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The construction of dams, like The Dalles Dam, would flood rapids like Celilo Falls. The competing cultural and economic interests of Native Americans and European settlers from various countries have played a prominent role in Oregon's history.

The History of Oregon, a U.S. state, may be considered in five eras: geologic history, inhabitation by native peoples, early exploration by Europeans (primarily fur traders), settlement by pioneers, and modern development.

The term "Oregon" may refer to any of three phases: Oregon Country, a large region explored by Americans, British, and others (and generally known to Canadians as the Columbia District); the Oregon Territory, established by the United States two years after its sovereignty over the region was established by the Oregon Treaty, and before states were established in the Pacific Northwest; and the modern U.S. state of Oregon. (It was also an early name for the Columbia River.)

Contents

Geology

Mount Mazama erupted several millennia BC, leading to the formation of Crater Lake.

Volcanic activity in the region has been traced to 40 million years ago, in the Eocene era, forming much of the region's landscape. In the Pleistocene era (the last ice age, two million to 700,000 years ago), the Columbia River broke through Cascade Range, forming the Columbia River Gorge.[1]

The Columbia River and its drainage basin experienced some of the world’s greatest known floods toward the end of the last ice age. The periodic rupturing of ice dams at Glacial Lake Missoula resulted in discharge rates ten times the combined flow of all the rivers of the world, as many as forty times over a thousand-year period.[2]

Water levels during the Missoula Floods have been estimated at 1,250 feet (381 m) at the Wallula Gap (in present-day Washington), 830 feet (253 m) at Bonneville Dam, and 400 feet (122 m) over current day Portland, Oregon.[3] The floods' periodic inundation of the lower Columbia River Plateau deposited rich lake sediments, establishing the fertility that supports extensive agriculture in the modern era. They also formed many unusual geological features, such as the channeled scablands of eastern Washington.

Mount Mazama, once the tallest mountain in the region at 11,000 feet, had a massive volcanic eruption approximately 5677 B.C.[4][5] The eruption, estimated to have been 42 times more powerful than the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, reduced Mazama's approximate 11,000 foot (c.3,350 m) height by around half a mile (about 1 km) when much of the volcano fell into the volcano's partially emptied neck and magma chamber. Mazama's collapsed caldera, in today's southern Oregon, holds Crater Lake, and the entire mountain is located in Crater Lake National Park (Oregon's only such park).

The Klamath Native Americans of the area thought that the mountain was inhabited by Llao, their god of the underworld. After the mountain destroyed itself the Klamaths recounted the events as a great battle between Llao and his rival Skell, their sky god.

The 1700 Cascadia earthquake resulted from a rupture in the Juan de Fuca Plate along the coast of the Pacific Northwest.[6] The earthquake caused a tsunami that was detected in Japan;[7] it may also be linked to the Bonneville Slide, in which a large part of Washington's Table Mountain collapsed into the Columbia River Gorge, damming the river and forming the Bridge of the Gods, a land bridge remembered in the oral history of local Native Americans.[8]

In 1980, Mount St. Helens in neighboring Washington erupted violently, temporarily reducing the Columbia River's depth to as little as 13 feet, and disrupting Portland's economy. The eruption deposited ash as far into Oregon as Bend.[9]

Native peoples

Tool artifacts of Native Americans in Oregon

Although there is considerable evidence that humans lived in the Pacific Northwest 15,000 years ago, the first record of human activity in present day Oregon came from archaeologist Luther Cressman's 1938 discovery of sage bark sandals near Fort Rock Cave that places human habitation in Oregon as early as 13,200 years ago.[10] By 8000 B.C. there were settlements across the state, with the majority concentrated along the lower Columbia River, in the western valleys, and around coastal estuaries.

By the 16th century Oregon was home to many Native American groups, including the Bannock, Chasta, Chinook, Kalapuya, Klamath, Molalla, Nez Perce, Takelma, and Umpqua.[11][12][13][14]

Celilo Falls, a series of rapids on the Columbia River just upstream of present-day The Dalles, Oregon, was a fishing site for natives for several millennia. Native people traveled to Celilo Village from all over the Pacific Northwest and beyond to trade. The rapids were submerged in 1957 with the construction of The Dalles Dam in 1957.

Early European exploration

1601 AD map showing unexplored Oregon Coast

Spanish explorers found a way to explore the Pacific coast as early as 1565, sending vessels northeast from the Philippines, riding the Kuroshio Current in a sweeping circular route across the northern part of the Pacific. These ships – 250 in as many years – would typically not land before reaching Cape Mendocino in California, but some landed or wrecked in what is now Oregon. Nehalem Indian tales recount strangers and the discovery of items like chunks of beeswax and a lidded silver vase, likely connected to the 1707 wreck of the San Francisco Xavier.[15]

Juan Pérez explored the coast of the Pacific Northwest north to British Columbia in 1774. He was the first European to see Yaquina Head on the Oregon Coast.[16] In 1775 another Spanish expedition, under Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra and Bruno de Heceta, explored the coast. While returning south Heceta found the mouth of the Columbia River, but was unable to enter.[17]

James Cook explored the Oregon Coast in 1778 in search of the Northwest Passage. Beginning in the late 1780s many ships from Britain, American, and other countries sailed to the Pacific Northwest to engage in the region's emerging maritime fur trade business. American sea captain Robert Gray entered the Columbia in 1792, and was soon followed by a ship under the command of George Vancouver, a British captain, who also explored Puget Sound and claimed it for Britain.

The Lewis and Clark Expedition traveled through the region during their expedition to explore the Louisiana Purchase. They built their winter fort at Fort Clatsop, near the mouth of the Columbia. Exploration by Lewis and Clark (1805–1806) and the United Kingdom's David Thompson, who extensively explored the Columbia River from 1807-1811, publicized the abundance of fur-bearing animals in the area.

Following the Anglo American Treaty of 1818, the region was "jointly occupied" by the U.S.A. and Britain. The Americans referred to the region as Oregon Country, while the British knew it as the Hudson's Bay Company's Columbia District, which was administered from Fort Vancouver near present day Vancouver, Washington. Joint occupation ended with the signing of the Oregon Treaty in 1846, when Britain ceded all claims to lands south of the 49th parallel.

Native peoples generally welcomed the arrival of Europeans, for the increased trading opportunities; however, the introduction of foreign diseases would prove devastating to local populations.[18] Later, American initiatives to capture the natural resources of the west, perhaps most notably along the Columbia River, would collide with the interests of natives; many tribes accepted multi-million dollar settlements from the U.S. government in exchange for giving up traditional fishing sites, moving to reservations that were often far from their homes.

In recent times, the establishment of casinos has provided some income to tribes that are generally impoverished. Throughout the governorship of Ted Kulongoski, the Warm Springs Indians have negotiated for the right to build an off-reservation casino in the Columbia River Gorge.

Settlement by pioneers

The Astor Expedition of 1810–1812, financed by American businessman John Jacob Astor, brought fur traders to the future site of Astoria by both land and sea.[19] Fort Astoria was the first permanent white settlement in the region. Although the fort would remain under American control for only a short time, it would become a component of the United States' later claim on the region. A party returning east discovered the South Pass through the Rocky Mountains, which would become an important feature of the Oregon Trail.

Map of the Oregon Country, with most heavily disputed area highlighted. The 1846 Oregon Treaty designated this area for the United States.

At risk of being captured by the British during the War of 1812, Fort Astoria and all other Pacific Fur Company assets in the Oregon Country were sold to the Montreal-based North West Company in October 1813.[20] The North West Company had already been expanding into the Pacific Northwest and dominated the region unchallenged from the 1813 acquisition of the Pacific Fur Company until 1821, when it was absorbed into the Hudson's Bay Company. During this time the North West Company put the Astorian scheme into practice, sending supplies by sea to the Columbia River and exporting furs directly to China.[21] The Hudson's Bay Company expanded the system and during the 1820s and 1830s dominated the Pacific Northwest from its Columbia District headquarters at Fort Vancouver (built in 1825 by the District's Chief Factor John McLoughlin across the Columbia from present-day Portland). Although fur depletion and a crash in fur prices undermined the company in the early 1840s, it remained an important presence until the Oregon Treaty of 1846.

In the 1830s, several parties of Americans traveled to Oregon, further establishing the Oregon Trail. Many of these emigrants were missionaries seeking to convert natives to Christianity. Jason Lee was the first, traveling in Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth's party in 1833 and establishing the Oregon Mission in the Willamette Valley; the Whitmans and Spaldings arrived in 1847, establishing the Whitman Mission east of the Cascades. In 1839 the Peoria Party embarked for Oregon from Illinois.

In 1841, wealthy master trapper and entrepreneur Ewing Young died without a will, and there was no system to probate his estate. A probate government was proposed at a meeting after Young's funeral. Doctor Ira Babcock of Jason Lee's Methodist Mission was elected Supreme Judge. Babcock chaired two meetings in 1842 at Champoeg (half way between Lee's mission and Oregon City) to discuss wolves and other animals of contemporary concern. These meetings were precursors to an all-citizen meeting in 1843, which instituted a provisional government headed by an executive committee made up of David Hill, Alanson Beers, and Joseph Gale. This government was the first acting public government of the Oregon Country before American annexation.

The Oregon Trail brought many new settlers to the region, starting in 1842–1843, after the United States agreed to jointly settle the Oregon Country with the United Kingdom. For some time, it seemed the United States and the United Kingdom would go to war for a third time in 75 years (see Oregon boundary dispute), but the border was defined peacefully in 1846 by the Oregon Treaty. The border between the United States and British North America was set at the 49th parallel. The Oregon Territory was officially organized in 1848.

Numerous efforts to find easier overland passage to the Willamette Valley were undertaken beginning in the 1840s. The Barlow Road, Meek Cutoff, and Applegate Trail represented efforts to cross the Cascades in the northern, central, and southern parts of Oregon, respectively. The Barlow Road would become the final leg of the Oregon Trail after its construction in 1846, and the Santiam Wagon Road would cut through the central part of the mountains, succeeding where Meek had failed.

Settlement increased because of the Donation Land Claim Act of 1850, in conjunction with the forced relocation of the native population to Indian reservations. The state was admitted to the Union on February 14, 1859.

Oregon in the Civil War

At the outbreak of the American Civil War, regular U.S. troops were withdrawn and sent east. Volunteer cavalry and infantry were recruited in California and sent north to Oregon to keep peace and protect the populace. Oregon also raised the 1st Oregon Cavalry that was activated in 1862 and served until June 1865. During the Civil War immigrants continued to clash with the Piute, Shoshone and Bannock tribes in Oregon, Idaho and Nevada until relations degenerated into the bloody 1864 - 1868 Snake War. The 1st Oregon Volunteer Infantry Regiment was formed in 1864 and its last company was mustered out of service in July 1867. Both units were used to guard travel routes and Indian reservations, escort immigrant wagon trains, and protect settlers from Indian raiders. Several infantry detachments also accompanied survey parties and built roads in central and southern Oregon.[22]

Railroads and growth

In the 1880s, the proliferation of railroads assisted in marketing of the state's lumber and wheat, as well as the more rapid growth of its cities. This included the connection of the state to the Eastern United States via links to the transcontinental railroads that allowed for faster movement of goods and people. Immigration to Oregon increased after the connection to the east. Additional transportation improvements included the construction of several locks and canals to ease river navigation.

Also in the 1880s, writer Frances Fuller Victor published both fiction and histories that drew on her extensive research of the history of the region, informed by personal interviews with a number of Oregon pioneers. Her most noted non-fiction, which covered many western states, was written while under contract with Hubert Howe Bancroft's History Company, and at the time was published under his name. Her writing was said to accurately capture the notion of Manifest Destiny in this period of American expansion.

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Racial discrimination

Both the Oregon Territory and the State of Oregon have had laws and policies discriminating against people of non-white racial backgrounds. An 1844 territorial statute outlawed slavery but also mandated free slaves to leave the territory.[23 ] A law adopted by the state in 1862 required all ethnic minorities to pay a $5 annual tax.[23 ] Interracial marriage was prohibited by law between (approximately) 1861 and 1951.[23 ]

Modern history

Engineer Conde McCullough designed many of Oregon's bridges, including the Yaquina Bay Bridge in Newport.

Industrial expansion began in earnest following the construction of the Bonneville Dam in 1933–1937 on the Columbia River. The power, food, and lumber provided by Oregon helped fuel the development of the West, although the periodic fluctuations in the nation's building industry have hurt the state's economy on multiple occasions.

The state has a long history of polarizing conflicts: Native Americans vs. British fur trappers, British vs. settlers from the U.S., ranchers vs. farmers, wealthy growing cities vs. established but poor rural areas, loggers vs. environmentalists, white supremacists vs. anti-racists, social progressivism vs. small-government conservatism, supporters of social spending vs. anti-tax activists, and native Oregonians vs. Californians (or outsiders in general). Oregonians also have a long history of secessionist ideas, with people in various regions and on all sides of the political spectrum attempting to form other states and even other countries. (See State of Jefferson, Cascadia, and Ecotopia.)

In 1902, Oregon approved of a system of direct legislation by the state’s citizens by way of initiative and referendum, known as the Oregon System, and in 1908 also empowered its citizens to recall public officials by ballot initiative. Oregon state ballots often include politically conservative proposals such as anti-gay and pro-religious measures side-by-side with politically liberal issues like drug decriminalization which demonstrates the wide spectrum of political thought in the state.

The historical policies of racial discrimination have had longterm effects on Oregon's population. A 1994 report from an Oregon Supreme Court task force found minorities more likely to be arrested, charged, convicted, incarcerated and on probation than "similarly situated non-minorities."[24 ] The report does not place blame on individuals, but instead points out the problems of institutional racism. The report recommends multicultural training of the existing justice system personnel and also recommends diversifying the perspectives, backgrounds and demographics of future hires.

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Geologic History of the Columbia River Gorge". USGS. http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Washington/ColumbiaRiver/geo_history_gorge.html.  
  2. ^ "Glacial Lake Missoula and the Missoula Floods". U.S. Geological Survey. http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/Glaciers/IceSheets/description_lake_missoula.html. Retrieved 2006-11-19.  
  3. ^ Houck, Michael C.; Cody, M.J. (2000). Wild in the City. Oregon Historical Society. ISBN 0-87595-273-9.  
  4. ^ "Crater Lake". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1202-16-. Retrieved 2006-12-26.  
  5. ^ Zdanowicz, C. M.; Zielinski, G. A.; Germani, M. S. (1999). "Mount Mazama eruption; calendrical age verified and atmospheric impact assessed". Geology 27 (7): 621–624. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1999)027<0621:MMECAV>2.3.CO;2. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/27/7/621.  
  6. ^ Great Cascadia Earthquake Penrose Conference
  7. ^ Fault slip and seismic moment of the 1700 Cascadia earthquake inferred from Japanese tsunami descriptions
  8. ^ Hill, Richard L (May 15, 2002). "Science - Landslide Sleuths". The Oregonian. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/pacnw/paleo/greateq/20020515.html.  
  9. ^ Harris, Stephen L. (1988). Fire Mountains of the West: The Cascade and Mono Lake Volcanoes. Missoula: Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula. ISBN 0-87842-220-X
  10. ^ Robbins, William G. (2005). Oregon: This Storied Land. Oregon Historical Society Press. ISBN 0987595-286-0.  
  11. ^ "Oregon History: Great Basin". Oregon Blue Book. Oregon State Archives. http://bluebook.state.or.us/cultural/history/history04.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-02.  
  12. ^ "Oregon History: Northwest Coast". Oregon Blue Book. Oregon State Archives. http://bluebook.state.or.us/cultural/history/history02.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-02.  
  13. ^ "Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde: Culture". http://www.grandronde.org/culture/. Retrieved 2007-09-02.  
  14. ^ "Oregon History: Columbia Plateau". Oregon Blue Book. Oregon State Archives. http://bluebook.state.or.us/cultural/history/history03.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-02.  
  15. ^ Oregon Blue Book: Oregon History: Some Came by Sea
  16. ^ Spanish Exploration: Juan Perez Expedition of 1774, HistoryLink.org
  17. ^ Hayes, Derek. Historical Atlas of the Pacific Northwest: Maps of exploration and Discovery. Sasquatch Books. 1999. ISBN 1-57061-215-3. pp. 38-39.
  18. ^ Oregon History Project
  19. ^ Loy, William G.; Stuart Allan, Aileen R. Buckley, James E. Meecham (2001). Atlas of Oregon. University of Oregon Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 0-87114-102-7.  
  20. ^ Meinig, D.W. (1995) [1968]. The Great Columbia Plain (Weyerhaeuser Environmental Classic edition ed.). University of Washington Press. pp. 52. ISBN 0-295-97485-0.  
  21. ^ Meinig, D.W. (1995) [1968]. The Great Columbia Plain (Weyerhaeuser Environmental Classic edition ed.). University of Washington Press. pp. 64. ISBN 0-295-97485-0.  
  22. ^ Edwards, Glenn Thomas, Oregon Regiments in the Civil War Years: Duty on the Indian Frontier, unpublished Master of Arts thesis, Department of History, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, June 1960.
  23. ^ a b c Retired Supreme Court chief justice's long fight to destroy racial discrimination in Oregon's legal system. Deirdre Steinberg, The Episcopal Diocese of Oregon. 14 October 2005. Accessed 8 March 2008.
  24. ^ Racial and Ethnic Fairness in the Oregon Justice System. The Oregon Supreme Court Task Force on Racial and Ethnic Issues in the Judicial System. Accessed 8 March 2008.

External links



Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010
(Redirected to Oregon article)

From Familypedia

State of Oregon
Flag of Oregon State seal of Oregon
Flag of Oregon (front) SealImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Beaver State
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Alis volat propriis (She flies with her own wings)
The Union (de facto)
Map of the United States with Oregon highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif (none)[1]
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Salem
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Portland
Largest metro areaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Greater Portland
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 9thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 98,466 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(255,026 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 260 miles (420 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 360 miles (580 km)
 - % water 2.4
 - Latitude 42° N to 46° 18′ N
 - Longitude 116° 28′ W to 124° 38′ W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 27thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 3,421,399
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 35.6/sq mi 
13.76/km² (39th)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Mount Hood[2]
11,239 ft  (3,425 m)
 - Mean 3,297 ft  (1,005 m)
 - Lowest point Pacific Ocean[2]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  February 14, 1859 (33rd)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Ted Kulongoski (D)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Ron Wyden (D)
Gordon Smith (R)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zonesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - most of state Pacific: UTC-8/-7
 - Malheur County Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Abbreviations ORImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Ore.Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-ORImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.oregon.gov

Oregon file— play in browser (IPA: /ˈɒrɨgən/) is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The state lies on the Pacific coast between Washington on the north and California and Nevada on the south; Idaho lies to the east. The Columbia and Snake rivers form much of its northern and eastern boundaries, respectively. The valley of the Willamette River in western Oregon is the most densely populated and agriculturally productive region of the state.

Oregon has one of the most diverse landscapes of any state in the U.S. It is well known for its tall, dense forests; its accessible and scenic Pacific coastline; and its rugged, glaciated Cascade volcanoes. Other areas include semiarid scrublands, prairies, and deserts that cover approximately half the state in eastern and north-central Oregon.

Oregon's population in 2000 was about 3.5 million, a 20.3% increase over 1990. It is estimated to have reached 3.7 million by 2006.[3]

Contents

History

See also Oregon pioneer history

Although there is considerable evidence that humans lived in the Pacific Northwest 15,000 years ago, the first record of human activity in present day Oregon came from archaeologist Luther Cressman's 1938 discovery of sage bark sandals near Fort Rock Cave that places human habitation in Oregon as early as 13,200 years ago.[4] By 8000 B.C. there were settlements across the state, with the majority concentrated along the lower Columbia River, in the western valleys, and around coastal estuaries.

By the 16th century Oregon was home to many Native American groups, including the Bannock, Chasta, Chinook, Kalapuya, Klamath, Molalla, Nez Perce,Takelma, and Umpqua.[5][6][7][8]

James Cook explored the coast in 1778 in search of the Northwest Passage. The Lewis and Clark Expedition traveled through the region during their expedition to explore the Louisiana Purchase. They built their winter fort at Fort Clatsop, near the mouth of the Columbia River. Exploration by Lewis and Clark (1805–1806) and the United Kingdom's David Thompson (1811) publicized the abundance of fur-bearing animals in the area. In 1811, New York financier John Jacob Astor established Fort Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River as a western outpost to his Pacific Fur Company.[9] Fort Astoria was the first permanent white settlement in Oregon.

In the War of 1812, the British gained control of all of the Pacific Fur Company posts. By the 1820s and 1830s, their Hudson's Bay Company dominated the Pacific Northwest from its Columbia District headquarters at Fort Vancouver (built in 1825 by the District's Chief Factor John McLoughlin across the Columbia from present-day Portland).

In 1841, the master trapper and entrepreneur Ewing Young died with considerable wealth, with no apparent heir, and no system to probate his estate. A meeting followed Young's funeral at which a probate government was proposed. Doctor Ira L. Babcock of Jason Lee's Methodist Mission was elected Supreme Judge. Babcock chaired two meetings in 1842 at Champoeg (half way between Lee's mission and Oregon City) to discuss wolves and other animals of contemporary concern. These meetings were precursors to an all-citizen meeting in 1843, which instituted a provisional government headed by an executive committee made up of David Hill, Alanson Beers, and Joseph Gale. This government was the first acting public government of the Oregon Country before American annexation.

Map of Oregon in dispute. Resolved by the Oregon Treaty.

The Oregon Trail infused the region with new settlers, starting in 1842–1843, after the United States agreed to jointly settle the Oregon Country with the United Kingdom. The border was resolved in 1846 by the Oregon Treaty after a period during which it seemed that the United States and the United Kingdom would go to war for a third time in 75 years. Cooler heads prevailed, and the Oregon boundary dispute between the United States and British North America was set at the 49th parallel. The Oregon Territory was officially organized in 1848.

Settlement increased because of the Donation Land Claim Act of 1850, in conjunction with the forced relocation of the native population to Indian reservations in Oregon. The state was admitted to the Union on February 14, 1859.

At the outbreak of the American Civil War, regular U.S. troops were withdrawn and sent east. Volunteer cavalry were recruited in California and were sent north to Oregon to keep peace and protect the populace. The First Oregon Cavalry served until June 1865.

In the 1880s, the proliferation of railroads assisted in marketing of the state's lumber and wheat, as well as the more rapid growth of its cities.

Industrial expansion began in earnest following the construction of the Bonneville Dam in 1943 on the Columbia River. The power, food, and lumber provided by Oregon helped fuel the development of the West, although the periodic fluctuations in the nation's building industry have hurt the state's economy on multiple occasions.

The state has a long history of polarizing conflicts: Native Americans vs. British fur trappers, British vs. settlers from the U.S., ranchers vs. farmers, wealthy growing cities vs. established but poor rural areas, loggers vs. environmentalists, white supremacists vs. anti-racists, social progressivism vs. small-government conservatism, supporters of social spending vs. anti-tax activists, and native Oregonians vs. Californians (or outsiders in general). Oregonians also have a long history of secessionist ideas, with people in various regions and on all sides of the political spectrum attempting to form other states and even other countries. (See: State of Jefferson, Cascadia and Ecotopia.) Oregon state ballots often include politically conservative proposals (e.g. anti-gay, pro-religious measures) side-by-side with politically liberal ones (e.g. drug decriminalization), illustrating the wide spectrum of political thought in the state.

Name of the state

Main article: Oregon (toponym)

The origin of the name "Oregon" is unknown. One account, advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech, was endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 1700s, on which the Ouisiconsink (Wisconsin) River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so that there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". Other theories find the roots in the Spanish language, from words like Orejón ("big ear") or Aragón.

The pronunciation of the name "Oregon" is a matter of local pride; Oregonians (pronounced IPA: /ˌɒrɨˈgoʊniɨnz/)[10] pronounce the name (in local pronunciation) as [ˈɔɹɨgən], and dutifully correct those from elsewhere, who often change the third syllable.[11][10]

Geography

National parks and historic areas in Oregon
Entity Location
Crater Lake National Park Southern Oregon
John Day Fossil Beds National Monument Eastern Oregon
Newberry National Volcanic Monument Central Oregon
Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument Southern Oregon
Oregon Caves National Monument Southern Oregon
California National Historic Trail Southern Oregon, California
Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Western Oregon, Washington
Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail IL, MO, KS, IA, NE, SD,
ND, MT, ID, OR, WA
Lewis and Clark National and State Historical Parks Western Oregon, Washington
Nez Perce National Historical Park MT, ID, OR, WA
Oregon National Historic Trail MO, KS, NE, WY, ID, OR
See also: List of counties in Oregon, List of cities and unincorporated communities in Oregon, Oregon Geographic Names, List of Oregon rivers, List of Oregon mountain ranges, List of Oregon state parks, and Oregon census statistical areas

Oregon's geography may be split roughly into seven areas:

An aerial View of Crater Lake in Oregon

The mountainous regions of western Oregon were formed by the volcanic activity of Juan de Fuca Plate, a tectonic plate that poses a continued threat of volcanic activity and earthquakes in the region. The most recent major activity was the 1700 Cascadia earthquake; Washington's Mount St. Helens erupted in 1980, an event which was visible from Portland.

Mount Hood, with Trillium Lake in the foreground.
The Columbia River, which constitutes much of the northern border of Oregon, also played a major role in the region's geological evolution, as well as its economic and cultural development. The Columbia is one of North America's largest rivers, and the only river to cut through the Cascades. About 15,000 years ago, the Columbia repeatedly flooded much of Oregon during the Missoula Floods; the modern fertility of the Willamette Valley is largely a result of those floods. Plentiful salmon made parts of the river, such as Celilo Falls, hubs of economic activity for thousands of years. In the 20th century, numerous hydroelectric dams were constructed along the Columbia, with major impacts on salmon, transportation and commerce, electric power, and flood control.
Southern view of the Oregon coast from Ecola State Park, with Haystack Rock in the distance.

Today, Oregon's landscape varies from rainforest in the Coast Range to barren desert in the southeast, which still meets the technical definition of a frontier.

Oregon is 295 miles (475 km) north to south at longest distance, and 395 miles (636 km) east to west at longest distance. In terms of land and water area, Oregon is the ninth largest state, covering 97,073 square miles (251,418 km²).

The highest point in Oregon is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,239 feet (3,428 m), and its lowest point is sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon coast.[2] Its mean elevation is 3,300 feet (1,006 m). Crater Lake National Park is the state's only National Park, and the site of Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the U.S. at 1,943 feet (592 m).[12] Oregon claims the D River is the shortest river in the world,[13] though the American state of Montana makes the same claim of its Roe River.[14] Oregon is also home to Mill Ends Park (in Portland)[15], the smallest park in the world at 452 square inches (about 3 square feet, or 0.29 m²).

Major cities and towns

Map of Oregon's population density.
Ten Most Populous Cities in Oregon[16]
City Population
1. Portland 562,690
2. Salem 149,305
3. Eugene 148,595
4. Gresham 97,745
5. Hillsboro 84,445
6. Beaverton 84,270
7. Bend 75,290
8. Medford 73,960
9. Springfield 57,065
10. Corvallis 53,900

Oregon's population is largely concentrated in the Willamette Valley, which stretches from Eugene (home of the University of Oregon, 3rd largest city) through Salem (the capital, 2nd largest) and Corvallis (home of Oregon State University) to Portland (Oregon's largest city.)[17]

Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia River, was the first permanent English-speaking settlement west of Rockies. Oregon City was the Oregon Territory's first incorporated city, and its first capital (from 1848 until 1852, when the capital was moved to Salem.) It was also the end of the Oregon Trail and the site of the first public library established west of the Rocky Mountains, stocked with only 300 volumes. Bend, near the geographic center of the state, is one of the ten fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the United States.[18] To the Southern part of the state, the Medford area is a rapidly growing metro area and culturally rich part of the state. It it home to The Rogue Valley International-Medford Airport, the third busiest airport in the state. Further to the south, near the California-Oregon border, is the community of Ashland, home of the Tony Award winning Oregon Shakespeare Festival.

Climate

Oregon's climate—especially in the western part of the state—is heavily influenced by the Pacific Ocean. The climate is generally mild, but periods of extreme hot and cold can affect parts of the state. Precipitation in the state varies widely: the deserts of eastern Oregon, such as the Alvord Desert (in the rain shadow of Steens Mountain), get as little as 200 mm (8 inches) annually, while some western coastal slopes approach 5000 mm (200 inches) annually. Oregon's population centers, which lie mostly in the western part of the state, are generally wet and soggy, while the high deserts of Central and Eastern Oregon are much drier.

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Oregon Cities[19]
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Astoria 48/37 51/38 53/39 56/41 60/45 64/50 67/53 68/53 68/50 61/44 53/40 48/37
Burns 35/14 40/19 49/25 57/29 66/36 75/41 85/46 84/44 75/35 62/26 45/21 35/15
Eugene 46/33 51/35 56/37 61/39 67/43 73/47 82/51 82/51 77/47 65/40 52/37 46/33
Medford 47/31 54/33 58/36 64/39 72/44 81/50 90/55 90/55 84/48 70/40 53/35 45/31
Pendleton 40/27 46/31 55/35 62/40 70/46 79/52 88/58 87/57 77/50 64/41 48/34 40/28
Portland 46/34 50/36 56/39 60/42 67/48 73/53 79/57 80/57 75/52 63/45 52/40 45/35
Salem 47/34 51/35 56/37 61/39 68/44 74/48 82/52 82/52 77/48 64/41 52/38 46/34

Law and government

The flags of the United States and Oregon flown side-by-side in downtown Portland.

The Oregon Country functioned as an independent republic with a three-person executive office and a chief executive until August 13,1848, when Oregon was annexed by the United States, at which time a territorial government was established. Oregon maintained a territorial government until February 14, 1859, when it was granted statehood.[20] Oregon was the last state to enter the union before the outbreak of the Civil War.

State government

See also: Government of Oregon

Oregon state government has a separation of powers similar to the federal government. It has three branches, called departments by the state's constitution:

Governors in Oregon serve four year terms and are limited to two consecutive terms, but an unlimited number of total terms. The Secretary of State serves as Lieutenant Governor for statutory purposes. The other statewide officers are Treasurer, Attorney General, Superintendent, and Labor Commissioner. The biennial Oregon Legislative Assembly consists of a thirty-member Senate and a sixty-member House. The state supreme court has seven elected justices, currently including the only two openly gay state supreme court justices in the nation. They choose one of their own to serve a six-year term as Chief Justice. The only court that may reverse or modify a decision of the Oregon Supreme Court is the Supreme Court of the United States.

The debate over whether to move to annual sessions is a long-standing battle in Oregon politics, but the voters have resisted the move from citizen legislators to professional lawmakers. Because Oregon's state budget is written in two year increments and, having no sales tax, its revenue is based largely on income taxes, it is often significantly over- or under-budget. Recent legislatures have had to be called into special session repeatedly to address revenue shortfalls resulting from economic downturns, bringing to a head the need for more frequent legislative sessions.

The state maintains formal relationships with the nine federally recognized tribal governments in Oregon:

Oregonians have voted for the Democratic Presidential candidate in every election since 1988. In 2004 and 2006, Democrats won control of the state Senate and then the House. Since the late 1990s, Oregon has been represented by four Democrats and one Republican in the U.S. House of Representatives, and by one U.S. Senator from each party. Democratic Governor Ted Kulongoski defeated Republicans in 2002 and 2006, defeating conservative Kevin Mannix and the more moderate Ron Saxton respectively.

The base of Democratic support is largely concentrated in the urban centers of the Willamette Valley. In both 2000 and 2004, the Democratic Presidential candidate won Oregon, but did so with majorities in only eight of Oregon's 36 counties.

File:Salem Oregon.jpeg
Oregon's Capitol

Oregon's politics are largely similar to those of neighboring Washington, for instance in the contrast between urban and rural issues.

In the 2004 general election, Oregon voters passed ballot measures banning gay marriage, and restricting land use regulation. In the 2006 general election, voters restricted the use of eminent domain and extended the state's discount prescription drug coverage.[21]

The distribution, sales and consumption of alcoholic beverages are regulated in the state by the Oregon Liquor Control Commission. Thus, Oregon is an Alcoholic beverage control state. While wine and beer are available in most grocery stores, comparatively few stores sell hard liquor.

Entering the Union at a time when the status of "Negroes" was very much in question, and wishing to stay out of the looming conflict between the Union and Confederate States, Oregon banned African Americans from moving into the state in the vote to adopt its Constitution (1858). This ban was not officially lifted until 1925; in 2002, additional language now considered racist was struck from the Oregon Constitution by the voters of Oregon.

Federal government

Like all U.S. states, Oregon is represented by two U.S. Senators. Since the 1980 census Oregon has had five Congressional districts.

After Oregon was admitted to the Union, it began with a single member in the House of Representatives (La Fayette Grover, who served in the 35th United States Congress for less than a month). Congressional apportionment led to the addition of new members following the censuses of 1890, 1910, 1940, and 1980. A detailed list of the past and present Congressional delegations from Oregon is available.

The United States District Court for the District of Oregon hears Federal cases in the state. Oregon (among other western states and territories) is in the 9th judicial circuit.

Elections

Oregon voter registration by party, 1950–2006
See also: United States presidential election, 2004, in Oregon and Oregon statewide elections, 2006

Oregon adopted many electoral reforms proposed during the Progressive Era, through the efforts of William S. U'Ren and his Direct Legislation League. Under his leadership, the state overwhelmingly approved a ballot measure in 1902 that created the initiative and referendum processes for citizens to directly introduce or approve proposed laws or amendments to the state constitution, making Oregon the first state to adopt such a system. Today, roughly half of U.S. states do so.[22] In following years, the primary election to select party candidates was adopted in 1904, and in 1908 the Oregon Constitution was amended to include recall of public officials. More recent amendments include the nation's only doctor-assisted suicide law,[23] called the Death with Dignity law (which was challenged, unsuccessfully, in 2005 by the Bush administration in a case heard by the U.S. Supreme Court), legalization of medical marijuana, and among the nation's strongest anti-sprawl and pro-environment laws. More recently, 2004's Measure 37 reflects a backlash against such land use laws.

Of the measures placed on the ballot since 1902, the people have passed 99 of the 288 initiatives and 25 of the 61 referendums on the ballot, though not all of them survived challenges in courts (see Pierce v. Society of Sisters, for an example). During the same period, the legislature has referred 363 measures to the people, of which 206 have passed.

Oregon pioneered the American use of postal voting, beginning with experimentation authorized by the Oregon Legislative Assembly in 1981 and culminating with a 1998 ballot measure mandating that all counties conduct elections by mail.

In the U.S. Electoral College, Oregon casts seven votes. Oregon has supported Democratic candidates in the last five elections. Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry won the state in 2004 by a margin of four percentage points, with 51.4% of the popular vote.

Economy

The Oregon State Quarter features Crater Lake.
A grain elevator in Halsey storing grass seed, one of the state's largest crops.

Land in the Willamette Valley owes its fertility to the Missoula Floods, which deposited lake sediment from Lake Missoula in western Montana onto the valley floor.[24] This soil is the source of a wealth of agricultural products, including potatoes, peppermint, hops, and apples and other fruits.

Oregon is also one of four major world hazelnut growing regions, and produces 95% of the domestic hazelnuts in the United States. While the history of the wine production in Oregon can be traced to before Prohibition, it became a significant industry beginning in the 1970s. In 2005, Oregon ranked third among U.S. states with 303 wineries.[25] Due to regional similarities in climate and soil, the grapes planted in Oregon are often the same varieties found in the French regions of Alsace and Burgundy. In the northeastern region of the state, particularly around Pendleton, both irrigated and dryland wheat is grown. Oregon farmers and ranchers also produce cattle, sheep, dairy products, eggs and poultry.

Vast forests have historically made Oregon one of the nation's major timber production and logging states, but forest fires (such as the Tillamook Burn), over-harvesting, and lawsuits over the proper management of the extensive federal forest holdings have reduced the amount of timber produced. According to the Oregon Forest Resources Institute, between 1989 and 2001 the amount of timber harvested from federal lands dropped some 96%, from 4,333 million to 173 million board feet (10,000,000 to 408,000 m³), although harvest levels on private land have remained relatively constant.[26] Even the shift in recent years towards finished goods such as paper and building materials has not slowed the decline of the timber industry in the state. The effects of this decline have included Weyerhaeuser's acquisition of Portland-based Willamette Industries in January 2002, the relocation of Louisiana Pacific's corporate headquarters from Portland to Nashville, and the decline of former lumber company towns such as Gilchrist. Despite these changes, Oregon still leads the United States in softwood lumber production; in 2001, 6,056 million board feet (14,000,000 m³) was produced in Oregon, compared to 4,257 million board feet (10,050,000 m³). in Washington, 2,731 million board feet (6,444,000 m³) in California, 2,413 million board feet (5,694,000 m³) in Georgia, and 2,327 million board feet (5,491,000 m³) in Mississippi.[27] The effect of the forest industry crunch is still extensive unemployment in rural Oregon and is a bone of contention between rural and urban Oregon.

Oregon occasionally hosts film shoots. Movies wholly or partially filmed in Oregon include The Goonies, National Lampoon's Animal House, Stand By Me, Kindergarten Cop, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, Paint Your Wagon, The Hunted, Sometimes a Great Notion, Elephant, Bandits, The Ring, The Ring 2, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 3, Short Circuit, Come See The Paradise, The Shining, Drugstore Cowboy, My Own Private Idaho, The Postman, Free Willy, Free Willy 2, 1941, and Swordfish. Oregon native Matt Groening, creator of The Simpsons, has incorporated many references from his hometown of Portland into the TV series.[28] Oregon's scenic coastal and mountain highways are frequently seen in automobile commercials.

Largest Public Corporations Headquartered in Oregon[29]
Corporation Headquarters Market cap
1. Nike near Beaverton $29,466 million
2. Precision Castparts Corp. Portland $16,688
3. FLIR Systems Wilsonville $3,066
4. StanCorp Financial Group Portland $2,802
5. Tektronix near Beaverton $2,648
6. Columbia Sportswear near Beaverton $2,493
7. Portland General Electric Portland $1,715
8. Schnitzer Steel Industries Portland $1,442
9. Umpqua Holdings Corporation Portland $1,360
10. Northwest Natural Gas Portland $1,246

High technology industries and services have been a major employer since the 1970s. Tektronix was the largest private employer in Oregon until the late 1980s. Intel's creation and expansion of several facilities in eastern Washington County continued the growth that Tektronix had started. Intel, the state's largest private employer, operates four large facilities, with Ronler Acres, Jones Farm and Hawthorn Farm all located in Hillsboro. The spinoffs and startups that were produced by these two companies led to the establishment in that area of the so-called Silicon Forest. The recession and dot-com bust of 2001 hit the region hard; many high technology employers reduced the number of their employees or went out of business. OSDL made news in 2004 when they hired Linus Torvalds, developer of the Linux kernel. Recently, biotechnology giant Genentech purchased several acres of land in Hillsboro in an effort to expand its production capabilities.[30]

Oregon is also the home of large corporations in other industries. The world headquarters of Nike are located near Beaverton. Medford is home to two of the largest mail order companies in the country: Harry and David Operations Corp. which sells gift items under several brands, and Musician's Friend, an international catalog and Internet retailer of musical instruments and related products.Medford is also home to the national headquarters of the Fortune 1000 company, Lithia Motors. Portland is home to one of the West's largest trade book publishing houses, Graphic Arts Center Publishing.

Oregon has one of the largest salmon-fishing industries in the world, although ocean fisheries have reduced the river fisheries in recent years. Tourism is also strong in the state; Oregon's evergreen mountain forests, waterfalls, pristine lakes (including Crater Lake National Park), and scenic beaches draw visitors year round. The Oregon Shakespeare Festival, held in Ashland, is a tourist draw which complements the southern region of the state's scenic beauty and opportunity for outdoor activities.

Oregon is home to a number of smaller breweries and Portland has the largest number of breweries of any city in the world.[31]

Oregon's gross state product is $132.66 billion as of 2006, making it the 27th largest GSP in the nation .[32]

Taxes and budgets

Oregon's biennial state budget, $42.4 billion as of 2007, comprises General Funds, Federal Funds, Lottery Funds, and Other Funds. Personal income taxes account for 88% of the General Fund's projected funds.[33] The Lottery Fund, which has grown steadily since the lottery was approved in 1984, exceeded expectations in the 2007 fiscal years, at $604 million.[34]

Oregon is one of only five states that have no sales tax.[35] Oregon voters have been resolute in their opposition to a sales tax, voting proposals down each of the 9 times they have been presented.[36] The last vote, for 1993's Measure 1, was defeated by a 72–24% margin.[37]

The state also has a minimum corporate tax of only $10 per year, amounting to 5.6% of the General Fund in the 2005–2007 biennium; data about what businesses pay the minimum is not available to the public.[38] As a result, the state relies almost entirely on property and income taxes for its revenue. Oregon has the 5th highest personal income tax per person in the nation. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Oregon ranked 41st out of the 50 states in taxes per person in 2005.[39] The average paid of $1,791.45 is higher than only nine other states.[39]

Some local governments levy sales taxes on services: the city of Ashland, for example, collects a 5% sales tax on prepared food.[40]

Oregon is one of 6 states with a revenue limit.[41] In 2000, Ballot Measure 86 converted the "kicker" law from statute to the Oregon Constitution, and changed some of its provisions.

Federal payments to county governments, which were granted to replace timber revenues when logging in National Forests was restricted in the 1990s, have been under threat of suspension for several years. This issue dominates the future revenue of rural counties, which have come to rely on the payments in providing essential services.[42]

Most of state revenues are spent on public education.[43]

Demographics

Oregon population by decade, 1850–2000 (source: Census data)

As of 2005, Oregon has an estimated population of 3,641,056, which is an increase of 49,693, or 1.4%, from the prior year and an increase of 219,620, or 6.4%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 75,196 people (that is 236,557 births minus 161,361 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 150,084 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 72,263 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 77,821 people.

The center of population of Oregon is located in Linn County, in the city of Lyons.[44]

As of 2004, Oregon's population included 309,700 foreign-born residents (accounting for 8.7% of the state population) and an estimated 90,000 illegal aliens (2.5% of the state population). {{US DemogTable|Oregon|03-41.csv|= | 93.45| 2.17| 2.54| 3.75| 0.48|= | 7.63| 0.17| 0.32| 0.10| 0.05|= | 92.95| 2.38| 2.44| 4.25| 0.50|= | 9.38| 0.24| 0.34| 0.11| 0.05|= | 5.85| 16.64| 2.45| 20.78| 10.87|= | 3.63| 13.63| 0.62| 20.75| 10.26|= | 30.84| 52.63| 15.25| 21.84| 16.42}} The largest reported ancestry groups in Oregon are: German (20.5%), English (13.2%), Irish (11.9%), American (6.2%), and Mexican (5.5%).

Most Oregon counties are inhabited principally by residents of European ancestry. Concentrations of Mexican-Americans are highest in Malheur and Jefferson counties.

6.5% of Oregon's population were reported as less than 5 years old, 24.7% under 18, and 12.8% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 50.4% of the population.

See also: List of people from Oregon, List of Portlanders, and Oregon locations by per capita income

Religion

Of the U.S. states, Oregon has the third largest percentage of people identifying themselves as "non-religious" (tied with Colorado at 21 percent), after Washington and Vermont.Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag and was the state's only nationally ranked university by US News & World Reports.[45] Oregon State University is located in Corvallis and holds the distinction of being the state's flagship in science, engineering and agricultural research and academics. The university is also the state's highest ranking university/college in a world survey of academic merit.[46]

The State has three regional universities: Western Oregon University in Monmouth, Southern Oregon University in Ashland, and Eastern Oregon University in La Grande. Portland State University is Oregon's largest. The Oregon Institute of Technology has its campus in Klamath Falls. The affiliate Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) comprises a medical, dental, and nursing school in Portland and a science and engineering school in Hillsboro.

Oregon has historically struggled to fund higher education. Recently, Oregon has cut its higher education budget over 2002–2006 and now Oregon ranks 46th in the country in state spending per student. However, 2007 legislation forced tuition increases to cap at 3% per year, and funded the OUS far beyond the requested governor's budget.[47]

Private

Oregon is home to a wide variety of private colleges. The University of Portland and Marylhurst University are Catholic institutions in the Portland area. Concordia University, Lewis & Clark College, Multnomah Bible College, Reed College, Warner Pacific College, Cascade College, and the National College of Natural Medicine are also in Portland. Pacific University is in the Portland suburb of Forest Grove.

There are also private colleges further south in the Willamette Valley. McMinnville has Linfield College, while nearby Newberg is home to George Fox University. Salem is home to two private schools, Willamette University (the state's oldest, established during the provisional period) and Corban College. Eugene is home to two private colleges: Northwest Christian College and Eugene Bible College.

Community colleges

Lane Community College, Building 1

The state supports seventeen regional community colleges around the state. They offer community education as well as two-year degrees. Colleges belonging to the state are:

Sports

See also: Sports in Portland, Oregon

The only major professional sports team in Oregon is the Portland Trail Blazers of the National Basketball Association. Traditionally, they have been one of the most successful teams in the NBA in terms of both win-loss record and attendance. However, the team has run into personnel and financial issues in recent seasons, and the team's popularity has declined. The Blazers play in the Rose Garden in Portland's Lloyd District. The Rose Garden's other tenants include the Portland Winter Hawks, a longstanding and popular Western Hockey League team, and the Portland LumberJax, an expansion National Lacrosse League team.

In addition to the Winter Hawks and LumberJax, Portland has two more minor-league sports teams who play at PGE Park. The Portland Timbers of the USL First Division are a very popular soccer team, and the Portland Beavers of the Pacific Coast League are the Triple-A affiliate of the San Diego Padres. Portland has actively pursued a Major League Baseball team.

Eugene and Salem also have minor-league baseball teams. The Eugene Emeralds and the Salem-Keizer Volcanoes both play in the Single-A Northwest League. Oregon also has four teams in the fledgling International Basketball League: the Portland Chinooks, Central Oregon Hotshots, Salem Stampede, and the Eugene Chargers.

The Oregon State Beavers and the University of Oregon Ducks football teams meet once a year at the Civil War which has been an ongoing tradition since 1894.

State symbols

The Oregon-grape, Oregon's state flower.
Columbia River Gorge near Crown Point, looking upstream into the gorge, past the Vista House, from Portland Women's Forum Viewpoint (Chanticleer Point)

Oregon has 22 official state symbols.[48] They are:

State flower: Oregon-grape (since 1899)
State song: "Oregon" (written in 1920 and adopted in 1927)
State bird: Western Meadowlark (chosen by the state's children in 1927)
State tree: Douglas-fir (since 1939)
State fish: Chinook salmon (since 1961)
State rock: Thunderegg (like a geode but formed in a rhyolitic lava flow; since 1965)
State animal: American Beaver (since 1969)
State dance: Square dance (Adopted in 1977)
State insect: Oregon Swallowtail butterfly (Papilio oregonius; since 1979)
State fossil: Metasequoia (since 2005)
State gemstone: Oregon sunstone, a type of feldspar (since 1987)
State nut: Hazelnut (since 1989)
State seashell: Oregon hairy triton (Fusitriton oregonensis, a gastropod in the ranellidae family; since 1991)
State mushroom: Pacific Golden Chanterelle (since 1999)
State beverage: Milk (since 1997)
State fruit: Pear (since 2005)
State motto: Alis Volat Propriis, Latin for "She Flies With Her Own Wings" (since 1987; This was the original motto of Oregon, but had been changed to "The Union" in 1957.)[49]
State hostess: Miss Oregon (since 1969)
State team: Portland Trail Blazers of 1990–1991 (since 1991)
State father: Dr. John McLoughlin (since 1957)[50]
State mother: Tabitha Brown (since 1987)[50]
Statehood pageant: Champoeg Historical Pageant (since 1987)

References

  1. ^ Calvin Hall (January 302007). English as Oregon's official language? It could happen. [[Oregon Daily Emerald|]]. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  2. ^ a b c Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 7, 2006.
  3. ^ U.S. Census Bureau - State & County QuickFacts - Oregon. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  4. ^ Robbins, William G. (2005). Oregon: This Storied Land. Oregon Historical Society Press. ISBN 0987595-286-0. 
  5. ^ Oregon History: Great Basin. Oregon Blue Book. Oregon State Archives. Retrieved on 2007-09-02.
  6. ^ Oregon History: Northwest Coast. Oregon Blue Book. Oregon State Archives. Retrieved on 2007-09-02.
  7. ^ Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde: Culture. Retrieved on 2007-09-02.
  8. ^ Oregon History: Columbia Plateau. Oregon Blue Book. Oregon State Archives. Retrieved on 2007-09-02.
  9. ^ Loy, Willam G.; Stuart Allan, Aileen R. Buckley, James E. Meecham (2001). Atlas of Oregon. University of Oregon Press, 12–13. ISBN 0-87114-102-7. 
  10. ^ a b Oregon (English). Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
  11. ^ Occurs among speakers where the [[horse-hoarse merger|]] has occurred, which include the majority of native Oregonians.
  12. ^ {{cite web | title = Crater Lake National Park | publisher = [[U.S. National Park Service|]]
  13. ^ D River State Recreation Site. Oregon Parks and Recreation Department. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  14. ^ World's Shortest River. Travel Montana. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  15. ^ Mill Ends Park. Portland Parks and Recreation. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  16. ^ Population Research Center. Portland State University (June 17, 2007).
  17. ^ {{cite web | title = 2004 Population Report | publisher = [[PDF|]]
  18. ^ 50 Fastest-Growing Metro Areas Concentrated in West and South. U.S. Census Bureau 2005. Retrieved October 16 2007.
  19. ^ Oregon Weather. US Travel Weather.com. Retrieved October 16 2007.
  20. ^ Oregon Secretary of State. A Brief History of the Oregon Territorial Period. State of Oregon. Retrieved on 2006-08-09.
  21. ^ See Summary of 2006 ballot measures
  22. ^ State Initiative and Referendum Summary. State Initiative & Referendum Institute at USC. Retrieved on 2006-11-27.
  23. ^ {{cite web | title = Eighth Annual Report on Oregon’s Death with Dignity Act | publisher = Oregon Department of Human Services | date = March 9, 2006 | url = http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/ph/pas/docs/year8.pdf | format = [[PDF|]]
  24. ^ McNab, W. Henry; Peter E. Avers (July 1994). "Pacific Lowland Mixed Forest (chapter 24)", Ecological Subregions of the United States. U.S. Forest Service and Dept. of Agriculture. 
  25. ^ {{cite web |title=Industry Facts |publisher = Oregon Winegrowers Association |url=http://oregonwine.org/press/StateWineFacts2005.pdf |format=[[PDF|]]
  26. ^ Oregon Forest Facts: 25-Year Harvest History. Oregon Forest Resources Institute. Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
  27. ^ Forest Economics and Employment. Oregon Forest Resources Institute. Retrieved on 2007-03-08.
  28. ^ Don Hamilton (2002-07-19). Matt Groening’s Portland. The Portland Tribune. Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
  29. ^ {{cite news | first = Julie | last = Tripp | title = The Oregonian Top 50 | publisher = [[The Oregonian|]]
  30. ^ Genentech Selects Hillsboro. Hillsboro Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  31. ^ Oregon's Beer Week gets under way.. Knight-Ridder Tribune News Service (2005-07-05). Retrieved on 2007-10-22.
  32. ^ Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, 2006. Bureau of Economic Analysis - U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
  33. ^ Government Finance: State Government. [[Oregon Blue Book|]]. Retrieved on 2007-06-20.
  34. ^ Har, Janie. "Your loss is state's record game", [[The Oregonian|]], [[2007-06-20|]]. Retrieved on 2007-06-20. 
  35. ^ Hammond, Betsy; Hogan, Dave (March 9, 2007). House gets behind rainy day fund. Sales Tax Institute. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
  36. ^ 25th Anniversary Issue : 1993. [[Willamette Week|]]. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  37. ^ Initiative, Referendum and Recall: 1988–1995. Oregon Blue Book. State of Oregon. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  38. ^ "As Maryland Goes, So Should Oregon", Salem News, March 27 2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-10. 
  39. ^ a b {{cite web | title = Oregon ranks 41st in taxes per capita| publisher = [[Portland Business Journal|]]
  40. ^ Food and Beverage Tax. City of Ashland. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
  41. ^ {{cite web | title = Oregon's 2% Kicker | Oregon State Leglislative Review Office | url = http://www.leg.state.or.us/comm/lro/rr02-07.pdf | format = [[PDF|]]
  42. ^ Cooper, Matt. "County may scrub income tax", [[The Register-Guard|]], March 9, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-09. 
  43. ^ 2006 Oregon full-year resident tax form instructions
  44. ^ {{cite web | title = Population and Population Centers by State: 2000 | publisher = [[U.S. Census Bureau|]]
  45. ^ [1]
  46. ^ Top 500 World Universities. Retrieved on 2007-10-18.
  47. ^ Higher Education Get Higher Priority. Retrieved on July 8, 2007.
  48. ^ Oregon Revised Statutes Chapter 186. Retrieved on 2006-05-14.
  49. ^ Oregon State Motto Timeline. Oregon State Legislature. Retrieved on 2006-11-23.
  50. ^ a b Oregon Legislature Kids Page. Oregon State Legislature. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.

Further reading

External links

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Articles on this topic in other Wikimedia projects can be found at: Oregon


CoordinatesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: 44° N 120.5° W

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