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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A holotype is one of several possible biological types. A type is what fixes a name to a taxon. A holotype is a single physical example (or illustration) of an organism, known to have been used when the species (or lower-ranked taxon) was formally described. It is either the single such physical example (or illustration) or one of several such, but explicitly designated as the holotype.

For example, the holotype for the butterfly Lycaeides idas longinus is held by the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, and the holotype for the extinct mammal Cimolodon is at the University of Alberta.

A holotype is not necessarily 'typical' of that taxon, although ideally it should be. Sometimes just a fragment of an organism is the holotype, for example in the case of a rare fossil. The holotype of Pelorosaurus humerocristatus, a large herbivore dinosaur from the early Jurassic period, is a fossil leg bone stored at the Natural History Museum in London. Under unusual circumstances even a good quality photograph can be submitted as holotype. Even if a better specimen is subsequently found, the holotype is not superseded.

In the absence of a holotype (e.g. it was lost) another type may be selected, out of a range of different kinds of type, depending on the case. Note that in the ICBN and ICZN the definitions of types are similar in intent but not identical in terminology or underlying concept.

For example in both the ICBN and the ICZN a "neotype" is a type that was later appointed in the absence of the original holotype. Additionally, under the ICZN the Commission is empowered to replace a holotype with a "neotype", when the holotype turns out to lack important diagnostic features needed to distinguish the species from its close relatives. For example, the crocodile-like archosaurian reptile Parasuchus hislopi Lydekker, 1885 was described based on a premaxillary rostrum (part of the snout), but this is no longer sufficient to distinguish Parasuchus from its close relatives. This made the name Parasuchus hislopi a nomen dubium. Texan paleontologist Sankar Chatterjee proposed that a new type specimen, a complete skeleton, be designated.[1] The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature considered the case and agreed to replace the original type specimen with the proposed neotype.[2].

The procedures for the designation of a new type specimen when the original is lost come into play for some recent, high-profile species descriptions in which the specimen designated as the holotype was a living individual that was allowed to remain in the wild (e.g.,[3][4]). In such a case, there is no actual type specimen available for study, and the possibility exists that - should there be any perceived ambiguity in the identity of the species - subsequent authors can invoke various clauses in the ICZN Code that allow for the designation of a neotype. Remarkably, the Code explicitly states that the designation of a neotype must be based upon an actual physical specimen that is "the property of a recognized scientific or educational institution", but there is no such requirement for a holotype.

Under the ICBN, an additional and clarifying type could be designated, an epitype under §9.7 of the Vienna Code, where the original material is demonstrably ambiguous or insufficient. Great care must be used in speaking of types, as definitions are very precise: a conserved type would be used to clarify a nomen ambiguum or "fix" a name which has come to apply to material that disagrees with its holotype (that is, where the holotype clearly belongs to another taxa under current usage).

See also

References

  1. ^ Case 3165, Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 58:1, 30 March 2001.
  2. ^ Opinion 2045, Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 60:2, 30 June 2003.
  3. ^ Mendes Pontes, A.R., Malta A. and Asfora, P.H. 2006. A new species of capuchin monkey, genus Cebus Erxleben (Cebidae, Primates): found at the very brink of extinction in the Pernambuco Endemism Centre. Zootaxa 1200: 1-12.
  4. ^ Sinha, A.,Datta, A., Madhusudan, M. D. and Mishra, C. (2004). "The Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala: a new species from western Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India". International Journal of Primatology volume: 26 issue: 977 pages: 989.
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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Directory A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Musea "A"
Acronym Museum
AFUA Department of Biology, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
AHF Allan Hancock Foundation, Los Angeles, California, USA
AIK Arachnological Institute of Korea.
AJB A.J. Bruce (pers. coll.)
AL A. Laštuvka personal Collection, Prostejov, Czech Republic.
AL-MNRJ Adolpho Lutz collection in MNRJ.
AM Australian Museum, 6-8 College Street, Sydney, New South Wales 2000, Australia.
AME The McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity, Florida Museum of Natural History, SW 34th Street and Hull Road, Gainesville, Florida, USA
AM(MMUS) Australian Museum (Macleay Museum Collection), Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
AMG Albany Museum, Grahamstown, South Africa. Collection transferred to the PEM in 1993.
AMNH American Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology, Central Park West at 79th St., New York, NY 10024, USA
AMNZ Auckland War Memorial Museum, Private Bag 92018, Auckland, New Zealand
AMS Australian Museum, P.O. Box A285, 6-8 College Street, Sydney South, New South Wales 2000, Australia.
AMUZ Aligarh Muslini University, Department of Zoology, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
ANIC Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO, Canberra, ACT, Australia
ANSP Academy of Natural Sciences, 19th and the Parkway, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103, U.S.A.
ASCU NSW Agricultural Scientific Collections Unit, Orange, New South Wales, Australia
ASIZ Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica, Taipei
ASJ Arachnological Society of Japan, Otemon Gakuin University, Osaka, Japan
ASU Department of Zoology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1501, USA.
AUGD Paleontological Type Collection, Geology Department, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

B

Musea "B"
Acronym Museum
B Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise-Str. 6-8, 14191 Berlin
BAUC Beijing Agricultural University, Beijing, China
BBM Bernice P. Bishop Museum, J. Linsley Gressitt Center for Research in Entomology, Department of Entomology Collection, P. O. Box 19000A, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96819, USA
BCIQT Animal & Plant Quarantine Laboratory, Taichung Branch Office, Bureau of Commodity Inspection & Quarantine, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taichung, Taiwan
BDHU Biological Department of Hangzhou University, Hangzhou, China
BLIH Biological Laboratory, Imperial Household of Japan, Tokyo, Japan
BLKU Biosystematics Laboratory, Graduate School of Social and Cultural Studies, Kyushu University.
BLT Biological Laboratory, Shikoku University, Tokushima, Japan
BM; BML; BMNH The Natural History Museum, Department of Zoology, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom. (Formerly the British Museum [Natural History].)
BMSYU Biological Museum of Sun Yatsen University, Guangzhou, China.
BNHM Bombay Natural History Museum, Hornbill House, Shahid Bhagat Singh Road, Bombay 400 023, India.
BNM Beijing Natural History Museum, Beijing.
BOC Bingham Oceanographic Collection, New Haven, Conn.
BPBM Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 1355 Kalihi Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96818, USA.
BPIH Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture Arthropod Collection, Bureau of Plant Industry, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, 2301 North Cameron St., Harrisburg, PA 17110, USA
BPIM Bureau of Plant Industry, Manila, Philippines
BYU Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA.

C

Musea "C"
Acronym Museum
CARE Albert R. Estrada Collection, Habana, Cuba.
CAS California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, California 94118, U.S.A.
CAS-SU Stanford University collection in CAS.
CBF Colección Boliviana de Fauna, Herpetología, Calle 26, Cota-Cota, La Paz, Bolivia.
CBM Natural History Museum and Institute, Chiba, Japan
CCB Central College, Bangalore, India.
CDFA Collection of Arthropods, Analysis and Indentification Unit, California Department of Food and Agriculture, 1220 N. St., Rm 340, Sacramento, CA 95814, USA (types of Blanc and Foote transferred to CAS
CDM Courtenay and District Museum, Courtenay, British Columbia, Canada
CET Centro de Estudios Tropicales, Sevilla, Spain.
CHAS Chicago Academy of Sciences, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
CHINM Instituto Nacional de Microbiología, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Transferred to MACN.
CHM Charleston Museum, 121 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, South Carolina 29401, USA.
CIB Chengdu Institute of Biology, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu, Sichuan, P.R. China.
CINC University of Cincinnati Herbarium, Department of Biological Sciences, 1600 Crosley Tower, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0006, USA.
CGH National Museum of Prague, Czech Republic
CKB Collection of Ján Kodada, Bratislava, Slovakia.
CLCB Collection L. & C. Brévignon.
CM Carnegie Museum, Department of Herpetology, 4400 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.
CMNC Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Canada.
CMNH Chicago Museum of Natural History, Chicago, USA
CMNZ Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand
CMP Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Section of Insect and Spiders, 900 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
CMW Colonial Museum, Wellington, New Zealand [=MONZ]
CMZC Croatian Natural History Museum, Zagreb, Croatia
CNC, CNCI Canadian National Collection of Insects, Centre for Land and Biological Resources Research, Biological Research Division Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ontario KIA OC6, Canada
CNMS National Museum, Sir Marcus Fernando Mawatha, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka
CNU College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University, 105 Xisanhuanbeilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100048, China
CNUIC Chungnam National University Insect Collection, Daejeon, Korea
CPARJ Centro de Pesquisas Agropecuarias Centro-Sul, EMBRAPA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (formerly Instituto de Biologia Vegetal) (see Zikan & Wygodzinsky 1948)
CPS University of Puget Sound, Slater Museum of Natural History, 1500 N.Warner Street, Tacoma, Washington 98416, USA.
CRE Costa Rica Expeditions, now in LACM.
CSUFC Colorado State University, Department of Entomology. C.P. Gillette Arthropod Biodiverstiy Museum, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA (types of Tephritidae transferred to USNM)
CU Cornell University, Division of Biological Sciences, Ithaca, NewYork 14853, USA.
CUI Cornell University, Cornell University Insect Collection, Department of Entomology, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA
CUMZ Cambridge University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge, UK
CUMZB Chulalongkorn University, Museum of Zoology, Bangkok, Thailand
CUPC L. H. Bailey Hortorium Paleobotanical Collection, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
CVULA Coleccion Vertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias, La Hechicera, Universidad de los Andes, Mérida 5101, Venezuela.
CZACC Colección Zoologia, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, Habana, Cuba.

D

Musea "D"
Acronym Museum
DAC Plant Protection Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
DBCUCH Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Biología Celular y Genética, Casilla 6556, Santiago 7, Chile.
DBNU Department of Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.
DBSNU Department of Biology, Shaanxi Normal University, Shaanxi, P.R. China.
DBSU Department of Biology, Shiraz University, Iran.
DCN-UNRC Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Argentina.
DEI Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Deutschen Akademie der Landwirtswissenschaften zu Berlin, Schicklerstrasse 5, 13 Eberswalde, D-1300, Germany (formerly Institut fur Pflanzenschutzforschung)
DFRIS Donghai Fisheries Research Institute, Shanghai, China
DM Desjardins Museum, Mauritius
DMB Durban Museum, Durban, South Africa
DMNH Delaware Museum of Natural History, PO Box 3937, Greenville, Delaware 19807, USA.
DPP Department of Plant Pathology, Academy of Agriculture, Slowackiego 17, PL-71434 Szczecin, Poland
DZKU Department of Biology, Shaanxi Normal University, Shaanxi, P.R. China.
DZUFP Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.

E

Musea "E"
Acronym Museum
EAMFRO East African Marine Fisheries Organisation, Zanzibar
EBD Estación Biológica de Doñana, Sevilla, Spain.
EBRG Museo de la Estación Biología de Rancho Grande, Maracay, Aragua, Venezuela.
EHT-HMS Edward H. Taylor-Hobart M. Smith collection. Now divided between the FMNH and UIMNH.
EI Eugenio Izecksohn, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Biologia Animal, 23460 Seropédica, Itaguai, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
ELMU Entomological Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan
EMUC Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley.
ENA Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (formerly Escola Nacional de Agronomia)
ENIH National Institute of Health, Department of Entomology, 10-35 Kamiosaki, 2-Chome, Sinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141, Japan
EPN Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Ladrón de Guevara E11-253, Casilla Postal : 17-01-2759, Quito, Ecuador
ERA-WTN E. Ross Allen-Wilfred T. Neill collection. Now in FSM.
ERLPW Entomology Research Laboratory, Providence Women's college Calicut Kerala, India
ESEE Entomology Society of Egypt, 14 Ramsey St., Cairo, Egypt (see Steyskal & El-Bialy 1967)
ETHZ Entomologische Sammlung, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule, ETH-Zentrum, Zurich CH-8092, Switzerland
EUMJ Ehime University, Entomological Laboratory, Matsuyama, Japan

F

Musea "F"
Acronym Museum
FML Fundación Miguel Lillo, Miguel Lillo 205, Tucumán 4000, Argentina.
FMNH Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road & Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605, U.S.A.
FMNHF The Fukushima Museum of Natural History, Fukushima, Japan.
FMT Taiwan Provincial Museum, 2 Siangyang Road, Taipei, Taiwan
FNIC Fiji National Insect Collection, Suva, Fiji
FNS Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Frankfurt Am Main.
FRNZ Forest Research Institute (now Scion), Rotorua, New Zealand
FSCA Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry, 1911 34th St., SW, P.O. Box 147100, Gainesville, FL 32614, USA
FSM Florida State Museum, University of Florida, Museum Road, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA.
FU Fudan University, Department of Biology, Shanghai, Guangdong, P.R. China.
FUE Fukuoka University of Education, Munakata, Fukuoka, Japan.
FUJP Fukui University, Fukui, Japan.

G

Musea "G"
Acronym Museum
GH Gray Herbarium, Harvard University Herbaria, 22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
GMC Guangxi Medical College, Nanning, Guangxi, P.R. China.
GMNH Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Genève, Switzerland
GNSS GNS Science, Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, New Zealand
GNU Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, Guangxi, P.R. China
GSFPM General Station of Forest Pest Management, State Forestry Administration, P.R. China
GZU Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, Universitätsplatz 3, A - 8010 Graz, Austria

H

Musea "H"
Acronym Museum
HENNU College of Life, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453002, P.R. China.
HKU Department of Ecology & Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
HLD Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt, Germany.
HNHM Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary
HNNU Department of Biology, Hainan Normal University, Haikou City, Hainan Province, China.
HNU Department of Biology, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081 P.R. China. (also abbreviated HBI)
HTC Hangzhou Teachers College, Hangzhou, China
HU Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
HUJ Hebrew University, Department of Zoology, Jerusalem, Israel. HUNAU Institute of Entomology, Hunan Agricultural University.
HUNHM Hokkaido University Natural History Museum, Kita 8, Nishi 8 Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan
HUS Entomological Institute, Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060, Japan
HUW Institute of Ecology, Hubei University, Wuhai, Hubei Province, China

I

Musea "I"
Acronym Museum
IARI Indian Agriculture Research Institute, National Collections, PUSA New Delhi.
IAVH Instituto de Ivestigación de los Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, Villa de Leiva, Boyacá, Colombia.
IBMUNC Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Instituto de Biología Animal, Centro Universitario, Parque General San Martín, 5500 Mendoza, Argentina.
IBPN Institute for Biological Problems of the North, Magadan, Russia
IBSP Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil.
IBUNAM Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. 04510, Mexico.
ICCLS Insect Collection, College of Life Science, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.
ICM Instituto de Ciencias del Mar, Paseo Nacional, Barcelona, Spain
ICN Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia Natural, Apartado 7495, Bogotá, Colombia.
IEBR Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Nghia Do, Tu Liem, Hanoi, Vietnam
IEXV Instituto de Ecologia, Apartado Postal 63, Km. 2.5 Antigua Carretera a Coatepec, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico
IFAN Instituto Fondamental d’Afrique Noire, B.P. 206, Université de Dakar, Dakar, Senegal.
IGPUG Institut und Museum fur Geologie und Palaeontologie, Georg-August-Universitat, Gottingen, Niedersachsen, Germany (see Evenhuis 1994: 17)
IICT Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, Lisboa.
IM Indian Museum, Calcutta, India
IMBV The Institute of Marine Biology, Vladivostok, Russia
IMC Indian Museum, Chowringhee, Calcutta 13, West Bengal, India.
IML Fundacion e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Miguel Lillo 251, Tucuman 4000, Argentina (see Hayward & Golbach 1963)
IMNU Department of Biology, Inner Mongolia Normal University, China
IMZ Museo ed Istituto di Zoologia Sistematica, Universita di Torino, Via Giovanni Giditti 34, Torino I-10123, Italy (collection possibly transferred to Museo Regionale Scienze Naturale, Via Giolitti 36, Torino 10123, Italy)
IND-AN Amphibian Collection, Instituto Nacional de los Recursos Naturales Renovables y del Ambiente, Bogotá, Colombia.
INHS Illinois Natural History Survey, 607 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, Illinois 61820, USA.
INM Irish National Museum, Dublin, Ireland
INPA Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas de Amazonia, Manaus, Brazil
INPC National Pusa Collections, Division of Entomology, Indian Agriculture Research Institute, New Delhi, Delhi 110012, India
IOAN Shirshov Institute of Oceanography, Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
IOC Fundacao Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Av. Brasil 4365, C.P. 926, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 20.000, Brazil
ION Institut Océanographique de Nhatrang, Nhatrang, Vietnam
IOQ Institute of Oceanology, Academia Sinica, Qingdao, China
IPV Instituto de Patologia Vegetal, INTA, C.C. No. 25, Castelar, Buenos Aires, Argentina
IRSN Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, 29 Rue Vautier, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium. (Formerly MRHN, Museum Royal d’Histoire Naturelle, Belgium.)
IRSNB Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, 29 Rue Vautier, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium. (Formerly MRHN, Museum Royal d’Histoire Naturelle, Belgium.)
ISEA Siberian Zoological Museum of the Institute for Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Novosibirsk, Russia
ISTM Institute Scientifique, Tananarive, Madagascar (Status uncertain. Types of some species described by Munro or Hering said to belong here (or from Paulian) are still in SANC, whereas some others are in MNHNP).
ITZ Institute of Taxonomic Zoology (Zoöligisch Museum), Amsterdam.
IU Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA
IZ Instituto de Zoología, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, Habana.
IZAC Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica (Chinese Academy of Sciences), 25 Beisihuanxi Road, Haidian, Beijing, 100080, China
IZAM Instituto de Zoologia Agricola, Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apt. 4579, Maracay, Aragua 2010A, Venezuela
IZAS Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica, Insect Collection, 19 Zhongguancun Lu, Haidian, Beijing 100080, China
IZCAS Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, China.
IZTG Institute of Zoology, Tblisi, Georgia
IZUA Universidad Austral de Chile, Instituto de Zoología, Valdivia, Chile.
IZUC Universidad de Concepción, Instituto de Zoología, Concepción, Chile.
IZUG Istituto di Zoologia dell’Università, Via Balbi 5, 16126 Genova, Italy.
IZUSN Instituto di Zoologia, Universita degli Studia di Napoli, Portici, Italy
IZUW Institut für Zoologie der Universität Wien, Wien, Austria.

J

Musea "J"
Acronym Museum
JJ Jorge Jim Private Collection, Deparatmento de Zoologia, IBBMA-UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.
JLU Department of Biology, Jilin Univeristy, Changchun, Jilin, China. (formerly Norman Bethune University of Medical Sciences)
JWEC J.W. Evans collection, property of AMSA, deposited as long term loan at NSWA

K

Musea "K"
Acronym Museum
KIZ Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, 650223, P.R. China.
KM Muzeum Przyrodnicze Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego, ul. Krupnicza 50, Kraków, Poland.
KMNH Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History.
KNHM Kitakyushu Natural History Museum, Japan
KNMB Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen, Vautierstraat 29 - 1000 Brussels
KPMNH Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History, Odawara, Kanagawa, Japan
KSEM Snow Entomological Museum, University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Kansas, USA
KU Kyushu University, Entomological Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Hakozaki, Hi-Gashiku, Fukuoka, Kyushu 812, Japan
KUB Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand
KUHE Kyoto University, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto 606, Japan.
KUL University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Division of Herpetology, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA.
KUTK Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Department of Agricultural Biology, Kyungpook National University, Taegu, Korea

L

Musea "L"
Acronym Museum
LACM Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, 900 Exposition Blvd., Los Angeles, California 90007, U.S.A.
LCFM Musée d’Histoire Naturelle, 2300 La-Chaux-de-Fond, Switzerland.
LIHUBA Universidad de Buenos Aires, Laboratorio de Investigaciones Herpetológicas, now in MACN.
LIPI Puslitbang Oseanologi LIPI, Jakarta, Indonesia
LIV Liverpool Museum, William Brown Street, Liverpool L3 8EN, United Kingdom.
LIVCM Liverpool County Museum, Liverpool, England
LS(L) Linnean Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London WIV OLQ, England, UK
LSAM Louisiana State Arthropod Museum, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
LSUMZ Louisiana State University, Museum of Natural Science, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70893, USA.
LZUH Laboratoire de Zoologie, Université de Hanoi, Vietnam.

M

Musea "M"
Acronym Museum
M.W. Melbourne Ward (pers. coll.)
MACN Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Bernardino Rividavia, Avenida Angel Gallardo 470, 1405 Capital Federal, Argentina.
MAF Museum of the Agriculture Faculty, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, Turkey.
MAFL Plant Health Diagnostic Station, Advisory Services Division, MAF, Levin, New Zealand.
MAKB Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn.
MASN Metropolitan Museum of Natural History, Academia Sinica, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.
MBL Museu Bocage, Universidade de Lisboa, Rua da Escola Politécnica, Lisboa 2, Portugal. Collection destroyed by fire on 18 March 1978.
MBML Museu de Biologia Mello Leitão, 29.650 Santa Teresa, Espiritu Santo, Brazil.
MBNH Museum of the Boston Society of Natural History
MBUCV Universidad Central de Venezuela, Museo de Biología, Apartado 59058, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas, Venezuela.
MCDE Mitrani Center for Desert Ecology, the Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben Gurion University, Sede Boqer, Israel
MCG Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 'Giacomo Doria', Genoa, Italy
MCN Museu de Cienciâs Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
MCNA Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Álava, Vitoria, Spain
MCP Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
MCSNG Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Giacomo Doria, via Brigita Liguria 9, Genoa I-16121, Italy
MCSNM Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Corso Venezia 55, Milan 20121, Italy
MCTP Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
MCV Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Verona, Italy
MCZ Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.
MCZR Museo Civico di Zoologia, Rome.
MD Museu Regional do Dundo, C.P. 54, Dundo, Chitato, Luanda-Norte, Angola.
MDUG Universidad de Guanajuato, Museo Alfredo Dugès, Guanajuato, Mexico.
MECN Museo Ecuadoriano de Ciencias Naturales, Quito, Ecuador
MEUA Museo de Entomologia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Apartado 456, Lima, Peru
MEUV Museo de Entomologia, Universidad del Valle, Dpto. de Biologia, A.A. 25360, Cali, Colombia
MFP Museo Felipe Poey, La Habana, Cuba
MGAB Muzeul de Istorie Naturala Grigore Antipa, Soseaua Kisseleff1, Sectorul 1, 79744 Bucharest 63, Romania.
MGH Museum Godeffroy, Hamburg (now in ZMH), Germany
MGUH Geological Museum, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark
MHBU Museum of Hebei University, Baoding, China
NHMW Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien, Austria
MHNA Museum d'Histoire Naturelle d'Autun, 14 Rue St.-Antoine, F71400 Autun, France
MHNCSJ Museo de Historia Natural, Colegio San José, Medellín, Colombia.
MHND Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, 1 Avenue Albert I, 2100 Dijon, Côte d'Or, France.
MHNG Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, Route de Malagnou, C.P. 284, 1211 Geneva 6, Switzerland.
MHNL Musee d'Histoire Naturelle de Lyon, 28 Blvd. des Belges, 69006 Lyon, France
MHNLi Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Lille, France (see Macquart 1850)
MHNLS Museo de Historia Natural La Salle, Caracas, Venezuela.
MHNM Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo, Enc. Herpetología, Casilla de Correo 399, Montevideo, Uruguay.
MHNN Museé d’Histoire Naturelle de Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
MHNSM Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Avenida Arenas 11434, Lima, Peru (formerly MHNJP
MHNT Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Jardin des Plantes, Allée Jules Guesde, 3100 Toulouse, Haute Garonne, France.
MIZP see PAN
MK National Museum of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi, Kenya.
MLP Museo La Plata, Collection Herpetología, Paseo del Bosque, 1900 La Plata, Argentina.
MLS Museo del Instituto de La Salle, Apartado Aéreo 27389, Calle 11, No. 1-69, Bogotá, Colombia.
MLU Martin-Luther-Universität, Zoologisches Institut, Domplatz 4, 4020 Halle, Germany.
MLUH Wissenschaftsbereich Zoologie, Sektion Biowissenschaften Martin-Luther-Universitata Halle, WB Zoologie, Domplatz 4, Halle/Salle D-4020, Germany
MM Magdeburg Museum, Magdeburg, Germany.
MMB Moravske Muzeum, Entomology, Preslova ul. 659 37, Brno, Czech Republic
MMBL Manazuru Marine Biological Laboratory, Japan
MMK McGregor Museum, P.O. Box 316, Kimberley 8300, Northern Cape Province, South Africa.
MMS MacLeay Museum, University of Sydney, Australia
MMUM Manchester Museum, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
MMUS University of Sydney, Macleay Museum, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.
MNCN Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, José Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain.
MNH Musei Nacionalis Hungarici (Természettudományi Múzeum), Baross u. 13 24, P.O.B. 37, 1088 Budapest, Hungary.
MNHA The Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo, Japan.
MNHCI Museu de Historia Natural Capao da Imbuia, Rua Prof. Benedito Conceicao 407, 82810-080 Curitiba, Parana, Brazil.
MNHJ Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo, Japan
MNHN Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 43 Rue Cuvier, 75231 Paris V, France. The MNHN comparative anatomy collection is indicated by the suffix AC. Paleontology collections are labeled PA
MNHNC, MNNC Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Chile, Casilla 787, Santiago, Chile.
MNHNCU Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Havana, Cuba.
MNHNP Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 45, rue Buffon, Paris 75005, France
MNHP, NHMP Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France
MNHNSD Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
MNHWU Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Poland
MNK, MNKM Museo de Historia Natural Noel Kempff Mercado, Avenida Irala 565, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia.
MNM Magyar Termeszettudomanyi Muzeum Allattara (Hungarian Natural History Museum), Baross u. 13, 1088 Budapest, Hungary
MNRJ Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da Boa Vista, s/no., 20.942 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
MOM Musée Océanographique de Monaco, Monaco
MONZ Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongaewa (formerly National Museum of New Zealand), Wellington, New Zealand
MPEG Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Caixa Postal 3999, 66.040 Belém, Brazil.
MPL Musée de Port Louis, Mauritius Institute, Mauritius
MRAC Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Leuvensesleenweg 13, Tervuren B-3040, Belgium
MRGS Museu do Rio Grande do Sul, C.P. 1188, 90.000 Pôrto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
MRHN See IRSNB.
MRSN Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Via Giovanni Giolitti 36, 10123, Torino, Italy.
MS Musée de Zoologie de l'Université de Strasbourg, France
MSB Museum Sophia, Bulgaria
MSNG Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova Giacomo Doria, Via Brigata Liguria 9, 16121 Genova, Italy.
MSNM Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, Corso Venezia 55, 20121 Milano, Italy.
MSNT Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Torino, Italy
MSU The Museum, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1045, USA.
MSUEL Michigan State University, Department of Entomology Collection, East Lansing, MI 48824-1115, USA
MTD Staatliche Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden, Museum für Tierkunde, Königsbrücker Landstrasse 159, 01109 Dresden, Germany.
MTKD Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde, Augustusstrasse 2, 801 Dresden, German Democratic Republic.
MTM Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum, Budapest, Hungary.
MTQ Museum of Tropical Queensland, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
MU Midwestern University, Wichita Falls, Texas. (Hyla holmani)
MUB Institute of Botany and Zoology, Kotlářská 2, CZ-61137 Brno, Czech Republic
MUP Universidade do Pôrto, Museu do Historia Natural, Pôrto, Portugal.
MUPP A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland
MUS Malaysia Universiti Sarawak, Malaysia.
MUSM Museo de Historia Natural Javier Prado de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Av. Arenales 1256, Jesús María, Peru
MV Museum of Victoria, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
MVMA National Museum of Victoria, Department of Entomology, 71 Victoria Crescent, Abbotsford, Victoria 3067, Australia
MVUP Museo de Vertebrados de la Universidad de Panamá, Estafeta Universitaria, Panamá.
MVZ University of California, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
MZB Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, P. O. Box 110, Jalan. Juanda 3, Bogor, Java, Indonesia
MZH the Zoological Museum, University of Helsinki.
MZLS Museo Zoologico La Specola, Via Romana 17, Firenze 50125, Italy
MZLU Zoological Museum of University, Lund.
MZNA Museum of Zoology, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain.
MZT Zoological Museum, Ul. Vanemuizhe 43, Tartu, Estonian S.S.R., U.S.S.R.
MZUB Museo di Zoologia, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
MZUCR Museo de Zoologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, Ciudad Universitaria, Costa Rica
MZUF Università di Firenze, Museo Zoologico La Specola, Via Romana 17, 50125 Firenze, Italy.
MZUJ Zoological Museum of the Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
MZUM Museum of Zoology, University of Moscow, Russia
MZUN Museum of Zoology, University of Napoli, Italy
MZUP Museo Zoologico, Università di Palermo, Via Archirafi 18, 90123 Palermo, Italy.
MZUS Musee de Zoologie, Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
MZUSP Universidade de São Paulo, Museu de Zoologia, Avenida Nazareth 481, C.P. 7172, 01000 São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
MZUT Museo di Zoologia. Instituto di Zoologia e Anatomia Comparata Universitá di Torino, Via Giolitti 34, 10123, Torino Italy. Now housed with MRSN.
MZV Instytut Zoologii, ul. Wilcza 64, 00679 Warsaw, Poland.

N

Musea "N"
Acronym Museum
NCSU North Carolina State University Insect Museum, NC, USA
NFU Northeast Forestry University, Harbin.
NHM Naturhistorisches Museum, Bernastrasse 15, 3005 Bern, Switzerland.
NHMB Naturhistorisches Museum, Augustinergasse 2, 4001 Basel, Switzerland.
NHMC Natural History Museum, University of Crete, Crete, Greece
NHMG Naturhistoriska Museet, Box 11049, Slottskogen, 40030 Göteborg, Sweden.
NHMUM Natural History Museum of the Universiti Malaysia, Sarawak.
NHMW Naturhistorisches Museum, Zoologische Abtheilung, Postfach 417, Burgring 7, 1014 Wien, Austria.
NHRM Naturhistoriska Rijkmuseet, Roslagsvägen 120, Box 50007, 104 05 Stockholm 50, Sweden.
NIAS Laboratory of Insect Systematics, National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki Pref. 305, Japan
NIBR National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon, Korea
NIOJ National Institute of Oceanology, Jakarta, Indonesia
NMB National Museum. Bloemfontein, Rep. South Africa.
NMBA Naturhistorisches Museum der Benedikiner-Abtei Admont, Admont A-8911, Austria
NMBZ National Museum, Invertebrate Collection, P. O. Box 240, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe (see Hancock, Chahwanda & Mhlanga 1995)
NMI National Museum of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland
NMKE National Museum of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi, Kenya
NMM National Museum of Victoria, 285-321 Russell Street, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia.
NMNHI National Museum of Natural History, New Delhi, India.
NMNHS Insect Collection, National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Boulv. Tzar Osvobodital, Sofia BG-1000, Bulgaria
NMNS National Museum of Natural Science, Taiwan.
NMNZ National Museum of New Zealand (formerly DMNZ), Wellington, New Zealand
NMP Natal Museum, Loop Street, Pietermaritzburg 3201, Natal, South Africa.
NMPC National Museum (Natural History), Department of Entomology, Kunratice 1, Prague 4, 148 00, Czech Republic
NMPh National Museum of the Philippines, Manilla
NMS National Museum of Singapore, Singapore
NSMT National Science Museum, Tokyo.
NMV Museum of Victoria, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
NMW Naturhistorisches Museum, Postfach 417, Burgring 1, A-1014 Wien 1, Austria.
NMWC National Museum of Wales, Cathays Park, Subdepartment of Entomology, Department of Zoology, Cardiff, South Glamorgan CF1 3NP, Wales, UK
NMZB National Museum of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box 240, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.
NMZL National Museum of Zambia, Livingstone.
NNCNZ National Nematode Collection New Zealand
NPIB Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Xining, Qinghai, P.R. China.
NRM Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Box 50007, S-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden.
NRS Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Sektionen fur entomologi, Stockholm S-10405, Sweden
NSMT National Science Museum (Natural History), Tokyo, Japan
NSMW Museum Wiesbaden, Naturwissenschftlich Sammlung, Wiesbaden, Germany.
NSWA, RYD New South Wales Agricultural Scientific Collection Trust, Biological and Chemical Research Institute, P. M. B., 10, Rydalmere, New South Wales 2116, Australia
NTM Museum and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory, Darwin, Australia
NTNUB National Taiwan Normal University, Department of Biology, 162 East Ho Ping Road, Sec. 1, Taipei, Taiwan 117, China.
NTOU National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan
NTU National Taiwan University, Department of Plant Pathology & Entomology, Taipei, Taiwan (also see Government Research Institute of Formosa)
NTUIM Insect Museum, Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University.
NTUMA National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road IV, Taipei, Taiwan 107, China.
NUH Laboratory of Natural Science Collection, National University, Hanoi, Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
NUS National University of Singapore, Singapore
NWUJ Biological Laboratory, Nagoya Women's University, Nagoya, Japan
NY New York Botanical Garden, 200th Street and Kazimiroff Boulevard, Bronx, NY 10458-5126, USA
NZAC New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Entomology Division, Landcare Research New Zealand Ltd., Private Bag 92170, Auckland, New Zealand
NZOI New Zealand Oceanographic Institute, Wellington, New Zealand

O

Musea "O"
Acronym Museum
OCMT Odawara Carcinological Museum, Tokyo, Japan
OMNH Osaka Museum of Natural History, Nagai Park, Higashi-sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 546, Japan.
OMNH(Norman) The Sam Noble Oklahoma State Museum of Natural History, 2401 Chautauqua Avenue, Norman, Oklahoma 73072, USA.
OMNZ Otago Museum, Dunedin, New Zealand.
OMSI Oregon Museum of Science and Industry, Portland, Oregon, USA. OPU Entomological Laboratory, Osaka Prefecture University.
OSU, OSUC Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
OSUS Oklahoma State University, Department of Zoology, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074, USA.
OUM Oxford University Museum, Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom.

P

Musea "P"
Acronym Museum
PACL Punjab Agricultural College & Research Institute, Lyallpur, Pakistan
PAN Polish Academy of Science, Museum of the Institute of Zoology, Wilcza 64, Warsaw 00-679, Poland
PEM Port Elizabeth Museum, Port Elizabeth, Republic of South Africa.
PIM Paleontologicheskii Institut, Acad. Nauk, Moscow, Russia
PMAM Beijing Natural History Museum, Beijing, People's Republic of China
PMBC Phuket Marine Biological Centre Reference Collection, Phuket, Thailand
POSU Poinar amber collection, Oregon State University, Oregon, USA
PPDRI Department of Agricultural Zoology, Plant Pests and Diseases Research Institute, Tehran, Iran
PPRI Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria, South Africa
PQMAB Plant Quarantine Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing
PUCP Punjab University, Department of Zoology, Chandigarh, Punjab, India

Q

Musea "Q"
Acronym Museum
QCAZ Museo de Zoología, Pontifica Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Apartado 17-01-2184, Quito, Ecuador.
QM, QMB, QMBA Queensland Museum, P.O. Box 3300, Brisbane, Queensland 4101, Australia
QVM Queen Victoria Museum, Wellington Street, Launceston, Tasmania 7250, Australia.

R

Musea "R"
Acronym Museum
RAS Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersberg, Russia.
RBCM Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
RCSM Royal College of Surgeon's Museum, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2, United Kingdom.
RDC Research & Development Center for Oceanography, Jakarta, Indonesia
RIB Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles, Belgium
RIEB Research Institute of Evolutionary Biology, Tokyo.
RM Raffles Museum, Singapore (now ZRC)
RMBR Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 6 Science Drive 2, #03-01, Singapore 117546
RMNH Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum (formerly Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie), Postbus 9517, 2300RA Leiden, The Netherlands.
ROM Royal Ontario Museum, Department of Herpetology, 100 Queens Park, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2C6, Canada.
RSM Royal Scottish Museum, Chambers Street, Edinburgh EH1 1JF, Scotland, United Kingdom.

S

Musea "S"
Acronym Museum
SAFAI Laboratorio di Entomologia, R. Stazione Sperimentale di Agrumicolturae Frutticoltura, Acireale, Sicily, Italy (status uncertain)
SAM South African Museum, P.O. Box 61, Cape Town 8000, Western Cape Province, South Africa.
SAMA South Australia Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia.
SAMCT South African Museum, Entomology Department, P.O. Box 61, Queen Victoria Street, Cape Town, Cape Province 8000, South Africa
SANC South African National Collection of Insects, Private Bag X134, Pretoria, Transvaal 0001, South Africa (see Holm & Wessels 1974)
SBMNH Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, 2559 Puesta del Sol Road, Santa Barbara, California 93105, United States
SCAU South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou.
SCN Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle, Apartado Postal 8150, Caracas, Venezuela.
SCSFI South China Sea Fisheries Institute, People's Republic of China
SDNHM San Diego Natural History Museum, Balboa Park, P.O. Box 1390, San Diego, CA 92112, USA
SDU Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, China
SEAN Museo Entomológico, S.E.A., León, Nicaragua
SFI Morski Instytut Rybacki (Sea Fisheries Institute), Aleja Zjednoczenia 1, 81-345 Gdynia, Poland
SIO Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego
SIU Southern Illinois University, Herpetology Collection, Department of Zoology, Illinois 62901, USA.
SIZ Shanxi Institute of Zoology, Shanxi, People's Republic of China.
SLJG Steiermarkisches Landesmuseum Joanneum, Abteilung fur Zoologie, Raubergasse 10, Graz A-8010, Austria
SM Strecker Museum, Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798, USA.
SMBL Museum of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, Sirahama, Japan
SME Station Marine d'Endoume, Marseille, France
SMF Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg, Senckenberg-Anlage 25, 6000 Frankfurt-am-Main 1, Germany.
SMK Sarawak Museum, Jl. Tun Hj. Openg, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia.
SMKM Selangor Museum, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Collection, at least in part, transferred to BMNH (see Hardy 1973: 58)).
SMN Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde, Rosenstein 1, Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg D-7000, Germany
SMNH Saskatchewan Museum of Natural History, Royal Saskatchewan Museum, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
SMNS Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Schloss Rosenstein, 7000 Stuttgart 1, Germany.
SMOC Silesian Museum, Opava, Czech Republic.
SMT Department of Entomology Collection, Staatliches Museum fur Tierkunde, Dresden, Forschungsstelle, Augustusstrasse 2, Dresden D-8010, Germany
SNM Museum of Natural History, Slovak National Museum, Bratislava, Slovakia
SNU Laboratory of Insect Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
SPCS Sergio P. Carvalho e Silva, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundão, 21910 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
SPM Sabah Parks, Malaysia. {Leptolalax arayai}
SR Stonerose Interpretive Center, Republic, Washington, USA
SSTTU Zoological Department of Sumy State Teacher’s Training University, 87, Romenskaja street, Sumy 40002, Ukraine
STC Sichuan Teacher’s College, Nanchong, Sichuan, P.R. China.
SU Stanford University, now in CAS.
SUFS Shimonoseki University of Fisheries, Shimonoseki, Japan
SWMNH Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Stockholm, Sweden
SYNU Shenyang Normal University, Shengyang, China.
SZE Zoology Department, Aegean University, Science Faculty, Biology Division, Bornova-Izmir, Turkey.

T

Musea "T"
Acronym Museum
TAU Zoological Museum of Tel Aviv University, Israel
TCWC Texas Cooperative Wildlife Collection, Department of Wildlife Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA.
TENN University of Tennessee Herbarium, Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, 569 Dabney Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1610, USA.
TFIC Tasmanian Forestry Insect Collection, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
THU Department of Biology, Tunghai University, Taiwan
TIU University of Tokyo , Science College Museum, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Formerly Tokyo Imperial University.
TM Transvaal Museum, P.O. Box 413, Pretoria 0001, Transvaal, South Africa.
TME Toyosato Museum of Entomology, Tsukuba.
TMH Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart, TAS, Australia
TMNH Toyohashi Museum of Natural History, Aichi, Japan
TMP Transvaal Museum, Paul Kruger Street, P.O. Box 413, Pretoria 0001, Transvaal, Republic of South Africa.
TNHC Texas Memorial Museum, Texas Natural History Collection, 24th and Trinity, Austin, Texas 78705, USA.
TNHM Thailand Natural History Museum, National Science Museum, Pathumthani Province, Thailand.
TNHMC Tianjin Natural History Museum, Tianjin, China
TNU Department of Zoology, V. I. Vernadsky Taurida National University, Simferopol, Ukraine
TOYA Toyama Science Museum, Toyama 939, Niigata University, Niigata 950-21, Japan.
TPM Tochigi Prefectural Museum, Tochigi, Japan.
TRFI Taiwan Forestry Research Institute
TRT Trouessart collections of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris, France).
TSMHN Teylers Strichtina Museum, Haarlem, Holland.
TTU Texas Tech University, Museum, Box 43191, Lubbock, TX 79409-3191, USA.
TU Tulane University, Museum of Natural History, F. Edward Hebert Research Center, Belle Chasse, LA 70037, USA.
TUAJ Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, Japan.
TUKN Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal
TZM National Science Museum [=Kokuritsu Kagaku Hakabutsukan], Hyakunin-cho, 3-23-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160, Japan.
TUZM Museum of Zoology, Turku University, Finland

U

Musea "U"
Acronym Museum
UAM Universidad de los Andes, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología, Mérida, Venezuela.
UASK Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, Lenin Street, 15, 252650, Kiev 30, Ukraine
UASL Nature Museum, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Lvov, Ukraine
UAZ Amphibian and Reptile Collection, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson 85720, Arizona, USA.
UBC-SEM Spencer Entomological Museum of the University of British Columbia, Canada
UCA Universitair Centrum, Antwerpen
UCB University of California, Essig Museum of Entomology, Department of Entomological Sciences, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
UCCIPR University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada
UCD University of California, The Bohart Museum of Entomology, Davis, CA 95616, USA
UChS Museo Entomologico, Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Agronomia, Casilla 1004, Santiago, Chile
UCM University of Colorado Museum of Natural History, Broadway between 15th & 16th Streets, Boulder, Colorado 80309, U.S.A.
UCR Coleccion de Herpetología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.
UCRC University of California, Riverside Entomological Research Museum, USA
UF Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7800, U.S.A.
UFC Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.
UFPR Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.
UGA University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA UIB Department of Biology, University of Inchon, Inchon.
UIMNH University of Illinois, Museum of Natural History, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.
UK University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA
ULABG Universidad de los Andes, Departamento de Geografia, Mérida, Venezuela.
UM Umtali Museum
UM University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
UMB Übersee Museum, Bremen, Germany.
UMCE Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educacion, Santiago, Chile
UMKL University of Malaya, Zoology Department, Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur 22-11, Malaysia.
UMMZ University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104, USA.
UMNH Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, USA
UMO Hope Entomological Collections, University Museum, Park Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3PW, England, UK
UMSM University Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia.
UMSP University of Minnesota, Department of Entomology, 219 Hodson Hall, 1980 Folwell Ave., St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
UMW University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
UMZ Univesity Museum of Zoology, Cambridge University, Cambridge, Department of Zoology, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, UK.
UMZC University Museum, Department of Zoology, Cambridge, England
UNAM Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coleccion Entomologica, Instituto de Biologia, Apdo. Postal 70133, Mexico, Districto Federal 04510, Mexico
UNIMAS University Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia.
UNSM University of Nebraska State Museum.
UOPJ Entomological Laboratory, University of Osaka Prefecture, Mosu, Umemachi Sakai, Osaka 593, Japan
UP University of Papua and New Guinea, Biology Department, University P.O. Box 4820, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
UPRG Universidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo, Departmento de Fitotecnica, Museo de Entomologia, Apartado 3, Lambayeque, Lambayeque, Peru
UPRM Universidad de Puerto Rico, Departamento de Biología, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico 00708, USA.
UPRP Universidad de Puerto Rico, Departamento de Biología, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico 00931, USA.
UPS Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound, 1500 N. Warner St., CMB 1088, Tacoma, WA, USA
UQIC Insect Collection, Department of Entomology, University of Queensland, Saint Lucia, Queensland 4067, Australia (Holotypes were transferred to QMBA)
URP Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Ricardo Palma, Av. Benavides cdra. 54, Santiago de Surco, Lima, Peru.
USNM National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, U.S.A.
USP Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Biblioteca, 7172, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 01.051, Brazil
USU Utah State University, Department of Biology, Entomological Museum, Logan, UT 84332, USA
UTA University of Texas at Arlington, Department of Biological Sciences, UTA Box 19489, Arlington, Texas 76019, USA.
UTEP University of Texas at El Paso, Laboratory for Environmental Biology, Centennial Museum, 500 West University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968-0519, USA.
UU University of Utah, Department of Biology, 1400 E. 2nd South Street, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA.
UV Universidad del Valle, Guatemala City, Guatemala.
UVC Museo de Vertebrados, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.
UWBM Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
UWZM University of Wisconsin Zoology Museum.
UZM Universitetets Zoologiske Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark
UZMC University of Copenhagen, Zoological Museums, Department of Entomology, Universitetsparken, Copenhagen DK-2100, Denmark
UZMH Zoological Museum, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, P. Rautatiek 13, Helsinski, SF-00100, Finland
UZMO Universitetet i Oslo, Zoologisk Museum, Sarsgaten 1, Oslo 5, Norway.

V

Musea "V"
Acronym Museum
V.O. Becker Collection
VMM Vanderbilt Marine Museum, Long Island, New York, USA
VNIRO Institute of Oceanography, Moscow, Russia

W

Musea "W"
Acronym Museum
WAM Western Australia Museum, Francis Street, Perth, Western Australia 6000, Australia.
WARC Wallaceville Animal Research Centre, Upper Hutt, New Zealand.
WCAB Werner C. A. Bokermann collection, now transferred to MZUSP.
WSU Washington State University, James Entomological Collection, Department of Entomology Collection, Pullman, WA 99163, USA (see Zack 1984)

X

Musea "X"
Acronym Museum
XNC Department of Biology, Xinxiang Normal College, Xinxiang, Henan, P.R. China.

Y

Musea "Y"
Acronym Museum
YCM Yokosuka City Museum, Yokosuka, Japan
YH Yukihiko Hirano private collection, Kanagawa, Japan
YPM Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, 170 Whitney Avenue, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.
YU Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China.

Z

Musea "Z"
Acronym Museum
ZDEU Zoology Department, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.
ZFMK Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koeing, Adenaueralle 160, Bonn D-53113, Germany
ZIHU Hiroshima University, Zoological Institute, 1-1-89 Higashi-senda-machi, Naka-ku, Hiroshima 30, Japan.
ZIJ Zoological Institute, University of Jena, Germany
ZIK Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute, 252.150 Kiev 30, Ukraine.
ZIL Museum of Zoology, Lund University, Helgonav 3, Lund S-223, Sweden
ZIN, ZISP Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia.

(Formerly ZIL, Zoological Institute, Leningrad, USSR Academy of Sciences, Leningrad.)

ZITIU Zoological Institute, Tokyo Imperial University, Japan.
ZIUG Zoologisches Institut, Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany. Transferred to ZFMK in 1977.
ZIUS Universitetes Stockholm, Zoologiska Institutionen, Box 6801, 113 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
ZIUU Uppsala Universitet, Zoologiska Museum, Villvägen 9, Box 561, 75 122 Uppsala, Sweden.
ZIUW Universität Wien, Zoologisches Institut, Dr.-Karl-Lueger-Ring 1, 1010 Wien, Austria.
ZLKU Zoological Laboratory Kyushu University, Japan
ZMA Universiteit van Amsterdam, Zoologisch Museum, Plantage Middenlaan 53, Amsterdam C, Netherlands.
ZMAN Zoologisch Museum, Instituut voor Taxonomische Zoologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Plantage Middenlaan 64, Amsterdam 1018 DH, Netherlands
ZMAS Zoological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia.
ZMB, ZMHB, ZMHU Museum für Naturkunde, Universitat Humboldt, Invalidenstrasse 43, 104 Berlin, Germany.
ZMFM Zoological Museum of the Finnish Museum of Natural History, Helsinki, Finland.
ZMG Zoologischen Museums Greifswald. Griefswald, Germany.
ZMH Zoologisches Institut und Museum, Universitat Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King Platz 3, D-2000 Hamburg 13, Germany.
ZMK Zoological Musem, Kristiania (now Oslo), Norway.
ZMLG Zoologisches Museum, Lübeck, Germany
ZMLU Lunds Universitet, Zoologiska Institutionen, Helgonavägen 3, 223 62 Lund, Sweden.
ZMM, ZMMU Zoological Museum of M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, 6, Bolshaya Nikitskaya Str., Moscow 103009, Russia.
ZMNH Zhejiang Museum of Natural History, Hangzhou, P.R. China.
ZMO Zoological Museum, Sars gt. 1, 0318 Oslo, Norway
ZMTI Zoological Museum, College of Agriculture, Tehran University, Karaj, Iran.
ZMUC Universitets København, Zoologisk Museum, Universitetsparken 15, 2100 København, Denmark.
ZMUH Zoologische Museum der Univesität Hamburg.
ZMUO Zoological Museum University of Oulu, Finland.
ZMUP Museo Zoologico, (Istituto di Zoologia, Zoologia Comparativo e Genetico) Università di Padova, Italy.
ZMUT The Zoological Museum, Section of Biodiversity and Environmental Research, Department of Biology, University of Turku, Finland.
ZMUU Zoologiska Museet, Uppsala Universitet, P.O. Box 561, S-751 22 Uppsala, Sweden.
ZMV, NMW Zoological Museum of Vienna (= Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien, Austria, NHMW)
ZMHU, ZMVNU Zoological Museum, Hanoi University of Science (member of Vietnam National University), 19 Le Thanh Tong, Hanoi, Vietnam
ZRC Zoological Reference Collection, Department of Zoology, University of Singapore, Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 10.

(Formerly National Museum & formerly Raffles Museum).

ZSI Zoological Survey of India, National Zoological Collection, 34, Chittaranjan Avenue, Calcutta, West Bengal 700 012, India
ZSIC Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata. 27 JL Nehru Road, Klkata, 700 016, India. Formerly Indian Museum.
ZSI-E Zoological Survey of India, Eastern Regional Station, Shillong, India. (Now amalgamated with ZSI collections.)
ZSI-M Zoological Survey of India, Mylapore, Madras 600 004, India.
ZSI-NRS Zoological Survey of India, Northern Regional Station, Dehra Dunn, India.
ZSI-SRS Zoological Survey of India, Southern Regional Station, Chennai, India.
ZSI-WRS Zoological Survey of India, Western Regional Station, Pune, India.
ZSM, ZSMB, ZSSM Zoologische Staatssammlung, Münchhausenstr. 21, 81247 Munich, Germany. (Preferred acronym: ZSM)
ZSZMH Zoologisches Staatsinstitut und Zoologisches Museum, Hamburg, Germany
ZUEC Museu de História Natural, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13081-970 Campinas, S.P, Brazil.
ZUFRJ Departamento de Zoolgia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68044, 21944-970 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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