wanted Chinese citizens to recognise Hong Kong as the new home after the fall of China's last dynasty in 1911. As a millionaire with financial influence, he emphasised that no part of the demographics was purely indigenous.[11]

Culture

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Lifestyle

Congee, a popular colonial era breakfast

The east portion of Colonial Hong Kong was mostly dedicated to the British; filled with race courses, parade grounds, barracks, cricket and polo fields. The west portion was filled with Chinese shops, crowded markets and tea houses. The Hong Kong tea culture began in this period and evolved into yum cha. One of the most common breakfasts was congee with fish and barley.

In the mid 1800s many of the merchants would sell silk, jade and consult feng shui to open shops that favour better spiritual arrangements.[12] Other lower ranked groups like coolies arrived with the notion that hard work would better position them for the future. And the success of boatmen, merchants, carters and fishermen in Hong Kong, would leapfrog China's most popular port in Canton. By 1880 Hong Kong's port would handle 27% of the mainland's export and 37% of imports.[1]

A British traveller, Isabella Bird, described Hong Kong in the 1870s as a colony filled with comforts and entertainment only a Victorian society would be able to enjoy. Other descriptions mentioned courts, hotels, post offices, shops, city hall complexes, museums, libraries and structures in impressive manner for the era.[1] Many European businessmen went to Hong Kong to do business. They were referred to as tai-pans or "bigshot". One of the more notable Tai-pan hangout spot was the Hong Kong Club at Queen's Road.[1]

Education

In 1861, Frederick Stewart would become the founder of Hong Kong education system bringing western-style philosophy to the east. Some have argued that his contribution is the key turning point between the group of Chinese that were able to modernise Hong Kong versus the group that did not in China. The education would bring western-style finance, science, history, technology into the culture. The father of modern China, Sun Yat-sen was also educated in Hong Kong's Central School.[10]

Law and order

In 1843 the legislative council was established. The governor of Hong Kong generally served as the British plenipotentiary in the far east in the early years. The Colonial Secretary would also assist in legal matters.

A colonial police force was established in the 1840s to handle the high crime rate in Hong Kong. By China's standards, colonial Hong Kong's code of punishment was considered laughably loose and lenient.[1] The lack of intimidation may have been the leading cause for the continual rise in crime.[1] Po Leung Kuk became one of the first organisations established to deal with the abduction of women and prostitution crisis. Crime in the sea was also common as some pirates had access to cutlass and revolvers.[1]

Pandemics and disasters

The Third Pandemic of bubonic plague broke out in China in the 1880s. By the spring of 1894 about 100,000 were reported dead in the mainland. In May 1894 the disease erupted into Hong Kong's overcrowded Chinese quarter of Tai Ping Shan. By the end of the month, an estimated 450 people died of the illness.[1] At its height, the epidemic was killing 100 people per day, and it killed a total of 2,552 people that year. The disease was greatly detrimental to trade and produced a temporary exodus of 100,000 Chinese from the colony. Plague continued to be a problem in the territory for the next 30 years. In the 1870s a typhoon hit Hong Kong one evening reaching its height by midnight. An estimated 2,000 people lost their lives in a span of just six hours.[1][8]

Economy

First generation of automobiles in Hong Kong

Transport

The growth of Hong Kong depended greatly on domestic transport of citizens and cargo across Victoria Harbour. The establishment of the Star Ferry and the Yaumati Ferry would prove to be vital. In 1843 the colony had built the first ship at a private shipyard. Some of the customers later included the Spanish government in the Philippines and the Chinese Navy. The Peak Tram would begin in 1888 along with the Tramway service in 1904. The first railway line was also launched in 1910 as the Kowloon-Canton Railway.

On land the rickshaws were extremely popular when they were first imported from Japan in 1874, since it was affordable and necessary for street merchants to haul goods. Sedan chairs were the preferred mode of the transport for the wealthy Europeans who lived on Victoria Peak due to the steep grade which ruled out rickshaws until the introduction of the Peak Tram. The first automobiles in Hong Kong had petrol-driven internal combustion engines and arrived between 1903-05. Initially they were not well received by the public. Only around 1910 did the cars begin to gain appeal. Most of the owners were British.[13] Buses operated by various independent companies flourished in the 1920s until the government formally issued franchises for the China Motor Bus and Kowloon Motor Bus companies in 1933.

The flying boats were the first British aeroplanes to reach Hong Kong in 1928. By 1924 the Kai Tak Airport would also be found. The first flight service from Imperial Airways would become available by 1937 at a price of 288 pounds per ticket.[10]

Hospitals and hospitality

Soon after the British occupied Hong Kong in 1841, Protestant and Catholic missionaries started to provide social service. Italian missionaries began to provide boy-only education to British and Chinese youth in 1843. "The Catholic French Sisters of St. Paul de Chartres" was one of the first orphanage and elderly home was established in 1848.[14] In 1870 the Tung Wah Hospital became the first official hospital in Hong Kong. It handled much of the social services and was providing free vaccinations in Hong Kong Island and Kwang Tung. After raising funds for the 1877 famine in China, a number of the hospital officials became Tung Wah elites with much authority and power representing the Chinese majority.[15] Some of the booming hotel businesses of the era included the Victoria Hotel, New Victoria Hotel and the King Edward Hotel.[16]

Finance

In 1864 the first large scale modern bank Hong Kong Shanghai Bank would be established turning Hong Kong into the focal point of financial affairs in Asia. Its chief manager, Sir Thomas Jackson Bart, has a statue in Statue Square. The bank first leased Wardley House at HKD $500 a month in 1864. After raising a capital of HKD $5 million, the bank opened its door in 1865.[12] The Association of Stockbrokers would also be established in 1891.

Resources

In December 1890 the Hongkong Electric company went into production with help from Catchick Paul Chater. It was the first step in allowing the transition of gas lamps to light bulbs.[17] Other companies like Jardine Matheson would launch the "Hong Kong Land Investment and Agency company Ltd" accumulating a wealth as large as the entire government's total revenue.[10] (See also China Light and Power.)

Politics

British Passport issued to Hong Kong people
Naval Dockyard buildings (centre), Queen's Road, 1894

One observer summed up the decades as "politics, propaganda, panic, rumour, riot, revolution and refugees".[10] The role of Hong Kong as a political safe haven for Chinese political refugees further cemented its status, and few serious attempts to revert its ownership were launched in the early 1900s. Both Chinese Communist and Nationalist agitators found refuge in the territory, when they did not actively participate in the turmoil in China. However, the dockworkers strikes in the 1920s and 1930s were widely attributed to the Communists by the authorities, and caused a backlash against them. A strike in 1920 was ended with a wage increase of HKD 32 cents.[10]

Ambrose King, in his controversial 1975 paper Administrative Absorption of Politics in Hong Kong, described the colonial Hong Kong's administration as "elite consensual government". In it, he claimed, any coalition of elites or forces capable of challenging the legitimacy of Hong Kong's administrative structure would be co-opted by the existing apparatus through the appointment of leading political activists, business figures and other elites to oversight committees, by granting them British honours, and by bringing them into elite institutions like Hong Kong's horse racing clubs. He called this "synarchy", an extension of John K. Fairbank's use of the word to describe the mechanisms of government under the late Qing dynasty in China.

When modern China began after the fall of the last dynasty, one of the first political statements made in Hong Kong was the immediate change from long queue hairstyles to short haircuts.[10] In 1938, Guangzhou fell to the hands of the Japanese, Hong Kong was considered a strategic military outpost for all trades in the far east. Though Winston Churchill assured that Hong Kong was an "impregnable fortress",[10] it was taken as a reality check response since the British Army actually stretched too thin to battle on two fronts.[10]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Wiltshire, Trea. [First published 1987] (republished & reduced 2003). Old Hong Kong - Volume One. Central, Hong Kong: Text Form Asia books Ltd. ISBN Volume One 962-7283-59-2
  2. ^ http://www.buzzle.com/articles/history-of-tea-in-hong-kong-tea-opium-and-the-balance-of-trade.html
  3. ^ Chaos umd.edu. "Chaos umd.edu." Article. Retrieved on 2007-07-03.
  4. ^ a b c Base closure to end Royal Navy's Far East presence, Associated Press, 4 November 1997
  5. ^ Eric Cavaliero, Harbour bed holds memories, The Standard, 13 November 1997, quoting P J Melson: White Ensign - Red Dragon: the History of the Royal Navy in Hong Kong 1841 to 1997
  6. ^ a b John Thomson 1837-1921, Chap on Hong Kong, Illustrations of China and Its People (London,1873-1874)
  7. ^ Info Gov HK. "Hong Kong Gov Info." History of Hong Kong. Retrieved on 2007-02-16.
  8. ^ a b Stanford, David. [2006] (2006). Roses in December. Lulu press. ISBN 1847539661
  9. ^ Race War!: White Supremacy and the Japanese Attack on the British Empire by Gerald Horne, New York University Press, 2003
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wiltshire, Trea. [First published 1987] (republished & reduced 2003). Old Hong Kong - Volume Two. Central, Hong Kong: Text Form Asia books Ltd. ISBN Volume Two 962-7283-60-6
  11. ^ Carroll, John Mark. Edge of Empires:Chinese Elites and British Colonials in Hong Kong. Harvard university press. ISBN 0674017013
  12. ^ a b Lim, Patricia. [2002] (2002). Discovering Hong Hong's Cultural Heritage. Central, Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. ISBN Volume One 0-19-592723-0
  13. ^ Bard, Solomon. [2002] (2002) Voices from the Past: Hong Kong 1842-1918. Hong Kong:HK University Press. ISBN 9622095747
  14. ^ Bray, Mark. Koo, Ramsey. [2005] (2005) Education and Society in Hong Kong and Macao: Comparative Perspectives on Continuity and Change. Hong Kong: Springer Press. ISBN 1402034059
  15. ^ Tsai, Jung-fang. [1995] (1995). Hong Kong in Chinese History: community and social unrest in the British Colony, 1842-1913. ISBN 0231079338
  16. ^ England, Vaudine. [1998] (1998). The Quest of Noel Croucher: Hong Kong's Quiet Philanthropist. Hong Kong university. ISBN 9622094732
  17. ^ Coates, Austin. [1977] (1977). A Mountain of Light: the story of the Hongkong Electric Company. Heinemann. ISBN 8671142490







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