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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hockey refers to any of a family of sports in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball, or a hard, round, rubber or heavy plastic disc called a puck, into the opponent's net or goal, using a hockey stick.

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Field hockey

Field hockey game at Melbourne University.

Field hockey is played on gravel, natural grass, sand-based or water-based artificial turf, with a small, hard ball. The game is popular among both males and females in many parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, Australia, and South Africa. In most countries, the game is played between single-sex sides, although they can be mixed-sex.

The governing body is the 116-member International Hockey Federation (FIH). Men's Field hockey has been played at each summer Olympic Games since 1908 (except 1912 and 1924), while Women's Field Hockey has been played each summer Olympic Games since 1980.

Modern field hockey sticks are J-shaped and constructed of a composite of wood, glass fibre or carbon fibre (sometimes both) and have a curved hook at the playing end, a flat surface on the playing side and curved surface on the rear side. While current field hockey appeared in the mid-18th century in England, primarily in schools, it was not until the first half of the 19th century that it became firmly established. The first club was created in 1849 at Blackheath in south-east London. Field hockey is the national sport of India and Pakistan[1].

Ice hockey

The Barrie Colts and the Brampton Battalion in an ice hockey game.

Ice hockey is played on a large flat area of ice, using a three inch (76.2 mm) diameter vulcanized rubber disc called a puck. This puck is often frozen before high-level games to decrease the amount of bouncing and friction on the ice. The game is contested between two teams of skaters. The game is played all over North America, Europe and in many other countries around the world to varying extent. It is the most popular sport in Canada, Finland, Latvia, the Czech Republic, and in Slovakia.

The governing body is the 66-member International Ice Hockey Federation, (IIHF). Men's ice hockey has been played at the Winter Olympics since 1924, and was in the 1920 Summer Olympics. Women's ice hockey was added to the Winter Olympics in 1998. North America's National Hockey League (NHL) is the strongest professional ice hockey league, drawing top ice hockey players from around the globe. The NHL rules are slightly different from those used in Olympic ice hockey: the periods are 20 minutes long, counting downwards. There are three periods.

Ice hockey sticks are long L-shaped sticks made of wood, graphite, or composites with a blade at the bottom that can lie flat on the playing surface when the stick is held upright and can curve either way, legally, as to help a left- or right-handed player gain an advantage.

There are early representations and reports of ice hockey-type games being played on ice in the Netherlands, and reports from Canada from the beginning of the nineteenth century, but the modern game was initially organized by students at McGill University, Montreal in 1875 who, by two years later, codified the first set of ice hockey rules and organized the first teams.

Ice hockey is played at a number of levels, by all ages.

Roller hockey

Inline

Inline roller hockey

Inline hockey is a variation of roller hockey very similar to ice hockey, from which it is derived. Inline hockey is played by two teams, consisting of four skaters and one goalie, on a dry rink divided into two halves by a center line, with one net at each end of the rink. The game is played in three 15-minute periods with a variation of the ice hockey off-side rule. Icings are also called, but are usually referred to as illegal clearing. For rink dimensions and an overview of the rules of the game, see IIHF Inline Rules (official rules). Some leagues and competitions do not follow the IIHF regulations, in particular USA Inline and Canada Inline.

Quad

Roller hockey played on quad skates.

Roller hockey (quad) is the overarching name for a roller sport that has existed since long before inline skates were invented. Roller hockey has been played in sixty countries worldwide[citation needed] and thus has many names worldwide. The sport is also known as quad hockey, international style ball hockey, rink hockey and hardball hockey. Roller Hockey was a demonstration roller sport at the 1992 Barcelona Summer Olympics.

Sledge hockey

Sledge hockey is a form of ice hockey designed for players with physical disabilities affecting their lower bodies. Players sit on double-bladed sledges and use two sticks; each stick has a blade at one end and small picks at the other. Players use the sticks to pass, stickhandle and shoot the puck, and to propel their sledges. The rules are very similar to IIHF ice hockey rules.[2]

Canada is a recognized international leader in the development of the sport, and of equipment for players. Much of the equipment for the sport was first developed in Canada, such as sledge hockey sticks laminated with fiberglass, as well as aluminum shafts with hand carved insert blades and special aluminum sledges with regulation skate blades.

Inline Sledge hockey

Based on Ice Sledge Hockey, Inline Sledge Hockey is played to the same rules as Inline Puck Hockey (essentially ice hockey played off ice using inline skates) and has been made possible by the design and manufacture of inline sledges by RGK, Europe’s premier sports wheelchair maker.

There is no classification points system dictating who can be involved in play within Inline Sledge Hockey unlike other team sports such as Wheelchair Basketball and Wheelchair Rugby. Inline Sledge Hockey is being developed to allow everyone, regardless of whether they have a disability or not, to complete up to World Championship level based solely on talent and ability. This makes Inline Sledge Hockey truly inclusive.

The first game of Inline Sledge Hockey was played at Bisley, England on the 19th December 2009 between the Hull Stingrays and the Grimsby Redwings. Matt Lloyd, Paralympic Athlete is credited with inventing Inline Sledge Hockey and Great Britain is seen as the international leader in the games development.

Street hockey

Another form of popular hockey is Street hockey, sometimes known as road hockey. This is usually played with the same rules as ice hockey, or roller hockey, except it is on the street. Most of the time, a ball is used instead of a puck, because a puck generates too much friction when handled on an asphalt or cement surface and does not slide. Street hockey is played year round.

Other forms of hockey

Other games derived from hockey or its predecessors include the following:

  • Air hockey is played indoors with a puck on an air-cushion table.
  • Beach hockey, a variation of street hockey, is a common sight on Southern California beaches.
  • Ball hockey is played in a gym using sticks and a ball, often a tennis ball with the fuzz removed.
Unicycle hockey
  • Unicycle hockey is similar to roller or inline hockey, however, each player must be mounted on their unicycle (with both feet on the pedals) to play at the ball.
  • Deck hockey is traditionally played by the Royal Navy on the ships' decks, using short wooden 'L' shaped sticks.
  • Bandy is played with a ball on a football-sized ice arena, typically outdoors.
  • Box hockey is a school yard game played by two people. The object of the game is to move a hockey puck from the center of the box out through a hole placed at the end of the box (known as the goal). Each player kneels and faces one another on either side of the box, and each attempts to move the puck to the hole on their left.
  • Broomball is played on an ice hockey rink, but with a ball instead of a puck and a "broom" (actually a stick with a small plastic implement on the end) in place of the ice hockey stick. Instead of using skates, special shoes are used that have very soft rubbery soles to maximize grip while running around.
  • Floor Hockey is a form of hockey played on foot,on flat, smooth floor surface. It is usully played inside in gymnasiums and such.
  • Floorball, is a form of hockey played in a gymnasium or in sport halls. A whiffle ball is used instead of a plastic ball, and the sticks are made from composite materials. The sticks are only one meter long.
  • Foot hockey or sock hockey is played using a bald tennis ball or rolled up pair of socks and using only the feet. It is popular at elementary schools in the winter.
  • Gym hockey is a form of ice hockey played in a gymnasium. It uses sticks with foam ends and a foam ball or a plastic puck.
  • Hurling and Camogie are Irish games bearing some resemblance to - and notable differences from - hockey.
  • Indoor field hockey is an indoor variation of field hockey.
  • Mini hockey In the United States is a form of hockey (also known as "mini-sticks") which is played in basements of houses. Players get down on their knees, using a miniature plastic stick, usually about 15 inches (38 cm) long to maneuver a small ball or a soft, fabric covered mini puck into a miniature goals. In England 'mini hockey' refers to a seven-a-side version of field hockey, played on an area equivalent to half a normal pitch for younger players
  • Nok Hockey is a table-top version of hockey played with no defense and a small block in front of the goal.
  • PowerHockey is a form of hockey for persons requiring the use of an electric (power) wheelchair in daily life. PowerHockey is a competitive sports opportunity for the physically disabled.
  • Ringette is an ice hockey variant that was designed for female players; it uses a straight stick and a rubber ring in place of a puck. Note: Ringette distances itself from hockey as it has its own set of rules and is closely related to a mix of lacrosse and basketball.
  • Rinkball is a Scandinavian team sport, played in an ice hockey rink with a ball.
  • Rossall hockey is a variation played at Rossall School on the sea shore in the winter months. Its rules are a mix of field hockey, Rugby and the Eton Wall Game.
  • Shinny is an informal version of ice hockey.
  • Shinty is a Scottish game now played primarily in the Highlands
  • Skater hockey is a variant of inline hockey, played with a ball.
  • Spongee is a cross between ice hockey and broomball and is most popular in Manitoba, Canada. A stick and puck are used as in hockey (the puck is a softer version called a "sponge puck"), and the same soft-soled shoes used in broomball are worn. The rules are basically the same as ice hockey, but one variation has an extra player on the ice called a "rover".
  • Table hockey is played indoors with a table-top game.
  • Underwater hockey is played on the bottom of a swimming pool.

References

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

HOCKEY (possibly derived from the "hooked" stick with which it is played; cf. O. Fr. hoquet, shepherd's crook), a game played with a ball or some similar object by two opposing sides, using hooked or bent sticks, with which each side attempts to drive it into the other's goal. In one or more of its variations Hockey was known to most northern peoples in both Europe and Asia, and the Romans possessed a game of similar nature. It was played indiscriminately on the frozen ground or the ice in winter. In Scotland it was called "shinty," and in Ireland "hurley," and was usually played on the hard, sandy sea-shore with numerous players on each side. The rules were simple and the play very rough.

Modern Hockey, properly so called, is played during the cold season on the hard turf, and owes its recent vogue to the formation of "The Men's Hockey Association" in England in 1875. The rules drawn up by the Wimbledon Club in 1883 still obtain in all essentials. Since 1895 "international" matches at hockey have been played annually between England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales; and in 1907 a match was played between England and France, won by England by 14 goals to nil. In 1890 Divisional Association matches (North, South, West, Midlands) and inter-university matches (Oxford and Cambridge) were inaugurated, and have since been played annually. County matches are also now regularly played in England, twenty-six counties competing in 1907. Of other hockey clubs playing regular matches in 1907, there were eighty-one in the London district, and fifty-nine in the provinces.

The game is played by teams of eleven players on a ground TOO yds. long and 50 to 60 yds. wide. The goals are in the centre of each end-line, and consist of two uprights 7 ft. high surmounted by a hori zontal bar, enclosing a space 12 ft. wide. In ai front of each goal is a space enclosed by a 04, curved line, its greatest ' diameter from the goalline being 15 ft., called the striking-circle. The positions of the players on each side may be seen on the accompanying diagram. Two umpires, one on each side of the centre-line, officiate.

The ball is an ordinary - cricket-ball painted a white. The stick has a co hard-wood curved head, and a handle of cork or wrapped cane. It must not exceed 2 in.

in diameter nor 28 oz.

in weight. At the start of the game, which consists of two thirty or thirty-five minute periods, the two centreforwards "bully off" the ball in the middle of the field. In "bullying off" each centre must strike the ground on his own side of the ball three times with his stick and strike his opponent's stick three times alternately; after which either may strike the ball. Each side then endeavours, by means of striking, passing and dribbling, to drive the ball into its opponents' goal. A player is "off side" if he is nearer the enemy's goal than one of his own side who 'strikes] the ball, and he may not strike the bail himself until it has been touched by one of the opposing side. The ball may be caught (but not held) or stopped by any part of the body, but may not be picked up, carried, kicked, thrown or knocked except with the stick. An opponent's stick may be hooked, but not an opponent's person, which may not be obstructed in any way. No left-handed play is allowed. Penalties for infringing rules are of two classes; "free hits" and "penalty bullies," to be taken where the foul occurred. For flagrant fouls penalty goals may also be awarded. A "corner" occurs when the ball goes behind the goalline, but not into goal. If it is hit by the attacking side, or unintentionally by the defenders, it must be brought out 25 yds., in a direction at right angles to the goal-line from the point where it crossed the line, and there "bullied." But if the ball is driven from within the 25-yd. line unintentionally behind the goal-line by. the defenders, a member of the attacking side is given a free hit from a point within 3 yds. of a corner flag, the members of the defending side remaining behind their goal-line. If the ball is hit intentionally behind the goal-line by the attacking side, the free hit is taken from the point where the,ball went over. No goal can be scored from a free hit directly.

Ice Hockey (or Bandy, to give it its original name) is far more popular than ordinary Hockey in countries where there is much ice; in fact in America "Hockey" means Ice Hockey, while the land game is called Field Hockey. Ice Hockey in its simplest form of driving a ball across a given limit with a stick or club has been played for centuries in northern Europe, attaining its greatest popularity in the Low Countries, and there are many 16thand 17th-century paintings extant which represent games of Bandy, the players using an implement formed much like a golf club.

In England Bandy is controlled by the "National Bandy Association." A team consists of eleven players, wearing skates, and the proper space for play is 200 yds. by Too yds. in extent. The ball is of solid india-rubber, between 21 and 21 in. in diameter. The bandies are 2 in. in diameter and about 4 ft. long. The goals, placed in the centre of each goal-line, consist of two upright posts 7 ft. high and 12 ft. apart, connected by a lath. A match is begun by the referee throwing up the ball in the centre of the field, after which it must not be touched other than with the bandy until a goal is scored or the ball passes the boundaries of the course, in which case it is hit into the field in any direction excepting forward from the point where it went out by the player who touched it last. If the ball is hit across the goal-line but not into a goal, it is hit out by one of the defenders from the point where it went over, the opponents not being allowed to approach nearer than 25 yds. from the goal-line while the hit is made.

In America the development of the modern game is due to the Victoria Hockey Club and McGill University (Montreal). About 1881 the secretary of the former club made the first efforts towards. drawing up a recognized code of laws, and for some time afterwards playing rules were agreed upon from time to time whenever an important match was played, the chief teams being, besides those already mentioned, the Ottawa, Quebec, Crystal and Montreal Hockey Clubs, the first general tournament taking place in 1884. Three years later the "Amateur Hockey Association of Canada" was formed, and a definite code of rules drawn up. Soon afterwards, in consequence of exhibitions given by the best Canadian teams in CH Hockey Stick.

some of the larger cities of the United States, the new game was taken up by American schools, colleges and athletic clubs, and became nearly as popular in the northern states as in the Dominion. The rules differ widely from those of English Bandy. The rink must be at least 112 ft. long by 58 ft. wide, and seven players form a side. The goals are 6 ft. wide and 4 ft. high and are provided with goalnets. Instead of the English painted cricket-ball a puck is used, made of vulcanized rubber in the form of a draught-stone, T in. thick, and 3 in. in diameter. The sticks are made of one piece of hard wood, and may not be more than 3 in. wide at any part. The game is played for two half-hour or twenty-minute periods with an intermission of ten minutes. At the beginning of a match, and also when a goal has been made, the puck is faced, i.e. it is placed in the middle of the rink between the sticks of the two left-centres, and the referee calls "play." Whichever side then secures the ball endeavours by means of passing and dribbling to get the puck into a position from which a goal may be shot. The puck may be stopped by any part of the person but not carried or knocked except with the stick. No stick may be raised above the shoulder except when actually striking the puck. When the puck is driven off the rink or behind the goal, or a foul has been made behind the goal, it is faced 5 yds. inside the rink. The goal-keeper must maintain a standing position.

There are a number of Hockey organizations in America, all under the jurisdiction of the "American Amateur Hockey League" in the United States and the "Canadian Amateur Athletic League" in Canada.

Ice Polo, a winter sport similar to Ice Hockey, is almost exclusively played in the New England states. A rubber-covered ball is used and the stick is heavier than that used in Ice Hockey. The radical difference between the two games is that, in Ice Polo, there is no strict off-side rule, so that passes and shots at goal may come from any and often the most unexpected direction. Five men constitute a team: a goal-tend, a half-hack, a centre and two rushers. The rushers must be rapid skaters, adepts in dribbling and passing and good goal shots. The centre supports the rushers, passing the ball to them or trying for goal himself. The half-back is the first defence and the goal-tend the last. The rink is 150 ft. long.

Ring Hockey may be played on the floor of any gymnasium or large room by teams of six, comprising a goal-keeper, a quarter, three 4 yds. ‘1 `.?

( ~ l tiing Circle 0 ? ®. Centre line O: g ' O LW') CF RI LH ,O a StYiking Cly` N Diagram of Hockey Field.

Goal. RW, Right Wing. Right Back. RI, Inside Right.

Left Back. CF, Centre Forward.

Right Half. LI, Inside Left. Centre Half. LW, Left Wing. Left Half.

G, RB, LB, RH, CH, LH, forwards and a centre. The goals consist of two uprights 3 ft. high and 4 ft. apart. The ring, which takes the place of the ball or puck, is made of flexible rubber, and is 5 in. in diameter with a 3-in. opening through the centre. It weighs between 12 and 16 oz. The stick is a wand of light but tough wood, between 36 and 40 in. long, about in. in diameter, provided with a 5-in. guard 20 in. from the lower end. The method of shooting is to insert the end of the stick in the hole of the ring and drive it towards the goal. A goal shot from the field counts one point, a goal from a foul i point. When a foul is called by the referee a player of the opposing side is allowed a free shot for goal from any point on the quarter line.

Roller Polo, played extensively during the winter months in the United States, is practically Ice Polo adapted to the floors of gymnasiums and halls, the players, five on a side, wearing roller-skates. The first professional league was organized in 1883.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also hockey

German

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Hockey

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Noun

Hockey n. (genitive Hockeys, no plural)

  1. hockey (family of sports)
  2. field hockey

Derived terms


Simple English


Hockey is a sport. In hockey, players try to get points by hitting an object into the other team's goal with a stick. There are two main ways that hockey is played. Hockey can refer to:

  • Ice hockey is played on ice. Players on each team wear ice skates and try to hit a small rubber disc called a hockey puck into the other team's goal. There are 6 players on each team. It can be played indoors or outdoors. Ice hockey is one of the most popular sports in the world.
  • Field hockey is played with a ball on grass. Teams have 11 players each. Field hockey is only played outdoors, but there is Indoor Field Hockey.







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