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Statue of A.D. White on the Arts Quadrangle

The history of Cornell University begins when its two founders Andrew Dickson White of Syracuse and Ezra Cornell of Ithaca, met in the New York State Senate in January 1864. Together, they established Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, in 1865. The university was initially funded by Ezra Cornell's $500,000 endowment and by New York's 989,920-acre (4,006.1 km2) allotment of the Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862.[1]

However, even before Ezra Cornell and Andrew White met in the New York Senate, each had separate plans and dreams that would draw them toward their collaboration in founding Cornell: White believed in the need for a great university for the nation that would take a radical new approach to education; and Cornell, who had great respect for education and philanthropy, desired to use his money "to do the greatest good." Abraham Lincoln's signing of Vermont Senator Justin Morrill's Land Grant Act into law was also critical to the formation of many universities in the post-Civil War era, including Cornell.

Contents

Founders

Ezra Cornell
Ezra Cornell, namesake of Cornell University

As newly-elected members of the state senate, Cornell chaired the Committee of Agriculture and White was the chair of the Committee of Literature (which dealt with educational matters.) Hence, both chaired committees with jurisdiction over bills allocating the land grant, which was to be used for instruction in "without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactic, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts."[2] Yet, their eventual partnership seemed unlikely. Although both valued egalitarianism, science, and education, they had come from two very different backgrounds. Ezra Cornell, a self-made businessman and austere, pragmatic telegraph mogul, made his fortune on the Western Union Telegraph Company stock he received during the consolidation that led to its formation.[3] Cornell, who had been poor for most of his life, suddenly found himself looking for ways that he could do the greatest good for with his money — he wrote, "My greatest care now is how to spend this large income to do the greatest good to those who are properly dependent on me, to the poor and to posterity."[4] Cornell's self education and hard work would lead him to the conclusion that the greatest end for his philanthropy was in the need of colleges for the teaching of practical pursuits such as agriculture, the applied sciences, veterinary medicine and engineering and in finding opportunities for the poor to attain such an education.

Andrew Dickson White
Andrew Dickson White in 1885

Andrew Dickson White entered college, at the age of sixteen, in 1849. White dreamed of going to one of the elite eastern colleges, but his father sent him to Geneva College (later known as Hobart), a small Episcopal college. At Geneva, White would read about the great colleges at Oxford University and at the University of Cambridge; this appears to be his first inspiration for "dreaming of a university worthy of the commonwealth [New York] and of the nation"; this dream would become a lifelong goal of White's. After a year at Geneva, White convinced his father to send him to Yale University.[5] For White, Yale was a great improvement over Geneva, but he found that even at one of the country's great universities there was "too much reciting by rote and too little real intercourse."

In the late 1850s, while While served as a professor of history at the University of Michigan, he continued to develop his thoughts on a great American university.[6] He was influenced by both the curriculum, which was more liberal than at the Eastern universities, and by the administration of the university as a secular institution.[7]

Conception

White had been duly impressed by a bill introduced by Cornell in one his first actions as a state senator: the incorporation of a large public library for Ithaca for which Cornell had donated $100,000. White was struck by not only his generosity, but also "his breadth of mind." He wrote:

The most striking sign of this was his mode of forming a board of trustees; for, instead of the usual effort to tie up the organization forever in some sect, party or clique, he had named the best men of his town — his political opponents as well as his friends; and had added to them the pastors of all the principal churches, Catholic and Protestant.[7]

Yet, Cornell and White soon find themselves on opposite sides of a battle that would in the end lead to the creation of Cornell University.

In 1863, the legislature had granted the proceeds of the land grant to the People's College in Havana Montour Falls, with conditions that would need to be met within a certain time frame. Because the Morrill Act set a five year limit on each state identifying a land grant college, and it seemed unlikely that the People's College would meet its conditions, the legislature was ready to select a different school. Initially, Cornell, as a member of the Board of Trustees of the New York State Agricultural College at Ovid, wanted half the grant to go to that school. However, White "vigorously opposed this bill, on the ground that the educational resources of the state were already too much dispersed." He felt that the grant would be most effective if it were used to establish or strengthen a comprehensive university.

Still working to send part of the grant to the Agricultural College, on September 25, 1864, in Rochester, New York, Cornell announced his offer to donate $300,000 (soon thereafter increased to $500,000) if part of the land grant could be secured and the trustees moved the college to Ithaca.[7] White did not relent; however, he said he would support a similar measure that did not split up the grant.[7] Thus began the collaboration between Ezra Cornell and Andrew D. White that became Cornell University.

Establishment

1865 Senate bill to establish Cornell University

On February 7, 1865, Andrew D. White introduced an act to the State Senate "to establish the Cornell University," which appropriated the full income of the sale of lands given to New York under the Morrill Act to the university. But, while Cornell and White had come to an agreement, they faced fierce opposition, including from the People's College in Havana Montour Falls[8][9], the Agricultural College at Ovid[10] and dozens of other institutions across the state vying for a share of the land grant funds; from religious groups, who opposed the proposed composition of the university's board of trustees; and even from the secular press, some of whom thought Cornell was swindling the state out of its federal land grant. To placate legislators representing Ovid, White arranged for the Willard State Asylum for the Insane to be located on the land held for the Agricultural College.[11] The bill limited the total amount of property or endowment that Cornell University could hold to $3 million.

The bill was modified at least twice in attempts to attain the votes necessary for passage. In the first change, the People's College was given three months in which to meet certain conditions for which it would receive the land grant under the 1863 law. The second came from a Methodist faction, which wanted a share of the grant for Genesee College. They agreed to a quid-pro quo donation of $25,000 from Ezra Cornell in exchange for their support.[7] Cornell insisted the bargain be written into the bill.[7] The bill was signed into law by Governor Reuben E. Fenton on April 27, 1865. On July 27, the People's College lost its claim to the land grant funds, and the building of Cornell University began.

From 1865 to 1868, the year the university opened, Ezra Cornell and Andrew D. White worked in tireless collaboration to build their university. Ezra Cornell oversaw the construction of the university's first buildings, starting with Morrill Hall, and spent time investing the federal land scrip in western lands for the university that would eventually net millions of dollars,[7] while Andrew D. White, who was unanimously elected the first President of Cornell University by the Board of Trustees on November 21, 1866, began making plans for the administrative and educational policies of the university. To this end, he traveled to France, Germany and England "to visit model institutions, to buy books and equipment, to collect professors." White returned from Europe to be inaugurated as Cornell's president in 1868, and he remain leader of Cornell until his retirement from the presidency in 1885.

Opening

Cornell faculty in 1882
The Cornell faculty in 1882

The university's Inauguration Day took place on October 7, 1868.[12] One day earlier, each of the candidates who showed up in Ithaca was given an entrance examination. There were 412 successful applicants; with this initial enrollment, Cornell's first class was, at the time, the largest entering class at an American university.[13]

On the occasion, Ezra Cornell delivered a brief speech. He said, "I hope we have laid the foundation of an institution which shall combine practical with liberal education. ... I believe we have made the beginning of an institution which will prove highly beneficial to the poor young men and the poor young women of our country." His speech included another statement which later became the school's motto, "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study.[12]

Two other Ezra Cornell-founded, Ithaca institutions played a role in the rapid opening of the university. The Cornel Library, a public library in downtown Ithaca which opened in 1866,[14] served as a classroom and library for the first students. Also Cascadilla Hall, which was constructed in 1866 as a water cure sanitarium,[15] served at the university's first dormitory.[13]

baseball game in 1919
A Cornell-Penn baseball game in 1919

Cornell was among the first universities in the United States to admit women alongside men. The first woman was admitted to Cornell in 1870, although the university did not yet have a women's dormitory. On February 13, 1872, Cornell's Board of Trustees accepted an offer of $250,000 from Henry W. Sage to build such a dormitory. During the construction of Sage College (now home to the Johnson School as Sage Hall) and after its opening in 1875, the admittance of women to Cornell continued to increase.

Significant departures from the standard curriculum were made at Cornell under the leadership of Andrew D. White. In 1868, Cornell introduced the elective system, under which students were free to choose their own course of study. Harvard University would make a similar change in 1872, soon after the inauguration of Charles W. Eliot in 1869.[16]

It was the success of the egalitarian ideals of the newly-established Cornell, a uniquely American institution, that would help drive some of the changes seen at other universities throughout the next few decades, and would lead educational historian Frederick Rudolph to write:

Andrew D. White, its first president, and Ezra Cornell, who gave it his name, turned out to be the developers of the first American university and therefore the agents of revolutionary curricular reform.[17]

Uris Library plaque
Dedication plaque on Uris Library referencing Sage's gift in lieu of Jennie McGraw's estate payment.

In 1892, the University Library was opened. Today known as Uris Library, it was the result of a gift from Henry W. Sage in memory of Jennie McGraw. In Jennie McGraw's will, she gave away $300,000 to her husband Willard Fiske, $550,000 to her brother Joseph and his children, $200,000 to Cornell for a library, $50,000 for construction of McGraw Hall, $40,000 for a student hospital, and remainder to the University for whatever use it saw fit. However, the University's charter limited its property holdings to $3,000,000,[18] and Cornell could not accept the full amount of McGraw's gift. When Fiske realized that the university had failed to inform him of this restriction, he launched a legal assault to reacquire the money, known as The Great Will Case. The United States Supreme Court eventually affirmed the judgment of the New York Court of Appeals that Cornell could not receive the estate on May 19, 1890, with Justice Samuel Blatchford giving the majority opinion.[19][20] However, Henry W. Sage then donated $500,000 to build the library instead.[20]

Coeducation

In 1870, Cornell admitted its first women students,[21] making it the first coeducational school among what came to be known as the Ivy League. However, the admission of female students was limited until the construction of Sage Hall to serve as a women's dormitory in 1872.[22] With the exception of Balch Hall, all dormitories have been co-educational since the mid-1970s.[23]

The requirement that women (at least freshman women) must live in dormitories served to constrain female student admissions until 1970. During this period, the academic admission standards for women in each college were typically higher than the corresponding standards for men. The NYS College of Veterinary Medicine was an early pioneer in educating women. Florence Kimball, the first woman in the United States to receive the DVM degree, graduated from Cornell in 1910. In fact, seven of the first 11 women to become licensed veterinarians in this country were Cornell graduates.[24] However, until the early 1980s, the Vet College limited the number of women in each entering class to just two or three, regardless of female applicants' qualifications.[25][26]

Women students were in many ways separated from male students. For example, they had a separate entrance and lounges in Willard Straight Hall, a separate student government, and a separate page (edited by women) in the Cornell Daily Sun. The male students were required to take "drill" (a precursor to ROTC), but the women were exempt.

In general, women have been over-represented in certain schools and under-represented in others. For example, the NYS College of Home Economics and the Cornell School of Nursing historically drew a disproportionate number of women students, while the College of Engineering attracted less women. Similarly, there are fewer women working on graduate degrees in the physical sciences.

With the implementation of Title IX in the mid-1970s, Cornell significantly expanded its athletic offerings for women. The Department of Physical Education and Athletics moved from having all women's activities housed in Helen Newman Hall to having men's and women's programs in all facilities.

Infrastructure innovations

Cornell was one of the first university campuses to use electricity to light the grounds from a water-powered dynamo in 1883.[27] In 1888-89, Cornell installed a central steam distribution system encased in logs. This eventually grew to three district plants on the Engineering Quadrangle, behind the Arts College, and on the state campus (located in Beebe Hall).[27] In 1904, the present hydroelectric plant was built in the Fall Creek gorge following the replacement in 1896 of Triphammer Dam slightly west of its original location. The plant takes water from Beebe Lake through a tunnel in the side of the gorge to power up to 1.9 Megawatts of electricity. The plant continued to serve the campus's electric needs until 1970, when local utility rates placed a heavy economic penalty on independently generating electricity. The abandoned plant was vandalized in 1972, but renovated and placed back into service in 1981.[28]

In 1986-87, a cogeneration facility was added to the central heating plant to generate electricity from the plant's waste heat.[27] A Cornell Combined Heat & Power Project, which was completed in December 2009, shifted the central heating plant from using coal to natural gas and enable the plant to generate all of the campus' non-peak electric requirements.[29][30]

In the 1880s, a suspension bridge was first built across Fall Creek to provide pedestrian access to the campus from the North. In 1913, Professors S.C. Hollister and William McGuire designed a new suspension bridge that is 138 ft., 3.5 in. above the water and 500 ft downstream from the original. However, the second bridge was declared unsafe and closed August 1960 to be rebuilt with a replacement of the same design.[31]

Cornell began operating a closed loop, central chilled water system for air conditioning and laboratory cooling in the 1963 using centralized mechanical chillers, rather than inefficient, building-specific air conditioners.[32] In 2000, Cornell began operation of its Lake Source Cooling System which uses the cold water temperature at the bottom of Cayuga Lake (approx 39°F) to air condition the campus.[33] The system was the first wide-scale use of lake source cooling in North America.

Giving and alumni involvement

The first endowed chair at Cornell was the Professorship of Hebrew and Oriental Literature and History donated by New York City financier Joseph Seligman in 1874.[34] The second was the Susan E. Linn Sage Professor of Ethics and Philosophy given in 1890 by Henry W. Sage. That chair still exists. Since then, 327 named professorships have been established, of which 43 are honorary and do not have endowments.

The original University charter adopted by the New York State legislature required that Cornell give scholarships from students in each legislative district to attend the University tuition-free. Although both Cornell and White believed this meant one scholarship, the legislature later argued that it meant one new freshman student per district each year, or four per district.[35] This allowed students of diverse financial resources to attend the university from its start.

John McMullen, who was president of the Atlantic Gulf & Pacific Dredging Company, while not a Cornellian himself, bequeathed his estate to Cornell for engineering scholarships on the advice of a friend and Cornell alumnus. Instead of spending the bequest and its earnings on scholarships, Cornell's Trustees decided to invest those funds, and eventually sold the dredging company. The resulting fund is Cornell's largest single scholarship endowment. Since 1925, the fund has provided substantial assistance to more than 3,700 engineering students.[36]

Cornell formally added alumni-elected trustees to its Board around 1880, and was one of the first Universities to elect trustees by direct election.

In October 1890, Andrew Carnegie became a Cornell Trustee and quickly became aware of the lack of an adequate pension plans for Cornell faculty. His concern led to the formation in 1905 of what is now called Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association of America (TIAA).[37]

Many alumni classes elected secretaries to maintain correspondence with classmates. In 1905, the Class Secretaries organized to form what is now called the Cornell Association of Class Officers, which meets annually to develop alumni class programs and assist in organizing reunions. The Cornell Alumni News was an independent, alumni-owned publication[38] until the 1990s, when it was taken over by the University. It is now owned and controlled by the University.

Support from New York State

Stone Hall, Roberts Hall and East Roberts
Stone Hall, Roberts Hall and East Roberts were demolished in the 1980s.

Under the Morrill Act, states were obligated to fund the maintenance of land grant college facilities, but were not obligated to fund operations. Subsequent laws required states to match federal funds for agricultural research stations and cooperative extension. In his inaugural address as Cornell's third president on November 11, 1892, Jacob Gould Schurman announced his intention to enlist the financial support of the state.[39] Cornell, which had been offering a four-year scholarship to one student in each New York assembly district every year and was the state's land-grant university, was determined to convince the state to become a benefactor of the university. In 1894, the state legislature voted to give financial support for the establishment of the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine and to make annual appropriations for the college.[40] This set the precedents of privately-controlled, state-supported statutory colleges and cooperation between Cornell and the state. The annual state appropriations were later extended to agriculture, home economics, and following World War II, industrial and labor relations.

In 1882, Cornell opened the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, New York, the sixth oldest institution of its kind in the United States.[41] It made significant advances in scientific agriculture and for many years played an active role in agriculture law enforcement.

In 1900, a home economics curriculum was added to Cornell's Agriculture college. This was expanded to a separate state-supported school in 1919.[42] The Home Economics School, in turn, became to develop classes in hotel administration in 1922, which spun-off into a separate, endowed college in 1950.[43]

In 1898, the New York State College of Forestry opened at Cornell, which was the first forestry college in North America.[44] The College undertook to establish a 30,000 acre demonstration forest in the Adirondacks, funded by New York State.[45] However, the plans of the school's director Bernhard Fernow for the land drew criticism from neighbors, and Governor Benjamin B. Odell vetoed the 1903 appropriation for the school. In response, Cornell closed the school.[46] Subsequently, in 1911, the State Legislature established a New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University, and the remains of Cornell's program became the Department of Natural Resources in its Agriculture College in 1910.[44] However, Cornell had contracted with the Brooklyn Cooperage Company to take the lumber from the forest, and the People of the State of New York (People vs Brooklyn Cooperage Company and Cornell) sued following the closing of the school.[47] Cornell University lost the case in 1910 and on appeal in 1912; and the case defined forestry in the United States for a generation. Cornell eventually established a research forest south of Ithaca, the Arnot Woods. When New York State later funded the construction of a Forestry building for the Agriculture school, Cornell named it Fernow Hall.

In 1914, the US Department of Agriculture began to fund cooperative extension services through the land grant college of each state, and Cornell expanded its impact by sending agents to spread knowledge in each county of New York State. Although Syracuse had started awarding forestry degrees at this point, Cornell's extension agents covered all of home economics and agriculture, including forestry.

In 1945, the New York State Legislature founded the New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell, in response to requests from organized labor and Democratic leaders.[48] The school quickly gained national stature when U.S. Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins, who was the first female U.S. Cabinet member, who served longer than anyone else as Secretary of Labor (12 years), joined the ILR faculty. Since agricultural interests were mostly affiliated with the Republicans, Cornell enjoyed bi-partisan support following World War II.

In 1948, the Legislature placed all state-funded higher education into a new the State University of New York (SUNY). Cornell's four statutory colleges (agriculture, human ecology, labor relations and veterinary medicine) have been affiliated with SUNY since its inception, but did not have any such state affiliation prior to that time. Statutory college employees legally are employees of Cornell, not employees of SUNY. The State Education Law gives the SUNY Board of Trustees the authority to approve Cornell's appointment of the deans/unit heads of the statutory colleges, and control of the level of state funding for the statutory colleges.[49]

Today, state support is significant. In 2007-08, Cornell received a total of $174 million of state appropriations for operations.[50] Of the $2.5 billion in capital spending budgeted for 2007–2017, $721 million was to come from the state of New York.[51]

Cornell University Campus in 1919

Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory

Curtiss-Wright built this lab facility located in the suburbs of Buffalo, New York as a part of the World War II effort. As a part of its tax planning in the wake of the war effort, Curtiss-Wright donated the facility to Cornell University to operate "as a public trust" and received a charitable tax deduction.[52] Seven other east coast aircraft companies also donated $675,000 to provide working capital for the lab.[53] The lab operated under the name Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory from 1946 until 1972. During this same time, Cornell formed a new Graduate School of Aerospace Engineering on its Ithaca, New York campus.

CAL invented the first crash test dummy in 1948, the automotive seat belt in 1951, the first mobile field unit with Doppler weather radar for weather-tracking in 1956, the first accurate airborne simulation of another aircraft (the North American X-15) in 1960, the first successful demonstration of an automatic terrain-following radar system in 1964, the first use of a laser beam to successfully measure gas density in 1966, the first independent HYGE sled test facility to evaluate automotive restraint systems in 1967, the mytron, an instrument for research on neuromuscular behavior and disorders in 1969, and the prototype for the Federal Bureau of Investigation's fingerprint reading system in 1972. CAL served as an "honest broker" making objective comparisons of competing plans to build military hardware.[54] It also conducted classified counter-insurgency research in Thailand for the Defense Department.[54] By the time of its divestiture, CAL had 1,600 employees.[54] CAL conducted wind tunnel test on models of a number of skyscraper buildings, including most notably the John Hancock Tower in Boston, Massachusetts.

During the late 1960s and early 1970s, universities came under criticism for conducting war-related research particularly as the Viet Nam War became unpopular, and Cornell University tried to severed its ties. Cornell accepted a $25,000,000 offer from EDP Technology, Inc. to purchase the lab in 1968.[54] However, a group of lab employees who had made a competing $15,000,000 offer organized a lawsuit to block the sale. In May 1971, New York's highest court ruled that Cornell had the right to sell the lab.[55] At the conclusion of the suit, EDP Technology could not raise the money, and in 1972, Cornell reorganized the lab as the for-profit Calspan Corporation and then sold its stock in Calspan to the public.

Race relations

Cornell enrolled its first African American student in 1897.[56] On December 4, 1906, Alpha Phi Alpha, the first Greek letter fraternity for African-Americans was founded at Cornell.[57] Cornell had a very low black enrollment until the 1960s, when it formed the Committee on Special Educational Projects (COSEP) to recruit and mentor minority students. In 1969, Cornell established its Africana Studies and Research Center, one of the first such black studies programs in the Ivy League.[58] Since 1972, Ujamaa, a special interest program dormitory located in North Campus Low Rise #10, provides housing for many minority students.[59]

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Willard Straight Hall Takeover

Willard Straight Hall

On April 19, 1969, during a parents' weekend, over eighty members of Cornell's Afro-American Society took over the student union building, Willard Straight Hall. The takeover was precipitated by increasing racial tension at the university and the students' frustration with the administration's lack of support for a black studies program. The specific catalysts for the takeover were a reprimand of three Black students for an incident the previous December[60] and a cross burning in front of the Black women's cooperative and other cases of alleged racism.[61][62]

By the following day a deal was brokered between the students and university officials, and on April 20, the takeover ended, with the administration ceding to some of the Afro-American Society's demands. The students emerged making a black-power salute and with guns in hand (the guns had been brought into Willard Straight Hall after the initial takeover). James A. Perkins, president of Cornell during the events, would resign soon after the crisis.

Some of the elements of the deal required faculty approval, and the faculty voted to uphold the reprimands of the three students on April 21.[63] The faculty was asked to reconsider, and a group of 2,000[64] to 10,000 gathered in Barton Hall to debate the matter as the faculty deliberated.[65] This "Barton Hall Community" formed a representative Constituent Assembly which undertook a comprehensive review of the University. Among the changes stemming from the crisis were the founding of an Africana Studies and Research Center, an overhaul of the campus judicial system, and the addition of students to Cornell's Board of Trustees. The crisis also prompted New York to enact the Henderson Law requiring every college in the State to adopt rules for the maintenance of public order.

Interdisciplinary studies

Historically, Cornell's colleges have operated with great autonomy, each with a separate admissions policy, separate faculty, separate fundraising staffs and in many cases, separate tuition structure. However, the University has taken steps to encourage collaboration between related academic fields within the University and with outside organizations.

In the 1960s, the University created a Division of Biological Sciences to unify related programs in the Art and Agriculture colleges. Although a success, the structure was ultimately dropped in 1999 due to difficulty with funding.[66][67]

A "Faculty of Computing and Information Science" was established in 1999 to unify computer science efforts throughout the University. This structure obviates the need for a separate school or college of computer science. For its first ten years, Robert Constable served as its Dean.[68]

Affordability and use of the endowment

Since the 1970s, tuition at Cornell and other Ivy League schools have grown much faster than inflation. This trend coincided with the creation of Federally guaranteed student loan programs. At the same time, the endowments of these schools continue to grow due to gifts and successful investments. Critics called for universities to keep their tuition at affordable levels and to not hoard endowment earnings.[69][70] As a result, in 2008, Cornell and other Ivy Schools decided to increase the spending of endowment earnings in order to subsidize tuition for low and middle income families, reducing the amount of debt that Cornell students will incur.[71][72] Cornell also placed a priority to soliciting endowed scholarships for undergraduates.[73]

See also

For the history of the Ithaca campus, see:

References

  • Becker, Carl L. (1943). Cornell University: Founders and the Founding. Cornell University Press. Available online: http://dspace.library.cornell.edu/handle/1813/184.
  • Bishop, Morris (1962). A History of Cornell (1st ed.). Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0036-8.
  • Kammen, Carol (2003). Cornell: Glorious to View (1st ed.). Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-935995-03-X.
  • Downs, Donald Alexander (1999). Cornell '69: Liberalism and the Crisis of the American University (1st ed.). Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-3653-2.
  • Rudolph, Frederick (1977). Curriculum: a history of the American undergraduate course of study since 1636 (1st ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. ISBN 0-87589-358-9.
  • Rudolph, Frederick (1990). American College and University: A History (2nd ed.). University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-1284-3. Available online: http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=3se-H1Y_l7kC.
  • White, Andrew Dickson (1911). The Autobiography of Andrew Dickson White. Available online: Vol. 1, Vol. 2.
  • History of the Cornell Presidency http://www.cornell.edu/president/history.cfm. Cornell University official site.

Notes

  1. ^ White, Andrew (January 11, 1890). My reminiscences of Ezra Cornell. http://books.google.com/books?id=nykVAAAAYAAJ&printsec=titlepage#v=onepage&q=&f=false. Retrieved 2010-02-06. 
  2. ^ 7 U.S.C. § 304
  3. ^ Becker, Carl (1943). Cornell University: Founders and Founding. Cornell University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0801476150. 
  4. ^ Becker, Carl (1943). Cornell University: Founders and Founding. Cornell University Press. p. 62. 
  5. ^ White, Andrew Dickson (1911). "II". Autobiography of Andrew Dickson White — Volume 1. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1340. 
  6. ^ "Legacy of Leadership - Cornell's Presidents". http://rmc.library.cornell.edu/presidents/view_item.php?sec=3&sub=8. Retrieved 2010-01-24. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g White, Andrew Dickson (1911). "XVII". Autobiography of Andrew Dickson White — Volume 1. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1340. 
  8. ^ Lang, Daniel W. (Autumn 1978). "The People's College, The Mechanics' Mutual Protection and the Agricultureal College Act". History of Education Quarterly 18 (3): 295–321. http://www.jstor.org/pss/368090. Retrieved 2010-03-07. 
  9. ^ Selkreg, John H. (1894). Landmarks of Tompkins County, New York. D. Mason & Co.. http://nytompki.org/Landmarks/cornell_ch3.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-07. 
  10. ^ "The State Agricultural College.; Laying the Corner-stone--Speeches of Ex-Governor King and Others". New York Times: p. 1. July 11, 1859. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9A05EFDB1F31EE34BC4952DFB1668382649FDE. Retrieved 2010-03-07. 
  11. ^ White, Andrew Dickson (1911). "XIX". Autobiography of Andrew Dickson White — Volume 1. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1340. 
  12. ^ a b White, Andrew Dickson (1911). "XX". Autobiography of Andrew Dickson White — Volume 1. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1340. 
  13. ^ a b Becker, Carl (1943). Cornell University:Founders and Founding. Cornell University Press. p. 131. 
  14. ^ "The Cornell Public Library". Cornell University. http://rmc.library.cornell.edu/presidents/view_item.php?sec=2&sub=5. Retrieved 2010-03-07. 
  15. ^ "3001-Cascadilla Hall Facility Information". Cornell University. http://www.fs.cornell.edu/fs/facinfo/fs_facilInfo.cfm?facil_cd=3001. Retrieved 2010-02-26. 
  16. ^ "Charles William Eliot - History". Harvard University. http://www.president.harvard.edu/history/21_eliot.php. Retrieved 2010-03-15. 
  17. ^ Quoted in Frank Harold Trevor Rhodes (2001). The creation of the future: the role of the American university. Cornell University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-8014-3937-7. 
  18. ^ Becker, Carl (1943). Cornell University: Founders and Founding. Cornell University Press. p. 88. 
  19. ^ [1], accessed 7/25/06
  20. ^ a b Cornell Loses a Legacy: Decision Against the University in the Fisk Suit. The Highest Court Holds that it Cannot Receive the Gift -- A Big Fee For David B. Hill. The New York Times May 20, 1890; accessed May 28, 2008
  21. ^ "Our History". http://www.gradschool.cornell.edu/index.php?p=36. Retrieved 2010-02-21. 
  22. ^ 3002-SAGE HALL - Facility Information
  23. ^ "Balch Hall". http://www.campuslife.cornell.edu/campuslife/housing/undergraduate/balch-hall.cfm. Retrieved 2010-01-24. 
  24. ^ http://www.vet.cornell.edu/about/history.htm Retrieved 2009-01-08.
  25. ^ "Veterinary Fraternities and Sororities". http://www.vet.ksu.edu/AWV/pdf/History/06.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-24. 
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