History of Pakistan: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mohenjodaro Priest

History of Pakistan

Soanian People ca. 500,000
Mehrgarh Culture 7000-2800
Indus Valley Civilization 3300-1700
Vedic Civilization 2000–600
Indo-Greek Kingdom 250BC–10AD
Gandhara Civilization 200BC-1000AD
Indo-Scythian Kingdom 200BC-400AD
Indo-Parthian Kingdom 21–130
Kushan Empire 60–375
Rai dynasty 489–632
Umayyad Caliphate 661-750
Pala Empire 770–850
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1187
Mamluk dynasty 1206-1290
Khilji dynasty 1290-1320
Tughlaq dynasty 1320-1413
Sayyid dynasty 1414-1451
Lodhi dynasty 1451-1526
Mughal Empire 1526–1858
Durrani Empire 1747–1823
Sikh Empire 1733–1849
British Indian Empire 1849-1947
Dominion of Pakistan 1947-1956
Islamic Republic of Pakistan since 1956

A map outlining Pakistan's historial sites

The first known inhabitants of the modern-day Pakistan region are believed to have been the Soanian - Homo erectus, who settled in the Soan Valley and Riwat almost 2 million years ago. Over the next several thousand years, the region would develop into various civilizations like Mehrgarh and the Indus Valley Civilization. Throughout its history, the region has also been apart of various Greek, Persian, Turkic, Islamic and British empires. The region's ancient history also includes some of the oldest empires from the subcontinent[1] and some of its major civilizations.[2][3][4][5] The political history of the nation began with the birth of the All India Muslim League in 1906 to protect Muslim interests, amid fears of neglect and under-representation of Muslims, in case the British Raj decided to grant local self-rule. On the 29 December 1930, Muhammad Iqbal called for an autonomous state in "northwestern India for Indian Muslims".[6] The Muslim League rose to popularity in the late 1930s. Muhammad Ali Jinnah espoused the Two Nation Theory and led the Muslim League to adopt the Lahore Resolution[7] of 1940, demanding the formation of independent states for Muslims in the East and the West of British India. Eventually, a united Pakistan with two wings - West Pakistan and East Pakistan - gained independence from the British, on August 14, 1947. Modern-day Pakistan came in existence in 1971, after a civil war in the distant East Pakistan and emergence of an independent Bangladesh.

Independence witnessed unprecedented and prologued communal riots across India eventually resulting in millions of Muslims migrating to Pakistan. Disputes arose over several princely states including Kashmir and Jammu whose ruler had acceded to India. This followed an invasion by Pashtun tribesmen supported by Pakistani Army from Pakistan and led to the First Kashmir War in 1948 which ended in a ceasefire under which Pakistan controlled one-third of the state.

Pakistan declared itself an Islamic republic on adoption of a constitution in 1956, but the civilian rule was stalled by the 1956 military coup d'etat by Ayub Khan, who ruled during a period of internal instability and a second war with India in 1965. Economic grievances and political dissent in East Pakistan led to violent political tensions and army repression, escalating into civil war[8] followed by the third war with India. This ultimately led to the secession of East Pakistan and the brith of Bangladesh.[9]

Civilian rule resumed from 1972 to 1977 under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, until he was deposed by General Zia-ul-Haq, who became the country's third military president. Pakistan's secular policies were replaced by the Islamic Shariah legal code, which increased religious influences on the civil service and the military. With the death of Zia-ul-Haq in 1988, Benazir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was elected as the first female Prime Minister of Pakistan. Over the next decade, she alternated power with Nawaz Sharif, as the country's political and economic situation worsened. Military tensions in the Kargil conflict[10] with India were followed by a 1999 coup d'état in which General Pervez Musharraf assumed executive powers.[11]

In 2001, Musharraf named himself President after the resignation of Rafiq Tarar. In the 2002 Parliamentary Elections, Musharraf transferred executive powers to newly elected Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali, who was succeeded in the 2004 by Shaukat Aziz. On November 15, 2007 the National Assembly completed its term and a caretaker government was appointed with the former Chairman of The Senate, Muhammad Mian Soomro as Prime Minister. Following the assassination of Benazir Bhutto, that resulted in a series of important political developments, her husband Asif Ali Zardari was eventually elected as the new President in 2008.



Soanian Culture

An early farming village in Mehrgarh, c. 7000 BCE, with houses built with mud bricks. (Musée Guimet, Paris).

The Soanian is an archaeological culture of the Lower Paleolithic (ca. 500,000 to 1,250,000 BP), contemporary to the Acheulean. It is named after the Soan Valley in the Sivalik Hills, near modern-day Islamabad/Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The bearers of this culture were Homo erectus. In Adiyala and Khasala, about 16 kilometers (10 miles) from Rawalpindi, on the bend of the Soan River hundreds of edged pebble tools were discovered. No human skeletons of this age have yet been found. In the Soan River Gorge many fossil bearing rocks are exposed on the surface. The 14 million year old fossils of gazelle, rhinoceros, crocodile, giraffe and rodents have been found there. Some of these fossils are on display at the Natural History Museum in Islamabad.


Mehrgarh, (7000-5500 BCE), on the Kachi Plain of Balochistan, is an important Neolithic site discovered in 1974, with early evidence of farming and herding,[12] and dentistry.[1] Early residents lived in mud brick houses, stored grain in granaries, fashioned tools with copper ore, cultivated barley, wheat, jujubes and dates, and herded sheep, goats and cattle. As the civilization progressed (5500-2600 BCE) residents began to engage in crafts, including flint knapping, tanning, bead production, and metalworking. The site was occupied continuously until 2600 BCE,[13] when climatic changes began to occur. Between 2600 and 2000 BCE, region became more arid and Mehrgarh was abandoned in favour of the Indus Valley,[14] where a new civilization was in the early stages of development.[15]

Indus Valley Civilization

Tablets with Indus Script

The Indus Valley Civilization developed between 3300-1700 BCE on the banks of the Indus River. At it's peak, the civilisation hosted a population of approximately 5 million in hundreds of settlements extending as far as the Arabian Sea, present-day southern and eastern Afghanistan, southeastern Iran and the Himalayas.[16] Major urban centers were at Dholavira, Kalibangan, Harappa, Lothal, Mohenjo-daro, and Rakhigarhi, as well as an offshoot called the Kulli culture (2500-2000 BCE) in southern Balochistan, which had similar settlements, pottery and other artifacts. The Indus Valley civilisation has been tentatively identified as proto-Dravidian, however this has not been proven, and cannot be confirmed until the Indus script is fully deciphered.[17] The civilization collapsed abruptly around 1700 BCE, possible due to a cataclysmic earthquake or the drying up of the Ghaggar-Hakra river or due to the invasion of Aryans.

Aryan invasion

The geographical horizon of the early Rigvedic Aryans, the extent of their Swat and Cemetery H cultures in the Hindu Kush to Punjab and the upper Gangetic plain regions and Rigvedic river names.

In the early part of the second millennium BCE, tribes from Central Asia and the southern Russian steppes migrated into the region,[18] and settled in the Sapta Sindhu area between the Kabul River and the Upper Ganges-Yamuna rivers.[19] According to more recent studies, it is claimed the Aryans entered this region gradually, as infiltrators, not as forceful invaders. The resulting Vedic culture lasted until the middle of the first millennium BCE when there were marked linguistic, cultural and political changes.[20]

Vedic culture

During the Vedic era, the hymns of the Rigveda were composed and the foundations of Hinduism were laid. The city of Taxila, in northern Pakistan, became important to Hinduism (and later in Buddhism). According to Hindu tradition, the Mahābhārata epic was first recited at Taxila at the snake sacrifice Yagna of King Janamejaya, one of the heroes of the story.[21] Vedic Sanskrit was canonised in the 4th century BCE by the grammarian Pāṇini, who hailed from the ancient city of Pushkalavati in Pakistan's then Gandhara region. According to an interesting legend, Vidula, the brave mother of defeated Prince Sanjay of Sindh-Sauvira region had admonished him into action asking him to remember his ancestry, remember his responsibilities to his people, uphold dharma, and live nobly or die nobly. When the Pandavas were dispirited and did not want to fight the Mahabharata war, their mother Kunti, reminded Lord Krishna of the story of Vidula and asked him to repeat it to her sons, to move them to action. The result was the immortal sermon of the Gita.

Early history

Achaemenid Empire

Much of modern-day Pakistan was under the Achaemenid Empire. Taxila became a satrapy during the reign of Darius the Great.

The Indus plains formed the most populous and richest satrapy of the Persian Achaemenid Empire for almost two centuries, starting from the reign of Darius the Great (522-485 BCE).[22] Its heritage influenced the region, e.g., adoption of Aramaic script, which the Achaemenids used for the Persian language; but after the end of Achaemenid rule, other scripts became more popular, such as Kharoṣṭhī (derived from Aramaic) and Greek.

Alexander the Great

Map showing the route of Alexander the Great

Crushing the great ancient Egyptian and the Persian Achaemenid empires, Alexander eventually invaded the region of modern Pakistan and conquered much of the Punjab region. After defeating King Porus in the fierce Battle of the Hydaspes (modern day Jhelum), his battle weary troops refused to advance further into India[23] to engage the formidable army of Nanda Dynasty and its vanguard of trampling elephants, new monstorities to the invaders. Therefore, Alexander proceeded southwest along the Indus valley.[24] Along the way, he engaged in several battles with smaller kingdoms before marching his army westward across the Makran desert towards modern Iran. Alexander founded several new Macedonian and Greek settlements in Gandhara and Punjab.

Greek kingdoms

After Alexander's untimely death in 323 BCE, his Diadochi (generals) divided the empire among themselves, with the Greek warlord Seleucus setting up the Seleucid Kingdom, which included the Indus plain.[25] Around 250 BCE, the eastern part of the Seleucid Kingdom broke away to form the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom.

Mauryan Empire

Chandragupta Maurya - a young fugitive general from Magadha empire of the Nandas — and his brilliant adviser Chanakya, who were in this region during Alexander's invasion, took advantage of this fragmentation of Greek power and captured the Punjab and Gandhara.[26] Subsequently, Chandragupta raised his own military force from this region and ultimately overthrew the Nanda Dynasty - using Macedonian tactics he had learnt — and founded the Mauryan dynasty in Magadha, that lasted about 180 years.[27] The 'ethnicity' of Chandragputa is hotly debated, some claiming him to be a Punjabi while others consider him to be from Magadha. Chandragupta's grandson, Ashoka the Great, (273-232 BCE) expanded the Mauryan empire to its greatest extent covering most of South Asia. He converted to Buddhism after feeling remorse for his bloody conquest of Kalinga in eastern India. His Edicts on pillars, in the region of Pakistan, were written in Aramaic (the lingua franca of the Achaemenid Empire) or in Kharoṣṭhī.[28]

Gandhara culture

Gandhara frieze with devotees, holding plantain leaves, in purely Hellenistic style, inside Corinthian columns, 1st-2nd century CE. Buner, Swat, Pakistan. Victoria and Albert Museum.

The interaction between Hellenistic Greece and Buddhism began when Alexander the Great overthrew the Achaemenid empire in 334 BCE, and marched eastwards. Greco-Buddhism (or Græco-Buddhism) was the syncretism between the culture of Classical Greece and Buddhism in the area of modern Afghanistan and Pakistan, between the fourth century BCE and the fifth century CE.[29] It influenced the artistic development of Buddhism, and in particular Mahayana Buddhism, before it spread to central and eastern Asia, from the 1st century CE onward. Demetrius (son of the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus) invaded northern India in 180 BCE as far as Pataliputra and established an Indo-Greek kingdom. To the south, the Greeks captured Sindh and nearby coastal areas, completing the invasion by 175 BCE and confining the borders of Sunga's Magadha Empire to the east. Meanwhile, in Bactria, the usurper Eucratides killed Demetrius in a battle. Although the Indo-Greeks lost part of the Gangetic plain, their kingdom lasted nearly two centuries.


A coin of Menander I, who ruled the eastern dominions of the divided Greek empire of Bactria and the modern Pakistani provinces of the Northwest Frontier Province, Punjab and Kashmir.

The Indo-Greek Menander I (reigned 155-130 BCE) drove the Greco-Bactrians out of Gandhara and beyond the Hindu Kush, becoming a king shortly after his victory. His territories covered Panjshir and Kapisa in modern Afghanistan and extended to the Punjab region, with many tributaries to the south and east, possibly as far as Mathura. The capital Sagala (modern Sialkot) prospered greatly under Menander's rule and Menander is one of the few Bactrian kings mentioned by Greek authors.[30] The classical Buddhist text Milinda Pañha, praises Menander, saying there was "none equal to Milinda in all India".[31] His empire survived him in a fragmented manner until the last independent Greek king, Strato II, disappeared around 10 CE. Around 125 BCE, the Greco-Bactrian king Heliocles, son of Eucratides, fled from the Yuezhi invasion of Bactria and relocated to Gandhara, pushing the Indo-Greeks east of the Jhelum River. Various petty kings ruled into the early first century CE, until the conquests by the Scythians, Parthians and the Yuezhi, who founded the Kushan dynasty. The last known Indo-Greek ruler was Theodamas, from the Bajaur area of Gandhara, mentioned on a 1st century CE signet ring, bearing the Kharoṣṭhī inscription "Su Theodamasa" ("Su" was the Greek transliteration of the Kushan royal title "Shau" ("Shah" or "King")).


Scythia-Parthia 100 BC.png

The Indo-Scythians were descended from the Sakas (Scythians) who migrated from southern Siberia to Kashmir and Arachosia from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. They displaced the Indo-Greeks and ruled a kingdom that stretched from Gandhara to Mathura and Scythian tribes spread further into present day Pakistan region and the Iranian plateau.


The Parni, a nomadic Central Asian tribe, invaded Parthia in the middle of the 3rd century BCE, drove away its Greek satraps — who had just then proclaimed independence from the Seleucids — and annexed much of the Indus region, thus founding an Arsacids dynasty of Sythian or Bactrian origin. Following the decline of the central Parthian authority after clashes with the Roman Empire, a local Parthian leader, Gondophares established the Indo-Parthian Kingdom in the 1st century CE. The kingdom was ruled from Taxila and covered much of modern southeast Afghanistan and Pakistan.[32]

Kushan Empire

The Kushan kingdom was founded by King Heraios, and greatly expanded by his successor, Kujula Kadphises. Kadphises' son, Vima Takto conquered territory now in India, but lost much of the west of the kingdom to the Parthians. The fourth Kushan emperor, Kanishka I, (circa 127 CE) had a winter capital at Purushapura (Peshawar) and a summer capital at Kapisa (Bagram). The kingdom linked the Indian Ocean maritime trade with the commerce of the Silk Road through the Indus valley. At its height, the empire extended from the Aral Sea to northern India, encouraging long-distance trade, particularly between China and Rome. Kanishka convened a great Buddhist council in Kashmir, marking the start of the pantheistic Mahayana Buddhism and its scission with Nikaya Buddhism. The art and culture of Gandhara — the best known expressions of the interaction of Greek and Buddhist cultures — also continued over several centuries, until the fifth century CE White Hun invasions.

Indo-Sassanid culture

Over the next few centuries, while the Indo-Parthians and Kushans shared control of the Indus plain until the arrival of the White Huns, the Persian Sassanid Empire dominated the south and southwest. The mingling of Indian and Persian cultures in the region gave rise to the Indo-Sassanid culture, which flourished in Balochistan and western Punjab.

The White Huns

The White Huns, who seem to have been part of the Hephthalite group, established themselves in Afghanistan by the first half of the fifth century, with their capital at Bamiyan. Over running the northern region of Pakistan, they continued deep into the Indo-Gangetic Plain and were responsible for the downfall of the Gupta dynasty in the 6th century, ending what historians consider a golden age of Hinduism in northern India.

Nevertheless, much of the Deccan and southern India were largely unaffected by this state of flux in the north; southern cultural and scholarly traditions continued as before. Among its luminaries, in the context of Pakistan, is the famous mathematician and astronomer Aryabhata (476-550 AD), who is considered by some historians to be of Ashmaka descent; a group of the Ashmakas of the Northwest region of Pakistan is said to have settled in South India in Buddha's time.

Rai dynasty

According to Arab chroniclers, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh (c.489-632), established a great kingdom with Ror (modern Sukkur) as its capital and, at its zenith, under Rai Diwaji (Devaditya), ruled over the Sindh region and beyond. Devadittya was a great patron of Buddhism, which flourished. This kingdom was taken over by Brahman dynasties, whose unpopularity among Buddhist subjects contributed towards the consolidation of Arab conquerors' base in Sindh.

Harshavardhan, Rajputs and Pāla Empire

Pala Empire under Dharmapala
Pala Empire under Devapala

After the collapse of the Gupta Empire, India was ruled by numerous regional kingdoms until the first half of the seventh century, when the Vardhana king Harsha, a Bais Rajput, established a vast empire. It disintegrated after his death, to be invaded by other Rajput warlords, soon after their victory over the Arab forces in Sindh, that set the eastern borders of Arab Sindh for a long time to come.

The Pāla's were a Buddhist dynasty of Bengal, which lasted for four centuries (750-1120 AD). The empire reached its peak under Dharmapala and Devapala to cover much of South Asia and beyond up to Kamboja (modern day Afghanistan), shattering the pride of many a ruler, including the Huna. Followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism, they were responsible for the introduction of Mahayana Buddhism in Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, Myanmar and the Malay archipelago, creation of temples and works of art and patronage of great universities formerly patronised by the Buddhist king Harsha Vardhana. The Palas had extensive trade as well as influence in south-east Asia. The Pala Empire eventually disintegrated in the 12th century under the attack of the Sena dynasty.

Muslim period

Domains of Rashidun Caliphate under four caliphs.      Strongholds of Rashidun Caliphate      Vassal states of Rashidun Caliphate      Region under the control of Muawiyah I during civil war 656-661      Region under the control of Amr ibn al-As During civil war 658-661.[33]

Umayyad Empire

Although - soon after liberating the Middle East from the yoke of Byzantine subjugation - Muslim forces had reached the present western regions of Pakistan during the period of Rashidun caliphacy, it was in 712 CE that a young Syrian Muslim general called Muhammad bin Qasim conquered most of the Indus region for the Umayyad empire, to be made the "As-Sindh" province with its capital at Al-Mansurah, 72 km (45 mi) north of modern Hyderabad. But the instability of the empire resulted in effective control only over Sindh and southern Punjab. There was gradual conversion to Islam in the south, especially amongst the native Buddhist majority, but in areas north of Multan, Buddhists, Hindus and other non-Muslim groups remained numerous.[34] By the end of tenth century CE, the region was ruled by several Muslim and Hindu Shahi kings who would be subdued by the Ghaznavids.

Ghaznavid Dynasty

In 997 CE, Mahmud of Ghazni conquered the bulk of Khorasan, marched on Peshawar in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of Punjab (1007), Balochistan (1011), Kashmir (1015) and Qanoch (1017). By the end of his reign in 1030, Mahmud's empire extended from Kurdistan in the west to the Yamuna river in the east, and the Ghaznavid dynasty lasted until 1187. Contemporary historians such as Abolfazl Beyhaqi and Ferdowsi described extensive building work in Lahore, as well as Mahmud's support and patronage of learning, literature and the arts.

Delhi Sultanate

In 1160, Muhammad Ghori conquered Ghazni from the Ghaznavids and became its governor in 1173. He marched eastwards into the remaining Ghaznavid territory and Gujarat in the 1180s, but was rebuffed by Gujarat's Solanki rulers. In 1186-7, he conquered Lahore, bringing the last of Ghaznevid territory under his control and ending the Ghaznavid empire. Muhammad Ghori returned to Lahore after 1200 to deal with a revolt of the Rajput Ghakkar tribe in the Punjab. He suppressed the revolt, but was killed during a Ghakkar raid on his camp on the Jhelum River in 1206. Muhammad Ghori's successors established the first Indo-Islamic dynasty, the Delhi Sultanate. The Mamluk Dynasty, (mamluk means "slave" and referred to the Turkic slave soldiers who became rulers throughout the Islamic world), seized the throne of the Sultanate in 1211. Several Turko-Afghan dynasties ruled their empires from Delhi: the Mamluk (1211–90), the Khalji (1290–1320), the Tughlaq (1320–1413), the Sayyid (1414–51) and the Lodhi (1451–1526). Although some kingdoms remained independent of Delhi - in Gujarat, Malwa (central India), Bengal and Deccan - almost all of the Indus plain came under the rule of these large Indo-Islamic sultanates. Perhaps the greatest contribution of the sultanate was its temporary success in insulating South Asia from the Mongol invasion from Central Asia in the thirteenth century; nonetheless the sultans eventually lost Afghanistan and western Pakistan to the Mongols (see the Ilkhanate Dynasty). The Sultanate declined after the invasion of Emperor Timur - who founded the Timurid Dynasty - and was eventually conquered in 1526 by the Mughal king Babar.

The sultans (emperors) of Delhi enjoyed cordial relations with Muslim rulers in the Near East but owed them no allegiance. While the sultans ruled from urban centers, their military camps and trading posts provided the nuclei for many towns that sprang up in the countryside. Close interaction with local populations led to cultural exchange and the resulting "Indo-Islamic" fusion has left a lasting imprint and legacy in South Asian architecture, music, literature, life style and religious customs. In addition, the language of Urdu (literally meaning "horde" or "camp" in various Turkic dialects) was born during the Delhi Sultanate period, as a result of the mingling of speakers of Sanskritic prakrits, Persian, Turkish and Arabic languages.

Guru Nanak Dev and the Sikhs

Guru Nanak (1469–1539), the saintly founder of the modern Sikh religion and first of its ten divine Gurus, was born in the village of Rāi Bhōi dī Talwandī, now called Nankana Sahib, near Lahore, Pakistan. At the age of 70, he had a miraculous death in Kartarpur, Punjab of Pakistan. His followers, the Sikhs, were to play a historic role later.

Mughal Empire

'The Jumma Musjeed in Thatta, Scinde: commenced by Shahjahan and finished by Urungjebe. 'Water-colour, 'T. Wingate. Queen's Royal Regt. 1839'

From the 16th to the 19th century CE the formidable Mughal empire covered much of South Asia and played a major role in the economic and cultural development of the region.[35] The empire was one of the three major Islamic states of its day and sometimes contested its northwestern holdings such as Qandahar against the Uzbeks and the Safavid Persians. The Mughals were descended from Persianized Central Asian Turks (with significant Mongol admixture). The third emperor, Akbar the Great, was both a capable ruler and an early proponent of religious and ethnic tolerance and favored an early form of multiculturalism. For a short time in the late 16th century, Lahore was the capital of the empire. The architectural legacy of the Mughals in Lahore includes the Shalimar Gardens built by the fifth emperor, Shahjahan, and the Badshahi Mosque built by the sixth emperor, Aurangzeb.

Durrani Kingdom

In 1739, the Persian emperor Nader Shah invaded India, defeated the Mughal Emperor Mohammed Shah, and occupied most of Balochistan and the Indus plain. After Nadir Shah's death, the Durrani kingdom of Afghanistan was established in 1747, by one of his generals, Ahmad Shah Abdali and included Kashmir, Peshawar, Daman, Multan, Sind and Punjab. In the south, a succession of autonomous dynasties (the Daudpotas, Kalhoras and Talpurs) had asserted the independence of Sind, from the end of Aurangzeb's reign. Most of Balochistan came under the influence of the Khan of Kalat, apart from some coastal areas such as Gwadar which were ruled by the Sultan of Oman. Marathas, who invaded the Punjab region up to Attock, were decisively repelled by Abdali.

The Sikh Confederacy (1748–1799) was a group of small states in the Punjab which emerged in a political vacuum created by rivalry between the Mughals, Afghans and Persians.[36] The Confederacy drove out the Mughals, repelled several Afghan invasions and in 1764 captured Lahore. However, after the retreat of Ahmed Shah Abdali, the Confederacy suffered instability as disputes and rivalries emerged.[37]

Sikh Empire

The Sikh empire (1799–1849) was formed on the foundations of the Confederacy by Ranjit Singh who proclaimed himself "Sarkar-i-Wala", and was referred to as the Maharaja of Lahore.[36] His empire eventually extended as far west as the Khyber Pass and as far south as Multan. Amongst his conquests were Kashmir in 1819 and Peshawar in 1834, although the Afghans made two attempts to recover Peshawar. After the Maharaja's death the empire was weakened by internal divisions and political mismanagement. The British annexed the Sikh empire in 1849 after two Anglo-Sikh wars.[38]

British rule

The entire territory of modern Pakistan was occupied by the British East India Company and its successor, the British Raj, through a series of wars - main being the Battle of Miani (1843) in Sindh, the Anglo-Sikh Wars (1845–1849) and the three Anglo-Afghan Wars (1839–1919) - to remain a part of British Indian Empire till the freedom in 1947. The physical presence of the British was not significant; they employed divide et impera ("Divide and Rule" political strategy) to rule. In his historical survey Constantine's Sword, James P. Carroll writes: "Certainly that was the story of the British Empire's success, and its legacy of nurtured local hatreds can be seen wherever the Union Flag flew." [39]

Freedom Movement

The front page of the "Now or Never" pamphlet produced by Choudhary Rahmat Ali

Early nationalism period

In 1877, Syed Ameer Ali had formed the Central National Muhammadan Association to work towards the political advancement of the Muslims, who had suffered grievously in 1857, in the aftermath of the failed Sepoy Mutiny against the British East India Company; the British were seen as foreign invaders. But the organization declined towards the end of the nineteenth century.

In 1885, the Indian National Congress was founded as a forum, which later became a party, to promote a nationalist cause.[40] Although the Congress attempted to include the Muslim community in the struggle for independence from the British rule - and some Muslims were very active in the Congress - the majority of Muslim leaders did not trust the party, viewing it as a "Hindu-dominated" organization.[41] Some Muslims felt that an independent united India would inevitably be "ruled by Hindus",[citation needed] and that there was a need to address the issue of the Muslim identity within India.[citation needed] A turning point in Hindu-Muslim amity came in 1900, when the British administration in the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh (now Uttar Pradesh), acceded to Hindu demands and made Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, the official language. The proslytisation conducted in the region by the activists of a new Hindu reformist movement also stirred Muslim's concerns about their faith. Eventually, the Muslims feared that the Hindu majority would seek to suppress Muslim culture and religion in an independent Hindustan.

The Muslim League

The All-India Muslim League was founded on December 30, 1906, on the sidelines of the annual All India Muhammadan Educational Conference in Shahbagh, Dhaka.[42] The meeting was attended by three thousand delegates and presided over by Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk. It addressed the issue of safeguarding interests of Muslims and finalised a programme. A resolution, moved by Nawab Salimullah and seconded by Hakim Ajmal Khan. Nawab Viqar-ul-Milk, declared:

The Musalmans are only a fifth in number as compared with the total population of the country, and it is manifest that if at any remote period the British government ceases to exist in India, then the rule of India would pass into the hands of that community which is nearly four times as large as ourselves ...our life, our property, our honour, and our faith will all be in great danger, when even now that a powerful British administration is protecting its subjects, we the Musalmans have to face most serious difficulties in safe-guarding our interests from the grasping hands of our neighbors.[43]

Choudhary Rahmat Ali

The constitution and principles of the League were contained in the Green Book, written by Maulana Mohammad Ali. Its goals at this stage did not include establishing an independent Muslim state, but rather concentrated on protecting Muslim liberties and rights, promoting understanding between the Muslim community and other Indians, educating the Muslim and Indian community at large on the actions of the government, and discouraging violence. However, several factors over the next thirty years, including sectarian violence, led to a re-evaluation of the League's aims.[44][45] Among those Muslims in the Congress who did not initially join the League was Muhammed Ali Jinnah, a prominent Bombay lawyer and statesman. This was because the first article of the League's platform was "To promote among the Mussalmans (Muslims) of India, feelings of loyalty to the British Government".

In 1907, a vocal group of Hindu hard-liners within the Indian National Congress movement separated from it and started to pursue a pro-Hindu movement openly. This group was spearheaded by the famous trio of Lal-Bal-Pal - Lala Lajpat Rai , Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal of Punjab, Bombay and Bengal provinces respectively. Their influence spread rapidly among other like minded Hindus - they called it Hindu nationalism - and it became a cause of serious concern for Muslims. However, Jinnah did not join the League until 1913, when the party changed its platform to one of Indian independence, as a reaction against the British decision to reverse the 1905 Partition of Bengal, which the League regarded it as a betrayal of the Bengali Muslims.[46] After vociferous protests of the Hindu population and violence engineered by secret groups, such as Anushilan Samiti and its offshoot Jugantar of Aurobindo and his brother etc., the British had decided to reunite Bengal again. Till this stage, Jinnah believed in Muslim-Hindu co-operation to achieve an independent, united 'India', although he argued that Muslims should be guaranteed one-third of the seats in any Indian Parliament.

Allama Sir Muhammad Iqbal

The League gradually became the leading representative body of Indian Muslims. Jinnah became its president in 1916, and negotiated the Lucknow Pact with the Congress leader, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, by which Congress conceded the principle of separate electorates and weighted representation for the Muslim community.[47] However, Jinnah broke with the Congress in 1920 when the Congress leader, Mohandas Gandhi, launched a law violating Non-Cooperation Movement against the British, which a temperamentally law abiding barrister Jinnah disapproved of. Jinnah also became convinced that the Congress would renounce its support for separate electorates for Muslims, which indeed it did in 1928. In 1927, the British proposed a constitution for India as recommended by the Simon Commission, but they failed to reconcile all parties. The British then turned the matter over to the League and the Congress, and in 1928 an All-Parties Congress was convened in Delhi. The attempt failed, but two more conferences were held, and at the Bombay conference in May, it was agreed that a small committee should work on the constitution. The prominent Congress leader Motilal Nehru headed the committee, which included two Muslims, Syed Ali Imam and Shoaib Quereshi; Motilal's son, Pt Jawaharlal Nehru, was its secretary. The League, however, rejected the committee's report, the so called Nehru Report, arguing that its proposals gave too little representation (one quarter) to Muslims – the League had demanded at least one-third representation in the legislature. Jinnah announced a "parting of the ways" after reading the report, and relations between the Congress and the League began to sour.

Muslim Homeland - "Now or Never"

The election of Ramsay MacDonald's Labour government in 1929 in Britain, already weakened by World War I, fuelled new hopes for progress towards self-government in India. Gandhi travelled to London, claiming to represent all Indians and criticising the League as sectarian and divisive. Round-table talks were held, but these achieved little, since Gandhi and the League were unable reach a compromise. The fall of the Labour government in 1931 ended this period of optimism. By 1930 Jinnah had despaired of Indian politics and particularly of getting mainstream parties like the Congress to be sensitive to minority priorities. A fresh call for a separate state was then made by the famous writer, poet and philosopher Allama Muhammad Iqbal, who in his presidential address to the 1930 convention of the Muslim League said that he felt that a separate Muslim state was essential in an otherwise Hindu-dominated South Asia.[6][48] The name was coined by Cambridge student and Muslim nationalist Choudhary Rahmat Ali,[49] and was published on January 28, 1933 in the pamphlet Now or Never.[50] After naming the country, he noticed that there is an acronym formed from the names of the "homelands" of Muslims in northwest India — "P" for Punjab, "A" for the Afghan areas of the region, "K" for Kashmir, "S" for Sindh and "tan" for Balochistan, thus forming "Pakstan".[51] An "i" was later added to the English rendition of the name to ease pronunciation, producing "Pakistan". In Urdu and Persian the name encapsulates the concept of pak ("pure") and stan ("land") and hence a "Pure Land". In the 1935, the British administration proposed to hand over substantial power to elected Indian provincial legislatures, with elections to be held in 1937. After the elections the League took office in Bengal and Punjab, but the Congress won office in most of the other provinces, and refused to share power with the League in provinces with large Muslim minorities.

Meanwhile, Muslim ideologues for separatism also felt vindicated by the presidential address of V.D. Savarkar at the 19th session of the famous Hindu nationalist party Hindu Mahasabha in 1937. In it, this legendary revolutionary - popularly called Veer Savarkar and known as the iconic father of the Hindutva ideology - propounded the seminal ideas of his Two Nation Theory or Hindu-Muslim exclusivism, which influenced Jinnah profoundly.

Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman seconding the Resolution with Jinnah presiding the session

In 1940, Jinnah called a general session of the Muslim League in Lahore to discuss the situation that had arisen due to the outbreak of the Second World War and the Government of India joining the war without consulting Indian leaders. The meeting was also aimed at analyzing the reasons that led to the defeat of the Muslim League in the general election of 1937 in the Muslim majority provinces. In his speech, Jinnah criticized the Indian National Congress and the nationalist Muslims, and espoused the Two-Nation Theory and the reasons for the demand for separate Muslim homelands.[52] Sikandar Hayat Khan, the Chief Minister of Punjab, drafted the original resolution, but disavowed the final version,[53] that had emerged after protracted redrafting by the Subject Committee of the Muslim League. The final text unambiguously rejected the concept of a United India because of increasing inter-religious violence[54] and recommended the creation of independent Muslim states.[55] The resolution was moved in the general session by Shere-Bangla A. K. Fazlul Huq, the Chief Minister of Bengal, supported by Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman and other Muslim leaders and was adopted on 23 March 1940.[7] The Resolution read as follows:

No constitutional plan would be workable or acceptable to the Muslims unless geographical contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be so constituted with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary. That the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India should be grouped to constitute independent states in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign.... That adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards shall be specifically provided in the constitution for minorities in the units and in the regions for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political, administrative and other rights of the minorities, with their consultation. Arrangements thus should be made for the security of Muslims where they were in a minority.[56]

The Working Committee of the Muslim League in Lahore (1940)

In 1941 it became part of the Muslim League's constitution.[57] However, in early 1941, Sikandar explained to the Punjab Assembly that he did not support the final version of the resolution.[58] The sudden death of Sikandar in 1942 paved the way over the next few years for Jinnah to emerge as the recognised leader of the Indian Muslims.[46] In 1943, the Sind Assembly passed a resolution demanding the establishment of a Muslim homeland.[59] Talks between Jinnah and Gandhi in 1944 in Bombay failed to achieve agreement and there were no more attempts to reach a single-state solution.

World War II had broken the back of both Britain and France and disintegration of their colonial empires was expected soon. With the election of another sympathetic Labour government in Britain in 1945, Indians were seeing independence within reach. But, Gandhi and Nehru were not receptive to Jinnah's proposals and were also adamantly opposed to dividing India, since they knew that the Hindus, who saw India as one indivisible entity, would never agree to such a thing.[46] In the Constituent Assembly elections of 1946, the League won 425 out of 496 seats reserved for Muslims (and about 89.2% of Muslim votes) on a policy of creating an independent state of Pakistan, and with an implied threat of secession if this was not granted.[46] By 1946 the British had neither the will, nor the financial resources or military power, to hold India any longer. Political deadlock ensued in the Constituent Assembly, and the British Prime Minister, Clement Attlee, sent a Cabinet Mission to India to mediate the situation. When the talks broke down, Attlee appointed Louis Mountbatten as India's last Viceroy, to negotiate the independence of Pakistan and India and immediate British withdrawal. Mountbatten, of imperial blood and a world war admiral, handled the problem as a campaign. Ignorant of the complex ground realities in British India, he rashly preponed the date of transfer of power and told Gandhi and Nehru that if they did not accept division there would be civil war in his opinion[46] and he would rather consider handing over power to individual provinces and the rulers of princely states. This forced the hands of Congress leaders and the "Independence of India Act 1947" provided for the two dominions of Pakistan and India to become independent on the 14th and 15th of August 1947 respectively. This result was despite the calls for a third Osmanistan in the early 1940s.

Independence of Pakistan

Muhammad Ali Jinnah (right) taking oath from Justice Sir Mian Abdul Rashid (left) as Governor-General of Pakistan on August 14, 1947

On the 14th and 15th of August, 1947, British India gave way to two new independent states, the Dominion of Pakistan and the Union of India, both dominions which joined the British Commonwealth. However, the ill conceived and controversial decision to divide Punjab and Bengal, two of the biggest provinces, between India and Pakistan had disastrous consequences. This division created inter-religious violence of such magnitude that exchange of population along religious lines became a necessity in these provinces. More than two million people migrated across the new borders and more than one hundred thousand died in the spate of communal violence, that spread even beyond these provinces. The independence also resulted in tensions over Kashmir leading to the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. The post-independence political history of Pakistan has been characterised by several periods of authoritarian military rule and continuing territorial disputes with India over the status of Kashmir, and with Afghanistan over the Pashtunistan issue.

Modern day Pakistan

First democratic era (1947-1958)

The two wings of Pakistan from 1947 to 1970; East Pakistan became independent in 1971 as Bangladesh.

Between 1947 and 1971, Pakistan consisted of two geographically separate regions, West Pakistan and East Pakistan. Within one year of democratic rule, differences between the two wings of Pakistan surfaced: When Jinnah declared in 1948 in Dhaka that Urdu would be the only state language of Pakistan, it sparked protests in East Bengal (later East Pakistan), where Bengali was spoken by most of the population. The Bengali Language Movement reached its peak on 21 February 1952, when police and soldiers opened fired near the Dhaka Medical College on students protesting for Bengali to receive equal status with Urdu. Several protesters were killed, and the movement gained further support throughout East Pakistan. Later, the Government agreed to provide equal status to Bengali as a state language of Pakistan, a right later codified in the 1956 constitution.

In 1953 at the instigation of religious parties, anti-Ahmadiyya riots erupted, killing scores of Ahmadi and destroying their properties.[60] The riots were investigated by a two-member court of inquiry in 1954,[61] which was criticised by the Jamaat-e-Islami, one of the parties accused of inciting the riots.[62] This event led to the first instance of martial law in the country and began the inroad of military intervention in the politics and civilian affairs of the country, something that remains to this day.[63]

First military era (1958-1971)

The Dominion was dissolved on 23 March 1956 and replaced by the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, with the last Governor-General, Iskandar Mirza, as the first president.[64] Just two years later the military took control of the nation.[65] Field Marshal Ayub Khan became president and began a new system of government called Basic Democracy with a new constitution,[66] by which an electoral college of 80,000 would select the President. Ayub Khan almost lost the controversial 1965 presidential elections to Fatima Jinnah.[67] During Ayub's rule, relations with the United States and the West grew stronger. Pakistan joined two formal military alliances — the Baghdad Pact (later known as the Central Treaty Organization or CENTO) which included Iran, Iraq, and Turkey to defend the Middle East and Persian Gulf against the Soviet Union;[68] and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) which covered South-East Asia.[69] However, the United States dismayed Pakistan by adopting a policy of denying military aid to both India and Pakistan during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 over Kashmir and the Rann of Kutch.[70] A positive gain of the treaties was the re-srengthening of Pakistan's historical bonds with its western neighbours.

During the 1960s, amidst the allegations that economic development and hiring for government jobs favoured West Pakistan, there was a rise in Bengali nationalism and an independence movement in East Pakistan began to gather ground. After a nationwide uprising in 1969, General Ayub Khan stepped down from office, handing power to General Yahya Khan, who promised to hold general elections at the end of 1970. On the eve of the elections, a cyclone struck East Pakistan killing approximately 500,000 people. Despite the tragedy and the additional difficulty experienced by affected citizens in reaching the voting sites, the elections were held and the results showed a clear division between East and West Pakistan. The Awami League, led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, won a majority with 167 of the 169 East Pakistani seats, but with no seats in West Pakistan, where the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, won 85 seats. However, Yahya Khan and Bhutto refused to hand over power to Mujib.

Meanwhile, Mujib initiated a civil disobedience movement, which was strongly supported by the general population of East Pakistan, including most government workers. A round-table conference between Yahya, Bhutto, and Mujib was convened in Dhaka, which, however, ended without a solution. Soon thereafter, the West Pakistani Army commenced Operation Searchlight, an organized crackdown on the East Pakistani army, police, politicians, civilians, and students in Dhaka. Mujib and many other Awami League leaders were arrested, while others fled to neighbouring India. The crackdown widened and escalated into a guerrilla warfare between the Pakistani Army and the Mukti Bahini (Bengali "freedom fighters").[8] In March 1971, India's Prime Minister announced support for the East Pakistani independence movement, providing military assistance and opening India's borders to Bengali refugees - ultimately more than 10 million and mainly Hindus - fleeing from the conflict. On 27 March 1971, Major Ziaur Rahman, a Bengali war-veteran of the East Bengal Regiment of the Pakistan Army, declared the independence of East Pakistan as the new nation of Bangladesh on behalf of Mujib.

Following a period of covert and overt intervention by Indian forces in East Pakistan's civil war, open hostilities broke out between the two countries on December 3, 1971. In East Pakistan, the Pakistani Army led by General A. A. K. Niazi, had already been weakened and exhausted by the Mukti Bahini's guerrilla warfare. Outflanked and overwhelmed, the Pakistani army in the eastern theatre surrendered on December 16, 1971, with nearly 90,000 soldiers taken as prisoners of war. The result was the defacto emergence of the new nation of Bangladesh,[9] thus ending 24 years of turbulent union of the two wings. The figures of the Bengali civilian death toll from the entire civil war vary greatly, depending on the sources. Although the killing of Bengalis was unsupported by the people of West Pakistan, it continued for 9 months. Pakistan's official report, by its Hamood-ur-Rahman Commission, places the figure at only 26,000, while other sources put the number between 1.25 to 1.5 million. Highest figure, reported only in the media, is 3 million.

Discredited by the defeat, General Yahya Khan resigned and Bhutto was inaugurated as president and chief martial law administrator on 20 December 1971.

Second democratic era (1971-1977)

Civilian rule returned after the war, when General Yahya Khan handed over power to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. In 1972, Pakistani intelligence learned that India was close to developing a nuclear bomb, and in response, Bhutto formed a group of engineers and scientists, headed by nuclear scientist Abdus Salam — who later won the Nobel Prize for physics — to develop nuclear devices. In 1973, Parliament approved a new constitution. Pakistan was alarmed by the Indian nuclear test of 1974, and Bhutto promised that Pakistan would also have a nuclear device "even if we have to eat grass and leaves."

During Bhutto's rule, a serious rebellion also took place in Balochistan province and led to harsh suppression of Baloch rebels with the Shah of Iran purportedly assisting with air support in order to prevent the conflict from spilling over into Iranian Balochistan. The conflict ended later after an amnesty and subsequent stabilization by the provincial military ruler Rahimuddin Khan. In 1974, Bhutto succumbed to increasing pressure from religious parties and helped Parliament to declare the Ahmadiyya adherents as non-Muslims. Elections were held in 1977, with the Peoples Party won but this was challenged by the opposition, which accused Bhutto of rigging the vote. General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq took power in a bloodless coup and Bhutto was later executed, after being convicted of authorizing the murder of a political opponent, in a controversial 4-3 split decision by the Supreme Court.

Second military era (1977-1988)

Muhammad Khan Junejo

Pakistan had been a US ally for much of the Cold War, from the 1950s and as a member of CENTO and SEATO. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan renewed and deepened the US-Pakistan alliance. The Reagan administration in the United States helped supply and finance an anti-Soviet insurgency in Afghanistan, using Pakistan as a conduit. In retaliation, the Afghan secret police, KHAD, carried out a large number of terrorist operations against Pakistan, which also suffered from an influx of illegal weapons and drugs from Afghanistan. In the 1980s, as the front-line state in the anti-Soviet struggle, Pakistan received substantial aid from the United States as it took in millions of Afghan (mostly Pashtun) refugees fleeing the Soviet occupation. The influx of so many refugees - the largest refugee population in the world[71] - had a heavy impact on Pakistan and its effects continue to this day. General Zia's martial-law administration gradually reversed the socialist policies of the previous government, and also introduced strict Islamic law in 1978, often cited as the contributing factor in the present climate of sectarianism and religious fundamentalism in Pakistan. Ordinance XX was introduced to limit the freedom of the Ahmadis to call themselves Muslims in Pakistan. Further, in his time, secessionist uprisings in Balochistan were put down violently but successfully by the provincial governor, General Rahimuddin Khan.

General Zia lifted martial law in 1985, holding non-partisan elections and handpicking Muhammad Khan Junejo to be the new Prime Minister, who readily extended Zia's term as Chief of Army Staff until 1990. Junejo however gradually fell out with Zia as his administrative independence grew; for example, Junejo signed the Geneva Accord, which Zia greatly frowned upon. After a large-scale blast at a munitions dump in Ojhri, Junejo vowed to bring to justice those responsible for the significant damage caused, implicating several senior generals. Zia dismissed the Junejo government on several charges in May 1988 and called for elections in November 1988. However, General Zia died in a plane crash on August 17, 1988.

Benazir Bhutto, late leader of the Pakistan Peoples Party

Third democratic era (1988-1999)

From 1988 to 1999, Pakistan was ruled by civilian governments, alternately headed by Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif, who were each elected twice and removed from office on charges of corruption. During the late 1990s, Pakistan was one of three countries which recognized the Taliban government and Mullah Mohammed Omar as the legitimate ruler of Afghanistan.[72] Allegations have been made of Pakistan and other countries providing economic and military aid to the group from 1994 as a part of supporting the anti-Soviet alliance. It is alleged that some post-invasion Taliban fighters were recruits drawn from Pakistan's madrassahs. Economic growth declined towards the end of this period, hurt by the Asian financial crisis, and economic sanctions imposed on Pakistan after its first tests of nuclear devices in 1998. The Pakistani testing came shortly after India tested nuclear devices and increased fears of a nuclear arms race in South Asia. The next year, the Kargil Conflict in Kashmir threatened to escalate to a full-scale war.[10]

In the 1997 election that returned Nawaz Sharif as Prime Minister, his party received a heavy majority of the vote, obtaining enough seats in parliament to change the constitution, which Sharif amended to eliminate the formal checks and balances that restrained the Prime Minister's power. Institutional challenges to his authority led by the civilian President Farooq Leghari, military chief Jehangir Karamat and Chief Justice Sajjad Ali Shah were put down and all three were forced to resign - Shah doing so after the Supreme Court was stormed by Sharif partisans.[73]

Third military era (1999 - 2007)

Former Prime Minister, Nawaz Sharif

On 12 October 1999, Sharif attempted to dismiss army chief Pervez Musharraf and install Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) director Ziauddin Butt in his place, but senior generals refused to accept the decision.[74] Musharraf, who was out of the country, boarded a commercial airliner to return to Pakistan. Sharif ordered the Jinnah International Airport to prevent the landing of the airliner, which then circled the skies over Karachi. In a coup, the generals ousted Sharif's administration and took over the airport.[11] The plane landed with only a few minutes of fuel to spare, and General Musharraf assumed control of the government. He arrested Sharif and those members of his cabinet who took part in this conspiracy. American President Bill Clinton had felt that his pressure to force Sharif to withdraw Pakistani forces from Kargil, in Indian-controlled Kashmir, was one of the main reasons for disagreements between Sharif and the Pakistani army. Clinton and King Fahd then pressured Musharraf to spare Sharif and, instead, exile him to Saudi Arabia, guaranteeing that he would not be involved in politics for ten years. Sharif lived in Saudi Arabia for more than six years before moving to London in 2005.

General Musharraf at the White House

On May 12, 2000 the Supreme Court of Pakistan ordered the Government to hold general elections by October 12, 2002. In an attempt to legitimize his presidency[75] and assure its continuance after the impending elections, Musharraf held a controversial national referendum on April 30, 2002,[76] which extended his presidential term to a period ending five years after the October elections.[77] Musharraf strengthened his position by issuing a Legal Framework Order in August 2001 which established the constitutional basis for his continuance in office.[78] The general elections were held in October 2002 and the centrist, pro-Musharraf Pakistan Muslim League (Q) (PML-Q) won a majority of the seats in Parliament. However, parties opposed to the Legal Framework Order effectively paralysed the National Assembly for over a year. The deadlock ended in December 2003, when Musharraf and some of his parliamentary opponents agreed upon a compromise, and pro-Musharraf legislators were able to muster the two-thirds majority required to pass the Seventeenth Amendment, which retroactively legitimized Musharraf's 1999 coup and many of his subsequent decrees. In a vote of confidence on 1 January 2004, Musharraf won 658 out of 1,170 votes in the Electoral College of Pakistan, and according to Article 41(8) of the Constitution of Pakistan, was elected to the office of President.[79]

While economic reforms undertaken during his regime yielded positive results, social reform programmes and his liberal views, e.g. on reforming extremist versions of the practices prevalent in Islam, met with resistance. Musharraf faced threats from religious extremists, who were angered by his post-9/11 close political alliance with the United States and his military support to the American led 2001 invasion of Afghanistan; he survived several assassination attempts by groups believed to be part of Al-Qaeda, including at least two instances where they had inside information from a member of his military security.

Pakistan continues to be involved in a dispute over Kashmir, with allegations of support of separatist terror-groups being leveled against Pakistan by India, while Pakistan charges that the Indian government abuses human rights in its excessive use of military force in the disputed region. What makes this dispute a source of special concern for the world community is that both India and Pakistan possess nuclear weapons. It had led to a nuclear standoff in 2002, when Kashmiri-militants, allegedly backed by the ISI, attacked the Indian parliament. In reaction to this, serious diplomatic tensions developed and India and Pakistan deployed 500,000 and 120,000 troops to the border respectively.[80] While the Indo-Pakistani peace process has since made progress, it is sometimes stalled by infrequent insurgent activity in India, such as the 11 July 2006 Mumbai train bombings. Pakistan also has been accused of contributing to nuclear proliferation; its leading nuclear scientist, Abdul Qadeer Khan, admitted to selling nuclear secrets, though he denied government knowledge of his activities.

After the U.S.-led invasion of Afghanistan, the Pakistani government, as an ally, sent thousands of troops into the mountainous region of Waziristan in 2002, in search of bin-Laden (whom the U.S. blames for master-minding the September 11 attacks in 2001) and other heavily armed al-Qaeda members, who had allegedly taken refuge there. In March 2004, heavy fighting broke out at Azam Warsak (near the South Waziristan town of Wana), between Pakistani troops and these militants (estimated to be 400 in number), who were entrenched in several fortified settlements. It was speculated that bin Laden's deputy Ayman al-Zawahiri was among those trapped by the Pakistani Army. On September 5, 2006 a truce was signed with the militants and their local rebel supporters, (who called themselves the Islamic Emirate of Waziristan), in which the rebels were to cease supporting the militants in cross-border attacks on Afghanistan in return for a ceasefire and general amnesty and a hand-over of border-patrolling and check-point responsibilities, till then handled by the Pakistan Army.

Former prime minister Nawaz Sharif attempted to return from exile on September 10, 2007 but was arrested on corruption charges after landing at Islamabad International Airport. Sharif was then put on a plane bound for Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, whilst outside the airport there were violent confrontations between Sharif's supporters and the police.[81] This did not deter another former prime minister, Benazir Bhutto, from returning on October 18, 2007 after an eight year exile in Dubai and London, to prepare for the parliamentary elections to be held in 2008.[82][83] However, on the same day, two suicide bombers attempted to kill Bhutto as she travelled towards a rally in Karachi. Bhutto escaped unharmed but there were 136 casualties and at least 450 people were injured.[84]

On November 3, 2007, General Musharraf proclaimed a state of emergency and sacked the Chief Justice of Pakistan, Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Choudhry along with other 14 judges of the Supreme Court.[85][86] Lawyers launched a protest against this action but they were arrested. All private media channels were banned including foreign channels. Musharraf declared that the state of emergency would end on December 16, 2007.[87] On November 28, 2007, General Musharraf retired from the Army and the following day was sworn in for a second presidential term.[88][89]

On November 25, 2007, Nawaz Sharif made a second attempt to return from exile, this time accompanied by his brother, the former Punjab chief minister, Shahbaz Sharif. Hundreds of their supporters, including a few leaders of the party were detained before the pair arrived at Lahore International Airport.[90][91] The following day, Nawaz Sharif filed his nomination papers for two seats in the forthcoming elections whilst Benazir Bhutto filed for three seats including one of the reserved seats for women.[92]

On December 27, 2007, Benazir Bhutto was leaving an election rally in Rawalpindi when she was assassinated by a gunman who shot her in the neck and set off a bomb,[93][94] killing 20 other people and injuring several more.[95] The exact sequence of the events and cause of death became points of political debate and controversy, because, although early reports indicated that Bhutto was hit by shrapnel or the gunshots,[96] the Pakistani Interior Ministry stated that she died from a skull fracture sustained when the explosion threw Bhutto against the sunroof of her vehicle.[97] Bhutto's aides rejected this claim and insisted that she suffered two gunshots prior to the bomb detonation.[98] The Interior Ministry subsequently backtracked from its previous claim.[99] However, a subsequent investigation, aided by the Scotland Yard of U.K., supported the "hitting the sun-roof"" as the cause of her death. The Election Commission, after a meeting in Islamabad, announced that, due to the assassination of Benazir Bhutto,[100] the elections, which had been scheduled for 8 January 2008, would take place on 18 February.[101]

A general election was held in Pakistan, according to the revised schedule, on February 18, 2008,).[102][103] Pakistan's two big and main opposition parties, the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPPP) and the Pakistan Muslim League (N) (PML (N)), won majority of seats in the election and formed a government. Although, the Pakistan Muslim League (Q) (PML (Q)) actually was second in the popular vote, the PPP and PML (N) have formed the new coalition-government.

On August 7, the deadlock between ruling parties ended when the coalition government of Pakistan decided to move for the impeachment of the President before heading for the restoration of the deposed judiciary. Moreover, they decided that Pervez Musharraf should face charges of weakening Pakistan's federal structure, violating its constitution and creating economic impasse.[104]

After that, President Pervez Musharraf began consultations with his allies, and with his legal team, on the implications of the impeachment; he said that he was ready to reply to the charges levied upon him and seek the vote of confidence from the senate and the parliament, as required by the coalition parties. However, on August 18, 2008, President Pervez Musharraf announced in a televised address to the nation that he had decided to resign after nine years in office.[105]

Fourth democratic era (2008- present)

In the presidential election that followed President Pervez Musharraf's resignation, Asif Ali Zardari of the PPP was elected President of Pakistan. Zardari's government is facing the formidable challenges of an International warfare next door, a never ending territorial dispute and ever present internal political bickerings. His nation presently shares another tragic colonial legacy with neighbouring India, succinctly described by James P. Carroll in his above Constantine's Sword: "nurtured local hatreds....wherever the Union Flag flew, from Muslim-Hindu hatred in Pakistan and India, to Catholic-Protestant hatred in Ireland, to, yes, Jew-Arab, hatred in modern Israel." These have marred relations even in healthy pusuits such as competitive sports.

See also


  1. ^ a b Coppa, A.; L. Bondioli, A. Cucina, D. W. Frayer, C. Jarrige, J. F. Jarrige, G. Quivron, M. Rossi, M. Vidale, R. Macchiarelli (6 April 2006). "Palaeontology: Early Neolithic tradition of dentistry" (PDF). Nature 440 (7085): 755–756. doi:10.1038/440755a. PMID 16598247. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v440/n7085/pdf/440755a.pdf. Retrieved 2007-11-22. 
  2. ^ Possehl, G. L. (October 1990). "Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization". Annual Review of Anthropology 19: 261–282. doi:10.1146/annurev.an.19.100190.001401. http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/toc/anthro/19/1?cookieSet=1. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  3. ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark; Kimberley Heuston (May 2005). The Ancient South Asian World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195174224. http://www.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/HistoryWorld/Ancient/Other/~~/dmlldz11c2EmY2k9OTc4MDE5NTE3NDIyOQ==. 
  4. ^ "Palaeolithic and Pleistocene of Pakistan". Department of Archaeology, University of Sheffield. http://www.shef.ac.uk/archaeology/research/pakistan. Retrieved 2007-12-01. 
  5. ^ Murray, Tim (1999). Time and archaeology. London; New York: Routledge. p. 84. ISBN 0415117623. http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=k3z9iXo_Uq8C&oi=fnd&pg=PP3&dq=%22Time+and+Archaeology%22&ots=vvWqvaJHik&sig=17HcKQWGCxkHycTaYqfJb_ZzGAo. 
  6. ^ a b "Sir Muhammad Iqbal's 1930 Presidential Address". Speeches, Writings, and Statements of Iqbal. http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00islamlinks/txt_iqbal_1930.html. Retrieved 2007-12-04. 
  7. ^ a b Qutubuddin Aziz. "Muslim's struggle for independent statehood". Jang Group of Newspapers. http://www.jang.com.pk/thenews/spedition/23march2007/index.html#b. Retrieved 2007-12-04. 
  8. ^ a b "The 1971 war". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/south_asia/2002/india_pakistan/timeline/1971.stm. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  9. ^ a b "The War for Bangladeshi Independence, 1971". Country Studies. U. S. Library of Congress. http://countrystudies.us/bangladesh/17.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  10. ^ a b "India launches Kashmir air attack". BBC News. May 26, 1999. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/352995.stm. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  11. ^ a b "Pakistan PM ousted in army coup". Telegraph Group Ltd. 1999-10-13. http://www.news.telegraph.co.uk/htmlContent.jhtml?html=/archive/1999/10/13/wcoo13.html. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  12. ^ Hirst, K. Kris. 2005. "Mehrgarh". Guide to Archaeology
  13. ^ Possehl, Gregory L. 1996. "Mehrgarh." Oxford Companion to Archaeology, edited by Brian Fagan. Oxford University Press, Oxford
  14. ^ The Centre for Archaeological Research Indus Balochistan, Musée National des Arts Asiatiques — Guimet
  15. ^ Chandler, Graham. 1999. "Traders of the Plain". Saudi Aramco World.
  16. ^ Feuerstein, Georg; Subhash Kak; David Frawley (1995). In search of the cradle of civilization: new light on ancient India. Wheaton, Illinois: Quest Books. p. 147. ISBN 0835607208. http://books.google.com/books?id=kbx7q0gxyTcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=In+Search+of+the+Cradle+of+Civilization&sig=ie6cTRBBjV2enHRPO6cBXNbd0qE. 
  17. ^ Parpola, Asko (1994). Deciphering the Indus script. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521430798. 
  18. ^ Stein, Burton (1998). A history of India. Oxford (UK); Malden (Mass.): Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0631178996. 
  19. ^ "Early Vedic Period." 2007. In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 20, 2007, from : Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  20. ^ Erdosy, George (1995). The Indo-Aryans of ancient South Asia: language, material culture and ethnicity. Berlin; New York: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3110144476. 
  21. ^ Taxila. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 19, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  22. ^ Herodotus; Aubrey De Sélincourt (trans.) (1954). Herodotus: the Histories. Harmondsworth, Middlesex; Baltimore: Penguin Books. http://www.livius.org/da-dd/darius/darius_i_t08.html. Retrieved 2007-11-27. 
  23. ^ Plutarchus, Mestrius; Bernadotte Perrin (trans.) (1919). Plutarch's Lives. London: William Heinemann. pp. Ch. LXII. ISBN 0674991109. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Plut.+Caes.+62.1. Retrieved 2007-11-27. 
  24. ^ Plutarchus, Mestrius; Bernadotte Perrin (trans.) (1919). Plutarch's Lives. London: William Heinemann. pp. Ch. LXIII. ISBN 0674991109. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Plut.+Caes.+63.1. Retrieved 2007-11-27. 
  25. ^ Appian of Alexandria; Horace White (trans.) (1899). The Roman History of Appian of Alexandria. Macmillan & Co.. http://www.livius.org/ap-ark/appian/appian_syriaca_11.html. Retrieved 2007-11-27. 
  26. ^ Mookerji, Radha Kumud (1966). Chandragupta Maurya and his times (4th ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 8120804058. http://www.google.co.uk/books?id=i-y6ZUheQH8C&pg=PP1&dq=Chandragupta+Maurya+and+his+times&sig=b_isZGfnQcHwxGPVYpSIq-YNfSo. Retrieved 2007-11-27. 
  27. ^ Marshall, John (1975). Taxila. Orient Book Distributors. ISBN 0896843270. 
  28. ^ Avari, Burjor (2007). India, the ancient past. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415356156. 
  29. ^ McEvilley, Thomas (2002). The shape of ancient thought. New York: Allworth Press. ISBN 1581152035. http://www.google.co.uk/books?id=Vpqr1vNWQhUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+shape+of+ancient+thought%7C+publisher&sig=mLs2tF5QycF9U5uIj9vEsElLbpI. Retrieved 2007-11-27. 
  30. ^ Strabo; H. L. Jones (ed.) (1924). Geographica. London: William Heinemann. pp. Ch. XI. ISBN 0674990552. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Strab.+11.11.1. Retrieved 2007-11-22. 
  31. ^ Davids, T. W. Rhys (trans.) (2000, 1930). The Milinda-questions. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415244757. http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe35/sbe3503.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-22. 
  32. ^ "Parthian Pair of Earrings". Marymount School, New York. http://www.marymount.k12.ny.us/marynet/stwbwk05/05vm/earrings/html/emanalysis.html. Retrieved 2007-11-22. 
  33. ^ Egypt was conquered in 658 by Amr ibn al-As. Madelung (1997), pp. 267-269
  34. ^ Sindh. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 15, 2007, from: Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  35. ^ "The Mughal Legacy: The Golden Age of Northern India, 1526-1858". http://www.edwebproject.org/india/mughals.html. 
  36. ^ a b Heath, Ian; Michael Perry (2005). The Sikh army 1799-1849. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 3. ISBN 1841767778. http://books.google.com/books?id=YIh9eQlojGsC&pg=PP1&dq=The+Sikh+Army+1799-1849&as_brr=0&sig=Ed868muDiIPH9ndu-mLWdK63980. 
  37. ^ Steinbach, Henry (1846). The Punjaub, being a brief account of the country of the Sikhs. London: Smith, Elder. pp. 9–14. http://books.google.com/books?id=-w0IAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Punjaub&as_brr=0#PPA18,M1. 
  38. ^ Edwardes, Herbert B. (1851). A year on the Punjab frontier in 1848-49. London: Richard Bentley. http://books.google.com/books?id=3oMBAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=A+Year+on+the+Punjab+Frontier,+in+1848-49&as_brr=1. 
  39. ^ James Carroll, Constantine's Sword, Mariner Books, 2002, p81-82
  40. ^ Chandra, Bipan; Amales Tripathi; Barun De (1972). Freedom struggle. New Delhi: National Book Trust, India. 
  41. ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (2004). A history of Pakistan and its origins. London: Anthem Press. p. 16. ISBN 1843311496. http://books.google.com/books?id=Q9sI_Y2CKAcC&pg=PP1&dq=A+History+Of+Pakistan+And+Its+Origins&sig=-U8gTKFdSpXY33lJKLKJicAgelY. 
  42. ^ Jalal, Ayesha (1985). The sole spokesman : Jinnah, the Muslim League, and the demand for Pakistan. Cambridge (UK); New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521244625. 
  43. ^ "The Statesman: The All India Muslim League". Government of Pakistan. http://www.quaid.gov.pk/politician2.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-04. 
  44. ^ Talbot, Ian (1999). Pakistan: a modern history. New Delhi; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195650735. 
  45. ^ Blood, Peter R. (1995). Pakistan: a country study. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. pp. 28–29. ISBN 0844408344. http://books.google.com/books?id=DRMTO7mn7hIC&pg=PA27&dq=Jinnah+1930&as_brr=1&sig=pZV_IQ5uwUdw41YT869GL8FULkg#PPA29,M1. 
  46. ^ a b c d e Kulke, Hermann; Dietmar Rothermund (1986). A History of India. Totowa, New Jersey: Barnes & Noble. pp. 300–312. ISBN 0389206709. 
  47. ^ Kulke, Hermann; Dietmar Rothermund (1986). A History of India. Totowa, New Jersey: Barnes & Noble. pp. 272–273. ISBN 0389206709. 
  48. ^ Mir, Mustansir (2006). Iqbal. London; New York: I. B. Tauris. p. 138. ISBN 1845110943. http://books.google.com/books?id=svYphqj8h7UC&pg=PA138&dq=Iqbal+Separate+North-west+Muslim+State:+A+Critique+of+His+Allahabad+Address+of+1930%27%27&sig=rpsqUj2K7EwcbDohZVRzyC8Yr54. 
  49. ^ Ihsan Aslam (February 11, 2004). "The History Man: Cambridge remembers Rahmat Ali". Daily Times, Pakistan. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_11-2-2004_pg3_6. Retrieved 2007-12-04. 
  50. ^ Choudhary Rahmat Ali (January 28, 1933). "Now or never: Are we to live or perish for ever?". Pakistan Movement Historical Documents. http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00islamlinks/txt_rahmatali_1933.html. Retrieved 2007-12-04. 
  51. ^ Brown, W. Norman (19 October 1946). "India's Pakistan Issue". Proceedings (American Philosophical Society) 91 (2): 161. http://books.google.com/books?id=fpWH6doabbYC&pg=PA161-IA2&dq=Rahmat+Ali&as_brr=1&sig=7HJ-aXBtUnDQoZ0QmbaluETsqVc. Retrieved 2007-12-04. 
  52. ^ Wolpert, Stanley A. (1984). Jinnah of Pakistan. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195034120. 
  53. ^ Tinker, Hugh (1987). Men who overturned empires : fighters, dreamers, and schemers. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 50. ISBN 0299114600. 
  54. ^ Malik, Muhammad Aslam (2001). The making of the Pakistan resolution. Karachi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195795385. 
  55. ^ Ahmed, Syed Iftikhar (1983). Essays on Pakistan. Lahore: Alpha Bravo Publishers. 
  56. ^ Qureshi, Ishtiaq Husain (1967). A Short history of Pakistan. Karachi: University of Karachi. 
  57. ^ Qureshi, Ishtiaq Husain (1965). The struggle for Pakistan. Karachi: University of Karachi. 
  58. ^ Ahmad, Syed Nur; Mahmud Ali; Craig Baxter (1985). From martial law to martial law : politics in the Punjab, 1919-1958. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. p. 153. ISBN 086531845X. 
  59. ^ "Legislative Assembly of Sind under Government of India Act 1935.". Provincial Assembly of Sindh. http://www.pas.gov.pk/first-las.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-04. 
  60. ^ Blood, Peter R. (1995). Pakistan: a country study. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. pp. 130–131. ISBN 0844408344. http://books.google.com/books?id=DRMTO7mn7hIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Pakistan:+A+Country+Study&as_brr=1&sig=Kgu5Tu-aAvw-fRAlsnXmd1IsG04. 
  61. ^ Munir, Muhammad; Malik Rustam Kayani (1954) (PDF). Punjab. Court of Inquiry to Enquire into the Punjab Disturbances of 1953.. Lahore: Superintendent, Government Printing, Punjab. http://www.thepersecution.org/dl/report_1953.pdf. 
  62. ^ Ahmad, Khurshid (1956). An Analysis of the Munir report; a critical study of the Punjab disturbances inquiry report.. Karachi: Jamaat-e-Islami Publications. 
  63. ^ Rizvi, Hasan Askari (1974). The military and politics in Pakistan. Lahore: Progressive Publishers. 
  64. ^ Blood, Peter R. (1995). Pakistan: a country study. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. p. 41. ISBN 0844408344. http://books.google.com/books?id=DRMTO7mn7hIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Pakistan:+A+Country+Study&as_brr=1&sig=Kgu5Tu-aAvw-fRAlsnXmd1IsG04. 
  65. ^ Kapur, Ashok (1991). Pakistan in crisis. London; New York: Routledge. p. 70. ISBN 0415000629. http://books.google.com/books?id=qb4YVNs-9XwC&pg=PP1&dq=Pakistan+in+crisis&as_brr=3&sig=PRX6mALd_arTiTvjMJnMjP5nmsQ. 
  66. ^ Mahmood, Shaukat (1966). The second Republic of Pakistan; an analytical and comparative evaluation of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Lahore: Ilmi Kitab Khana. 
  67. ^ Lakhi, M. V.; Virendra Narain; Kashi Prasad Misra (1965). Presidential election in Pakistan: 1965. Jaipur: University of Rajasthan. 
  68. ^ Peaslee, Amos J.; Dorothy Peaslee Xydis (1974). International governmental organizations. The Hague: Nijhoff. p. 266. ISBN 9024716012. http://books.google.com/books?id=8U65llhfqSwC&pg=PA266&dq=Central+Treaty+Organization&as_brr=3&sig=PKF7jn3dPyPxb8WC7a4zw6awLk4. 
  69. ^ Tarling, Nicholas (1992). The Cambridge history of Southeast Asia. Cambridge, UK; New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press. p. 603. ISBN 0521355052. http://books.google.com/books?id=pBfsaw64rjMC&pg=PA603&dq=South+East+Asia+Treaty+Organization&as_brr=3&sig=JmwjueprInmwHGEBgP6CBaizYfI. 
  70. ^ Tahir-Kheli, Shirin (1997). India, Pakistan, and the United States : breaking with the past. New York: Council on Foreign Relations. pp. 35–36. ISBN 0876091990. http://books.google.com/books?id=srCLD-PXl-gC&printsec=frontcover&dq=India,+Pakistan,+and+the+United+States:+Breaking+with+the+Past&as_brr=1&sig=wiCeK4GGp_41Vfvw6ZzE660mGfk. 
  71. ^ "Refugees from Afghanistan: The world's largest single refugee group". Amnesty International. 1 November 1999. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engASA110161999. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  72. ^ "Who are the Taleban?". BBC News. 2 September 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/1549285.stm. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  73. ^ "Protesters halt Pakistani PM court case". BBC News. November 28, 1997. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/34866.stm. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  74. ^ "Pakistan army seizes power". BBC News. 1999-10-12. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/472511.stm. Retrieved 2008-01-08. 
  75. ^ Baxter, Craig (2004). Pakistan on the brink: politics, economics, and society. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. p. 106. ISBN 0739104985. http://books.google.com/books?id=CFNtVqYqAwEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Pakistan+on+the+Brink:+Politics,+Economics,+and+Society&sig=6WCcgqbst08zTP95CiirCkEPKfU#PPA106,M1. 
  76. ^ Rafaqat Ali (2002-04-09). "Question finalized for referendum". Dawn Group of Newspapers. http://www.dawn.com/2002/04/09/top3.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  77. ^ "98pc of voters supported Musharraf: EC". Dawn Group of Newspapers. 2002-05-02. http://www.dawn.com/2002/05/02/top1.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  78. ^ "Legal Framework Order, 2002" (PDF). National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan. 2002-08-21. http://www.nrb.gov.pk/publications/lfo_2002.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  79. ^ "The President of the Federation of Pakistan". Pakistani.org. http://www.pakistani.org/pakistan/constitution/part3.ch1.html. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
    linked from "Text of the Constitution of Pakistan". Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of Pakistan. http://www.infopak.gov.pk/constitution_pakistan.aspx. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  80. ^ "2002 - Kashmir Crisis". GlobalSecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/kashmir-2002.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  81. ^ "Former PM Nawaz Sharif arrested and deported on return to Pakistan". Independent News and Media. 2007-09-11. http://news.independent.co.uk/world/asia/article2950317.ece. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  82. ^ "Supporters flock to Karachi for Bhutto's return". CBC News. October 17, 2007. http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2007/10/17/bhutto.html. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  83. ^ "Huge crowds greet Bhutto return". BBC News. October 18, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/7050274.stm. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  84. ^ "After Bombing, Bhutto Assails Officials' Ties". New York Times. October 20, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/20/world/asia/20Pakistan.html?pagewanted=2. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  85. ^ "Gen Musharraf's second coup". Dawn Group of Newspapers. November 4, 2007. http://www.dawn.com/2007/11/04/top1.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  86. ^ "Pakistan under martial law". CNN. November 4, 2007. http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/asiapcf/11/03/pakistan.emergency/index.html. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  87. ^ "Musharraf promises to end emergency rule by December 16". Guardian News and Media. November 30, 2007. http://www.guardian.co.uk/pakistan/Story/0,,2219547,00.html. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  88. ^ "New term for civilian Musharraf". BBC News. November 29, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/7118268.stm. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  89. ^ "Musharraf Quits Pakistani Army Post". The New York Times. 28 November 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/29/world/asia/29pakistan.html. Retrieved 2008-01-08. 
  90. ^ "Sharifs finally home: Jubilant welcome in Lahore". Dawn Group of Newspapers. November 26, 2007. http://www.dawn.com/2007/11/26/top1.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  91. ^ "Nawaz Sharif returns to Pakistan". Telegraph Media Group. November 26, 2007. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/11/25/wpak125.xml. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  92. ^ "Pakistan rivals enter poll fray". BBC News. November 26, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/7112550.stm. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  93. ^ "Benazir Bhutto killed in attack". BBC News. 2007-12-27. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/7161590.stm. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  94. ^ "Benazir Bhutto killed in gun and bomb attack". Telegraph. 2007-12-28. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/12/27/wbhutto527.xml. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  95. ^ "Bhutto exhumation OK, Pakistan official says". CNN. 2007-12-29. http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/asiapcf/12/29/bhutto.death/index.html. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  96. ^ "Benazir Bhutto assassinated". CNN. 2007-12-28. http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/asiapcf/12/27/pakistan.bhutto/index.html. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  97. ^ "Bhutto died after hitting sun roof". CNN. 2007-12-28. http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/asiapcf/12/28/pakistan.friday/index.html. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  98. ^ "Bhutto death explanation 'pack of lies'". Herald and Weekly Times. 2007-12-29. http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,22983841-5012747,00.html. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  99. ^ "Pak Govt makes U-turn on cause of Bhutto's death". Hindustan Times. 2008-01-01. http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/FullcoverageStoryPage.aspx?id=f610af5b-6db5-473e-8448-6b7f5d4a0c9fBenazirassassinated_Special&&Headline=Pak+Govt+makes+U-turn+on+cause+of+Bhutto's+death. Retrieved 2008-01-08. 
  100. ^ "Pakistan Delays Vote After Bloodshed". Sky News. 2008-02-01. http://news.sky.com/skynews/article/0,,30200-1298932,00.html. Retrieved 2008-02-01. 
  101. ^ "Pakistan's uncertain year ahead". BBC News. 8 January 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6211639.stm?lsf. Retrieved 2008-01-08. 
  102. ^ Ahmed Rashid (2007-01-10). "Pakistan's uncertain year ahead". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6211639.stm?lsf. Retrieved 2007-07-09. 
  103. ^ "Election Tracker: Pakistan". Angus Reid Global Monitor. http://www.angus-reid.com/tracker/index.cfm?fuseaction=viewItem&itemID=15363. Retrieved 2007-07-09. 
  104. ^ "Breaking News: Pakistan’s coalition government decides to impeach President Pervaiz Musharraf | Press Release". Wiredprnews.com. 2008-08-08. http://www.wiredprnews.com/2008/08/08/pakistan-president-impeached_20080808565.html. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  105. ^ "Musharraf announces resignation". Thenews.com.pk. http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=52487. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 


Further reading

  • Ahmed, Akbar S. (1976). Millennium and charisma among Pathans : a critical essay in social anthropology. London; Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0710083483.
  • Allchin, Bridget; Allchin, F. Raymond (1982). The rise of civilization in India and Pakistan. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521242444.
  • Baluch, Muhammad Sardar Khan (1977). History of the Baluch race and Baluchistan. Quetta: Gosha-e-Adab.
  • Weiner, Myron; Ali Banuazizi (1994). The Politics of social transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0815626088.
  • Bhutto, Benazir (1988). Daughter of the East. London: Hamilton. ISBN 0241123984.
  • Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1963). The Ghaznavids; their empire in Afghanistan and eastern Iran, 994 : 1040. Edinburgh: University Press.
  • Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1977). The later Ghaznavids: splendour and decay. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231044283.
  • Bryant, Edwin F. (2001). The quest for the origins of Vedic culture : the Indo-Aryan migration debate. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195137779.
  • Cohen, Stephen P. (2004). The idea of Pakistan. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution. ISBN 0815715021.
  • Davoodi, Schoresch & Sow, Adama (2007): The Political Crisis of Pakistan in 2007 - EPU Research Papers: Issue 08/07, Stadtschlaining
  • Dupree, Louis (1973). Afghanistan. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691030065.
  • Elliot, Henry Miers; John Dowson (1867–77).The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period [1]. London: Trübner and Co.
  • Elphinstone, Mountstuart (1815). An account of the kingdom of Caubul and its dependencies in Persia, Tartary, and India. London: Unknown.
  • Esposito, John L. (1999). The Oxford history of Islam. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195107993.
  • Gascoigne, Bamber (2002). A Brief History of the Great Moguls. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0786710403.
  • Gauhar, Altaf (1996). Ayub Khan, Pakistan's first military ruler. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 019577647X.
  • Hardy, Peter (1972). The Muslims of British India. London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521084881.
  • Hopkirk, Peter (1992). The Great Game : the struggle for empire in Central Asia. New York: Kodansha International. ISBN 4770017030.
  • Iqbal, Muhammad (1934). The reconstruction of religious thought in Islam. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Jaffrelot, Christophe (2004). A history of Pakistan and its origins. London: Anthem Press. ISBN 1843311496.
  • Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1998). Ancient cities of the Indus valley civilization. Karachi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195779401.
  • Mallory, James Patrick (1989). In search of the Indo-Europeans : language, archaeology, and myth. New York, N.Y.: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 050005052X.
  • Moorhouse, Geoffrey (1992). To the frontier : a journey to the Khyber Pass. New York: H. Holt. ISBN 0805021094.
  • Olmstead, A. T. (1948). History of the Persian Empire : Achaemenid period. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press.
  • Qureshi, Ishtiaq Husain (1967). A Short history of Pakistan. Karachi: University of Karachi.
  • Reat, N. Ross (1994). Buddhism : a history. Berkeley, California: Asian Humanities Press. ISBN 0875730019.
  • Sidky, H. (2000). The Greek kingdom of Bactria : from Alexander to Eucratides the Great. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America. ISBN 076181695X.
  • Smith, Vincent Arthur (1958). The Oxford history of India. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Tarn, William Woodthorpe (1951). The Greeks in Bactria and India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Thackston, Wheeler M.; Robert Irwin (1996). The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195096711.
  • Thapar, Romila; Thomas George Percival Spear (1990, 1965). A history of India. New York: Penguin. ISBN 0140138366.
  • Welch, Stuart Cary (1978). Imperial Mughal painting. New York: George Braziller. ISBN 080760870X.
  • Wheeler, Robert Eric Mortimer (1950). Five thousand years of Pakistan : an archaeological outline. London: C. Johnson.
  • Wheeler, Robert Eric Mortimer (1959). Early India and Pakistan: to Ashoka. New York: Praeger.
  • Wolpert, Stanley A. (1984). Jinnah of Pakistan. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195034120.
  • Ziring, Lawrence (1997). Pakistan in the twentieth century : a political history. Karachi; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195778162.
  • Pakistan Smart Book v1.pdf

External links

Simple English

Pakistanis are a blend of their Harappan, Aryan, Persian, Greek, Saka, Parthian, Kushan, White Hun, Arab, Turkic, Afghan, and Mughal heritage. Waves of invaders and migrants settled down in Pakistan through out the centuries, influencing the locals and being absorbed among them. Pakistan and the Republic of India have a distinct history and background. The region of Pakistan was never part of India except for 500+ years under the Muslims, and 100 years each under the Mauryans and the British. If any thing, it were the ancestors of Pakistanis who colonized north/northwest India, among them were Harappans, Aryans, Sakas, Kushans, White Huns, Turks, Afghans, and Mughals.



  • 50,000 BC Stone Age civilisation of Soan river Valley near Rawalpindi
  • 7000 BC Agricultural and farming started in Baluchistan, N.W.F.P and Punjab areas
  • 2600 BC Indus river Valley Civilisation started in Kot Diji, Meonjodaro and Harappa areas.
  • 1700 BC Indus river Valley Civilisation ended as Aryans the rough cattle breeders invaded their cities. Aryans followed strict caste system which later became Hinduism. They wrote the first Hindu scripture as "Rig Veda" Book.
  • 600 BC People get frustrated by Hinduism's caste system, as Buddah son of a Kashatriya king started to preach equality among the humans which was accepted by people of Northern sub-continent. Gandhara became major power in the region, with its city "Pushkalavati" (present Charsada) and "Taxila" center of civilisation and culture.
  • 327 BC Alexander the Great invaded sub-continent through Khyber Pass.
  • 323 BC Alexander the Great died in Iraq.
  • 321 BC Chandragubta Maurya member of royal family of Magadha captured Punjab and formed Mauryan Empire.
  • 297 BC Chandragubta Maurya succeeded in adding Deccan to Mauryan Empire with the help of his son Bindusara. After Bindusara, his son Ashoka ruled Mauryan Empire with great compassionately, and he spread Buddhism throughout sub-continent by building Buddhist monasteries and stupas.
  • 195 BC Demetrius the great king of Bactria conquered Kabul river Valley. He rebuild Taxila and Pushkalavati (present Charsada) as capitals of Gandhara
  • 75 BC Scythians the Persian nomads from central Asia followed Demetrius to capture sub-continent.
  • 53 BC Parthians defeated Greeks and ruled northern Pakistan, They promoted art and religion and Gandhara school of art developed.
  • 64 AD The kushana king, Kujula rular of nomad tribes from central Asia overthrew Parthians and took over Gandhara. The Kushans further extended their rule from Bay of Bengal to Bahawalpur, and up to Kashgar the Chinese frontier. They made Purushapura city of flowers (Peshawar) the capital.
  • 128 AD Kanishka greatest of Kushans rules. Jewelry, perfumes, spices, textiles, medicine trade with Romans flourished during his rule. Thousands of stupas and monasteries were build, and Gandhara school of art produced the best sculpture.
  • 151 AD Kanishka rule ended as he was killed during sleep.
  • 300 AD Kushan Empire was eroded by Sassanian from North, and Gupta Empire from South. Then Kushan Empire was reduced to a new dynasty of Kidar (Little) Kushans with Purushapura as capital and center.
  • 400 AD The White Hunes (horse-riding nomads from China) came from Central Asia, and invaded Gandhara. The sun and fire worshiping Hunes took the glory of school of art and Buddhism gradually disappeared from Northern Pakistan.
  • 565 AD Sassanians and Turksdefeated Hunes, and the area was mostly left for small Hindu kingdoms with the Turki Shahi rulars controlling the area. Buddhism declined as more people were converted into Brahman Hindus.
  • 870 AD Overthrowing Turki Shahis the central Asian Hindu Shahis established their rule. Their capital was Hund on Indus, and Kingdom extended from Jalalabad to Multan, and up to Northern Kashmir.
  • 1008 AD Hindu Shahis rule ended.

Arrival of Islam

16th July 622 Hijri calendar is considered to be started as Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) migrated to Madina Munawara.

  • 712 AD Muhammad Bin Qasim arrived in Sindh through Daibal.
  • 1097 AD Shaikh Ab-al-NajibSuhrawardi founder of Suhrawardi Order born
  • 1162 AD Shaikh Ab-al-Najib Suhrawardi died
  • 1182 AD Sheikh Baha-ud-din Zakariya of Multan who introduced Suhrawardi order into Muslim India born.
  • 1191-92 AD Muhammad Ghauri defeated Prithvi Raj Chauhan at the battles of Taraori.
  • 1194 AD After the second battle Muhammad Ghauri returned to Ghazni.
  • 1238 AD Sheikh Nizamuddin Auliya who was appointed Khalifa by Baba Farid of Chishtiya order born
  • 1206 AD Qutbuddin Aibak took controlof the Sub-Continent after the death of Muizuddin Muhammad Ghauri, and laid the foundations of Sultanate of Delhi, first Islamic Empire of sub-continent. The Ilbari (or slaves from Turkish origin.) were the first ruling dynasty of Sultanate of Delhi.
  • 1217 AD Shamsuddin Iltumish was real founder of Sultanate as he defeated his rivals, and saved his kingdom from Mongol invasions in 1217 AD.
  • 1265 AD Ghiasuddin Balban of Turkish nobles seized the throne after invasions from Mongols in Northern Punjab in 1230.
  • 1267-68 AD Sheikh Baha-ud-din Zakariya died
  • 1286 AD Ilbari dynasty ended as Ghiasuddin Balban died, who dealt severely with Turkish nobility and gave a centralized system of administration.
  • 1290 AD Khaljis were the second dynasty of Sultanate of Delhi, also of Turkish origin, took control.
  • 1320 AD The third dynasty of Sultanate of Delhi, Tughluqs also Turkish, came.
  • 1325 AD Sheikh Nizamuddin Auliya died
  • 1414 AD Saiyads, fourth dynasty of Sultanate of Delhi came.
  • 1451 AD The Lodihs of Afghan origin ruled sub-continent as fifth dynasty of Sultanate of Delhi.
  • 1526 AD The Lodhis were defeated by Zahiruddin Babur at the battle of Panipat in April 1526, this was the beginning of Mughal Empire.

16 March 1527 Kanwaha battle took place between forces of Babur and Rana Songa of Mewar, a Rajput prince. Babur forces defeated Rajput in this decisive battle.

  • 1528 AD Babur captures Chanderi from Rajput chief Medini Rao.
  • 1529 AD Babur forces continued by defeating Afghan chiefs under Mahmud Lodhi at the battle of Ghagra in Bihar state.
  • 26 December 1530 Zaheeruddin Babur died at Agra.
  • 1530 AD Humayun eldest son of Babur took control of Mughal Empire.
  • 1540 AD Sher Shah Suri defeated Mughals in the battles of Chausa and Kanauj, and for nearly 15 years, Mughal king Humayun had to stay in exile. This was a setback to the great Mughal Empire by Sher Shah Suri.
  • 1545 AD Sher Shah Suri died. Hasan Shah Sur his son continued the Suri dynasty after his death.
  • 1555 AD Humayun regain the power.
  • 1556 AD The real foundations of great Mughal Empire were laid by Akbar after the death of Humayun this year. Akbar was only 13 years old at that time but thanks to his guardian Bairam Khan who helped him to established great Mughal Empire through series of conquests, and area of Mughal Empire increased.

26 June 1564 Sheikh Ahmad was born who joined Naqshbandya Silsilah under the decipline of Khawaja Baqi Billah. He gave the philosophy of Wahdat-ul Wujud and Wahdat-ush Shuhud in his dedication to Islam.

  • 1572 AD Akbar conquired Gujrat and renamed it Fatehpur. He build Jamia Masjid with impressive gateway of red stone known as Buland Darwaza in this new capital.
  • 1581 AD Akbar introduced Din-i-Ilahi, which gave a great threat to Islam at that time.
  • 1583 AD British arrived in Sub-continent for the first time as traders which Queen Elizabeth sent in ship Tygar to exploit opportunities of trade with sub-continent.
  • 1605 AD Jehangir's reign began after Akbar. Jehangir was Akbar's son and his original name was Salim. During his reign, Mughal Rule reached its climax through transition between two grand phases of architecture, phase of Akbar and the phase of his son Shah Jehan. The major feature of this period of Mughal architecture was that of substitution of red stone with white marble and great gardens including Shalimar Garden in Lahore and numerous other gardens around sub-continent. Mughal painting also reached its peak during Jehangir's reign which lost much of its glamour after his death.
  • 1614 AD British East India Company opened its first office in Bombay.
  • 1628 AD After Jehangir's death, his son Khurram took the name of Shah Jehan and further extended his Empire to Kandahar and conquered much of southern India, it was during Shah Jehan's reign when Mughal Empire was in its golden period. The Mughal architecture moved farther in this period and major feature was white marble, this include Dewan-e-Aam in Agra, Moti Masjid, Shish Mahal and Dewan-e-Khas in Lahore Fort.
  • 1631 AD The exquisite concept of mausoleum of Shah Jehan's wife Arjumand Banu Begum, Taj Mahal was started.
  • 1653 AD One of the wonders of World, Taj Mahal was completed showing all the glory of Mughal architecture.
  • 1658 AD Auranzeb Alamgir's reign started after death of Shah Jehan. The largest mosque in the world of its time, Badshahi Mosque was a great achievement during Aurangzeb's reign. Despite this Aurangzeb gave many grants to Hindus by appointing them in commanding positions in government and allowing them to restore temples. Mughal Empire start declining after this period.

21 February 1703 Shah Wali Ullah son of Shah Abdul Rehman born

  • 1707 AD Aurangzeb's death, and Mughal Empire started declining. Although Bahadur Shah Zafar son of Auranzeb took control, Marahattas power increased and they became invincible ruler of Deccan. In Punjab, Sikh power under Guru Gowind Singh also became a force. These power centers continually increased until 1857. Shah Wali Ullah reform movement also started at that time, which lasted until 1762 AD.
  • 1738-39 AD The weakening of Mughal Empire invited Nadir Shah a Persian king. Afghans of Rohilkhand and Jats became other threats to Mughal Empire.
  • 1757 AD East India Company became deeply enmeshed with politics of India, and after the battle of Plassey this year British begane the systematic conquest of sub-continent.
  • 1830 AD Haji Shariatullah started Faraizi Movement in East Bengal.
  • 1835 AD English was declared as official language of sub-continent by British.
  • 1840 AD Haji Shariatullah of Faraizi Movement died. His son Muhammad Mohsin known as Dadhu Mian made this movement stronger after his death.
  • 1845 AD British Empire grown from Bengal to Sindh, excluding Punjab which was ruled by Sikhs.
  • 1848 AD After the second Sikh War, British took control of Punjab and Indus Valley.
  • 1860 AD Muhammad Mohsin (Dadhu Mian) died.

Ancient History

Indus Valley civilization

The Indus Valley Civilization flourished from about 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE. It marked the beginning of the urban civilization on the subcontinent. It was centred on the Indus River and its tributaries, which is in present-day Pakistan. It is thought that a gradual deforestation caused by geological disturbances and climate change caused the fall of the civilization.

The civilization is famous for its cities that were built of brick, had a road-side drainage system and multi-storied houses.

Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address