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Homer (Greek Ὅμηρος Homēros)
Homer British Museum.jpg
Idealized portrayal of Homer dating to the Hellenistic period. British Museum.
Lived ca. 8th century BC
Influences rhapsodic oral poetry
Influenced Classics (Western canon)
.Homer (Ancient Greek: Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey.^ (I may refer to my work, “Homer and the Epic,” for a defence of the unity of Iliad and Odyssey.

^ At all events we have here work visibly third rate, which cannot be said, in my poor opinion, about the immense mass of the Iliad and Odyssey.

^ To the English reader familiar with the Iliad and Odyssey the Hymns must appear disappointing, if he come to them with an expectation of discovering merits like those of the immortal epics.

.The ancient Greeks generally believed that Homer was an historical individual, but modern scholars are skeptical: no reliable biographical information has been handed down from classical antiquity,[1] and the poems themselves manifestly represent the culmination of many centuries of oral story-telling and a well-developed "formulaic" system of poetic composition.^ The Greeks, therefore, may have evolved the legend long before Homer’s day, and he may have known the story which he does not find occasion to tell.

^ In the absence of such researches other purely fanciful origins have been invented by scholars, ancient or modern.

According to Martin West, "Homer" is "not the name of a historical poet, but a fictitious or constructed name."[2]
The date of Homer's existence was controversial in antiquity and is no less so today. .Herodotus said that Homer lived 400 years before his own time, which would place him at around 850 BC;[3] but other ancient sources gave dates much closer to the supposed time of the Trojan War.^ The choice of Israel was unique: Greece retained far more of the lower ancient ideas, but gave to them a beauty of grace and form which is found among no other race.

^ Turning to Gemoll, we find him maintaining that the two parts were in ancient times regarded as one hymn in the age of Aristophanes.

^ The conjectures as to date vary from the time of Homer to that of the Cypria , of Mimnermus (the references to the bitterness of loveless old age are in his vein) of Anacreon, or even of Herodotus and the Tragedians.

[4] The date of the Trojan War was given as 1194–1184 BC by Eratosthenes, who strove to establish a scientific chronology of events and this date is gaining support because of recent archaeological research.
.For modern scholarship, "the date of Homer" refers to the date of the poems' conception as much as to the lifetime of an individual.^ The conjectures as to date vary from the time of Homer to that of the Cypria , of Mimnermus (the references to the bitterness of loveless old age are in his vein) of Anacreon, or even of Herodotus and the Tragedians.

.The scholarly consensus is that "the Iliad and the Odyssey date from the extreme end of the 9th century BC or from the 8th, the Iliad being anterior to the Odyssey, perhaps by some decades",[5] i.e., somewhat earlier than Hesiod,[6] and that the Iliad is the oldest work of western literature.^ If we may judge by line 51, and if Greek musical tradition be correct, the date of the Hymn cannot be earlier than the fortieth Olympiad.

^ This primal Being is mixed up with strange persons of a race earlier than man, half human, half bestial.

^ (I may refer to my work, “Homer and the Epic,” for a defence of the unity of Iliad and Odyssey.

Over the past few decades, some scholars have argued for a 7th-century date. .Those who believe that the Homeric poems developed gradually over a long period of time, however, generally give a later date for the poems: according to Gregory Nagy, they became fixed texts in only the 6th century.^ At no time, however, was Ares a popular God in Greece; in Homer he is a braggart and coward.

^ Royal House at Ilios, and is regarded as of later date than the general context of the epic.

[7]
.Alfred Heubeck states that the formative influence of the works of Homer in shaping and influencing the whole development of Greek culture was recognized by many Greeks themselves, who considered him to be their instructor.^ For this reason and for many others, we regard the Hymns, on the whole, as post-Homeric, while their collector, by inserting the Hymn to Ares, shows little proof of discrimination.

^ Even without foreign influence, Greek polytheism would have developed a Goddess of Love, as did the polytheism of the North (Frigga) and p.

^ To whatever extent contaminated by Phœnician influence, Aphrodite in Homer is purely Greek, in grace and happy humanity.

[8]

Contents

Life and legends

Homer and His Guide, by William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825–1905). The scene portrays Homer on Mount Ida, beset by dogs and guided by the goatherder, Glaucus. (The tale is told in Pseudo-Herodotus).
.Although "Homer" is a Greek name, attested in Aeolic-speaking areas,[9] nothing definite is known of him; yet rich traditions grew up, or were conserved, purporting to give details of his birthplace and background.^ The Greeks, therefore, may have evolved the legend long before Homer’s day, and he may have known the story which he does not find occasion to tell.

^ List to me now, all of you, and give me a child apart from Zeus, yet nothing inferior to him in might, nay, stronger than he, as much as far-seeing Zeus is mightier than Cronus!” .

Many of them were purely fantastical: the satirist Lucian, in his fabulous True History, makes him out to be a Babylonian called Tigranes, who assumed the name Homer only when taken "hostage" (homeros) by the Greeks.[10] When the Emperor Hadrian asked the Oracle at Delphi who Homer really was, the Pythia proclaimed that he was Ithacan, the son of Epikaste and Telemachus, from the Odyssey.[11] These stories proliferated and were incorporated into a number[12] of Lives of Homer compiled from the Alexandrian period onwards.[13] The most common version has Homer born in the Ionian region of Asia Minor, at Smyrna, or on the island of Chios, and dying on the Cycladic island of Ios.[13][14] A connection with Smyrna seems to be alluded to in a legend that his original name was "Melesigenes" ("born of Meles", a river which flowed by that city), and of the nymph Kretheis. .Internal evidence from the poems gives some support to this connection: familiarity with the topography of this area of Asia Minor's littoral obtrudes in place-names and details, and similes evocative of local scenery: the meadow birds at the mouth of the Caystros (Iliad 2.459ff.^ About the place of composition, Cyprus or Asia Minor, the learned are no less divided p.

), a storm in the Icarian sea (Iliad 2.144ff.), and wind-lore (Iliad 2.394ff: 4.422ff: 9.5),[15] or that women of either Maeonia or Caria stain ivory with scarlet (Iliad 4.142).[16]
.The association with Chios dates back at least to Semonides of Amorgos who cited a famous line in the Iliad (6.146) as by "the man of Chios". Some kind of eponymous bardic guild, known as the Homeridae (sons of Homer), or Homeristae ('Homerizers')[17] appears to have existed there, variously tracing descent from an imaginary ancestor of that name,[18] or vaunting their special function as rhapsodes or "lay-stitchers" specialising in the recitation of Homeric poetry.^ As to Baumeister’s theory that the second part is Hesiodic, Gemoll finds a Hesiodic reminiscence in the first part (line 121), while there are Homeric reminiscences in the second part.

^ The date of the composition cannot be fixed from considerations of the Homeric tone; thus lines 238-239 may be a reminiscence of Odyssey, λ.

^ The conjectures as to date vary from the time of Homer to that of the Cypria , of Mimnermus (the references to the bitterness of loveless old age are in his vein) of Anacreon, or even of Herodotus and the Tragedians.

.The poet's name is homophonous with ὅμερος (hómēros), meaning, generally, "hostage" (or "surety"), long understood as "he who accompanies; he who is forced to follow", or, in some dialects, "blind".[19] The assonance itself generated many tales relating the person to the functions of a hostage or of a blind man.^ But these, in the Greece of the Epics and Hesiod, have long been subordinated to Zeus and the Olympians, who are envisaged as triumphant gods of a younger generation.

.In regard to the latter, traditions holding that he was blind may have arisen from the meaning of the word both in Ionic, where the verbal form ὁμηρεύω (homēreúō) has the specialized meaning of "guide the blind",[20] and in the Aeolian dialect of Cyme, where ὅμηρος (hómēros) was synonymous with standard Greek τυφλός (tuphlós), meaning 'blind'.[21] The characterization of Homer as a blind bard goes back to some verses in the Delian Hymn to Apollo, the third of the Homeric Hymns,[22] verses later cited to support this notion by Thucydides.^ Thucydides, in the Periclean age, regards Homer as the blind Chian minstrel who composed the Hymn to the Delian Apollo: a good proof of the relative antiquity of that piece, but not evidence, of course, that our whole collection was then regarded as Homeric.

^ If we may judge by line 51, and if Greek musical tradition be correct, the date of the Hymn cannot be earlier than the fortieth Olympiad.

^ I am disposed to regard the prophetic and oracular Apollo (who, as the Hymn to Hermes tells us, alone knows the will of Father Zeus) as the Greek modification of this personage in savage theology.

[23] The Cumean historian Ephorus held the same view, and the idea gained support in antiquity on the strength of a false etymology deriving his name from ho mḕ horṓn (ὁ μὴ ὁρών: "he who does not see"). Critics have long taken as self-referential[24] a passage in the Odyssey describing a blind bard, Demodocus, in the court of the Phaeacian king, who recounts stories of Troy to the shipwrecked Odysseus.[25]
Many scholars take the name of the poet to be indicative of a generic function. Gregory Nagy takes it to mean "he who fits (the Song) together".[26] ὁμηρέω (homēréō), another related verb, besides signifying "meet", can mean "(sing) in accord/tune".[27] Some argue that "Homer" may have meant "he who puts the voice in tune" with dancing.[28][29] .Marcello Durante links "Homeros" to an epithet of Zeus as "god of the assemblies" and argues that behind the name lies the echo of an archaic word for "reunion", similar to the later Panegyris, denoting a formal assembly of competing minstrels.^ But Mr. Frazer considers the etymological connection of Zeus with the Sanscrit word for sky, an insufficient reason for regarding Zeus as, in origin, a sky-god.

^ Again, it is argued, the Gods of the Mysteries in Egypt and Greece had secret names, only revealed to the initiated.

[30][31]
.The Ancient Lives depict Homer as a wandering minstrel, much like Thamyris[32] or Hesiod, who walked as far as Chalkis to sing at the funeral games of Amphidamas.^ To Zeus the best of Gods will I sing; the best and the greatest, the far-beholding lord who bringeth all to an end, who holdeth constant counsel with Themis as she reclines on her couch.

[33] .We are given the image of a "blind, begging singer who hangs around with little people: shoemakers, fisherman, potters, sailors, elderly men in the gathering places of harbour towns".[34] The poems themselves give evidence of singers at the courts of the nobility.^ The blind singer (who is p.

Scholars are divided as to which category, if any, the court singer or the wandering minstrel, the historic "Homer" belonged.[35]

Works attributed to Homer

.The Greeks of the sixth and early fifth centuries understood by "Homer", generally, "the whole body of heroic tradition as embodied in hexameter verse".[36] Thus, in addition to the Iliad and the Odyssey, there are "exceptional" epics which organize their respective themes on a "massive scale".[37] Many other works were credited to Homer in antiquity, including the entire Epic Cycle.^ (I may refer to my work, “Homer and the Epic,” for a defence of the unity of Iliad and Odyssey.

^ In her winter retreat below the earth she was the bride of the Lord of Many Guests, and the ruler “of the souls of men outworn.” In this office Odysseus in Homer knows her, though neither Iliad nor Odyssey recognises Korê as the maiden Spring, the daughter and p.

^ The early Greeks, like other races, entertained these primitive, or very archaic ideas.

The genre included further poems on the Trojan War, such as the Little Iliad, the Nostoi, the Cypria, and the Epigoni, as well as the Theban poems about Oedipus and his sons. .Other works, such as the corpus of Homeric Hymns, the comic mini-epic Batrachomyomachia ("The Frog-Mouse War"), and the Margites were also attributed to him, but this is now believed to be unlikely.^ Baumeister agrees with Wolf that the brief Hymns were recited by rhapsodists as preludes to the recitation of Homeric or other cantos.

^ (I may refer to my work, “Homer and the Epic,” for a defence of the unity of Iliad and Odyssey.

^ The conventional attribution of the Hymns to Homer, in spite of linguistic objections, and of many allusions to things unknown or unfamiliar in the Epics, is merely the result of the tendency to set down “masterless” compositions to a well-known name.

.Two other poems, the Capture of Oechalia and the Phocais were also assigned Homeric authorship, but the question of the identities of the authors of these various texts is even more problematic than that of the authorship of the two major epics.^ But the silence of Homer is never a safe argument in favour of his ignorance, any more than the absence of allusion to tobacco in Shakspeare is a proof that tobacco was, in his age, unknown.

^ Their instinct was correct, and we must not start the consideration of the Homeric question from these much neglected pieces.

^ The conjectures as to date vary from the time of Homer to that of the Cypria , of Mimnermus (the references to the bitterness of loveless old age are in his vein) of Anacreon, or even of Herodotus and the Tragedians.

Problems of authorship

.The idea that Homer was responsible for just the two outstanding epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, did not win consensus until 350 BC.[38] While many find it unlikely that both epics were composed by the same person, others argue that the stylistic similarities are too consistent to support the theory of multiple authorship.^ In her winter retreat below the earth she was the bride of the Lord of Many Guests, and the ruler “of the souls of men outworn.” In this office Odysseus in Homer knows her, though neither Iliad nor Odyssey recognises Korê as the maiden Spring, the daughter and p.

^ So the livelong day in oneness of heart did they cheer each other with love, and their minds ceased from sorrow, and great gladness did either win from other.

^ Individuals, by dint of piety or of speculation, might approach the conception, and probably many did, both in and out of the philosophic schools.

.One view which attempts to bridge the differences holds that the Iliad was composed by "Homer" in his maturity, while the Odyssey was a work of his old age.^ (I may refer to my work, “Homer and the Epic,” for a defence of the unity of Iliad and Odyssey.

^ At all events we have here work visibly third rate, which cannot be said, in my poor opinion, about the immense mass of the Iliad and Odyssey.

^ The conjectures as to date vary from the time of Homer to that of the Cypria , of Mimnermus (the references to the bitterness of loveless old age are in his vein) of Anacreon, or even of Herodotus and the Tragedians.

.The Batrachomyomachia, Homeric Hymns and cyclic epics are generally agreed to be later than the Iliad and the Odyssey.^ Royal House at Ilios, and is regarded as of later date than the general context of the epic.

^ Baumeister agrees with Wolf that the brief Hymns were recited by rhapsodists as preludes to the recitation of Homeric or other cantos.

^ (I may refer to my work, “Homer and the Epic,” for a defence of the unity of Iliad and Odyssey.

.Most scholars agree that the Iliad and Odyssey underwent a process of standardisation and refinement out of older material beginning in the 8th century BC. An important role in this standardisation appears to have been played by the Athenian tyrant Hipparchus, who reformed the recitation of Homeric poetry at the Panathenaic festival.^ Baumeister agrees with Wolf that the brief Hymns were recited by rhapsodists as preludes to the recitation of Homeric or other cantos.

^ (I may refer to my work, “Homer and the Epic,” for a defence of the unity of Iliad and Odyssey.

^ To the English reader familiar with the Iliad and Odyssey the Hymns must appear disappointing, if he come to them with an expectation of discovering merits like those of the immortal epics.

Many classicists hold that this reform must have involved the production of a canonical written text.
Other scholars still support the idea that Homer was a real person. Since nothing is known about the life of this Homer, the common joke—also recycled in disputes about the authorship of plays ascribed to Shakespeare-has it that the poems "were not written by Homer, but by another man of the same name."[39][40] Samuel Butler argued that a young Sicilian woman wrote the Odyssey (but not the Iliad), an idea further pursued by Robert Graves in his novel Homer's Daughter and Andrew Dalby in Rediscovering Homer.[41]
Independent of the question of single authorship is the near-universal agreement, after the work of Milman Parry,[42] that the Homeric poems are dependent on an oral tradition, a generations-old technique that was the collective inheritance of many singer-poets (aoidoi). .An analysis of the structure and vocabulary of the Iliad and Odyssey shows that the poems contain many formulaic phrases typical of extempore epic traditions; even entire verses are at times repeated.^ (I may refer to my work, “Homer and the Epic,” for a defence of the unity of Iliad and Odyssey.

^ To the English reader familiar with the Iliad and Odyssey the Hymns must appear disappointing, if he come to them with an expectation of discovering merits like those of the immortal epics.

.Parry and his student Albert Lord pointed out that such elaborate oral tradition, foreign to today's literate cultures, is typical of epic poetry in a predominantly oral cultural milieu, the key words being "oral" and "traditional". Parry started with "traditional": the repetitive chunks of language, he said, were inherited by the singer-poet from his predecessors, and were useful to him in composition.^ The hides he stretched out on a broken rock, as even now they are used, such as are to be enduring: long, and long after that ancient day.

^ Many other points are noted—such as the derivation of “Pytho” from a word meaning rot ,—to show that the hymnist was rather disparaging than celebrating the Delphian sanctuary.

Parry called these repetitive chunks "formulas".
Exactly when these poems would have taken on a fixed written form is subject to debate. The traditional solution is the "transcription hypothesis", wherein a non-literate "Homer" dictates his poem to a literate scribe between the 8th and 6th centuries. The Greek alphabet was introduced in the early 8th century, so it is possible that Homer himself was of the first generation of authors who were also literate. The classicist Barry B. Powell suggests that the Greek Alphabet was invented c. 800 BC by one man, probably Homer, in order to write down oral epic poetry [43]. More radical Homerists like Gregory Nagy contend that a canonical text of the Homeric poems as "scripture" did not exist until the Hellenistic period (3rd to 1st century BCE).

Homeric studies

The study of Homer is one of the oldest topics in scholarship, dating back to antiquity. The aims and achievements of Homeric studies have changed over the course of the millennia. .In the last few centuries, they have revolved around the process by which the Homeric poems came into existence and were transmitted over time to us—first orally and later in writing.^ They, when first they have hymned Apollo, and next Leto and Artemis the Archer, then sing in memory of the men and women of old time, enchanting the tribes of mortals.

^ Then came they to far-seen Crisa, the land of vines, into the haven, while the sea-faring ship beached herself on the shingle.

.Some of the main trends in modern Homeric scholarship have been—in the 19th and early 20th centuries-Analysis and Unitarianism (see Homeric Question), schools of thought which emphasized on the one hand the inconsistencies in, and on the other the artistic unity of, Homer; and in the 20th century and later Oral Theory, the study of the mechanisms and effects of oral transmission, and Neoanalysis -- the study of the relationship between Homer and other early epic material.^ Thus, the Hesiodic school was closely connected with Delphi; the Homeric with Ionia, so that Delphi rarely occurs in the Epics; in fact only thrice (Ι.

^ Wandered between two worlds, one dead, The other powerless to be born,” p.

^ (I may refer to my work, “Homer and the Epic,” for a defence of the unity of Iliad and Odyssey.

Homeric dialect

.The language used by Homer is an archaic version of Ionic Greek, with admixtures from certain other dialects, such as Aeolic Greek.^ The early Greeks, like other races, entertained these primitive, or very archaic ideas.

It later served as the basis of Epic Greek, the language of epic poetry, typically in dactylic hexameter.

Homeric style

Aristotle remarks in his Poetics that Homer was unique among the poets of his time, focusing on a single unified theme or action in the epic cycle.[44]
The cardinal qualities of the style of Homer are well articulated by Matthew Arnold:
[T]he translator of Homer should above all be penetrated by a sense of four qualities of his author:—that he is eminently rapid; that he is eminently plain and direct, both in the evolution of his thought and in the expression of it, that is, both in his syntax and in his words; that he is eminently plain and direct in the substance of his thought, that is, in his matter and ideas; and finally, that he is eminently noble.[45]
.The peculiar rapidity of Homer is due in great measure to his use of hexameter verse.^ The great Alexandrian critics did not use the Hymns as illustrative material in their discussion of Homer.

It is characteristic of early literature that the evolution of the thought, or the grammatical form of the sentence, is guided by the structure of the verse; and the correspondence which consequently obtains between the rhythm and the syntax—the thought being given out in lengths, as it were, and these again divided by tolerably uniform pauses—produces a swift flowing movement such as is rarely found when periods are constructed without direct reference to the metre. That Homer possesses this rapidity without falling into the corresponding faults, that is, without becoming either fluctuant or monotonous, is perhaps the best proof of his unequalled poetic skill. The plainness and directness of both thought and expression which characterise him were doubtless qualities of his age, but the author of the Iliad (similar to Voltaire, to whom Arnold happily compares him) must have possessed this gift in a surpassing degree. The Odyssey is in this respect perceptibly below the level of the Iliad.
Statue of Homer outside the Bavarian State Library in Munich.
Rapidity or ease of movement, plainness of expression, and plainness of thought are not distinguishing qualities of the great epic poets Virgil, Dante,[46] and Milton. On the contrary, they belong rather to the humbler epico-lyrical school for which Homer has been so often claimed. .The proof that Homer does not belong to that school—and that his poetry is not in any true sense ballad poetry—is furnished by the higher artistic structure of his poems and, as regards style, by the fourth of the qualities distinguished by Arnold: the quality of nobleness.^ For this reason and for many others, we regard the Hymns, on the whole, as post-Homeric, while their collector, by inserting the Hymn to Ares, shows little proof of discrimination.

It is his noble and powerful style, sustained through every change of idea and subject, that finally separates Homer from all forms of ballad-poetry and popular epic.
Like the French epics, such as the Chanson de Roland, Homeric poetry is indigenous and, by the ease of movement and its resultant simplicity, distinguishable from the works of Dante, Milton and Virgil. It is also distinguished from the works of these artists by the comparative absence of underlying motives or sentiment. In Virgil's poetry, a sense of the greatness of Rome and Italy is the leading motive of a passionate rhetoric, partly veiled by the considered delicacy of his language. Dante and Milton are still more faithful exponents of the religion and politics of their time. .Even the French epics display sentiments of fear and hatred of the Saracens; but, in Homer's works, the interest is purely dramatic.^ (I may refer to my work, “Homer and the Epic,” for a defence of the unity of Iliad and Odyssey.

.There is no strong antipathy of race or religion; the war turns on no political events; the capture of Troy lies outside the range of the Iliad; and even the protagonists are not comparable to the chief national heroes of Greece.^ The choice of Israel was unique: Greece retained far more of the lower ancient ideas, but gave to them a beauty of grace and form which is found among no other race.

^ In the politically inspired sequel there is, according to Mr. Verrall, no living zeal for the honour of Pytho (Delphi).

So far as can be seen, the chief interest in Homer's works is that of human feeling and emotion, and of drama; indeed, his works are often referred to as "dramas".

History and the Iliad

Greece according to the Iliad
The excavations of Heinrich Schliemann at Hisarlik in the late 19th century provided initial evidence to scholars that there was a historical basis for the Trojan War. .Research into oral epics in Serbo-Croatian and Turkic languages, pioneered by the aforementioned Parry and Lord, began convincing scholars that long poems could be preserved with consistency by oral cultures until they are written down.^ Greek scholars, again, are apt to view these researches into savage or barbaric origins with great distaste and disfavour.

^ Speedily they devoured the long way; nor sea, nor rivers, nor grassy glades, nor cliffs, could stay the rush of the deathless horses; nay, far above p.

[42] .The decipherment of Linear B in the 1950s by Michael Ventris (and others) convinced many of a linguistic continuity between 13th century BC Mycenaean writings and the poems attributed to Homer.^ The conventional attribution of the Hymns to Homer, in spite of linguistic objections, and of many allusions to things unknown or unfamiliar in the Epics, is merely the result of the tendency to set down “masterless” compositions to a well-known name.

^ For this reason and for many others, we regard the Hymns, on the whole, as post-Homeric, while their collector, by inserting the Hymn to Ares, shows little proof of discrimination.

.It is probable, therefore, that the story of the Trojan War as reflected in the Homeric poems derives from a tradition of epic poetry founded on a war which actually took place.^ They are, therefore, set over various departments: Love, War, Agriculture, Medicine, Poetry, Commerce, while one or more of the sons take the places of Apollo and Hermes.

^ The Greeks, therefore, may have evolved the legend long before Homer’s day, and he may have known the story which he does not find occasion to tell.

It is crucial, however, not to underestimate the creative and transforming power of subsequent tradition: for instance, Achilles, the most important character of the Iliad, is strongly associated with southern Thessaly, but his legendary figure is interwoven into a tale of war whose kings were from the Peloponnese. Tribal wanderings were frequent, and far-flung, ranging over much of Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean.[47] .The epic weaves brilliantly the disiecta membra (scattered remains) of these distinct tribal narratives, exchanged among clan bards, into a monumental tale in which Greeks join collectively to do battle on the distant plains of Troy.^ Greek scholars, again, are apt to view these researches into savage or barbaric origins with great distaste and disfavour.

Hero cult

The Apotheosis of Homer, by Archelaus of Priene. Marble relief, possibly of the 3rd century BC, now in the British Museum.
In the Hellenistic period, Homer was the subject of a hero cult in several cities. A shrine, the Homereion, was devoted to him in Alexandria by Ptolemy IV Philopator in the late 3rd century BC. This shrine is described in Aelian's 3rd century work Varia Historia. He tells how Ptolemy "placed in a circle around the statue [of Homer] all the cities who laid claim to Homer" and mentions a painting of the poet by the artist Galaton, which apparently depicted Homer in the aspect of Oceanus as the source of all poetry.
A marble relief, found in Italy but thought to have been sculpted in Egypt, depicts the apotheosis of Homer. It shows Ptolemy and his wife or sister Arsinoe III standing beside a seated poet, flanked by figures from the Odyssey and Iliad, with the nine Muses standing above them and a procession of worshippers approaching an altar, believed to represent the Alexandrine Homereion. .Apollo, the god of music and poetry, also appears, along with a female figure tentatively identified as Mnemosyne, the mother of the Muses.^ Neither Tharamulun nor Hobamoc (Australian and American Gods of healing and soothsaying), who appear to men as serpents, are borrowed from Asclepius, or from the Python of Apollo.

^ To Mnemosyne first of Gods he gave the meed of minstrelsy, to the Mother of the Muses, for the Muse came upon the Son of Maia.

Zeus, the king of the gods, presides over the proceedings. The relief demonstrates vividly that the Greeks considered Homer not merely a great poet but the divinely-inspired reservoir of all literature.[48]
Homereia also stood at Chios, Ephesus, and Smyrna, which were among the city-states that claimed to be his birthplace. Strabo (14.1.37) records a Homeric temple in Smyrna with an ancient xoanon or cult statue of the poet. He also mentions sacrifices carried out to Homer by the inhabitants of Argos, presumably at another Homereion.[49]

Transmission and publication

.Though evincing many features characteristic of oral poetry, the Iliad and Odyssey were at some point committed to writing.^ In her winter retreat below the earth she was the bride of the Lord of Many Guests, and the ruler “of the souls of men outworn.” In this office Odysseus in Homer knows her, though neither Iliad nor Odyssey recognises Korê as the maiden Spring, the daughter and p.

The Greek script, adapted from a Phoenician syllabary around 800 BCE, made possible the notation of the complex rhythms and vowel clusters that make up hexameter verse. Homer's poems appear to have been recorded shortly after the alphabet's invention: an inscription from Ischia in the Bay of Naples, ca. .740 BCE, appears to refer to a text of the Iliad; likewise, illustrations seemingly inspired by the Polyphemus episode in the Odyssey are found on Samos, Mykonos and in Italy dating from the first quarter of the seventh century BCE. We have little information about the early condition of the Homeric poems, but in the second century BCE, Alexandrian editors stabilized this text from which all modern texts descend.^ By “Homeric” I mean that if we found the adventure of Anchises occurring at length in the Iliad, by way of an episode, perhaps in a speech of Æneas, it would not strike us as inconsistent in tone, though occasionally in phrase.

^ (I may refer to my work, “Homer and the Epic,” for a defence of the unity of Iliad and Odyssey.

^ As to Baumeister’s theory that the second part is Hesiodic, Gemoll finds a Hesiodic reminiscence in the first part (line 121), while there are Homeric reminiscences in the second part.

In late antiquity, knowledge of Greek declined in Latin-speaking western Europe and, along with it, knowledge of Homer's poems. It was not until the fifteenth century AD that Homer's work began to be read once more in Italy. By contrast it was continually read and taught in the Greek-speaking Eastern Roman Empire where the majority of the classics also survived. The first printed edition appeared in 1488.

See also

Topics

Modern scholars

Notes

  1. ^ G. S. Kirk's comment that "Antiquity knew nothing definite about the life and personality of Homer" represents the general consensus (Kirk, The Iliad: a Commentary (Cambridge 1985), v. 1).
  2. ^ West, Martin (1999). "The Invention of Homer". Classical Quarterly 49 (364).  
  3. ^ Herodotus 2.53.
  4. ^ Graziosi, Barbara (2002). The Invention of Homer. Cambridge. pp. 98–101.  
  5. ^ Vidal-Naquet, Pierre (2000). Le monde d'Homère. Perrin. p. 19.  
  6. ^ M. L. West (1966). Hesiod's Theogony. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 40, 46.  
  7. ^ Nagy, Gregory (2001). Homeric Poetry and Problems of Multiformity: The "Panathenaic Bottleneck. 96. Classical Philology (journal). pp. 109–119.  
  8. ^ Heubeck, Alfred; West, Stephanie; Hainsworth, J. B. (1988). A Commentary on Homer's Odyssey. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 3.  
  9. ^ Silk, Michael (1987). Homer: The Iliad. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 5.  
  10. ^ Lucian, Verae Historiae 2.20, cited and tr.Barbara Graziosi‚Inventing Homer:The Early Reception of Epic,’ Cambridge University Press, 2002 p.127
  11. ^ Parke, Herbert W. (1967). Greek Oracles. pp. 136–137 citing the Certamen, 12.  
  12. ^ There were seven in addition to an account of a bardic competition between Homer and Hesiod.F.Stoessl,'Homeros'in Der Kleine Pauly: Lexikon der Antike in fünf Bänden, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, München 1979, Bd.2, p.1202
  13. ^ a b Kirk, G.S. (1965). Homer and the Epic: A Shortened Version of the Songs of Homer. London: Cambridge University Press. pp. 190.  
  14. ^ Homêreôn was one of the names for a month in the calendar of Ios. H.G. Liddell, R. Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, rev.ed.Sir Henry Stuart-Jones, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1968 ad loc
  15. ^ Kirk, op.cit.pp.191f.; G.S.Kirk,The Songs of Homer, Cambridge University Press, 1962 pp.272ff.)
  16. ^ Barry B. Powell, ‘Did Homer sing at Lefkandi?’, Electronic Antiquity, July 1993, Vol. 1, No. 2.
  17. ^ Gilbert Murray, The Rise of the Greek Epic, p.307
  18. ^ "The probability is that 'Homer' was not the name of a historical Greek poet but the imaginary ancestor of the Homeridai; such guild-names in -idai and -adai are not normally based on the name of an historical person". M.L. West, The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1997 p. 622. West hazards a conjectural Phoenician prototype for Homer's name, "*benê ômerîm" ("sons of speakers"), id est professional tale-tellers.
  19. ^ P. Chantraine, dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque, Klincksieck, Paris, 1968, vol.2 (3-4) p.797 ad loc.
  20. ^ H.G.Liddell, R.Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, rev. ed. Sir Henry Stuart-Jones, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1968 ad loc.
  21. ^ Pseudo-Herodotus, Vita Homeri1.3 in Thomas W. Allen, Homeri Opera, Tomus V,(1912) 1946 p.194. Cf. Lycophron, Alexandra, l.422
  22. ^ Homeric Hymns 3:172-3
  23. ^ Thucidides, The Peloponnesian War 3:104
  24. ^ Barbara Graziosi,Inventing Homer: The Early Reception of Epic,’ Cambridge University Press, 2002 p.133
  25. ^ Odyssey, 8:64ff.
  26. ^ Gregory Nagy, The Best of the Achaeans: Concepts of the Hero in Archaic Greek Poetry, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 1979 pp296-300
  27. ^ M.L. West (ed.), Hesiod Theogony,Clarendon Press, Oxford 1966 on line 39, p.170
  28. ^ Gilbert Murray, The Rise of the Greek Epic, ibid., p.
  29. ^ Filippo Càssola (ed.) Inni Omerici, Mondadori, Milan, 1975 p. xxxiii
  30. ^ Marcello Durante, 'II nome di Omero', in Rendiconti Accademia Lincei, XII, 1957 pp. 94-111
  31. ^ Marcello Durante, Sulla preistoria della tradizione poetica greca,Edizioni dell'Ateneo, Rome 1971 2 vols. vol. 2 pp. 185-204, esp. pp. 194ff.
  32. ^ Iliad, 2.595
  33. ^ Hesiod, Works and Days, 654-5; Martin P. Nilsson, Homer & Mycenae(12933) University of Pennsylvania Press, 1972 pp. 207ff.
  34. ^ Joachim Latacz, Homer: His Art and His World, tr. James P. Holoka, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor 1996, p. 29
  35. ^ Barbara Graziosi, ibid. esp. p.134
  36. ^ Gilbert Murray, The Rise of the Greek Epic', 4th ed. ibid. p. 93
  37. ^ William G. Thalman, Conventions of Form and Thought in Early Greek Greek Epic Poetry, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 1984 p. 119
  38. ^ Gilbert Murray: The Rise of the Greek Epic, 4th ed. 1934, Oxford University Press reprint 1967 p. 299
  39. ^ http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Baldwin/History/preface.htm#f4
  40. ^ http://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/lit/literarystudies/LiteraryBlunders/chap7.html
  41. ^ Mary Ebbott "Butler's Authoress of the Odyssey: gendered readings of Homer, then and now," (Classics@: Issue 3).
  42. ^ a b Adam Parry (ed.) The Making of Homeric Verse: The Collected Papers of Milman Parry, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1987.
  43. ^ "Signs of Meaning" Science 324 p 38 3-April-2009 reviewing Powell's Writing and citing Powell's Homer and the Origin of the Greek Alphabet CUP 1991
  44. ^ Aristotle, Poetics, 1451a 16-29. Cf. Aristotle, "On the Art of Poetry" in T.S. Dorsch (tr.), Aristotle, Horace, Longinus: Classical Literary Criticism, Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1965 ch. 8 pp. 42-43
  45. ^ Matthew Arnold, 'On Translating Homer' (Oxford Lecture, 1861) in Lionel Trilling (ed.) The Portable Matthew Arnold,(1949) Viking Press, New York 1956 pp. 204-228, p. 211
  46. ^ Dante has Virgil introduce Homer, with a sword in hand, as poeta sovrano (sovereign poet), walking ahead of Horace, Ovid and Lucan. Cf. Inferno IV, 88
  47. ^ Gilbert Murray, The Rise of the Greek Epic, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1907, pp. 182f., slightly expanded in the 4th. ed.(1934) 1960 pp. 206ff.
  48. ^ Morgan, Llewelyn, 1999. Patterns of Redemption in Virgil's Georgics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), p. 30.
  49. ^ Zanker, Paul, 1996. The Mask of Socrates: The Image of the Intellectual in Antiquity, Alan Shapiro, trans. (Berkeley: University of California Press).

Selected bibliography

Editions

(texts in Homeric Greek)
  • Demetrius Chalcondyles editio princeps, Florence, 1488
  • the Aldine editions (1504 and 1517)
  • Th. Ridel, Strassbourg, ca. 1572, 1588 and 1592.
  • Wolf (Halle, 1794-1795; Leipzig, 1804 1807)
  • Spitzner (Gotha, 1832-1836)
  • Bekker (Berlin, 1843; Bonn, 1858)
  • La Roche (Odyssey, 1867-1868; Iliad, 1873-1876, both at Leipzig)
  • Ludwich (Odyssey, Leipzig, 1889-1891; Iliad, 2 vols., 1901 and 1907)
  • W. Leaf (Iliad, London, 1886-1888; 2nd ed. 1900-1902)
  • W. Walter Merry and James Riddell (Odyssey i.-xii., 2nd ed., Oxford, 1886)
  • Monro (Odyssey xiii.-xxiv. with appendices, Oxford, 1901)
  • Monro and Allen (Iliad), and Allen (Odyssey, 1908, Oxford).
  • D.B. Monro and T.W. Allen 1917-1920, Homeri Opera (5 volumes: Iliad = 3rd edition, Odyssey = 2nd edition), Oxford. ISBN 0-19-814528-4, ISBN 0-19-814529-2, ISBN 0-19-814531-4, ISBN 0-19-814532-2, ISBN 0-19-814534-9
  • H. van Thiel 1991, Homeri Odyssea, Hildesheim. ISBN 3-487-09458-4, 1996, Homeri Ilias, Hildesheim. ISBN 3-487-09459-2
  • M.L. West 1998-2000, Homeri Ilias (2 volumes), Munich/Leipzig. ISBN 3-598-71431-9, ISBN 3-598-71435-1
  • P. von der Mühll 1993, Homeri Odyssea, Munich/Leipzig. ISBN 3-598-71432-7
  • Ilias in Wikisource

Interlinear translations

  • The Iliad of Homer a Parsed Interlinear, Handheldclassics.com (2008) Text ISBN 978-1607252986

English translations

.This is a partial list of translations into English of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey.^ (I may refer to my work, “Homer and the Epic,” for a defence of the unity of Iliad and Odyssey.

^ To the English reader familiar with the Iliad and Odyssey the Hymns must appear disappointing, if he come to them with an expectation of discovering merits like those of the immortal epics.

.
  • Augustus Taber Murray (1866-1940)
    • Homer: Iliad, 2 vols., revised by William F. Wyatt, Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press (1999).
    • Homer: Odyssey, 2 vols., revised by George E. Dimock, Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press (1995).
  • Robert Fitzgerald (1910–1985)
    • The Iliad, Farrar, Straus and Giroux (2004) ISBN 0-374-52905-1
    • The Odyssey, Farrar, Straus and Giroux (1998) ISBN 0-374-52574-9
  • Robert Fagles (1933-2008)
    • The Iliad, Penguin Classics (1998) ISBN 0-14-027536-3
    • The Odyssey, Penguin Classics (1999) ISBN 0-14-026886-3
  • Stanley Lombardo (b.^ (I may refer to my work, “Homer and the Epic,” for a defence of the unity of Iliad and Odyssey.

    1943)
    • Iliad, Hackett Publishing Company (1997) ISBN 0-87220-352-2
    • Odyssey, Hackett Publishing Company (2000) ISBN 0-87220-484-7
    • Iliad, (Audiobook) Parmenides (2006) ISBN 1-930972-08-3
    • Odyssey, (Audiobook) Parmenides (2006) ISBN 1-930972-06-7
    • The Essential Homer, (Audiobook) Parmenides (2006) ISBN 1-930972-12-1
    • The Essential Iliad, (Audiobook) Parmenides (2006) ISBN 1-930972-10-5
  • Samuel Butler (novelist) (1835-1902)
    • The Iliad, Red and Black Publishers (2008) ISBN 978-1-934941-04-1
    • The Odyssey, Red and Black Publishers (2008) ISBN 978-1-934941-05-8
  • Herbert Jordan (b. 1938)
    • "Iliad", University of Oklahoma Press (2008) ISBN 9780806139746 (soft cover); ISBN 9780806139425 (cloth bound)

General works on Homer

  • Pierre Carlier, Homère, Fayard 1999. ISBN 2-213-60381-2
  • Pierre Vidal-Naquet, Le monde d'Homère, Perrin 2000. ISBN 2-262-01181-8
  • Jacqueline de Romilly, Homère, Presses Universitaire de France, 5th ed. 2005. ISBN 2-13-054830-X
  • J. Latacz 2004, Troy and Homer: Towards a Solution of an Old Mystery, Oxford, ISBN 0-19-926308-6; 5th updated and expanded edition, Leipzig 2005 (in Spanish 2003 ISBN 84-233-3487-2, modern Greek 2005 ISBN 960-16-1557-1)
  • Robert Fowler (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Homer, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2004. ISBN 0-521-01246-5
  • I. Morris and B. B. Powell 1997, A New Companion to Homer, Leiden. ISBN 90-04-09989-1
  • B. B. Powell 2007, "Homer," 2nd edition. Oxford. ISBN 978-1-4051-5325-5
  • Wace, A.J.B.; F.H. Stubbings (1962). A Companion to Homer. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-07113-1.  

Influential readings and interpretations

  • E. Auerbach 1953, Mimesis, Princeton (orig. publ. in German, 1946, Bern), chapter 1. ISBN 0-691-11336-X
  • M.W. Edwards 1987, Homer, Poet of the Iliad, Baltimore. ISBN 0-8018-3329-9
  • B. Fenik 1974, Studies in the Odyssey, Wiesbaden ('Hermes' Einzelschriften 30).
  • M.I. Finley, The World of Odysseus 1954, rev. ed. 1978.
  • I.J.F. de Jong 1987, Narrators and Focalizers, Amsterdam/Bristol. ISBN 1-85399-658-0
  • G. Nagy 1980, "The Best of the Achaeans", Baltimore. ISBN 978-0801860157

Commentaries

  • Iliad:
    • P.V. Jones (ed.) 2003, Homer's Iliad. A Commentary on Three Translations, London. ISBN 1-85399-657-2
    • G. S. Kirk (gen. ed.) 1985-1993, The Iliad: A Commentary (6 volumes), Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-28171-7, ISBN 0-521-28172-5, ISBN 0-521-28173-3, ISBN 0-521-28174-1, ISBN 0-521-31208-6, ISBN 0-521-31209-4
    • J. Latacz (gen. ed.) 2002-, Homers Ilias. Gesamtkommentar. Auf der Grundlage der Ausgabe von Ameis-Hentze-Cauer (1868-1913) (2 volumes published so far, of an estimated 15), Munich/Leipzig. ISBN 3-598-74307-6, ISBN 3-598-74304-1
    • N. Postlethwaite (ed.) 2000, Homer's Iliad: A Commentary on the Translation of Richmond Lattimore, Exeter. ISBN 0-85989-684-6
    • M.W. Willcock (ed.) 1976, A Companion to the Iliad, Chicago. ISBN 0-226-89855-5
  • Odyssey:
    • A. Heubeck (gen. ed.) 1990-1993, A Commentary on Homer's Odyssey (3 volumes; orig. publ. 1981-1987 in Italian), Oxford. ISBN 0-19-814747-3, ISBN 0-19-872144-7, ISBN 0-19-814953-0
    • P. Jones (ed.) 1988, Homer's Odyssey: A Commentary based on the English Translation of Richmond Lattimore, Bristol. ISBN 1-85399-038-8
    • I.J.F. de Jong (ed.) 2001, A Narratological Commentary on the Odyssey, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-46844-2

Trends in Homeric scholarship

"Classical" analysis
  • A. Heubeck 1974, Die homerische Frage, Darmstadt. ISBN 3-534-03864-9
  • R. Merkelbach 1969, Untersuchungen zur Odyssee (2nd edition), Munich. ISBN 3-406-03242-7
  • D. Page 1955, The Homeric Odyssey, Oxford.
  • U. von Wilamowitz-Möllendorff 1916, Die Ilias und Homer, Berlin.
  • F.A. Wolf 1795, Prolegomena ad Homerum, Halle. Published in English translation 1988, Princeton. ISBN 0-691-10247-3
Neoanalysis
.
  • M.E. Clark 1986, "Neoanalysis: a bibliographical review," Classical World 79.6: 379-94.
  • J. Griffin 1977, "The epic cycle and the uniqueness of Homer," Journal of Hellenic Studies 97: 39-53.
  • J.T. Kakridis 1949, Homeric Researches, London.^ Allen, Journal of Hellenic Studies , xvii.

    ISBN 0-8240-7757-1
  • W. Kullmann 1960, Die Quellen der Ilias (Troischer Sagenkreis), Wiesbaden. ISBN 3-515-00235-9
Homer and oral tradition
  • E. Bakker 1997, Poetry in Speech: Orality and Homeric Discourse, Ithaca NY. ISBN 0-8014-3295-2
  • J.M. Foley 1999, Homer's Traditional Art, University Park PA. ISBN 0-271-01870-4
  • G.S. Kirk 1976, Homer and the Oral Tradition, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-21309-6
  • A.B. Lord 1960, The Singer of Tales, Cambridge MA. ISBN 0-674-00283-0
  • M. Parry 1971, The Making of Homeric Verse, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-520560-X
  • B. B. Powell, 1991, Homer and the Origin of the Greek Alphabet, ISBN 0-521-58907-X

Dating the Homeric poems

.
  • R. Janko 1982, Homer, Hesiod and the Hymns, Cambridge.^ Homer usually ignores them: Hesiod and the authors of the Hymns are less noble in their selections.

    ^ Meanwhile Baumeister argues that the Pythian Hymn (our second part) is an imitation of the Delian; by a follower, not of Homer, but of Hesiod.

    ISBN 0-521-23869-2

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Victory passes back and forth between men.
Homer, legendary ancient Greek poet.

Contents

Sourced

The Iliad (c. 7th century BC)

Among all creatures that breathe on earth and crawl on it there is not anywhere a thing more dismal than man is.
This section uses the translation by Richmond Lattimore (1951). Full text online as translated by Samuel Butler
  • The will of Zeus was accomplished. .
    • I.5
  • Then looking at him darkly resourceful Odysseus spoke to him: "What is this word that broke through the fence of your teeth, Atreides?"^ Then Phœbus Apollo was ware in his heart that the fair-flowing spring, Telphusa, had beguiled him, and in wrath he went to her, and swiftly came, and standing close by her, spoke his word: .

    • IV. 350-351
  • As is the generation of leaves, so is that of humanity. The wind scatters the leaves on the ground, but the live timber burgeons with leaves again in the season of spring returning. .So one generation of men will grow while another dies.^ One mortal shall I harm, and another shall I bless, with many a turn of fortune among hapless men.

    .
    • VI. 146-150
  • So they spoke, and both springing down from behind their horses gripped each other's hands and exchanged the promise of friendship; but Zeus the son of Kronos stole away the wits of Glaukos who exchanged with Diomedes the son of Tydeus armour of gold for bronze, for nine oxen's worth the worth of a hundred.^ Zeus, the Thunderer, who inquired of his glorious Son, saying: .

    ^ Myself did make pledge, and promise, and strong oath, that, save me, none other of the eternal Gods should know the secret counsel of Zeus.

    ^ Backward then they sailed towards the Dawn and the sun, and the Prince was their guide, Apollo, son of Zeus.

    • VI.232-236
  • Victory passes back and forth between men. .
    • VI.339
    • Paris contemplates the fickleness of victory as he prepares to go into battle.
  • Man, supposing you and I, escaping this battle, would be able to live on forever, ageless, immortal, so neither would I myself go on fighting in the foremost, nor would I urge you into the fighting where men win glory.^ But by Zeus of the Ægis I implore thee, suffer me not to live a strengthless shadow among men, but pity me: for no man lives in strength that has couched with immortal Goddesses.” p.

    .But now, seeing that the spirits of death stand close about us in their thousands, no man can turn aside or escape them, let us go on and win glory for ourselves, or yield it to others.^ Now I conceive that, starting with the relatively high idea of a Spirit of the Grain, early man was quite capable of envisaging it both spiritually and in zoomorphic form (accidentally p.

    ^ Not like a lifter of cattle, a stalwart man, am I: no task is this of mine: hitherto I have other cares; sleep, and mother’s milk, and about my shoulders swaddling bands, and warmed baths.

    ^ But now in nowise may he escape the Fates and death, yet glory imperishable will ever be his, since he has lain on my knees and slept within my arms; [but as the years go round, and in his day, the sons of the Eleusinians will ever wage war and dreadful strife one upon the other.

    .
    • XII.322-328 (Sarpedon to Glaukos)
  • Among all creatures that breathe on earth and crawl on it there is not anywhere a thing more dismal than man is.^ All races have sought explanations of their own ritual in the adventures of the Dream Time, the Alcheringa , when beings of a more potent race, Gods or Heroes, were on earth, and achieved and endured such things as the rites commemorate.

    ^ He sang the renowns of the deathless Gods, and the dark Earth, how all things were at the first, and how each God gat his portion.

    .
    • XVII.446-447 (Zeus)
  • I have gone through what no other mortal on earth has gone through; I put my lips to the hands of the man who has killed my children.^ Back to the crests of Cyllene came the God at dawn, nor blessed God, on that long way, nor mortal man encountered him; nay, and no dog barked.

    ^ No process, on the other hand, of borrowing from Greece can conceivably account for the Pawnee and Peruvian rites, so closely analogous to those of Hellas.

    ^ Not like a lifter of cattle, a stalwart man, am I: no task is this of mine: hitherto I have other cares; sleep, and mother’s milk, and about my shoulders swaddling bands, and warmed baths.

    • XXIV.505-506 (Priam to Achilleus)
  • And you, old sir, we are told you prospered once.
    • XXIV.543 (Achilleus to Priam)

The Odyssey (c. 7th century BC)

  • These things surely lie on the knees of the gods.
    • Book I, line 267.

Quotes about Homer

.
  • But how did you come to have this skill about Homer only, and not about Hesiod or the other poets?^ The poet chooses the Hesiodic and un-Homeric myth of Heaven and Earth, and their progeny: a myth current also in p.

    ^ Thus, the Hesiodic school was closely connected with Delphi; the Homeric with Ionia, so that Delphi rarely occurs in the Epics; in fact only thrice (Ι.

    .Does not Homer speak of the same themes which all other poets handle?^ Myths contained all conceivable elements, among others that of humour, to which the poet here abandons himself.

    Is not war his great argument? and does he not speak of human society and of intercourse of men, good and bad, skilled and unskilled, and of the gods conversing with one another and with mankind, and about what happens in heaven and in the world below, and the generations of gods and heroes? Are not these the themes of which Homer sings?
  • Indignor quandoque bonus dormitat Homerus.
    I'm aggrieved when sometimes even excellent Homer nods. .
  • In the Odyssey one may liken Homer to the setting sun, of which the grandeur remains without the intensity.^ (I may refer to my work, “Homer and the Epic,” for a defence of the unity of Iliad and Odyssey.

    ^ The date of the composition cannot be fixed from considerations of the Homeric tone; thus lines 238-239 may be a reminiscence of Odyssey, λ.

  • Seven cities warred for Homer, being dead,
    Who, living, had no roof to shroud his head.^ Of Pallas Athene, the saviour of cities, I begin to sing; dread Goddess, who with Ares takes keep of the works of war, and of falling cities, and battles, and the battle din.

    .
  • As learned commentators view
    In Homer more than Homer knew.^ But the silence of Homer is never a safe argument in favour of his ignorance, any more than the absence of allusion to tobacco in Shakspeare is a proof that tobacco was, in his age, unknown.

    .
  • Oft in one wide expanse had I been told
    That deep-browed Homer ruled as his demesne;
    Yet never did I breathe its pure serene
    Till I heard Chapman speak out loud and bold:
    Then felt I like some watcher of the skies
    When a new planet swims into his ken.^ He prefers, it seems, to believe that, as being the wood out of which fire was kindled by some Aryan-speaking peoples, the oak may have come to be called “The Bright or Shining One” (Zeus, Jove), by the ancient Greeks and Italians.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Get in

Flying is the best way to get in during the winter, with hourly flights from Anchorage on Era Aviation, and Grant Aviation. During the Summer months, A drive from Ancorage along the Seward Highway is well worth it. The scenery is breathtaking and it will give you a chance to visit some of the smaller towns on the Kenai peninsula that cant be visited by plane.

Get around

There isn't a public transportation system to speak of in Homer so your options come down to walking, riding a bike, hitching a lift or renting a car. There are 3 car rentals in Homer. Hertz, Adventure Alaska, and Polar. Hertz and Adventure Alaska also have rentals in Anchorage so if you want to rent a car in Anchorage and drive to Homer you can drop your car off and fly back to Anchorage. Anchorage is the main city in Alaska where all flights form outside the state end up. From there you fly or rent a car and drive to the next town. Homer is a 40 minute flight from Anchorage or a 5 hour drive.

By foot

.Distances as with most places in America are fairly large but there are good footpaths all around Homer and if you are fit walking can be a great way to see and get a feel for the town.^ They are all survivals, however fairly draped and adorned by the unique genius of the most divinely gifted race of mankind.

You can rent bicycles at Homer Saw and Cycle.
  • Homer Spit, Open all year, however shops at the end of the spit generally close around mid September and re-open in April). A massive spit built out into the middle of the bay that claims to be the further west that is accessible via road on the north American continent. Spectacular wildlife can be seen along the spit being well known for the flocks of bald headed eagles that nest and feed there. A walk from the start to the end of the spit will take around an hour. .A walk along the beach is a beautiful way to see the spit but be careful of the tide as the beach isn't always accessible at high tide.
  • Skyline Drive, Open all year, is a beautiful way to see the spit from above (it's actually where most of the postcard photos come from).^ Holy Thebe, nor yet were paths nor ways along Thebe’s wheat-bearing plain, but all was wild wood.

    ^ But to thee, that I may tell thee all my mind, will I come in the fifth year bringing my son.

    .It is an easy 5 minute drive up a windy road to the lookout up the top, however walking up the road will take you about 45 minutes but provide you with lots of opportunities to stop and marvel at the surroundings (traffic is low and there are plenty of places to step out of the way of cars and trucks).
  • Across the Bay, Kachemak Bay State Park - The jewel of Alaska, Kachemak Bay State Park is the first and largest of the Parks in the state.^ There hangs she up her bended bow and her arrows, and all graciously clad about she leads the dances, first in place, while the others utter their immortal voice in hymns to fair-ankled Leto, how she bore such children pre-eminent among the Immortals in counsel and in deed.

    .Inhabited by wildlife on land, in the air, and in the ocean, there is so much to see and do here that one could spend a lifetime exploring around.^ Finally, the second poet (and here every one must agree) is a much worse poet than the first.

    Mountain goats grace the cliffs of remote and beautiful Sadie Cove from the entrance and up to the wilderness lodge of the same name on the South facing shore. Black bears live high in the mountains and can also be seen in the springtime on the shores of the Park searching for the first foods of the new season. Bald Eagles fly above and in the ocean there are seals, sea lions, humpback whales, orcas, sea otters, sea birds, and more.
The Park has a plethora of well maintained hiking trails for the novice as well as the experienced hiker. Many guides in Homer offer adventure trips and the wilderness lodges offer an experience second to none for adventure luxe. To get to the Park a person can hire any one of many water taxis from Homer and enter a new world away from the chaos of civilization. We recommend Red Mountain Marine at 907-399-8230 because they have a vey nice classic wooden boat and very knowledgeable, pleasant, accommodating, and courteous skippers. Owned by Tom Hopkins of Homer, Alaska.
  • Public Library, has free internet access (although they have a donation box) with a signup sheet waiting list.
  • Take a water taxi across the bay to Kachemak Bay State Park for great hiking. Make sure to check out the lake with a glacier at the end.

Eat

Finn's Pizza is on the spit. It has a nice view of the water from the back deck. Great pizza and local beer.

Drink

The Salty Dawg Saloon on the spit is a colorful place to get a beer, including Homer Brewing's beers, made in town.

Sleep

As with most accommodation in Alaska it is best to ring ahead and book a place a few nights in advance during the spring, summer, autumn (fall) tourist season.
  • Alaska's Ridgewood Wilderness Lodge, Halibut Cove (Across Kachemak Bay from Homer), (907) 296-2217, [1]. checkin: 3 pm; checkout: 10 am. Alaska’s Ridgewood Wilderness Lodge One of Kachemak Bay’s finest Wilderness Lodges in Halibut Cove PO Box 659 Homer, AK 99603 (907) 296-2217 ridgewoodlodge@homernet.net www.ridgewoodlodge.com Hello, We would like to introduce ourselves to you. We are Kevin and Lucinda, and Bowman and Jessica Sidelinger, the owners and hosts of Alaska’s Ridgewood Wilderness Lodge, a full-service destination lodge in Halibut Cove, Alaska. Halibut Cove is located 8 miles across Kachemak Bay from the end of the Homer Spit. The Cove is also the home of the Saltry Restaurant, Diana Tillion’s Cove Gallery and the Halibut Cove Experience Gallery. We have lived adjacent to the Kachemak Bay State Park for over 32 years. For the last 16 years we have made our living oyster farming. Our oyster farm is one of the leading producers in the state of Alaska, and in 2007, Kevin was one of three finalists for the Global Food Award. The timber-framed lodge was designed and built by Kevin and has a 10 guest capacity. We are open year around. Included in the reservation cost is use of lodge facilities, rooms with private baths, high-speed wireless internet, house keeping and complimentary laundry services. All meals are served by your hosts. Alaska’s Ridgewood Wilderness Lodge is what Alaskan fantasy is all about. We are an ideal destination for experiencing Alaska in luxurious comfort as well as having countless adventurous activities readily available. Guests will share in a positive and energetic Alaskan lifestyle with four truly “seasoned” Alaskans. Lucinda and Jessica would be happy to help arrange any activities guests are interested in, which include brown bear photography, trophy salmon and halibut charters, fly-fishing for rainbow trout, hiking, bird-watching, and many more. If you are interested in making reservations at our lodge, please contact us for further information or for setting up a complimentary visit. We invite you to check out our website at www.ridgewoodlodge.com Thank you for taking the time to learn about us. Kevin & Lucinda, and Bowman, Jessica & Talon Sidelinger $375 - $400.  edit
  • Homer Hostel, 304 West Pioneer Ave., 907-235-1463, [2]. A small (sometimes cramped) but friendly hostel on the outskirts of town around a 30 minute walk away from the Homer Spit. The hostel is located in a historic house with bunks that are a bit wobbly but perfectly fine, however upstairs has a large glass window that lets lots of light in during sunrise (in late spring, summer, early autumn) so if you aren't an early riser get a bunk downstairs. USD $23-$70 (including tax). Bunks in a shared room ($23), Private Rooms for 1-5 people ($50-$70).
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.HOMER' ("Oj,cnpos), the great epic poet of Greece.^ Hesiod is a very different epic poet than Homer: he composes in a catalogue style which is thought to be traditional to his region.
  • Iliad, Mythological Bckgnd, Univ. of Saskatchewan 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC homepage.usask.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Similarly, without Ovid, Dante would not be the poet-hero of his own poem, and without Virgil and ultimately Homer, Ovid would not be the self-conscious epic poet so familiar to us.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Homer is traditionally considered to be the author of the the Iliad and the Odyssey , the great early epics of Greek literature .
  • Homer Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Homer 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many of the works once attributed to him are lost; those which remain are the two great epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, thirty-three Hymns, a mock epic (the Battle of the Frogs and Mice), and some pieces of a few lines each (the so-called Epigrams).^ Many of the works once attributed to him are lost; those which remain are the two great epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, thirty-three Hymns , a mock epic (the Battle of the Frogs and Mice ), and some pieces of a few lines each (the so-called Epigrams).

^ Works, Life, and Legends Two epic poems are attributed to Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey.
  • Homer Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Homer 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally there is the "Battle of the Frogs and Mice".
  • OMACL: Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns and Homerica:Introduction 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC omacl.org [Source type: Original source]

.Ancient Accounts of Homer.^ Ancient Accounts of Homer.

- .Of
the date of Homer probably no record, real or pretended, ever existed.^ Of the date of Homer probably no record, real or pretended, ever existed.

^ I mean did Homer really exist?
  • homer : Messages : 491-520 of 607 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC groups.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ These things I have heard, and I have read the oracles, but express no private opinion about either the age or date of Homer.
  • Homer 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

Herodotus (ii. 53) maintains that Hesiod and Homer lived not more than 400 years 1 This article was thoroughly revised by Dr D. B. Monro before his death in 1905; a few points have since been added by Mr. T. W. Allen.
before his own time, consequently not much before .850 B.C. From the controversial tone in which he expresses himself it is evident that others had made Homer more ancient; and accordingly the dates given by later authorities, though very various, generally fall within the 10th and itth centuries B.C. But none of these statements has any claim to the character of external evidence.^ B.C. From the controversial tone in which he expresses himself it is evident that others had made Homer more ancient; and accordingly the dates given by later authorities, though very various, generally fall within the 10th and itth centuries B.C. But none of these statements has any claim to the character of external evidence.

^ The other lives are certainly not more ancient.

^ A pity more is not written about Princess Ktimene -- Odysseus' sister -- unfortunately Homer refers to her but once and has her given away to a Samian prince.

.The extant lives of Homer (edited in Westermann's Vitarum Scriptores Graeci minores) are eight in number, including the piece called the Contest of Hesiod and Homer. The longest is written in the Ionic dialect, and bears the name of Herodotus, but is certainly spurious.^ The extant lives of Homer (edited in Westermann's Vitarum Scriptores Graeci minores ) are eight in number, including the piece called the Contest of Hesiod and Homer.

^ The longest is written in the Ionic dialect , and bears the name of Herodotus, but is certainly spurious.

^ In fact, Herodotus , the fifth century historian, says that Homer and Hesiod , an epic poet contemporary with Homer, first named the gods, determined their honors and functions and devised their physical appearance (2.53).
  • Homer's Iliad 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC ablemedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.In all probability it belongs to the time which was fruitful beyond all others in literary forgeries, viz.^ In all probability it belongs to the time which was fruitful beyond all others in literary forgeries, viz.

^ What the farmer was saying was that this horse had been a horse beyond all other horses, a horse who had fought like a man and died like a hero.
  • Night of the Hunter - Gwen Cooper - Open Salon 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But even beyond the song culture, beyond Greek civilization, the epic lives on even in our time, and the wonder of it all is that one of its heroes himself foretold it.
  • Heroes and the Homeric Iliad 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC www.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

the and century of our era.' .The other lives are certainly not more ancient.^ The other lives are certainly not more ancient.

^ The choice of Israel was unique: Greece retained far more of the lower ancient ideas, but gave to them a beauty of grace and form which is found among no other race.

^ Other gods have been before him and they are also immortal, they too still live although they do not govern any more.
  • Homer (1954) - Page Three 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bard.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Their chief value consists in the curious short poems or fragments of verse which they have preserved - the so-called Epigrams, which used to be printed at the end of editions of Homer.^ And in the case of these epics, we cannot even define precisely what we mean by composition: the Homeric epics were composed in an oral poetic tradition that developed without the use of writing, but writing (which ultimately put an end to the oral composition of Greek poetry) has preserved for us these two poems.

^ Some papyrus fragments preserved in the dry climate of Egypt do survive which shed light upon the text of the Homeric poems before Alexandrian scholarship went to work collecting and freezing a single, definitive version of the poems.

^ The paradox of such great literature --for we cannot call the Homeric poems anything else--in an oral formular style has inevitably provoked the compromise, accepted by many, that, although Homer came at the end of a long oral tradition, his poems are so good that they must have been composed with the aid of writing; they are 'oral- derived'.
  • DIDASKALIA: Ancient Theater Today 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC www.didaskalia.net [Source type: Original source]

.These are easily recognized as " Popular Rhymes," a form of folk-lore to be met with in most countries, treasured by the people as a kind of proverbs.^ These are easily recognized as " Popular Rhymes," a form of folk- lore to be met with in most countries, treasured by the people as a kind of proverbs.

^ Votive offerings, cheap curses, objects of folk-lore rite and of sympathetic magic,—these are connected with the popular, the peasant aspect of the religion of Demeter.

^ Now as such ideas as these occur among races utterly removed from contact with Egypt, as they are part of the European folk-lore of the visits of mortals to fairyland (in which it is p.

.2 In the Homeric epigrams the interest turns sometimes on the characteristics of particular localities - Smyrna and Cyme (Epigr.^ In the Homeric epigrams the interest turns sometimes on the characteristics of particular localities - Smyrna and Cyme ( Epigr.

iv.
), Erythrae (Epigr. vi., vii.), .Mt Ida (Epigr.^ Mt Ida ( Epigr.

x.
), Neon Teichos (Epigr. i.); others relate to certain trades or occupations - potters (Epigr. xiv.), sailors, fishermen, goat herds, &c. .Some may be fragments of longer poems, but evidently they are not the work of any one poet.^ Some may be fragments of longer poems, but evidently they are not the work of any one poet.

^ What kind of text we are dealing with matters far more, for editing and interpreting Homer, than other questions, like whether the Iliad and Odyssey are the creations of one single poet (they are, in my view), or when the poems were created.
  • DIDASKALIA: Ancient Theater Today 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC www.didaskalia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jan 2010: Charlotte Higgins: Hardly any of the Greek poet's work survives, but the fragments that remain are enough to make her immortal .
  • Homer | Books | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.The fact that they were all ascribed to Homer merely means that they belong to a period in the history of the Ionian and Aeolian colonies when " Homer " was a name which drew to itself all ancient and popular verse.^ The fact that they were all ascribed to Homer merely means that they belong to a period in the history of the Ionian and Aeolian colonies when " Homer " was a name which drew to itself all ancient and popular verse.

^ They filmed all of this which was exciting in itself.

^ After all, Homer Davenport was a household name.
  • Homer Davenport 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ochcom.org [Source type: Original source]

.Again, comparing the " epigrams " with the legends and anecdotes told in the Lives of Homer, we can hardly doubt that they were the chief source from which these Lives were derived.^ Again, comparing the " epigrams " with the legends and anecdotes told in the Lives of Homer, we can hardly doubt that they were the chief source from which these Lives were derived.

^ One can hardly imagine the hundreds of Ph.D. theses on every aspect of Homeric epic, from archaeological details to art representations to Near Eastern connections.........

^ These guys were amazing; they live it and breathe it just like me!
  • HOMER HART on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thus in Epigr. iv. we find a blind poet, a native of .Aeolian Smyrna, through which flows the water of the sacred Meles.^ Aeolian Smyrna, through which flows the water of the sacred Meles.

.Here is doubtless the source of the chief incident of the Herodotean Life - the birth of Homer " Son of the Meles."^ Here is doubtless the source of the chief incident of the Herodotean Life - the birth of Homer " Son of the Meles."

^ The Epigrams of Homer The "Epigrams of Homer" are derived from the pseudo-Herodotean "Life of Homer", but many of them occur in other documents such as the "Contest of Homer and Hesiod", or are quoted by various ancient authors.
  • OMACL: Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns and Homerica:Introduction 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC omacl.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Here Homer focuses on the art of dress; and in the Homeric world of relationships, sources and origins are to be borne in mind, in this case, weaving.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The epithet Aeolian implies high antiquity, inasmuch as according to Herodotus Smyrna became Ionian about 688 B.C. Naturally the Ionians had their own version of the story - a version which made Homer come out with the first Athenian colonists.^ The epithet Aeolian implies high antiquity, inasmuch as according to Herodotus Smyrna became Ionian about 688 B.C. Naturally the Ionians had their own version of the story - a version which made Homer come out with the first Athenian colonists.

^ He made a law: any singer or bard who came to Athens had to recite all they knew of Homer for the Athenian scribes, who recorded each version and collated them into what we now call the Iliad and Odyssey.
  • Homer 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Homer lived in the ninth century BCE, according to the Greek historian Herodotus, and is credited with the composition of two epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey.

.The same line of argument may be extended to the Hymns, and even to some of the lost works of the post-Homeric or so-called " Cyclic " poets.^ The model can even be extended from Homer to Homeric song.
  • Heroes and the Homeric Iliad 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC www.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The same line of argument may be extended to the Hymns, and even to some of the lost works of the post-Homeric or so-called " Cyclic " poets.

^ Homer sometimes nods even the greatest expert may make a mistake ( nods here means ‘becomes drowsy’, implying a momentary lack of attention).
  • Homer Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Homer 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

Thus: i. .The hymn to the Delian Apollo ends with an address of the poet to his audience.^ The hymn to the Delian Apollo ends with an address of the poet to his audience .

^ When the hymn was ended, the Ionians made him a citizen of each one of their states, and the Delians wrote the poem on a whitened tablet and dedicated it in the temple of Artemis.
  • CONTEST OF HOMER AND HESIOD 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.homer.com.mx [Source type: Original source]

^ T.W. Allen suggests that the conjured Delian and Pythian hymns to Apollo ("Homeric Hymns" III) may have suggested this version of the story, the Pythian hymn showing strong continental influence.
  • OMACL: Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns and Homerica:Introduction 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC omacl.org [Source type: Original source]

When any stranger comes and asks who is the sweetest singer, they are to answer with one voice, the " blind man that dwells in rocky Chios; his songs deserve the prize for all time to come." Thucydides, who quotes this passage to show the ancient character of the Delian festival, seems to have no doubt of the Homeric authorship of the hymn. .Hence we may most naturally account for the belief that Homer was a Chian.^ Hence we may most naturally account for the belief that Homer was a Chian.

^ Homer never married and in his most productive years lived a highly secluded life, seemingly content according to his letters and family accounts.
  • http://www.askart.com/askart/artist.aspx?artist=21592 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.askart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All in all, the belief in the reality of an actual "Homer" may have more scholarly adherents now than in the 19th century.

2. The Margites - a humorous poem which kept its ground as the reputed work of Homer down to the time of Aristotle - began with the words, " There came to Colophon an old man, a divine singer, servant of the Muses and Apollo." Hence doubtless the claim of Colophon to be the native city of Homer - a claim supported in the early times of Homeric learning by the Colophonian poet and grammarian Antimachus.
.3. The poem called the Cypria was said to have been given by Homer to Stasinus of Cyprus as a daughter's dowry.^ The poem called the Cypria was said to have been given by Homer to Stasinus of Cyprus as a daughter's dowry .

^ The quotation from the Iliad is of interest because it is made in order to show that Homer supported the story of the travels of Paris to Egypt and Sidon (whereas the Cyclic poem called the Cypria ignored them), and also because the part of the Iliad from which it comes is cited as the " Aristeia of Diomede."

^ A few words remain to be said on the style and general character of the Homeric poems, and on the comparisons which may be made between Homer and analogous poetry in other countries.

.The connexion with Cyprus appears further in the predominance given in the poem to Aphrodite.^ The connexion with Cyprus appears further in the predominance given in the poem to Aphrodite .

^ The poem called the Cypria was said to have been given by Homer to Stasinus of Cyprus as a daughter's dowry .

.4. The Little Iliad and the Phocais, according to the Herodotean life, were composed by Homer when he lived at Phocaea with a certain Thestorides, who carried them off to Chios and there gained fame by reciting them as his own.^ The Little Iliad and the Phocais, according to the Herodotean life, were composed by Homer when he lived at Phocaea with a certain Thestorides, who carried them off to Chios and there gained fame by reciting them as his own.

^ The community was named for Homer Pennock, a gold mining company promoter, who arrived in 1896 and built living quarters for his crew of 50 on the Spit.
  • Homer Alaska - Bed and Breakfast and Weather information - Hotels Tours Photos Jobs 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.welcometoalaska.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Homer lived in the ninth century BCE, according to the Greek historian Herodotus, and is credited with the composition of two epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey.

.The name Thestorides occurs in Epigr. v.^ The name Thestorides occurs in Epigr.

.1 See a paper in the Diss.^ See a paper in the Diss .

Philol. Halenses, ii.
97-219.
.2 Compare the Popular Rhymes of Scotland, published by Robert Chambers.^ Compare the Popular Rhymes of Scotland , published by Robert Chambers .

.5. A similar story was told about the poem called the Taking of Oechalia (OiXaXias "AXwois), the subject of which was one of the exploits of Heracles.^ A similar story was told about the poem called the Taking of Oechalia (OiXaXias "AXwois), the subject of which was one of the exploits of Heracles.

^ Greeks of the archaic and classical periods looked upon Homer as their greatest, as well one of their earliest poets, and various stories grew up about his life.

^ This is a great story about the 14 year old kid who's calling plays for the Ravens.I'm now rooting for the Ravens because I'm a big softie.
  • 1530HOMER.COM - The Official Home of the Bengals 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.1530homer.com [Source type: General]

.It passed under the name of Creophylus, a friend or (as some said) a son-in-law of Homer; but it was generally believed to have been in fact the work of the poet himself.^ It passed under the name of Creophylus , a friend or (as some said) a son-in-law of Homer; but it was generally believed to have been in fact the work of the poet himself.

^ In fact, Herodotus , the fifth century historian, says that Homer and Hesiod , an epic poet contemporary with Homer, first named the gods, determined their honors and functions and devised their physical appearance (2.53).
  • Homer's Iliad 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC ablemedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Homer: [ reading ] Cosby's First Law of Inter-generational Perversity: No matter what you tell your child to do, he will always do the opposite.
  • Homer and His Brain 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC homy.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.6. Finally the Thebaid always counted as the work of Homer.^ Finally the Thebaid always counted as the work of Homer.

^ Why have the works of Arctinus escaped the attraction which drew to the name of Homer such epics as the Cypria, the Little Iliad, the Thebaid, the Epigoni, the Taking of Oechalia and the Phocais.

.As to the Epigoni, which carried on the Theban story, some doubt seems to have been felt.^ As to the Epigoni , which carried on the Theban story, some doubt seems to have been felt.

^ Yet, as stale as some of those values may seem, this story still appeals.

.These indications render it probable that the stories connecting Homer with different cities and islands grew up after his poems had become known and famous, especially in the new and flourishing colonies of Aeolis and Ionia.^ What two poems is Homer famous?
  • Homer Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Homer 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These indications render it probable that the stories connecting Homer with different cities and islands grew up after his poems had become known and famous, especially in the new and flourishing colonies of Aeolis and Ionia .

^ (The recent claim that the Alexandrians knew 131 different versions of the Homeric poems is a mistake, based on T.W. Allen's calculation that the 'city' texts, a group of texts containing scholarly emendations, are mentioned 131 times in the scholia.
  • DIDASKALIA: Ancient Theater Today 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC www.didaskalia.net [Source type: Original source]

.The contention for Homer, in short, began at a time when his real history was lost, and he had become a sort of mythical figure, an " eponymous hero," or personification of a great school of poetry.^ The contention for Homer, in short, began at a time when his real history was lost, and he had become a sort of mythical figure, an " eponymous hero," or personification of a great school of poetry .

^ Tradition puts Homer and the Homeric poems proper back in the ages before chronological history began, and at the same time assigns the purely Cyclic poems to definite authors who are dated from the first Olympiad (776 B.C.) downwards.
  • OMACL: Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns and Homerica:Introduction 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC omacl.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This short essay published in l791 spawned hundreds of books and thousands of articles which explored the hypothesis of Homer being only the last of the "Homers", and the Homeric poems having been assembled out of a lost world of bardic or ballad poetry.

.An interesting confirmation of this view from the negative side is furnished by the city which ranked as chief among the Asiatic colonies of Greece, viz.^ An interesting confirmation of this view from the negative side is furnished by the city which ranked as chief among the Asiatic colonies of Greece, viz.

Miletus. .No legend claims for Miletus even a visit from Homer, or a share in the authorship of any Homeric poem.^ No legend claims for Miletus even a visit from Homer, or a share in the authorship of any Homeric poem.

^ If it proves anything, it proves that Cynaethus, who was a Chian and a rhapsodist, made no claim to Homeric descent.

^ Authentic, crystal-clear, explicit with no fudge or fumbling -- -- the Homeric poems are still there waiting to be read again.

.Yet Arctinus of Miletus was said to have been a " disciple of Homer," and was certainly one of the earliest and most considerable of the " Cyclic " poets.^ Yet Arctinus of Miletus was said to have been a " disciple of Homer," and was certainly one of the earliest and most considerable of the " Cyclic " poets.

^ Greeks of the archaic and classical periods looked upon Homer as their greatest, as well one of their earliest poets, and various stories grew up about his life.

^ It will be enough to observe that in the earliest elegiac poets, such as Archilochus , Tyrtaeus and Theognis, reminiscences of Homeric language and thought meet us on every page.

.His Aethiopis was composed as a sequel to the Iliad; and the structure and general character of his poems show that he took the Iliad as his model.^ His Aethiopis was composed as a sequel to the Iliad; and the structure and general character of his poems show that he took the Iliad as his model.

^ An analysis of the structure and vocabulary of the Iliad and Odyssey shows that the poems consist of regular, repeating phrases; even entire verses repeat.

^ A few words remain to be said on the style and general character of the Homeric poems, and on the comparisons which may be made between Homer and analogous poetry in other countries.

.Yet in his case we find no trace of the disputed.^ Yet in his case we find no trace of the disputed.

^ It should be no surprise to find literary scholars "X-raying" documents and tracing Evolution in the world of poetry.

authorship which is so common with other " Cyclic " poems. .How has this come about?^ How has this come about?

.Why have the works of Arctinus escaped the attraction which drew to the name of Homer such epics as the Cypria, the Little Iliad, the Thebaid, the Epigoni, the Taking of Oechalia and the Phocais. The most obvious account of the matter is that Arctinus was never so far forgotten that his poems became the subject of dispute.^ Why have the works of Arctinus escaped the attraction which drew to the name of Homer such epics as the Cypria, the Little Iliad, the Thebaid, the Epigoni, the Taking of Oechalia and the Phocais.

^ The most obvious account of the matter is that Arctinus was never so far forgotten that his poems became the subject of dispute.

^ Works, Life, and Legends Two epic poems are attributed to Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey.
  • Homer Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Homer 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.We seem through him to obtain a glimpse of an early post-Homeric age in Ionia, when the immediate disciples and successors of Homer were distinct figures in a trustworthy tradition - when they had not yet merged their individuality in the legendary " Homer " of the Epic Cycle.^ We seem through him to obtain a glimpse of an early post-Homeric age in Ionia, when the immediate disciples and successors of Homer were distinct figures in a trustworthy tradition - when they had not yet merged their individuality in the legendary " Homer " of the Epic Cycle .

^ It seems, then, that if we imagine Homer as a singer in a royal house of the Homeric age, but with more freedom regarding the limits of his subject, and a more tranquil audience than is allowed him in the rapid movement of the Odyssey, we shall probably not be far from the truth.

^ Albert Lord was the Harvard professor who inherited the Milman Parry recordings of Serbian guslars or folk-poets in the 1930's, and developed the striking argument for a parallel between the post l600 Serbian oral poets and the poets of the Homeric Epic cycles.

Table of contents

Recitation of the Poems

.The recitation of epic poetry was called in historical times " rhapsody " (pai/icpbia). The word pa,bcpS6s is post-Homeric, but was known to Pindar, who gives two different explanations of it - " singer of stitched verse " (pair - r6 EirEwv aocb01), and " singer with the wand " (pa(3b6s). Of these the first is etymologically correct (except that it should rather be " stitcher of verse "); the second was suggested by the fact, for which there is early evidence, that the reciter was accustomed to hold a wand in his hand - perhaps, like the sceptre in the Homeric assembly, as a symbol of the right to a hearing.3 The first notice of rhapsody meets us at Sicyon, in the reign of Cleisthenes (600-560 B.C.), who " put down the rhapsodists on account of the poems of Homer, because they are all about Argos and the Argives " (Hdt.^ Homer : Because if I do it enough maybe they'll start to pay me.
  • The Simpsons Quotes : Homer Simpson | planetclaire.org 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.planetclaire.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Homer : All the time.
  • The Simpsons Quotes : Homer Simpson | planetclaire.org 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.planetclaire.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is something suggestively messianic in all of this.

v. 67). .This description applies very well to the Iliad, in which Argos and Argives occur on almost every page.^ This description applies very well to the Iliad, in which Argos and Argives occur on almost every page .

^ For this particular commentator on Homer's Iliad , Parry's hypothesis about the origins of the Homeric text influenced almost every line I wrote.
  • DIDASKALIA: Ancient Theater Today 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC www.didaskalia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The very idea of nationhood is an incongruity if we apply it to the era when the Iliad and Odyssey took shape.
  • Heroes and the Homeric Iliad 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC www.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It may have suited the Thebaid still better, but there is no need to understand it only of that poem, as Grote does.^ It may have suited the Thebaid still better, but there is no need to understand it only of that poem, as Grote does.

^ The list includes only the first edition of any particular translation and does not include reprints of earlier translations, partial translations, parodies, burlesques, adaptations, or re-workings of the poem.
  • Published English Translations of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ F12] Homer: No matter how good you are at something, there's always about a million people better than you.
  • The Wisdom of Homer Simpson, compiled by Sami Karjalainen 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.samikarjalainen.fi [Source type: Original source]

.The incident shows that the poems of the Ionic Homer had gained in the 6th century B.C., and in the Doric parts of the Peloponnesus, the ascendancy, the national importance and the almost canonical character which they ever afterwards retained.^ The incident shows that the poems of the Ionic Homer had gained in the 6th century B.C., and in the Doric parts of the Peloponnesus , the ascendancy, the national importance and the almost canonical character which they ever afterwards retained.

^ Scholars tried to analyze the two works by various tests, usually to show that they were strung together from older narrative poems.
  • Homer Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Homer 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Homer lived in the ninth century BCE, according to the Greek historian Herodotus, and is credited with the composition of two epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey.

.At Athens there was a law that the Homeric poems should be recited ( 1 5446a-eat) on every occasion of the Panathenaea.^ At Athens there was a law that the Homeric poems should be recited ( 1 5446a-eat ) on every occasion of the Panathenaea .

^ As there is no law in Homer, so there is no morality.

^ He made a law: any singer or bard who came to Athens had to recite all they knew of Homer for the Athenian scribes, who recorded each version and collated them into what we now call the Iliad and Odyssey .

.This law is appealed to as an especial glory of Athens by the orator Lycurgus (Leocr. 102).^ This law is appealed to as an especial glory of Athens by the orator Lycurgus ( Leocr.

^ The only good authorities as to this point are the orators Lycurgus and Isocrates , who mention the law prescribing the recitation, but do not say when or by whom it was enacted.

.Perhaps therefore the custom of public recitation was exceptional, 4 and unfortunately we do not know when or by whom it was introduced.^ Perhaps therefore the custom of public recitation was exceptional, 4 and unfortunately we do not know when or by whom it was introduced.

.The Platonic dialogue Hipparchus attributes it to Hipparchus, son of Peisistratus.^ The Platonic dialogue Hipparchus attributes it to Hipparchus, son of Peisistratus .

^ Again, the Platonic dialogue Hip parchus (which though not genuine is probably earlier than the Alexandrian times) asserts that Hipparchus, son of Peisistratus, first brought the poems to Athens, and obliged the rhapsodists at the Panathenaea to follow the order of the text, " as they still do," instead of reciting portions chosen at will.

^ It was inevitable that later writers should speculate about the authorship of such a law, and that it should be attributed with more or less confidence to Solon or Peisistratus or Hipparchus.

.This, however, is part of the historical romance of Compare the branch of myrtle at an Athenian feast (Aristoph., Nub., 1364).^ This, however, is part of the historical romance of Compare the branch of myrtle at an Athenian feast (Aristoph., Nub., 1364).

.4 The Iliad was also recited at the festival of the Brauronia, at Brauron in Attica (Hesych.^ The Iliad was also recited at the festival of the Brauronia, at Brauron in Attica (Hesych.

s.v. spavpcovioes). which the dialogue mainly consists. .The author makes (perhaps wilfully) all the mistakes about the family of Peisistratus which Thucydides notices in a well-known passage (vi.^ The author makes (perhaps wilfully) all the mistakes about the family of Peisistratus which Thucydides notices in a well-known passage (vi.

^ Well, perhaps all of this has been worthwhile.
  • [4F10] Mountain of Madness 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.snpp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Against the theory which sees in Peisistratus the author of the first complete text of Homer we have to set the absolute silence of Herodotus, Thucydides, the orators and the Alexandrian grammarians.

54-59). .In one point, however, the writer's testimony is valuable.^ In one point, however, the writer's testimony is valuable.

.He tells us that the law required the rhapsodists to recite " taking each other up in order (E v7roXip,GEcos E.r/)e ijs), as they still do."^ He tells us that the law required the rhapsodists to recite " taking each other up in order (E v7roXip,GEcos E.r/)e ijs), as they still do."

^ Again, the Platonic dialogue Hip parchus (which though not genuine is probably earlier than the Alexandrian times) asserts that Hipparchus, son of Peisistratus, first brought the poems to Athens, and obliged the rhapsodists at the Panathenaea to follow the order of the text, " as they still do," instead of reciting portions chosen at will.

^ It was necessary, of course, to divide the poem to be recited into parts, and to compel each contending rhapsodist to take the part assigned to him.

.This recurs in a different form in the statement of Diogenes Laertius (i.^ This recurs in a different form in the statement of Diogenes Laertius (i.

.2.57) that Solon made a law that the poems should be recited " with prompting " (E inro/30Xij).^ Solon made a law that the poems should be recited " with prompting " (E inro/30Xij).

^ It was inevitable that later writers should speculate about the authorship of such a law, and that it should be attributed with more or less confidence to Solon or Peisistratus or Hipparchus.

^ At Athens there was a law that the Homeric poems should be recited ( 1 5446a-eat ) on every occasion of the Panathenaea .

.The question as between Solon and Hipparchus cannot be settled; but it is at least clear that a due order of recitation was secured by the presence of a person charged to give the rhapsodists their cue (uiro(iXXav).^ The question as between Solon and Hipparchus cannot be settled; but it is at least clear that a due order of recitation was secured by the presence of a person charged to give the rhapsodists their cue (uiro(iXXav).

^ Only that Homer was recited in fragments by the rhapsodists, and that these partial recitations were made into a continuous whole by Peisistratus; which does not necessarily mean more than that Peisistratus did what other authorities ascribe to Solon and Hipparchus, viz.

^ Again, the account of the Hipparchus is contradicted by Diogenes Laertius, who says that Solon provided for the due recitation of the Homeric poems.

.It was necessary, of course, to divide the poem to be recited into parts, and to compel each contending rhapsodist to take the part assigned to him.^ It was necessary, of course, to divide the poem to be recited into parts, and to compel each contending rhapsodist to take the part assigned to him.

^ He wanted no part of Beckett, given the seemingly high risk of him taking a fastball off his hands, his rib cage, his head.
  • 1530HOMER.COM - The Official Home of the Bengals 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.1530homer.com [Source type: General]

^ Possibly the division of this poem into two books is a division belonging solely to this `developed poem', which may have included in its second part a summary of the Tale of Troy.
  • OMACL: Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns and Homerica:Introduction 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC omacl.org [Source type: Original source]

.Otherwise they would have chosen favourite or show passages.^ Otherwise they would have chosen favourite or show passages.

.The practice of poets or rhapsodists contending for the prize at the great religious festivals is of considerable antiquity, though apparently post-Homeric.^ The practice of poets or rhapsodists contending for the prize at the great religious festivals is of considerable antiquity, though apparently post-Homeric.

^ The result of the notices now collected is to show that the early history of epic recitation consists of (r) passages in the Homeric hymns showing that poets contended for the prize at the great festivals, (2) the passing mention in Herodotus of rhapsodists at Sicyon, and (3) a law at Athens, of unknown date, regulating the recitation at the Panathenaea.

^ The result of these considerations seems to be that nothing rests on good evidence beyond the fact that Homer was recited by law at the Panathenaic festival.

.It is brought vividly before us in the Hymn to Apollo (see the passage mentioned above), and in two Hymns to Aphrodite (v.^ It is brought vividly before us in the Hymn to Apollo (see the passage mentioned above), and in two Hymns to Aphrodite (v.

^ The latter of these may evidently be taken to belong to Salamis in Cyprus and the festival of the Cyprian Aphrodite, in the same way that the Hymn to Apollo belongs to Delos and the Delian gathering.

^ The "Hymn to Apollo" consists of two parts, which beyond any doubt were originally distinct, a Delian hymn and a Pythian hymn.
  • OMACL: Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns and Homerica:Introduction 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC omacl.org [Source type: Original source]

and ix.). .The latter of these may evidently be taken to belong to Salamis in Cyprus and the festival of the Cyprian Aphrodite, in the same way that the Hymn to Apollo belongs to Delos and the Delian gathering.^ The latter of these may evidently be taken to belong to Salamis in Cyprus and the festival of the Cyprian Aphrodite, in the same way that the Hymn to Apollo belongs to Delos and the Delian gathering.

^ We may explain the Gods of the minor hymns in the same way.

^ So, too, the legend of Anchises in the Hymn to Aphrodite is evidently local; and Aeneas becomes more prominent in the later epics, especially the Cypria and the 'IAiou - of Arctinus.

.The earliest trace of such contests is to be found in the story of Thamyris, the Thracian singer, who boasted that he could conquer even the Muses in song (Il. ii.^ The earliest trace of such contests is to be found in the story of Thamyris, the Thracian singer, who boasted that he could conquer even the Muses in song ( Il.

^ To the north we find the Thracians, known from the stories of Thamyris the singer ( Il.

^ It is Achilles himself who sings the stories of heroes (rcXEa av3p63 v7 in his tent , and Patroclus is waiting ( respondere paratus ), to take up the song in his turn ( Il.

594 ff.) .Much has been made in this part of the subject of a family or clan ('ybos) of Homeridae in the island of Chios.^ Much has been made in this part of the subject of a family or clan ('ybos) of Homeridae in the island of Chios.

.On the one hand, it seemed to follow from the existence of such a family that Homer was a mere " eponymus," or mythical ancestor; on the other hand, it became easy to imagine the Homeric poems handed down orally in a family whose hereditary occupation it was to recite them, possibly to add new episodes from time to time, or to combine their materials in new ways, as their poetical gifts permitted.^ What then is the way into the Homeric Poems?

^ On the one hand, it seemed to follow from the existence of such a family that Homer was a mere " eponymus," or mythical ancestor; on the other hand, it became easy to imagine the Homeric poems handed down orally in a family whose hereditary occupation it was to recite them, possibly to add new episodes from time to time, or to combine their materials in new ways, as their poetical gifts permitted.

^ The Margites - a humorous poem which kept its ground as the reputed work of Homer down to the time of Aristotle - began with the words, " There came to Colophon an old man, a divine singer, servant of the Muses and Apollo."

.But, although there is no reason to doubt the existence of a family of " Homeridae," it is far from certain that they had anything to do with Homeric poetry.^ As there is no law in Homer, so there is no morality.

^ But, although there is no reason to doubt the existence of a family of " Homeridae," it is far from certain that they had anything to do with Homeric poetry.

^ Is there anything they can't do?
  • Homer Simpson Quotes of Wisdom - Page 1 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.The word occurs first in Pindar (Nem. 2.2), who applies it to the rhapsodists (` Op p15at pa1rrcm, EirEwz' aot501). On this a scholiast says that the name "Homeridae " denoted originally descendants of Homer, who sang his poems in succession, but afterwards was applied to rhapsodists who did not claim descent from him.^ The word occurs first in Pindar ( Nem.

^ Op p15at pa1rrcm, EirEwz' aot501).

^ On this a scholiast says that the name "Homeridae " denoted originally descendants of Homer, who sang his poems in succession, but afterwards was applied to rhapsodists who did not claim descent from him.

.He adds that there was a famous rhapsodist, Cynaethus of Chios, who was said to be the author of the Hymn to Apollo, and to have first recited Homer at Syracuse about the 69th Olympiad.^ He adds that there was a famous rhapsodist, Cynaethus of Chios, who was said to be the author of the Hymn to Apollo, and to have first recited Homer at Syracuse about the 69th Olympiad .

^ Homer : Who told you about them?
  • Homer Simpson Quotes of Wisdom - Page 6 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If it proves anything, it proves that Cynaethus, who was a Chian and a rhapsodist, made no claim to Homeric descent.

.Nothing here connects the Homeridae with Chios.^ Nothing here connects the Homeridae with Chios.

.The statement of the scholiast is evidently a mere inference from the patronymic form of the word.^ The statement of the scholiast is evidently a mere inference from the patronymic form of the word.

.If it proves anything, it proves that Cynaethus, who was a Chian and a rhapsodist, made no claim to Homeric descent.^ F08] ***Homer: Aw, people can come up with statistics to prove anything, Kent.
  • The Wisdom of Homer Simpson, compiled by Sami Karjalainen 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.samikarjalainen.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ F03] Homer: Facts are meaningless, you can use facts to prove anything that's remotely true!
  • The Wisdom of Homer Simpson, compiled by Sami Karjalainen 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.samikarjalainen.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ On May 30, 2003, Homer was made an honorary citizen of Winnipeg, Canada , in recognition of Matt Groening 's father Homer Groening, who is believed to be from the Manitoba capital.
  • Homer Jay Simpson - Simpsons Wiki 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC simpsons.wikia.com [Source type: General]

.On the other hand our knowledge of Chian Homeridae comes chiefly from the lexicon of Harpocration, where we are told that Acusilaus and Hellanicus said that they were so called from the poet; whereas Seleucus pronounced this to be an error.^ On the other hand our knowledge of Chian Homeridae comes chiefly from the lexicon of Harpocration, where we are told that Acusilaus and Hellanicus said that they were so called from the poet; whereas Seleucus pronounced this to be an error.

^ Also, I agree with others who said they'd like to know what the burglar looked like.
  • Night of the Hunter - Gwen Cooper - Open Salon 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And they bade Iris call her aside from white-armed Hera, lest she might afterwards turn her from coming with her words.
  • Classical E-Text: THE HOMERIC HYMNS 1 - 3 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

.Strabo also says that the Chians put forward the Homeridae as an argument in support of their claim to Homer.^ Strabo also says that the Chians put forward the Homeridae as an argument in support of their claim to Homer.

^ If it proves anything, it proves that Cynaethus, who was a Chian and a rhapsodist, made no claim to Homeric descent.

^ Not that the " Wolfian theory " of the Homeric poems is directly supported by anything in the Scholia; the immediate object of the Prolegomena was not to put forward that theory, but to elucidate the new and remarkable conditions under which the text of Homer had to be settled, viz.

.These Homeridae, then, belonged to Chios, but there is no indication of their being rhapsodists.^ These Homeridae, then, belonged to Chios, but there is no indication of their being rhapsodists.

^ But, although there is no reason to doubt the existence of a family of " Homeridae," it is far from certain that they had anything to do with Homeric poetry.

^ He adds that there was a famous rhapsodist, Cynaethus of Chios, who was said to be the author of the Hymn to Apollo, and to have first recited Homer at Syracuse about the 69th Olympiad .

.On the contrary, Plato and other Attic writers use the word to include interpreters and admirers - in short, the whole " spiritual kindred " - of Homer.^ On the contrary, Plato and other Attic writers use the word to include interpreters and admirers - in short, the whole " spiritual kindred " - of Homer.

^ There are doubtless many Homeric forms which were unknown to the later Ionic and Attic, and which are found in Aeolic or other dialects.

^ The Homeric uses of tip and are different in several respects from the Attic, the general result being that the Homeric syntax is more elastic.

.And although we hear of " descendants of Creophylus " as in possession of the Homeric poems, there is no similar story about descendants of Homer himself.^ As there is no law in Homer, so there is no morality.

^ And although we hear of " descendants of Creophylus " as in possession of the Homeric poems, there is no similar story about descendants of Homer himself.

^ There is no evidence that Wolf ever visited England, but it would take no stretch of the imagination to assume that a young schoolmaster with philological Trauemerei on his mind, would hear of a new book with novel views on Homer published in England and get himself a copy.

.Such is the evidence on which so many inferences are based.^ Such is the evidence on which so many inferences are based.

.The result of the notices now collected is to show that the early history of epic recitation consists of (r) passages in the Homeric hymns showing that poets contended for the prize at the great festivals, (2) the passing mention in Herodotus of rhapsodists at Sicyon, and (3) a law at Athens, of unknown date, regulating the recitation at the Panathenaea.^ The practice of poets or rhapsodists contending for the prize at the great religious festivals is of considerable antiquity, though apparently post-Homeric.

^ The date of the formation of the collection as such is unknown.
  • OMACL: Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns and Homerica:Introduction 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC omacl.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The result of the notices now collected is to show that the early history of epic recitation consists of (r) passages in the Homeric hymns showing that poets contended for the prize at the great festivals, (2) the passing mention in Herodotus of rhapsodists at Sicyon, and (3) a law at Athens, of unknown date, regulating the recitation at the Panathenaea.

.Let us now compare these data with the account given in the Homeric poems.^ Homer: I can understand how they wouldn't let in those wild jungle apes, but what about those really smart ones who live among us?
  • The Wisdom of Homer Simpson, compiled by Sami Karjalainen 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.samikarjalainen.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ When Aeneas looks at these images, he foreshadows his admiration, later in the poem, of his own shield: he is so much more conscious the connoisseur than Homer’s Achilles.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Similarly, without Ovid, Dante would not be the poet-hero of his own poem, and without Virgil and ultimately Homer, Ovid would not be the self-conscious epic poet so familiar to us.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

The word " rhapsode " does not yet exist; we hear only of the singer " (aoc56s), who does not carry a wand or laurel-branch, but the lyre (40pyry), with which he accompanies his "song." In the Iliad even the epic " singer " is not met with. .It is Achilles himself who sings the stories of heroes (rcXEa av3p63 v7 in his tent, and Patroclus is waiting (respondere paratus), to take up the song in his turn (Il. ix.^ It is Achilles himself who sings the stories of heroes (rcXEa av3p63 v7 in his tent , and Patroclus is waiting ( respondere paratus ), to take up the song in his turn ( Il.

^ Also they can imitate the tongues of all men and their clattering speech: each would say that he himself were singing, so close to truth is their sweet song.
  • Classical E-Text: THE HOMERIC HYMNS 1 - 3 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The scene of the poem is a real place, and the poet sings (as Ulysses says of Demodocus) as though he had been present himself, or had heard from one who had been.

191). .Again we do not hear of poetical contests (except in the story of Thamyris already mentioned) or of recitation of epic poetry at festivals.^ Again we do not hear of poetical contests (except in the story of Thamyris already mentioned) or of recitation of epic poetry at festivals.

^ We can only suppose that the lyre in the hands of the epic poet or reciter was in reality a piece of convention, a " survival " from the stage in which narrative poetry had a lyrical character.

^ The recitation of epic poetry was called in historical times " rhapsody " ( pai/icpbia).

.The Odyssey gives us pictures of two great houses, and each has its singer.^ The Odyssey gives us pictures of two great houses, and each has its singer.

^ Right blessed is he among men on earth whom they freely love: soon they do send Plutus as guest to his great house, Plutus who gives wealth to mortal men.
  • Classical E-Text: THE HOMERIC HYMNS 1 - 3 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The ninth and tenth seem like two independent pictures of the night before the great battle of xi.-xvii.

.The song is on a subject taken from the Trojan war, at some point chosen by the singer himself, or by his hearers.^ The song is on a subject taken from the Trojan war, at some point chosen by the singer himself, or by his hearers.

^ W. Grimm has pointed out that the behaviour of Ulysses in that story is senseless and foolhardy, utterly beneath the wise and much-enduring Ulysses of the Trojan war.

^ The reason is simple; he is not the Ulysses of the Trojan war, but a being of the same world as Polyphemus himself - the world of giants and ogres.

.Phemius pleases the suitors by singing of the calamitous return of the Greeks; Demodocus sings of a quarrel between Ulysses and Achilles, and afterwards of the wooden horse and the capture of Troy.^ Phemius pleases the suitors by singing of the calamitous return of the Greeks; Demodocus sings of a quarrel between Ulysses and Achilles, and afterwards of the wooden horse and the capture of Troy.

^ The scene of the poem is a real place, and the poet sings (as Ulysses says of Demodocus) as though he had been present himself, or had heard from one who had been.

^ Then follow the incidents connected with the gathering of the Achaeans and their ultimate landing in Troy; and the story of the war is detailed up to the quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon with which the "Iliad" begins.
  • OMACL: Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns and Homerica:Introduction 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC omacl.org [Source type: Original source]

.It may be granted that the author of the Odyssey can hardly have been just such a singer as he himself describes.^ It may be granted that the author of the Odyssey can hardly have been just such a singer as he himself describes.

^ The singer, too, who is so prominent a figure in the Odyssey can hardly be thought to be absent from the Iliad merely because the scene is laid in a camp.

.The songs of Phemius and Demodocus are too short, and have too much the character of improvisations.^ The songs of Phemius and Demodocus are too short, and have too much the character of improvisations.

.Nor is it necessary to suppose that epic poetry, at the time to which the picture in the Odyssey belongs, was confined to the one type represented.^ Nor is it necessary to suppose that epic poetry, at the time to which the picture in the Odyssey belongs, was confined to the one type represented.

^ We can only suppose that the lyre in the hands of the epic poet or reciter was in reality a piece of convention, a " survival " from the stage in which narrative poetry had a lyrical character.

^ In general, however, these are older forms, which must have existed in Ionic at one time, and may very well have belonged to the Ionic of Homer's time.

.Yet in several respects the conditions under which the singer finds himself in the house of a chieftain like Odysseus or Alcinous are more in harmony with the character of Homeric poetry than those of the later rhapsodic contests.^ Yet in several respects the conditions under which the singer finds himself in the house of a chieftain like Odysseus or Alcinous are more in harmony with the character of Homeric poetry than those of the later rhapsodic contests.

^ A pity more is not written about Princess Ktimene -- Odysseus' sister -- unfortunately Homer refers to her but once and has her given away to a Samian prince.

^ It seems, then, that if we imagine Homer as a singer in a royal house of the Homeric age, but with more freedom regarding the limits of his subject, and a more tranquil audience than is allowed him in the rapid movement of the Odyssey, we shall probably not be far from the truth.

.The subdivision of a poem like the Iliad or Odyssey among different and necessarily unequal performers must have been injurious to the effect.^ The subdivision of a poem like the Iliad or Odyssey among different and necessarily unequal performers must have been injurious to the effect.

^ Homer lived in the ninth century BCE, according to the Greek historian Herodotus, and is credited with the composition of two epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey.

^ All these reasons justify the view that the poems with which we now have to deal were later than the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", and if we must recognize the possibility of some conventionality in the received dating, we may feel confident that it is at least approximately just.
  • OMACL: Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns and Homerica:Introduction 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC omacl.org [Source type: Original source]

.The highly theatrical manner of recitation which was fostered by the spirit of competition, and by the example of the stage, cannot have done justice to the even movement of the epic style.^ The highly theatrical manner of recitation which was fostered by the spirit of competition, and by the example of the stage, cannot have done justice to the even movement of the epic style .

.It is not certain indeed that the practice of reciting a long poem by the agency of several competitors was ancient, or that it prevailed elsewhere than at Athens; but as rhapsodists were numerous, and popular favour throughout Greece became more and more confined to one or two great works, it must have become almost a necessity.^ It is not certain indeed that the practice of reciting a long poem by the agency of several competitors was ancient, or that it prevailed elsewhere than at Athens; but as rhapsodists were numerous, and popular favour throughout Greece became more and more confined to one or two great works, it must have become almost a necessity.

^ Each one is more disturbing than the last.

^ That day you shall no more prevail on me than this dry wood shall flourish—driven though you are and though a thousand men perish before the killer, Hektor.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.That it was the mode of recitation contemplated by the author of the Iliad or Odyssey it is impossible to believe.^ That it was the mode of recitation contemplated by the author of the Iliad or Odyssey it is impossible to believe.

^ Recitation of the Poems 2 Time and Place of Homer 3 Structure of the Iliad 4 Structure of the Odyssey 5 Chorizontes 6 Style of Homer 7 Analogies 8 Bibliography .

.The difference made by substituting the wand or branch of laurel for the lyre of the Homeric singer is a slighter one, though not without significance.^ The difference made by substituting the wand or branch of laurel for the lyre of the Homeric singer is a slighter one, though not without significance.

^ The word pa,bcpS6s is post-Homeric, but was known to Pindar , who gives two different explanations of it - " singer of stitched verse " ( pair - r6 EirEwv aocb01 ), and " singer with the wand " ( pa(3b6s).

^ One does not have to be an established critic to see that between Homer and Vergil there are vast differences, and it is the differences which Vergil was quietly exploring.

.The recitation of the Hesiodic poems was from the first unaccompanied by the lyre, i.e. they were confessedly said, not sung; and it was natural that the example should be extended to Homer.^ The recitation of the Hesiodic poems was from the first unaccompanied by the lyre, i.e.

^ It was equally natural that the importance of his work as regards the text of Homer should be exaggerated.

^ In addition to the Homeric Hymns the volume also contains Hesiod's Theogony, Works and Days, Shield of Heracles, Hesiodic fragments, and fragments of the Epic Cycle poems.
  • Classical E-Text: THE HOMERIC HYMNS 1 - 3 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

.For it is difficult to believe that the Homeric poems were ever " sung " in the strict sense of the word.^ For it is difficult to believe that the Homeric poems were ever " sung " in the strict sense of the word.

^ A few words remain to be said on the style and general character of the Homeric poems, and on the comparisons which may be made between Homer and analogous poetry in other countries.

.We can only suppose that the lyre in the hands of the epic poet or reciter was in reality a piece of convention, a " survival " from the stage in which narrative poetry had a lyrical character.^ We can only suppose that the lyre in the hands of the epic poet or reciter was in reality a piece of convention, a " survival " from the stage in which narrative poetry had a lyrical character.

^ They are epic in character, and were recited by professional jongleurs (who may be compared to the aouSoi of Homer).

^ This, then, is the plausible explanation of most of the brief Hymns—they were preludes to epic recitations—but the question as to the long narrative Hymns with which the collection opens is different.

.Probably the poets of the Homeric school - that which dealt with war and adventure - were the genuine descendants of minstrels whose " lays " or " ballads " were the amusement of the feasts in an earlier heroic age; whereas the Hesiodic compositions were non-lyrical from the first, and were only in verse because that was the universal form of literature.^ Probably the poets of the Homeric school - that which dealt with war and adventure - were the genuine descendants of minstrels whose " lays " or " ballads " were the amusement of the feasts in an earlier heroic age; whereas the Hesiodic compositions were non-lyrical from the first, and were only in verse because that was the universal form of literature.

^ In fact, Herodotus , the fifth century historian, says that Homer and Hesiod , an epic poet contemporary with Homer, first named the gods, determined their honors and functions and devised their physical appearance (2.53).
  • Homer's Iliad 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC ablemedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ War was still a major social function everywhere but it was politically based and executed by armies of nameless conscripts or mercenaries, with none of the intensity of Homer's fighting heroes.

.It seems, then, that if we imagine Homer as a singer in a royal house of the Homeric age, but with more freedom regarding the limits of his subject, and a more tranquil audience than is allowed him in the rapid movement of the Odyssey, we shall probably not be far from the truth.^ The Odyssey is more than a grand adventure.

^ It seems, then, that if we imagine Homer as a singer in a royal house of the Homeric age, but with more freedom regarding the limits of his subject, and a more tranquil audience than is allowed him in the rapid movement of the Odyssey, we shall probably not be far from the truth.

^ We seem through him to obtain a glimpse of an early post-Homeric age in Ionia, when the immediate disciples and successors of Homer were distinct figures in a trustworthy tradition - when they had not yet merged their individuality in the legendary " Homer " of the Epic Cycle .

Time and Place of Homer

.The oldest direct references to the Iliad and Odyssey are in Herodotus, who quotes from both poems (ii.^ The oldest direct references to the Iliad and Odyssey are in Herodotus, who quotes from both poems (ii.

^ Homer lived in the ninth century BCE, according to the Greek historian Herodotus, and is credited with the composition of two epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey.

^ An analysis of the structure and vocabulary of the Iliad and Odyssey shows that the poems consist of regular, repeating phrases; even entire verses repeat.

53). The quotation from the Iliad is of interest because it is made in order to show that Homer supported the story of the travels of Paris to Egypt and Sidon (whereas the Cyclic poem called the Cypria ignored them), and also because the part of the Iliad from which it comes is cited as the " Aristeia of Diomede." This was therefore a recognized part of the poem.
.The earliest mention of the name of Homer is found in a fragment of the philosopher Xenophanes (of the 6th century B.e., or possibly earlier), who complains of the false notions implanted through the teaching of Homer.^ The earliest mention of the name of Homer is found in a fragment of the philosopher Xenophanes (of the 6th century B.e., or possibly earlier), who complains of the false notions implanted through the teaching of Homer.

^ If Giotto’s Socratic persona in Boccaccio is well understood, it’s all the more essential to reiterate that the deep roots of this bemocked image of the artist are to be found earlier, in Homer.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We might also mention here Paris who, Homer tells us, built his own palace with the help of others, master builders as the poet calls them.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The passage shows, not merely that Homer was well known at Colophon in the time of Xenophanes, but also that the great advance in moral and religious ideas which forced Plato to banish Homer from his republic had made itself felt in the days of the early Ionic philosophers.^ The passage shows, not merely that Homer was well known at Colophon in the time of Xenophanes, but also that the great advance in moral and religious ideas which forced Plato to banish Homer from his republic had made itself felt in the days of the early Ionic philosophers.

^ Moral feeling, indeed, existed and was denoted by " Aidos "; but the numerous meanings of this word - shame, veneration, pity - show how rudimentary the idea was.

^ The author makes (perhaps wilfully) all the mistakes about the family of Peisistratus which Thucydides notices in a well-known passage (vi.

.Failing external testimony, the time and place of the Homeric poems can only be determined (if at all) by internal evidence.^ Homer : All the time.
  • The Simpsons Quotes : Homer Simpson | planetclaire.org 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.planetclaire.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Failing external testimony, the time and place of the Homeric poems can only be determined (if at all) by internal evidence.

^ The overall effect of Homer’s appreciation of Agamemnon’s arms is splendid in the totality of its details, even as we are impressed by their place in the context of the poem.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This is of two main kinds: (a) evidence of history, consisting in a comparison of the political and social condition, the geography, the institutions, the manners, arts and ideas of Homer with those of other times; (b) evidence of language, consisting in a comparison with later dialects, in respect of grammar and vocabulary.^ This is of two main kinds: (a) evidence of history, consisting in a comparison of the political and social condition, the geography , the institutions, the manners, arts and ideas of Homer with those of other times; ( b ) evidence of language, consisting in a comparison with later dialects, in respect of grammar and vocabulary.

^ Thus we find in Homer, but not in the later language (a) The second aorist middle without the " thematic " E or as g - was struck; Ec/Oc-ro, perished; aA-To, leaped.

^ No fragments which can be identified as belonging to the first period survive to give us even a general idea of the history of the earliest epic, and we are therefore thrown back upon the evidence of analogy from other forms of literature and of inference from the two great epics which have come down to us.
  • OMACL: Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns and Homerica:Introduction 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC omacl.org [Source type: Original source]

.To these may be added, as occasionally of value, (c) much evidence of the direct influence of Homer upon the subsequent course of literature and art.^ To these may be added, as occasionally of value, ( c ) much evidence of the direct influence of Homer upon the subsequent course of literature and art.

^ As the dialect of the Arno in Italy , of Castille in Spain , by the virtue of the genius of the singers who used them, became literary " Italian " and " Spanish," so this variety of Achaean elevated itself to the position of the volgare illustre of Greece)] (T. W. A.) ( c ) The influence of Homer upon the subsequent course of Greek literature is a large subject, even if we restrict it to the centuries which immediately followed the Homeric age.

^ Scholars of ancient art history and of classical literature know full well that when Homer sings of Achilles’ shield and other works of art he is responding poetically to the facts of art history, no matter how much these facts are transformed.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.(a) The political condition of Greece in the earliest times known to history is separated from the Greece of Homer by an interval which can hardly be overestimated.^ The political condition of Greece in the earliest times known to history is separated from the Greece of Homer by an interval which can hardly be overestimated.

^ While the political centre of Homeric Greece is at Mycenae, the real centre is rather to be found in Boeotia .

^ It has been supposed indeed that the art of riding was known in Homer's own time, because it occurs in comparisons.

The great national. names are different: instead of .Achaeans, Argives, Danai, we find Hellenes, subdivided into Dorians, Ionians, Aeolians - names either unknown to Homer, or mentioned in terms more significant than silence.^ Achaeans , Argives, Danai, we find Hellenes, subdivided into Dorians , Ionians, Aeolians - names either unknown to Homer, or mentioned in terms more significant than silence.

^ There are certainly far more students now reading Homer in English than there were in Greek throughout the l9th century, when Greek was mandatory for a college education.

^ Although Homer’s descriptions of architecture are more evocative than detailed, he nonetheless offers us some suggestive particulars.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.At the dawn of Greek history Mycenae is no longer the seat of empire; new empires, polities and civilizations have grown up - Sparta with its military discipline, Delphi with its religious supremacy, Miletus with its commerce and numberless colonies, Aeolis and Ionia, Sicily and Magna Graecia.^ At the dawn of Greek history Mycenae is no longer the seat of empire; new empires, polities and civilizations have grown up - Sparta with its military discipline, Delphi with its religious supremacy, Miletus with its commerce and numberless colonies, Aeolis and Ionia, Sicily and Magna Graecia .

^ The eastern shores of the Aegean, which the earliest historical records represent to us as the seat of a brilliant civilization, giving way before the advance of the great military empires (Lydia and afterwards Persia ), are almost a blank in Homer's map .

^ These indications render it probable that the stories connecting Homer with different cities and islands grew up after his poems had become known and famous, especially in the new and flourishing colonies of Aeolis and Ionia .

.While the political centre of Homeric Greece is at Mycenae, the real centre is rather to be found in Boeotia.^ While the political centre of Homeric Greece is at Mycenae, the real centre is rather to be found in Boeotia .

^ The political condition of Greece in the earliest times known to history is separated from the Greece of Homer by an interval which can hardly be overestimated.

^ As Hephaistos the cripple may speak to a reality about lame smiths, so the blindness of Demodocus and Homer touches an ancient intuition about the powers of blind minstrels and blind prophets of ancient Greece.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Catalogue of the Ships begins with Boeotia; the list of Boeotian towns is much the longest; and they sail, not from the bay of Argos, but from the Boeotian harbour of Aulis.^ The Catalogue of the Ships begins with Boeotia; the list of Boeotian towns is much the longest; and they sail , not from the bay of Argos, but from the Boeotian harbour of Aulis .

.This position is not due to its chiefs, who are all of inferior rank.^ This position is not due to its chiefs, who are all of inferior rank.

.The importance of Boeotia for Greek civilization is further shown by the ancient worship of the Muses on Mount Helicon, and the fact that the oldest poet whose birthplace was known was the Boeotian Hesiod.^ The importance of Boeotia for Greek civilization is further shown by the ancient worship of the Muses on Mount Helicon , and the fact that the oldest poet whose birthplace was known was the Boeotian Hesiod.

.Next to Boeotia and the neighbouring countries, it appears that the Peloponnesus, Crete and Thessaly were the most important seats of Greek population.^ Next to Boeotia and the neighbouring countries, it appears that the Peloponnesus, Crete and Thessaly were the most important seats of Greek population.

^ It is at least remarkable that a legend of the national interest of the " tale of Troy " should be so definitely localized, and that in a district which was never famous as a seat of Greek population.

^ Of the studies in the same field which have appeared since, the most important are: Aug.

.In the Peloponnesus the face of things was completely altered by the Dorian conquest, no trace of which is found in Homer.^ In the Peloponnesus the face of things was completely altered by the Dorian conquest, no trace of which is found in Homer.

^ The fact that there are so many traces of it in Homer is a strong proof of the antiquity of the poems, but no proof of admixture with Aeolic.

^ II. The Genealogical Poems: The only complete poem of the genealogical group is the "Theogony", which traces from the beginning of things the descent and vicissitudes of the families of the gods.
  • OMACL: Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns and Homerica:Introduction 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC omacl.org [Source type: Original source]

.The only Dorians known in Homer are those that the Odyssey (xix.^ The only Dorians known in Homer are those that the Odyssey (xix.

^ He noticed especially the difference between the stories known to Homer and those given by later poets, and made many comparisons between Homeric and later manners, arts and institutions.

^ For instance, the word 4 6/30s, which in Homer means " flight in battle " (not " fear "), occurs thirty-nine times in the Iliad, and only once in the Odyssey; but then there are no battles in the Odyssey.

177) places in Crete. .It is difficult to connect them with the Dorians of history.^ It is difficult to connect them with the Dorians of history.

.The eastern shores of the Aegean, which the earliest historical records represent to us as the seat of a brilliant civilization, giving way before the advance of the great military empires (Lydia and afterwards Persia), are almost a blank in Homer's map.^ The eastern shores of the Aegean, which the earliest historical records represent to us as the seat of a brilliant civilization, giving way before the advance of the great military empires (Lydia and afterwards Persia ), are almost a blank in Homer's map .

^ It is also a great work of artful military strategy and thus deserves a special place in the pantheon of Homeric masterpieces along with Hephaistos’ shield for Achilles.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Homer reopens the front door, before giving up.
  • [4F10] Mountain of Madness 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.snpp.com [Source type: Original source]

.The line of settlements can be traced in the Catalogue from Crete to Rhodes, and embraces the neighbouring islands of Cos and Calymnos.^ The line of settlements can be traced in the Catalogue from Crete to Rhodes , and embraces the neighbouring islands of Cos and Calymnos.

.The colonization of Rhodes by Tlepolemus is related (Il. ii.^ The colonization of Rhodes by Tlepolemus is related ( Il.

661 ff.), and seems to mark the farthest point reached in the Homeric age. .Between Rhodes and the Troad Homer knows of but one city, Miletus - which is a Carian ally of Troy - and the mouth of one river, the Cayster.^ Homer : Uh, you know, pretty ones, not dead.
  • Homer Simpson Quotes of Wisdom - Page 6 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She is now five years old and about 5-6 pounds, the big difference between her and Homer is that she is very much a one person cat but she loves to "stare" at people.
  • Night of the Hunter - Gwen Cooper - Open Salon 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

.Even the Cyclades - Naxos, Paros, Melos - are unknown to the Homeric world.^ Even the Cyclades - Naxos, Paros , Melos - are unknown to the Homeric world.

.The disposition of the Greeks to look to the west for the centres of religious feeling appears in the mention of Dodona and the Dodonaean Zeus, put in the mouth of the Thessalian Achilles.^ The disposition of the Greeks to look to the west for the centres of religious feeling appears in the mention of Dodona and the Dodonaean Zeus , put in the mouth of the Thessalian Achilles.

.To the north we find the Thracians, known from the stories of Thamyris the singer (Il. ii.^ To the north we find the Thracians, known from the stories of Thamyris the singer ( Il.

^ The Greeks, therefore, may have evolved the legend long before Homer’s day, and he may have known the story which he does not find occasion to tell.

^ The earliest trace of such contests is to be found in the story of Thamyris, the Thracian singer, who boasted that he could conquer even the Muses in song ( Il.

.595), and Lycurgus, the enemy of the young god Dionysus (Il. vi.^ Lycurgus, the enemy of the young god Dionysus ( Il.

130). .Here the Trojan empire begins.^ Here the Trojan empire begins.

.It does not appear, however, that the Trojans are thought of as people of a different language.^ It does not appear, however, that the Trojans are thought of as people of a different language.

^ It has been thought indeed that the Homeric dialect was a mixed one, mainly Ionic, but containing Aeolic and even Doric forms; this, however, is a mistaken view of the processes of language.

.As this is expressly said of the Carians, and of the Trojan allies who were " summoned from afar," the contrary rather is implied regarding Troy itself.^ As this is expressly said of the Carians, and of the Trojan allies who were " summoned from afar," the contrary rather is implied regarding Troy itself.

^ Between Rhodes and the Troad Homer knows of but one city, Miletus - which is a Carian ally of Troy - and the mouth of one river, the Cayster.

^ So said Phoebus, the long-haired god who shoots afar and began to walk upon the wide-pathed earth; and all goddesses were amazed at him.
  • Classical E-Text: THE HOMERIC HYMNS 1 - 3 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

.The mixed type of government described by Homer - consisting of a king guided by a council of elders, and bringing all important resolutions before the assembly of the fighting men - does not seem to have been universal in Indo-European communities, but to have grown up in many different parts of the world under the stress of similar conditions.^ The mixed type of government described by Homer - consisting of a king guided by a council of elders, and bringing all important resolutions before the assembly of the fighting men - does not seem to have been universal in Indo-European communities, but to have grown up in many different parts of the world under the stress of similar conditions.

^ Moreover, these marvels - which in their original form are doubtless as old as anything in the Iliad, since in fact they are part of the vast stock of popular tales ( Mdrehen ) diffused all over the world - are mixed up in the Odyssey with the heroes of the Trojan war.

^ Lastly, at least those kids are grown up enough to have a different opinion without resorting to completely immature name-calling.
  • Watching: 2101 Homer the Whopper | Watch The Simpsons Online - FREE! 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.wtso.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The king is the commander in war, and the office probably owed its existence to military necessities.^ The king is the commander in war, and the office probably owed its existence to military necessities.

.It is not surrounded with any special sacredness.^ It is not surrounded with any special sacredness.

.There were ruling families, laying claim to divine descent, from whom the king was naturally chosen, but his own fitness is the essence of his title.^ There were ruling families, laying claim to divine descent, from whom the king was naturally chosen, but his own fitness is the essence of his title.

^ God, for each family with this claim a myth of a separate divine amour was needed.

.The aged Laertes is set aside; the young Telemachus does not succeed as a matter of course.^ The aged Laertes is set aside; the young Telemachus does not succeed as a matter of course.

.Nor are any very definite rights attached to the office.^ Nor are any very definite rights attached to the office.

.Each tribe in the army before Troy was commanded by its own king (or kings); but Agamemnon was supreme, and was "more a king" (0avnXELmpos) than any other.^ Each tribe in the army before Troy was commanded by its own king (or kings); but Agamemnon was supreme, and was "more a king" (0avnXELmpos) than any other.

^ That day you shall no more prevail on me than this dry wood shall flourish—driven though you are and though a thousand men perish before the killer, Hektor.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His command isn't good, and he's more thrower than pitcher, with a very loose arm that makes the velocity come out easily.
  • 1530HOMER.COM - The Official Home of the Bengals 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.1530homer.com [Source type: General]

.The assembly is summoned on all critical occasions, and its approval is the ultimate sanction.^ The assembly is summoned on all critical occasions, and its approval is the ultimate sanction.

.A king therefore stands in almost as much need of oratory as of warlike skill and prowess.^ A king therefore stands in almost as much need of oratory as of warlike skill and prowess.

.Even the division of the spoil is not made in the Iliad by Agamemnon, but by " the Achaeans " (Il. i.^ Even the division of the spoil is not made in the Iliad by Agamemnon, but by " the Achaeans " ( Il.

^ No, not even King Agamemnon himself, foremost of Achaeans, commander of kings."

162, 368). .The taking of BriseIs from Achilles was an arbitrary act, and against all rule and custom.^ The taking of BriseIs from Achilles was an arbitrary act, and against all rule and custom.

.The council is more difficult to understand.^ The council is more difficult to understand.

.The "elders" (*ovrES) of the Iliad are the same as the subordinate " kings "; they are summoned by Agamemnon to his tent, and form a small council of nine or ten persons.^ The "elders" ( *ovrES ) of the Iliad are the same as the subordinate " kings "; they are summoned by Agamemnon to his tent, and form a small council of nine or ten persons.

^ It would seem therefore that the meeting in Agamemnon's tent was only a copy or adaptation of the true constitutional " council of elders," which indeed was essentially unfitted for the purposes of military service.

.In Troy we hear of elders of the people (577 1 .to-ypovms) who are with Priam, and are men past the military age.^ In Troy we hear of elders of the people ( 577 1 .to-ypovms ) who are with Priam , and are men past the military age.

^ So in Ithaca there are elders who have not gone to Troy with the army.

.So in Ithaca there are elders who have not gone to Troy with the army.^ So in Ithaca there are elders who have not gone to Troy with the army.

^ In Troy we hear of elders of the people ( 577 1 .to-ypovms ) who are with Priam , and are men past the military age.

.It would seem therefore that the meeting in Agamemnon's tent was only a copy or adaptation of the true constitutional " council of elders," which indeed was essentially unfitted for the purposes of military service.^ It would seem therefore that the meeting in Agamemnon's tent was only a copy or adaptation of the true constitutional " council of elders," which indeed was essentially unfitted for the purposes of military service.

^ The "elders" ( *ovrES ) of the Iliad are the same as the subordinate " kings "; they are summoned by Agamemnon to his tent, and form a small council of nine or ten persons.

The king's palace, if we may judge from Tiryns and Mycenae, was usually in a strong situation on an " acropolis." In the later times of democracy the acropolis was reserved for the temples of the principal gods.
.Priesthood in Homer is found in the case of particular temples, where an officer is naturally wanted to take charge of the sacred inclosure and the sacrifices offered within it.^ Priesthood in Homer is found in the case of particular temples, where an officer is naturally wanted to take charge of the sacred inclosure and the sacrifices offered within it.

^ This has been especially noticed in the case of the story of Polyphemus , one that is found in many countries, and in versions which cannot all be derived from Homer.

^ Although Homer’s descriptions of architecture are more evocative than detailed, he nonetheless offers us some suggestive particulars.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It is perhaps an accident that we do not hear of priests in Ithaca.^ It is perhaps an accident that we do not hear of priests in Ithaca.

.Agamemnon performs sacrifice himself, not because a priestly character was attached to the kingly office, but simply because he was " master in his own house."^ Agamemnon performs sacrifice himself, not because a priestly character was attached to the kingly office, but simply because he was " master in his own house."

.The conception of " law " is foreign to Homer.^ The conception of " law " is foreign to Homer.

.The later words for it (voµos, pi p -pa) are unknown, and the terms which he uses (311cn and 6Eµts) mean merely " custom."^ The later words for it ( voµos, pi p -pa ) are unknown, and the terms which he uses (311cn and 6Eµts ) mean merely " custom."

.Judicial functions are in the hands of the elders, who " have to do with suits " (Sucao'ir6Xot), and " uphold judgments " (Nyt6Tas Edpbarat). On such matters as the compensation in cases of homicide, it is evident that there were no rules, but merely a feeling, created by use and wont, that the relatives of the slain man should be willing to accept payment.^ On such matters as the compensation in cases of homicide , it is evident that there were no rules, but merely a feeling, created by use and wont, that the relatives of the slain man should be willing to accept payment.

^ Further proof there is no such thing as a destination job.
  • 1530HOMER.COM - The Official Home of the Bengals 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.1530homer.com [Source type: General]

^ F12] Homer: No matter how good you are at something, there's always about a million people better than you.
  • The Wisdom of Homer Simpson, compiled by Sami Karjalainen 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.samikarjalainen.fi [Source type: Original source]

.The sense of anger which follows a violation of custom has the name of " Nemesis " - righteous displeasure.^ The sense of anger which follows a violation of custom has the name of " Nemesis " - righteous displeasure.

.As there is no law in Homer, so there is no morality.^ As there is no law in Homer, so there is no morality.

^ F12] Homer: No matter how good you are at something, there's always about a million people better than you.
  • The Wisdom of Homer Simpson, compiled by Sami Karjalainen 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.samikarjalainen.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ But, although there is no reason to doubt the existence of a family of " Homeridae," it is far from certain that they had anything to do with Homeric poetry.

.That is to say, there are no general principles of action, and no words which indicate that acts have been classified as good or bad, right or wrong.^ There are only general indications of date.
  • OMACL: Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns and Homerica:Introduction 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC omacl.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That is to say, there are no general principles of action, and no words which indicate that acts have been classified as good or bad, right or wrong.

^ The words σατινη, πρεσβειρα, and other indications are relied on for a late date: and there are obvious coincidences with the Hymn to Demeter, as in line 174, Demeter 109, f.

.Moral feeling, indeed, existed and was denoted by " Aidos "; but the numerous meanings of this word - shame, veneration, pity - show how rudimentary the idea was.^ Moral feeling, indeed, existed and was denoted by " Aidos "; but the numerous meanings of this word - shame, veneration, pity - show how rudimentary the idea was.

^ Many other points are noted—such as the derivation of “Pytho” from a word meaning rot ,—to show that the hymnist was rather disparaging than celebrating the Delphian sanctuary.

.And when we look to practice we find that cruel and even treacherous deeds are spoken of without the least sense that they deserve censure.^ And when we look to practice we find that cruel and even treacherous deeds are spoken of without the least sense that they deserve censure.

^ Once they did, I went down to the precinct to look through the Big Book of Mug Shots and see if I could find a match, but--nada.
  • Night of the Hunter - Gwen Cooper - Open Salon 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

.The heroes of Homer are hardly more moral agents than the giants and enchanters of a fairy tale.^ The heroes of Homer are hardly more moral agents than the giants and enchanters of a fairy tale.

^ [Homer reviews a Mel Gibson movie 'Mr.Smith goes to Washington'] Your movie was more boring than the church.
  • Homer Simpson Quotes of Wisdom - Page 6 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Homer : But we are not MASS-MARRIED! This beans is more delicious than the ones we had for breakfast and lunch.
  • Homer Simpson Quotes of Wisdom - Page 6 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.The religious ideas of Homer differ in some important points from those of later Greece.^ The religious ideas of Homer differ in some important points from those of later Greece.

^ In examining such points we are apt to forget that the contradictions by which a story is shown to be untrue are quite different from those by which a confessedly untrue story would be shown to be the work of different authors.

^ This is of two main kinds: (a) evidence of history, consisting in a comparison of the political and social condition, the geography , the institutions, the manners, arts and ideas of Homer with those of other times; ( b ) evidence of language, consisting in a comparison with later dialects, in respect of grammar and vocabulary.

.The Apollo of the Iliad has the character of a local Asiatic deity - " ruler of Chryse and goodly Cilla and Tenedos."^ The Apollo of the Iliad has the character of a local Asiatic deity - " ruler of Chryse and goodly Cilla and Tenedos."

.He may be compared with the Clarian and the Lycian god, but he is unlike the Apollo of Dorian times, the " deliverer " and giver of oracles.^ He may be compared with the Clarian and the Lycian god, but he is unlike the Apollo of Dorian times, the " deliverer " and giver of oracles.

^ It may be that down to comparatively late times poetry was not commonly read, but was recited from memory.

^ As a go-between of Gods and men, Hermes may be a doublure of Apollo, but, as the Hymn shows, he aspired in vain to Apollo’s oracular function.

.Again, the worship of Dionysus, and of Demeter and Persephone, is mainly or wholly post-Homeric.^ Again, the worship of Dionysus, and of Demeter and Persephone, is mainly or wholly post-Homeric.

.The greatest difference, however, lies in the absence of hero-worship from the Homeric order of things.^ The greatest difference, however, lies in the absence of hero-worship from the Homeric order of things.

^ In fact, however, the Homeric subjunctive is almost quite " regular," though the rule which it obeys is a different one from the Attic.

.Castor and Polydeuces, for instance, are simply brothers of Helen who died before the expedition to Troy (Il. iii.^ Castor and Polydeuces, for instance, are simply brothers of Helen who died before the expedition to Troy ( Il.

^ The story of Paris and Helen especially, and the general position of affairs in Troy, is put before us in a singularly vivid manner.

^ Sing, clear-voiced Muse, of Castor and Polydeuces, the Tyndaridae, who sprang from Olympian Zeus.
  • Classical E-Text: THE HOMERIC HYMNS 5 - 33 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

.243.) The military tactics of Homer belong to the age when the chariot was the principal engine of warfare.^ The military tactics of Homer belong to the age when the chariot was the principal engine of warfare.

.Cavalry is unknown, and the battles are mainly decided by the prowess of the chiefs.^ Cavalry is unknown, and the battles are mainly decided by the prowess of the chiefs.

.The use of the trumpet is also later.^ The use of the trumpet is also later.

.It has been supposed indeed that the art of riding was known in Homer's own time, because it occurs in comparisons.^ It has been supposed indeed that the art of riding was known in Homer's own time, because it occurs in comparisons.

^ The question whether writing was known in the time of Homer was raised in antiquity, and has been debated with especial eagerness ever since the appearance of Wolf's Prolegomena.

^ The political condition of Greece in the earliest times known to history is separated from the Greece of Homer by an interval which can hardly be overestimated.

.But the riding which he describes (Il. xv.^ But the riding which he describes ( Il.

679) is a mere exhibition of skill, such as we may see in a modern circus. And though he mentions the trumpet (Il. xviii. .219), there is nothing to show that it was used, as in historical times, to give the signal for the charge.^ In this account there is nothing to show exactly how the message of Proetus was expressed.

^ The passage is unfortunately corrupt, but it is at least clear that in the time of Solon, according to Diogenes, there were complete copies of the poems, such as could be used to control the recitations.

.The chief industries of Homeric times are those of the carpenter (TEKro v),, the worker in leather (oKVTaroµos), the smith or worker in metal (XaXKeus) - whose implements are the hammer and pincers - and the potter (Kepa,ueis); also spinning and weaving, which were carried on by the women.^ The chief industries of Homeric times are those of the carpenter (TEKro v),, the worker in leather ( oKVTaroµos ), the smith or worker in metal (XaXKeus) - whose implements are the hammer and pincers - and the potter ( Kepa,ueis); also spinning and weaving , which were carried on by the women.

^ Homer as a cowboy, done by one of those instant old-time photo places.
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.The fine arts are represented by sculpture in relief, carving in wood and ivory, embroidery.^ The fine arts are represented by sculpture in relief, carving in wood and ivory , embroidery .

.Statuary is later; it appears to have come into existence in the 7th century, about the time when casting in metal was invented by Rhoecus of Samos.^ Statuary is later; it appears to have come into existence in the 7th century, about the time when casting in metal was invented by Rhoecus of Samos .

^ But as early as the 7th century we come upon traces of short lays (the so-called cantilenes) which were in the mouths of all and were sung in chorus .

.In general, as was well shown by A. S. Murray,' Homeric art does not rise above the stage of decoration, applied to objects in common use; while in point of style it is characterized by a richness and variety of ornament which is in the strongest contrast to the simplicity of the best periods.^ In general, as was well shown by A. S. Murray,' Homeric art does not rise above the stage of decoration, applied to objects in common use; while in point of style it is characterized by a richness and variety of ornament which is in the strongest contrast to the simplicity of the best periods.

^ For students of art in general, Homer’s account of the shield is also the foundational text in the history of rhetorical or poetical descriptions of works of art.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In general, however, these are older forms, which must have existed in Ionic at one time, and may very well have belonged to the Ionic of Homer's time.

.It is the work, in short, not of artists but of skilled workmen; the ideal artist is " Daeda-us," a name which implies mechanical skill and intricate workmanship, not beauty of design.^ It is the work, in short, not of artists but of skilled workmen; the ideal artist is " Daeda-us," a name which implies mechanical skill and intricate workmanship, not beauty of design.

^ In Ovid’s fable the artist creates his own ideal beauty, embodied in his statue, which he similarly desires and comes to possess.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although he fashions works of great beauty and skill, he is at the same time deformed and ridiculous.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.One art of the highest importance remains.^ One art of the highest importance remains.

.The question whether writing was known in the time of Homer was raised in antiquity, and has been debated with especial eagerness ever since the appearance of Wolf's Prolegomena. In this case we have to consider not merely the indications of the poems, but also the external evidence which we possess regarding the use of writing in Greece.^ The question whether writing was known in the time of Homer was raised in antiquity, and has been debated with especial eagerness ever since the appearance of Wolf's Prolegomena.

^ Regarding the use of writing, too, they were not unanimous.

^ In this case we have to consider not merely the indications of the poems, but also the external evidence which we possess regarding the use of writing in Greece.

.This latter kind of evidence is much more considerable now than it was in Wolf's time.^ This latter kind of evidence is much more considerable now than it was in Wolf's time.

^ When Aeneas looks at these images, he foreshadows his admiration, later in the poem, of his own shield: he is so much more conscious the connoisseur than Homer’s Achilles.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As to the myths in the Hymns, I would naturally study them from the standpoint of anthropology, and in the light of comparison of the legends of much more backward peoples than the Greeks.

.(See Writing elsewhere in these volumes.^ (See Writing elsewhere in these volumes.

) .The oldest known stage of the Greek alphabet appears to be represented by inscriptions of the islands of Thera, Melos and Crete, which are referred to the 40th Olympiad (620 B.C.).^ The oldest known stage of the Greek alphabet appears to be represented by inscriptions of the islands of Thera , Melos and Crete, which are referred to the 40th Olympiad (620 B.C.).

^ Next to Boeotia and the neighbouring countries, it appears that the Peloponnesus, Crete and Thessaly were the most important seats of Greek population.

.The oldest specimen of a distinctively Ionian alphabet is the famous inscription of the mercenaries of Psammetichus, in Upper Egypt, as to which the only doubt is whether the Psammetichus in question is the first or the second, and consequently whether the inscription is to be dated 01.40 or 01.47. Considering that the divergence of two alphabets (like the difference of two dialects) requires both time and familiar use, we may gather from these facts that writing was well known in Greece early in the 7th century B.e.2 The rise of prose composition in the 6th century B.C. has been thought to mark the time when memory was practically superseded by writing as a means of preserving literature - the earlier use of letters being confined to short documents, such as lists of names, treaties, laws, &c.^ Considering that the divergence of two alphabets (like the difference of two dialects) requires both time and familiar use, we may gather from these facts that writing was well known in Greece early in the 7th century B.e.2 The rise of prose composition in the 6th century B.C. has been thought to mark the time when memory was practically superseded by writing as a means of preserving literature - the earlier use of letters being confined to short documents, such as lists of names, treaties , laws, &c.

^ The oldest specimen of a distinctively Ionian alphabet is the famous inscription of the mercenaries of Psammetichus , in Upper Egypt, as to which the only doubt is whether the Psammetichus in question is the first or the second, and consequently whether the inscription is to be dated 01.40 or 01.47.

^ The preservation of this vast mass can only be attributed to writing, which must therefore have been in use for two centuries or more before there was any considerable prose literature.

.This conclusion, however, is by no means necessary.^ This conclusion, however, is by no means necessary.

.It may be that down to comparatively late times poetry was not commonly read, but was recited from memory.^ It may be that down to comparatively late times poetry was not commonly read, but was recited from memory.

^ He may be compared with the Clarian and the Lycian god, but he is unlike the Apollo of Dorian times, the " deliverer " and giver of oracles.

^ They are epic in character, and were recited by professional jongleurs (who may be compared to the aouSoi of Homer).

.But the question is - From what time are we to suppose that the preservation of long poems was generally secured by the existence of written copies?^ But the question is - From what time are we to suppose that the preservation of long poems was generally secured by the existence of written copies?

.Now, without counting the Homeric poems - which doubtless had exceptional advantages in their fame and popularity - we find a body of literature dating from the 8th century B.C. to which the theory of oral transmission is surely inapplicable.^ Now, without counting the Homeric poems - which doubtless had exceptional advantages in their fame and popularity - we find a body of literature dating from the 8th century B.C. to which the theory of oral transmission is surely inapplicable.

^ Thus we find in Homer, but not in the later language (a) The second aorist middle without the " thematic " E or as g - was struck; Ec/Oc-ro, perished; aA-To, leaped.

^ Similarly, without Ovid, Dante would not be the poet-hero of his own poem, and without Virgil and ultimately Homer, Ovid would not be the self-conscious epic poet so familiar to us.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In the Trojan cycle alone we know of the two epics of Arctinus, the Little Iliad of Lesches, the Cypria, the Nostoi. The Theban cycle is represented by the Thebaid (which Callinus, who was of the 7th century, ascribed to Homer) and the Epigoni. Other ancient epics - ancient enough to have passed under the name of Homer - are the Taking of Oechalia, and the Phocais. Again, there are the numerous works attributed to Hesiod and other 1 Contemporary Review, vol.^ Why have the works of Arctinus escaped the attraction which drew to the name of Homer such epics as the Cypria, the Little Iliad, the Thebaid, the Epigoni, the Taking of Oechalia and the Phocais.

^ Again, there are the numerous works attributed to Hesiod and other 1 Contemporary Review, vol.

^ In the Trojan cycle alone we know of the two epics of Arctinus, the Little Iliad of Lesches , the Cypria, the Nostoi.

xxiii. p. 218 ff.
.The fact that the Phoenician Vau was retained in the Greek alphabets, and the vowel v added, shows that when the alphabet was introduced the sound denoted by was still in full vigour.^ The fact that the Phoenician Vau was retained in the Greek alphabets, and the vowel v added, shows that when the alphabet was introduced the sound denoted by was still in full vigour.

^ Otherwise would have been used for the vowel v, just as the Phoenician consonant Yod became the vowel L. But in the Ionic dialect the sound of died out soon after Homer's time, if indeed it was still pronounced then.

^ Book VII: Greek - Butcher-Lang - Murray - Fagles [Full detail] Still day thirtytwo 7.
  • Homeric correspondences in Ulysses (overview) 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC www.robotwisdom.com [Source type: Original source]

.Otherwise would have been used for the vowel v, just as the Phoenician consonant Yod became the vowel L. But in the Ionic dialect the sound of died out soon after Homer's time, if indeed it was still pronounced then.^ Otherwise would have been used for the vowel v, just as the Phoenician consonant Yod became the vowel L. But in the Ionic dialect the sound of died out soon after Homer's time, if indeed it was still pronounced then.

^ Homeric Dialect read to the Congress of Historical Sciences at Rome , 1903: Atti del Congresso internazionale di scienze storiche, ii.

^ The view that Homer underwent at any time a passage from one dialect to another may be dismissed.

.It seems probable therefore that the introduction of the alphabet is not later than the composition of the Homeric poems.^ It seems probable therefore that the introduction of the alphabet is not later than the composition of the Homeric poems.

^ It seems, then, that if we imagine Homer as a singer in a royal house of the Homeric age, but with more freedom regarding the limits of his subject, and a more tranquil audience than is allowed him in the rapid movement of the Odyssey, we shall probably not be far from the truth.

^ When Aeneas looks at these images, he foreshadows his admiration, later in the poem, of his own shield: he is so much more conscious the connoisseur than Homer’s Achilles.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

poets of the didactic, mythological and quasi-historical schoolsEumelus of .Corinth, Cinaethon of Sparta, Agias of Troezen, and many more.^ Eumelus of Corinth , Cinaethon of Sparta, Agias of Troezen, and many more.

.The preservation of this vast mass can only be attributed to writing, which must therefore have been in use for two centuries or more before there was any considerable prose literature.^ The preservation of this vast mass can only be attributed to writing, which must therefore have been in use for two centuries or more before there was any considerable prose literature.

^ If the language of Homer is so ambiguous where the use of writing would naturally be mentioned, we cannot expect to find more decisive references elsewhere.

^ Also, the lack of definition there adds something, ties me in to Homer's experience more, not being able to see but only sense the presence.
  • Night of the Hunter - Gwen Cooper - Open Salon 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

Nor is this in itself improbable.
.The further question, whether the Iliad and Odyssey were originally written, is much more difficult.^ The further question, whether the Iliad and Odyssey were originally written, is much more difficult.

^ To learn more about what happens following the events of the Iliad , see the The Aftermath: Post Iliad through the Odyssey .
  • Homer's Iliad 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC ablemedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The commentaries on the Iliad and the Odyssey written in the Hellenistic period (3rd century--1st century B.C.) began exploring the textual inconsistencies of the poems.

.External evidence does not reach back so far, and the internal evidence is curiously indecisive.^ External evidence does not reach back so far, and the internal evidence is curiously indecisive.

^ Failing external testimony, the time and place of the Homeric poems can only be determined (if at all) by internal evidence.

The only passage which can be interpreted as a reference to writing occurs in the story of Bellerophon, told by Glaucus in the sixth book of the Iliad. Proetus, king of Corinth, sent Bellerophon to his father-in-law the king of Lycia, and gave him " baneful tokens " (o jiara Xvy pet, i.e. tokens which were messages of death), " scratching on a folded tablet many spiritdestroying things, and bade him show this to his father-in-law, that he might perish." The king of Lycia asked duly (on the tenth day from the guest's coming) for a token (nree oiLua 15&rOat), and then knew what Proetus wished to be done. .In this account there is nothing to show exactly how the message of Proetus was expressed.^ In this account there is nothing to show exactly how the message of Proetus was expressed.

^ There is no difficulty, therefore, in understanding the message of Proetus without alphabetical writing.

.The use of writing for the purpose of the token between " guest-friends " (tessera hospitalis) is certainly very ancient.^ The use of writing for the purpose of the token between " guest-friends " ( tessera hospitalis ) is certainly very ancient.

Mommsen (Rom. Forsch. i. 338 ff.) aptly compares the use in treaties, which are the oldest species of public documents. .But we may suppose that tokens of some kind - like the marks which the Greek chiefs make on the lots (Il. vii.^ But we may suppose that tokens of some kind - like the marks which the Greek chiefs make on the lots ( Il.

1 75 ff.) - were in use before writing was known. .In any system of signs there were doubtless means of recommending a friend, or giving warning of the presence of an enemy.^ In any system of signs there were doubtless means of recommending a friend, or giving warning of the presence of an enemy.

.There is no difficulty, therefore, in understanding the message of Proetus without alphabetical writing.^ There is no difficulty, therefore, in understanding the message of Proetus without alphabetical writing.

^ It may have suited the Thebaid still better, but there is no need to understand it only of that poem, as Grote does.

^ But, on the other hand, there is no reason for so understanding it.

.But, on the other hand, there is no reason for so understanding it.^ But, on the other hand, there is no reason for so understanding it.

^ There is no other secret.

^ No process, on the other hand, of borrowing from Greece can conceivably account for the Pawnee and Peruvian rites, so closely analogous to those of Hellas.

.If the language of Homer is so ambiguous where the use of writing would naturally be mentioned, we cannot expect to find more decisive references elsewhere.^ If the language of Homer is so ambiguous where the use of writing would naturally be mentioned, we cannot expect to find more decisive references elsewhere.

^ Thus we find in Homer, but not in the later language (a) The second aorist middle without the " thematic " E or as g - was struck; Ec/Oc-ro, perished; aA-To, leaped.

^ A pity more is not written about Princess Ktimene -- Odysseus' sister -- unfortunately Homer refers to her but once and has her given away to a Samian prince.

.Arguments have been founded upon the descriptions of the blind singers in the Odyssey, with their songs inspired directly by the Muse; upon the appeals of the poet to the Muses, especially in such a place as the opening of the Catalogue; upon the Catalogue itself, which is a kind of historical document put into verse to help the memory; upon the shipowner in the Odyssey, who has " a good memory for his cargo," &c.^ The blind singer (who is p.

^ Arguments have been founded upon the descriptions of the blind singers in the Odyssey, with their songs inspired directly by the Muse; upon the appeals of the poet to the Muses, especially in such a place as the opening of the Catalogue; upon the Catalogue itself, which is a kind of historical document put into verse to help the memory; upon the shipowner in the Odyssey, who has " a good memory for his cargo ," &c.

^ When any stranger comes and asks who is the sweetest singer, they are to answer with one voice, the " blind man that dwells in rocky Chios ; his songs deserve the prize for all time to come."

.It may be answered, however, that much of this is traditional, handed down from the time when all poetry was unwritten.^ It may be answered, however, that much of this is traditional, handed down from the time when all poetry was unwritten.

^ Then rich-haired Demeter answered her: "And to you, also, lady, all hail, and may the gods give you good!
  • Classical E-Text: THE HOMERIC HYMNS 1 - 3 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In general, however, these are older forms, which must have existed in Ionic at one time, and may very well have belonged to the Ionic of Homer's time.

.Moreover it is one thing to recognize that a literature is essentially oral in its form, characteristic of an age which was one of hearing rather than of reading, and quite another to hold that the same literature was preserved entirely by oral transmission.^ Moreover it is one thing to recognize that a literature is essentially oral in its form, characteristic of an age which was one of hearing rather than of reading , and quite another to hold that the same literature was preserved entirely by oral transmission.

^ If there's one thing I've learned, it's that life is one crushing defeat after another until you just wish Flanders was dead.
  • Homer Simpson Quotes of Wisdom - Page 1 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One quality show after another, each one fresher and more brilliant than the last.
  • The Wisdom of Homer Simpson, compiled by Sami Karjalainen 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.samikarjalainen.fi [Source type: Original source]

.The result of these various considerations seems to be that the age which we may call the Homeric - the age which is brought before us in vivid outlines in the Iliad and Odyssey - lies beyond the earliest point to which history enables us to penetrate.^ The result of these various considerations seems to be that the age which we may call the Homeric - the age which is brought before us in vivid outlines in the Iliad and Odyssey - lies beyond the earliest point to which history enables us to penetrate.

^ The eastern shores of the Aegean, which the earliest historical records represent to us as the seat of a brilliant civilization, giving way before the advance of the great military empires (Lydia and afterwards Persia ), are almost a blank in Homer's map .

^ It seems, then, that if we imagine Homer as a singer in a royal house of the Homeric age, but with more freedom regarding the limits of his subject, and a more tranquil audience than is allowed him in the rapid movement of the Odyssey, we shall probably not be far from the truth.

.And so far as we can draw any conclusion as to the author (or authors) of the two poems, it is that the whole debate between the cities of Aeolis and Ionia was wide of the mark.^ And so far as we can draw any conclusion as to the author (or authors) of the two poems, it is that the whole debate between the cities of Aeolis and Ionia was wide of the mark.

^ The difference of subject between the two poems is so great that it leads to the most striking differences of detail, especially in the vocabulary.

^ These indications render it probable that the stories connecting Homer with different cities and islands grew up after his poems had become known and famous, especially in the new and flourishing colonies of Aeolis and Ionia .

.The author of the Iliad, at least, was evidently a European Greek who lived before the colonization of Asia Minor; and the claims of the Asiatic cities mean no more than that in the days of their prosperity these were the chief seats of the fame of Homer.^ Homer : Well wonder no more!
  • The Simpsons Quotes : Homer Simpson | planetclaire.org 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.planetclaire.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That day you shall no more prevail on me than this dry wood shall flourish—driven though you are and though a thousand men perish before the killer, Hektor.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If Homer competed with Greek smiths past and present, he also inspired the poets who followed to compete with him.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

This is perhaps the place to consider whether the poems are to be regarded as possessing in any degree the character'of historical record. .The question is one which in the absence of satisfactory criteria will generally be decided by taste and predilection.^ The question is one which in the absence of satisfactory criteria will generally be decided by taste and predilection.

.A few suggestions, however, may be made.^ A few suggestions, however, may be made.

^ A few words remain to be said on the style and general character of the Homeric poems, and on the comparisons which may be made between Homer and analogous poetry in other countries.

.1. The events of the Iliad take place in a real locality, the general features of which are kept steadily in view.^ The events of the Iliad take place in a real locality, the general features of which are kept steadily in view.

^ View our Homer real estate guide to see average listing prices, sale prices and information for local school districts.
  • Homer Real Estate & Homer Homes For Sale — Trulia.com 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.trulia.com [Source type: General]

.There is no doubt about Sigeum and Rhoeteum, or the river Scamander, or the islands Imbros, Lemnos and Tenedos.^ There is no doubt about Sigeum and Rhoeteum, or the river Scamander, or the islands Imbros , Lemnos and Tenedos.

^ F12] Homer: No matter how good you are at something, there's always about a million people better than you.
  • The Wisdom of Homer Simpson, compiled by Sami Karjalainen 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.samikarjalainen.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ And although we hear of " descendants of Creophylus " as in possession of the Homeric poems, there is no similar story about descendants of Homer himself.

.It is at least remarkable that a legend of the national interest of the " tale of Troy " should be so definitely localized, and that in a district which was never famous as a seat of Greek population.^ It is at least remarkable that a legend of the national interest of the " tale of Troy " should be so definitely localized, and that in a district which was never famous as a seat of Greek population.

^ Next to Boeotia and the neighbouring countries, it appears that the Peloponnesus, Crete and Thessaly were the most important seats of Greek population.

.It may be urged, too, that the story of the Iliad is singularly free from the exaggerated and marvellous character which belongs as a rule to the legends of primitive peoples.^ It may be urged, too, that the story of the Iliad is singularly free from the exaggerated and marvellous character which belongs as a rule to the legends of primitive peoples.

^ But if you read carefully and are willing to reread, you will find that the main story of the Iliad is fairly simple and involves a relatively small number of major characters.
  • Homer's Iliad 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC ablemedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This sobriety, however, belongs not to the whole Iliad, but to the events and characters of the war.

.The apple of discord, the arrows of Philoctetes, the invulnerability of Achilles, and similar fancies, are the additions of later poets.^ The apple of discord, the arrows of Philoctetes , the invulnerability of Achilles, and similar fancies, are the additions of later poets.

.This sobriety, however, belongs not to the whole Iliad, but to the events and characters of the war.^ This sobriety, however, belongs not to the whole Iliad, but to the events and characters of the war.

^ It may be urged, too, that the story of the Iliad is singularly free from the exaggerated and marvellous character which belongs as a rule to the legends of primitive peoples.

^ There is no strong antipathy of race or religion; the war turns on no political event; the capture of Troy lies outside the range of the Iliad.

Such figures as Bellerophon, Niobe, the Amazons, which are thought of as traditions from an earlier generation, show the marvellous element at work.
.2. Certain persons and events in the story have a distinctly mythical stamp.^ Certain persons and events in the story have a distinctly mythical stamp .

.Helen is a figure of this kind.^ Helen is a figure of this kind.

.There was another story according to which she was carried off by Theseus, and recovered by her brothers the Dioscuri.^ There was another story according to which she was carried off by Theseus , and recovered by her brothers the Dioscuri.

^ The Little Iliad and the Phocais, according to the Herodotean life, were composed by Homer when he lived at Phocaea with a certain Thestorides, who carried them off to Chios and there gained fame by reciting them as his own.

.There are even traces of a third version, in which the Messenian twins, Idas and Lynceus, appear.^ There are even traces of a third version, in which the Messenian twins, Idas and Lynceus, appear.

.3. The analogy of the French epic, the Chanson de Roland, favours the belief that there was some nucleus of fact.^ The analogy of the French epic, the Chanson de Roland , favours the belief that there was some nucleus of fact.

^ The most instructive, perhaps the only instructive, parallel is to be found in the French " chansons de geste ," of which the Chanson de Roland is the earliest and best example.

^ Like the French epics, Homeric poetry is indigenous, and is distinguished by this fact, and by the ease of movement and the simplicity which result from it, from poets such as Virgil, Dante and Milton.

.The defeat of Roncevaux was really suffered by a part of Charlemagne's army.^ The defeat of Roncevaux was really suffered by a part of Charlemagne's army.

.But the Saracen army is purely mythical, the true enemy having been the Gascons.^ But the Saracen army is purely mythical, the true enemy having been the Gascons.

.If similarly we leave, as historical, the plain of Troy, and the name Agamemnon, we shall perhaps not be far wrong.^ If similarly we leave, as historical, the plain of Troy, and the name Agamemnon, we shall perhaps not be far wrong.

.(b) The dialect of Homer is an early or " primitive " form of the language which we know as that of Attica in the classical age of Greek literature.^ The dialect of Homer is an early or " primitive " form of the language which we know as that of Attica in the classical age of Greek literature .

^ The early Greeks, like other races, entertained these primitive, or very archaic ideas.

^ Scholars of ancient art history and of classical literature know full well that when Homer sings of Achilles’ shield and other works of art he is responding poetically to the facts of art history, no matter how much these facts are transformed.
  • Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The proof of this proposition is to be obtained chiefly by comparing the grammatical formation and the syntax of Homer with those of Attic.^ The proof of this proposition is to be obtained chiefly by comparing the grammatical formation and the syntax of Homer with those of Attic.

^ The Homeric uses of tip and are different in several respects from the Attic, the general result being that the Homeric syntax is more elastic.

^ The Homeric dialect must be studied in the books (such as those of G. Curtius) that deal with Greek on the comparative method.

.The comparison of the vocabulary is in the nature of things less conclusive on the question of date.^ The comparison of the vocabulary is in the nature of things less conclusive on the question of date.

^ Chibiabos is assuredly not borrowed from Osiris, nor the Fijian faith from the “Book of the Dead.” “Sacred things,” not to be shown to man, still less to woman, date from the “medicine p.

.It would be impossible to give the evidence in full without writing a Homeric grammar, but a few specimens may be of interest.^ It would be impossible to give the evidence in full without writing a Homeric grammar, but a few specimens may be of interest.

^ If the language of Homer is so ambiguous where the use of writing would naturally be mentioned, we cannot expect to find more decisive references elsewhere.

^ Of the earlier books Wood's Essay on the Original Genius and Writings of Homer is the most interesting.

i. .The first aorist in Greek being a " weak " tense, i.e. formed by a suffix (-aa), whereas the second aorist is a " strong " tense, distinguished by the form of the root-syllable, we expect to find a constant tendency to diminish the number of second aorists in use.^ The first aorist in Greek being a " weak " tense, i.e.

^ Thus we find in Homer, but not in the later language (a) The second aorist middle without the " thematic " E or as g - was struck; Ec/Oc-ro, perished; aA-To, leaped.

^ While the whole class of " strong " aorists diminished, certain smaller groups in the class disappeared altogether.

.No new second aorists, we may be sure, were formed any more than new " strong " tenses, such as came or sang, can be formed in English.^ No new second aorists, we may be sure, were formed any more than new " strong " tenses, such as came or sang, can be formed in English.

^ Now in Homer there are upwards of 80 second aorists (not reckoning aorists of " Verbs in µc," such as i'ar,Y, i,3rpv), whereas in all Attic prose not more than 30 are found.

^ The choice of Israel was unique: Greece retained far more of the lower ancient ideas, but gave to them a beauty of grace and form which is found among no other race.

.Now in Homer there are upwards of 80 second aorists (not reckoning aorists of " Verbs in µc," such as i'ar,Y, i,3rpv), whereas in all Attic prose not more than 30 are found.^ Now in Homer there are upwards of 80 second aorists (not reckoning aorists of " Verbs in µc," such as i'ar,Y, i,3rpv), whereas in all Attic prose not more than 30 are found.

^ In Attic poets, it is true, the number of such aorists is much larger than in prose.

^ A five-year study of more than 2,000 middle-aged people in France found a possible link between weight and brain function, dubbed the "Homer Simpson syndrome".
  • Homer Jay Simpson - Simpsons Wiki 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC simpsons.wikia.com [Source type: General]

.In this point therefore the Homeric language is manifestly older.^ In this point therefore the Homeric language is manifestly older.

.In Attic poets, it is true, the number of such aorists is much larger than in prose.^ In Attic poets, it is true, the number of such aorists is much larger than in prose.

^ Now in Homer there are upwards of 80 second aorists (not reckoning aorists of " Verbs in µc," such as i'ar,Y, i,3rpv), whereas in all Attic prose not more than 30 are found.

^ Finally, the second poet (and here every one must agree) is a much worse poet than the first.

.But here again we find that they bear witness to Homer.^ But here again we find that they bear witness to Homer.

^ Cats are fierce creatures, I am here to bear witness.
  • Night of the Hunter - Gwen Cooper - Open Salon 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

.Of the poetical aorists in Attic the larger part are also Homeric.^ Of the poetical aorists in Attic the larger part are also Homeric.

^ In Attic poets, it is true, the number of such aorists is much larger than in prose.

.Others are not really Attic at all, but borrowed from earlier Aeolic and Doric poetry.^ Others are not really Attic at all, but borrowed from earlier Aeolic and Doric poetry.

^ There are doubtless many Homeric forms which were unknown to the later Ionic and Attic, and which are found in Aeolic or other dialects.

.It is plain, in short, that the later poetical vocabulary was separated from that of prose mainly by the forms which the influence of Homer had saved from being forgotten.^ It is plain, in short, that the later poetical vocabulary was separated from that of prose mainly by the forms which the influence of Homer had saved from being forgotten.

^ There are doubtless many Homeric forms which were unknown to the later Ionic and Attic, and which are found in Aeolic or other dialects.

^ The result of Welcker's labours was to show that the Homeric poems had influenced both the form and the substance of epic poetry.

.2. While the whole class of " strong " aorists diminished, certain smaller groups in the class disappeared altogether.^ While the whole class of " strong " aorists diminished, certain smaller groups in the class disappeared altogether.

.Thus we find in Homer, but not in the later language (a) The second aorist middle without the " thematic " E or as g - was struck; Ec/Oc-ro, perished; aA-To, leaped. (b) The aorist formed by reduplication: as &Sae, taught; AEAas oOac, to seize. These constitute a distinct formation, generally with a " causative " meaning; the solitary Attic specimen is riyayov.^ The aorist formed by reduplication: as &Sae, taught; AEAas oOac, to seize.

^ Thus we find in Homer, but not in the later language (a) The second aorist middle without the " thematic " E or as g - was struck; Ec/Oc-ro, perished; aA-To, leaped.

^ These constitute a distinct formation, generally with a " causative " meaning; the solitary Attic specimen is riyayov.

.3. It had long been known that the subjunctive in Homer often takes a short vowel (e.g.^ It had long been known that the subjunctive in Homer often takes a short vowel (e.g.

^ It will be evident that under this rule the perfect and first aorist subjunctive should always take a short vowel; and this accordingly is the case, with very few exceptions.

^ The Greeks, therefore, may have evolved the legend long before Homer’s day, and he may have known the story which he does not find occasion to tell.

in the plural, instead of and in the Mid. -olcat, &c. instead of -wµac, &c.). .This was generally said to be done by " poetic licence," or metri gratia. In fact, however, the Homeric subjunctive is almost quite " regular," though the rule which it obeys is a different one from the Attic.^ This was generally said to be done by " poetic licence ," or metri gratia.

^ In fact, however, the Homeric subjunctive is almost quite " regular," though the rule which it obeys is a different one from the Attic.

^ A few words remain to be said on the style and general character of the Homeric poems, and on the comparisons which may be made between Homer and analogous poetry in other countries.

.It may be summed up by saying that the subjunctive takes or when the indicative has o or and not otherwise.^ It may be summed up by saying that the subjunctive takes or when the indicative has o or and not otherwise.

.Thus Homer has 11 .c€v, we go, - - let us go. The later "c-w-µ€v was at first a solecism, an attempt to conjugate a " verb in µ.c " like the " verbs in w."^ F13] Homer: [talking about his fatness] Marge, how could you let me let myself go like this.
  • The Wisdom of Homer Simpson, compiled by Sami Karjalainen 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.samikarjalainen.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus Homer has 11 .c€v, we go, - - let us go.

^ Homer: I can understand how they wouldn't let in those wild jungle apes, but what about those really smart ones who live among us?
  • The Wisdom of Homer Simpson, compiled by Sami Karjalainen 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.samikarjalainen.fi [Source type: Original source]

.It will be evident that under this rule the perfect and first aorist subjunctive should always take a short vowel; and this accordingly is the case, with very few exceptions.^ It will be evident that under this rule the perfect and first aorist subjunctive should always take a short vowel; and this accordingly is the case, with very few exceptions.

^ It had long been known that the subjunctive in Homer often takes a short vowel (e.g.

^ On such matters as the compensation in cases of homicide , it is evident that there were no rules, but merely a feeling, created by use and wont, that the relatives of the slain man should be willing to accept payment.

.4. The article (6, ?, in Homer is chiefly used as an independent pronoun (he, she, it), a use which in Attic appears only in a few combinations (such as o dv ...^ The proof of this proposition is to be obtained chiefly by comparing the grammatical formation and the syntax of Homer with those of Attic.

^ The Homeric uses of tip and are different in several respects from the Attic, the general result being that the Homeric syntax is more elastic.

^ On the contrary, Plato and other Attic writers use the word to include interpreters and admirers - in short, the whole " spiritual kindred " - of Homer.

b the one ... the other). .This difference is parallel to the relation between the Latin ille and the article of the Romance languages.^ This difference is parallel to the relation between the Latin ille and the article of the Romance languages .

.5. The prepositions offer several points of comparison.^ The prepositions offer several points of comparison.

.What the grammarians called " tmesis," the separation of the preposition from the verb with which it is compounded, is peculiar to Homer.^ What the grammarians called " tmesis," the separation of the preposition from the verb with which it is compounded, is peculiar to Homer.

.The true account of the matter is that in Homer the place of the preposition is not rigidly fixed, as it was afterwards.^ The true account of the matter is that in Homer the place of the preposition is not rigidly fixed, as it was afterwards.

.Again, " with " is in Homer auv (with the dative), in Attic prose perec with the genitive.^ Again, " with " is in Homer auv (with the dative ), in Attic prose perec with the genitive.

.Here Attic poetry is intermediate; the use of auv is retained as a piece of poetical tradition.^ Here Attic poetry is intermediate; the use of auv is retained as a piece of poetical tradition.

.In addition to the particle Homer has another, hardly distinguishable in meaning.^ In addition to the particle Homer has another, hardly distinguishable in meaning.

.The Homeric uses of tip and are different in several respects from the Attic, the general result being that the Homeric syntax is more elastic.^ The Homeric uses of tip and are different in several respects from the Attic, the general result being that the Homeric syntax is more elastic.

^ If the language of Homer is so ambiguous where the use of writing would naturally be mentioned, we cannot expect to find more decisive references elsewhere.

^ The proof of this proposition is to be obtained chiefly by comparing the grammatical formation and the syntax of Homer with those of Attic.

.And yet it is perfectly definite and precise.^ And yet it is perfectly definite and precise.

.Homer uses no constructions loosely or without corresponding differences of meaning.^ Homer uses no constructions loosely or without corresponding differences of meaning.

^ Homer no function beer well without.
  • Homer Simpson Quotes of Wisdom - Page 1 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Akin to the simile is a figure of speech called a metaphor, a comparison between two different things without the use of "like" or "as".
  • Homer's Iliad 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC ablemedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.His rules are equally strict with those of the later language, but they are not the same rules.^ His rules are equally strict with those of the later language, but they are not the same rules.

^ Greeks spoke the same language - that is to say, that they understood one another, in spite of the inevitable local differences.

^ They are rather to be classed with those which we find between the earlier and the later stages of every language which has had a long history.

.And they differ chiefly in this, that the less common combinations of the earlier period were disused altogether in the later.^ And they differ chiefly in this, that the less common combinations of the earlier period were disused altogether in the later.

.7. In the vocabulary the most striking difference is that many words appear from the metre to have contained a sound which they afterwards lost, viz.^ In the vocabulary the most striking difference is that many words appear from the metre to have contained a sound which they afterwards lost, viz.

^ This, then, is the plausible explanation of most of the brief Hymns—they were preludes to epic recitations—but the question as to the long narrative Hymns with which the collection opens is different.

^ And they bade Iris call her aside from white-armed Hera, lest she might afterwards turn her from coming with her words.
  • Classical E-Text: THE HOMERIC HYMNS 1 - 3 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

that which is written in some .Greek alphabets by the " digamma " F. Thus the words avaE, haTe, €pyov, Tiros, and many others must have been written at one time Fava, FEpyov, FE7ros. This letter, however, died out earlier in Ionic than in most dialects, and there is no proof that the Homeric poems were ever written with it.^ There is one sense, however, in which an admixture of dialects may be recognized.

^ Homer : No one believes me.
  • Homer Simpson Quotes of Wisdom - Page 1 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As there is no law in Homer, so there is no morality.

.These are not, speaking generally, the differences that are produced by the gradual divergence of dialects in a language.^ These are not, speaking generally, the differences that are produced by the gradual divergence of dialects in a language.

^ At the same time there is hardly one of these differences which cannot be accounted for by the natural growth of the language.

.They are rather to be classed with those which we find between the earlier and the later stages of every language which has had a long history.^ They are rather to be classed with those which we find between the earlier and the later stages of every language which has had a long history.

^ His rules are equally strict with those of the later language, but they are not the same rules.

^ Thus we find in Homer, but not in the later language (a) The second aorist middle without the " thematic " E or as g - was struck; Ec/Oc-ro, perished; aA-To, leaped.

.The Homeric dialect has passed into New Ionic and Attic by gradual but ceaseless development of the same kind as that which brought about the change from Vedic to classical Sanskrit, or from old high German to the present dialects of Germany.^ The Homeric dialect has passed into New Ionic and Attic by gradual but ceaseless development of the same kind as that which brought about the change from Vedic to classical Sanskrit , or from old high German to the present dialects of Germany .

^ There are doubtless many Homeric forms which were unknown to the later Ionic and Attic, and which are found in Aeolic or other dialects.

^ Both these books were translated into German, and their ideas passed into the popular philosophy of the day.

.The points that have been mentioned, to which many others might be added, make it clear that the Homeric and Attic dialects are separated by differences which affect the whole structure of the language, and require a considerable time for their development.^ The points that have been mentioned, to which many others might be added, make it clear that the Homeric and Attic dialects are separated by differences which affect the whole structure of the language, and require a considerable time for their development.

^ Greek alphabets by the " digamma " F. Thus the words avaE, haTe, €pyov, Tiros, and many others must have been written at one time Fava, FEpyov, FE7ros.

^ But one point you mention is true: Homer`s german voice sucks, that is why I stopped watching the show on TV and logged me in to this great site.
  • Watching: 2101 Homer the Whopper | Watch The Simpsons Online - FREE! 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.wtso.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the same time there is hardly one of these differences which cannot be accounted for by the natural growth of the language.^ At the same time there is hardly one of these differences which cannot be accounted for by the natural growth of the language.

^ If the language of Homer is so ambiguous where the use of writing would naturally be mentioned, we cannot expect to find more decisive references elsewhere.

^ These are not, speaking generally, the differences that are produced by the gradual divergence of dialects in a language.

.It has been thought indeed that the Homeric dialect was a mixed one, mainly Ionic, but containing Aeolic and even Doric forms; this, however, is a mistaken view of the processes of language.^ It has been thought indeed that the Homeric dialect was a mixed one, mainly Ionic, but containing Aeolic and even Doric forms; this, however, is a mistaken view of the processes of language.

^ It will be enough to observe that in the earliest elegiac poets, such as Archilochus , Tyrtaeus and Theognis, reminiscences of Homeric language and thought meet us on every page.

^ There is one sense, however, in which an admixture of dialects may be recognized.

.There are doubtless many Homeric forms which were unknown to the later Ionic and Attic, and which are found in Aeolic or other dialects.^ There are doubtless many Homeric forms which were unknown to the later Ionic and Attic, and which are found in Aeolic or other dialects.

^ Now in Homer there are upwards of 80 second aorists (not reckoning aorists of " Verbs in µc," such as i'ar,Y, i,3rpv), whereas in all Attic prose not more than 30 are found.

^ If it was found necessary to transpose the Aeolic Homer, why did the Aeolic lyric verse escape?

.In general, however, these are older forms, which must have existed in Ionic at one time, and may very well have belonged to the Ionic of Homer's time.^ Homer complements him very well.
  • [4F10] Mountain of Madness 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.snpp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Homer can be very violent at times.
  • Homer Jay Simpson - Simpsons Wiki 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC simpsons.wikia.com [Source type: General]

^ In general, however, these are older forms, which must have existed in Ionic at one time, and may very well have belonged to the Ionic of Homer's time.

So too the digamma is called " Aeolic " by grammarians, and is found on Aeolic and Doric inscriptions. But the letter was one of the original alphabet, and was retained universally as a numeral. .It can only have fallen into disuse by degrees, as the sound which it denoted ceased to be pronounced.^ It can only have fallen into disuse by degrees, as the sound which it denoted ceased to be pronounced.

.The fact that there are so many traces of it in Homer is a strong proof of the antiquity of the poems, but no proof of admixture with Aeolic.^ As there is no law in Homer, so there is no morality.

^ The fact that there are so many traces of it in Homer is a strong proof of the antiquity of the poems, but no proof of admixture with Aeolic.

^ Further proof there is no such thing as a destination job.
  • 1530HOMER.COM - The Official Home of the Bengals 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.1530homer.com [Source type: General]

.There is one sense, however, in which an admixture of dialects may be recognized.^ There is one sense, however, in which an admixture of dialects may be recognized.

^ The view that Homer underwent at any time a passage from one dialect to another may be dismissed.

^ In general, however, these are older forms, which must have existed in Ionic at one time, and may very well have belonged to the Ionic of Homer's time.

.It is clear that the variety of forms in Homer is too great for any actual spoken dialect.^ It is clear that the variety of forms in Homer is too great for any actual spoken dialect.

^ The Epic of Homer was doubtless formed originally from a spoken variety of Greek, but became literary and conventional with time.

^ There are doubtless many Homeric forms which were unknown to the later Ionic and Attic, and which are found in Aeolic or other dialects.

.To take a single instance: it is impossible that the genitives in -ow and in -ov should both have been in everyday use together.^ To take a single instance: it is impossible that the genitives in -ow and in -ov should both have been in everyday use together.

.The form in -ow must have been poetical or literary, like the old English forms that survive in the language of the Bible.^ The form in -ow must have been poetical or literary, like the old English forms that survive in the language of the Bible .

^ To the English reader familiar with the Iliad and Odyssey the Hymns must appear disappointing, if he come to them with an expectation of discovering merits like those of the immortal epics.

The origin of such double forms is not far to seek. .The effect of dialect on style was always recognized in Greece, and the dialect which had once been adopted by a particular kind of poetry was ever afterwards adhered to.^ The effect of dialect on style was always recognized in Greece, and the dialect which had once been adopted by a particular kind of poetry was ever afterwards adhered to.

^ But while we are on our guard against a once common error, we may recognize the historical connexion between the Iliad and Odyssey and the " ballad " literature which undoubtedly preceded them in Greece.

^ I'm more of a season 7 kind of girl but I am trying to appreciate the writing style they have adopted after realizing the direction change they have to make after season 18 or 19.
  • Watching: 2101 Homer the Whopper | Watch The Simpsons Online - FREE! 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.wtso.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Epic of Homer was doubtless formed originally from a spoken variety of Greek, but became literary and conventional with time.^ It is clear that the variety of forms in Homer is too great for any actual spoken dialect.

^ The Epic of Homer was doubtless formed originally from a spoken variety of Greek, but became literary and conventional with time.

^ To what local variety of Achaean Homeric Greek belonged it is idle to ask.

.It is Homer himself who tells us, in a striking passage (Il. iv.^ It is Homer himself who tells us, in a striking passage ( Il.

^ Thucydides , who quotes this passage to show the ancient character of the Delian festival, seems to have no doubt of the Homeric authorship of the hymn.

^ In it Peisistratus is made to say of himself that he "collected Homer, who was formerly sung in fragments, for the golden poet was a citizen of ours, since we Athenians founded Smyrna."

.437) that all the Greeks spoke the same language - that is to say, that they understood one another, in spite of the inevitable local differences.^ Greeks spoke the same language - that is to say, that they understood one another, in spite of the inevitable local differences.

^ "So then the princess threw the ball at one of her company; she missed the girl, and cast the ball into the deep eddying current, whereat they all raised a piercing cry.
  • Homeric correspondences in Ulysses (overview) 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC www.robotwisdom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also they can imitate the tongues of all men and their clattering speech: each would say that he himself were singing, so close to truth is their sweet song.
  • Classical E-Text: THE HOMERIC HYMNS 1 - 3 20 November 2009 6:50 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

.Experience shows how some one dialect in a country gains a literary supremacy to which the whole nation yields.^ Experience shows how some one dialect in a country gains a literary supremacy to which the whole nation yields.

^ Adorable how they mock the whole hollywood-scene and I like learning more about Comic-Book-Guy, he is one funny character.
  • Watching: 2101 Homer the Whopper | Watch The Simpsons Online - FREE! 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.wtso.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What has all this farrago about savages to do with Dionysus?” I conceive some scholar, or literary critic asking, if such an one looks into this book.

.So Tuscan became the type of Italian, and Anglian of English.^ So Tuscan became the type of Italian , and Anglian of English.

.But as soon as the dialect is adopted, it begins to diverge from the colloquial form.^ But as soon as the dialect is adopted, it begins to diverge from the colloquial form.

.Just as modern poetical Italian uses many older grammatical forms peculiar to itself, so the language of poetry, even in Homeric times, had formed a deposit (so to speak) of archaic grammar.^ Just as modern poetical Italian uses many older grammatical forms peculiar to itself, so the language of poetry, even in Homeric times, had formed a deposit (so to speak) of archaic grammar.

^ If the language of Homer is so ambiguous where the use of writing would naturally be mentioned, we cannot expect to find more decisive references elsewhere.

^ It is plain, in short, that the later poetical vocabulary was separated from that of prose mainly by the forms which the influence of Homer had saved from being forgotten.

.There were doubtless poets before Homer, as well as brave men before Agamemnon; and indeed the formation of a poetical dialect such as the Homeric must have been the work of several generations.^ There were doubtless poets before Homer, as well as brave men before Agamemnon; and indeed the formation of a poetical dialect such as the Homeric must have been the work of several generations.

^ It will be enough to observe that in the earliest elegiac poets, such as Archilochus , Tyrtaeus and Theognis, reminiscences of Homeric language and thought meet us on every page.

^ Why have the works of Arctinus escaped the attraction which drew to the name of Homer such epics as the Cypria, the Little Iliad, the Thebaid, the Epigoni, the Taking of Oechalia and the Phocais.

.The use of that dialect (instead of Aeolic) by the Boeotian poet Hesiod, in a kind of poetry which was not of the Homeric type, tends to the conclusion that the literary ascendancy of the epic dialect was anterior to the Iliad and Odyssey, and independent of the influence exercised by these poems.^ Iliad and the Odyssey, and between Homer and the early Cyclic poems.

^ The use of that dialect (instead of Aeolic) by the Boeotian poet Hesiod, in a kind of poetry which was not of the Homeric type, tends to the conclusion that the literary ascendancy of the epic dialect was anterior to the Iliad and Odyssey, and independent of the influence exercised by these poems.

^ In fact, Herodotus , the fifth century historian, says that Homer and Hesiod , an epic poet contemporary with Homer, first named the gods, determined their honors and functions and devised their physical appearance (2.53).
  • Homer's Iliad 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC ablemedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.What then was the original language of Homer ?^ What then was the original language of Homer ?

Where and when was it spoken ? [The answer given to this question by Aug. .Fick (in 1883) and still held, with modifications, by some European scholars can no longer be maintained.^ Fick (in 1883) and still held, with modifications, by some European scholars can no longer be maintained.

Fick's original statement was that in or about the 6th century B.C.
the poems, which had originally worn an Aeolic dress, were transposed into Ionic. .To this it is easily answered that such an event is not only unique in history, but contrary to all that we know of the Greek genius.^ To this it is easily answered that such an event is not only unique in history, but contrary to all that we know of the Greek genius.

^ Further, we do not know Baubo, or a counterpart of her, in the ritual of Isis, and the clay figurines of such a figure, in Egypt, are of the Greek, the Ptolemaic period.

^ All together, sharing, getting to know each other, exchanging ideas, stories and laughs, snuggling up, bonding together as only a tightly-knit family can.
  • The Wisdom of Homer Simpson, compiled by Sami Karjalainen 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.samikarjalainen.fi [Source type: Original source]

.At the period in question an Aeolic literature, the lyrics of Sappho and Alcaeus, were in existence.^ At the period in question an Aeolic literature, the lyrics of Sappho and Alcaeus , were in existence.

.If it was found necessary to transpose the Aeolic Homer, why did the Aeolic lyric verse escape?^ If it was found necessary to transpose the Aeolic Homer, why did the Aeolic lyric verse escape?

^ There are doubtless many Homeric forms which were unknown to the later Ionic and Attic, and which are found in Aeolic or other dialects.

^ Homer : Why did I take such punishment?
  • The Simpsons Quotes : Homer Simpson | planetclaire.org 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.planetclaire.org [Source type: Original source]

.If, however, as is the view of some of Fick's followers, the transposition took place several centuries earlier, before species of literature had appropriated particular dialects, then the linguistic facts upon which Fick relied to distinguish the " Aeolic " and " Ionic " elements in Homer disappear.^ If, however, as is the view of some of Fick's followers, the transposition took place several centuries earlier, before species of literature had appropriated particular dialects, then the linguistic facts upon which Fick relied to distinguish the " Aeolic " and " Ionic " elements in Homer disappear.

^ As the dialect of the Arno in Italy , of Castille in Spain , by the virtue of the genius of the singers who used them, became literary " Italian " and " Spanish," so this variety of Achaean elevated itself to the position of the volgare illustre of Greece)] (T. W. A.) ( c ) The influence of Homer upon the subsequent course of Greek literature is a large subject, even if we restrict it to the centuries which immediately followed the Homeric age.

^ There were doubtless poets before Homer, as well as brave men before Agamemnon; and indeed the formation of a poetical dialect such as the Homeric must have been the work of several generations.

.We have no means of knowing what the Aeolic and Ionic of say the 9th century were, or if there were such dialects at all.^ When I say no I mean no, god dammit!
  • Night of the Hunter - Gwen Cooper - Open Salon 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have no means of knowing what the Aeolic and Ionic of say the 9th century were, or if there were such dialects at all.

^ Further proof there is no such thing as a destination job.
  • 1530HOMER.COM - The Official Home of the Bengals 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.1530homer.com [Source type: General]

.Certain prominent historical differences between Aeolic and Ionic (the digamma and a) are known to be unoriginal.^ Certain prominent historical differences between Aeolic and Ionic (the digamma and a) are known to be unoriginal.

^ He noticed especially the difference between the stories known to Homer and those given by later poets, and made many comparisons between Homeric and later manners, arts and institutions.

^ The historical divergences of Achaean into Aeolian and Ionic were later than the Migration , and were due to the well-known effects of change of soil and air .

.The view that Homer underwent at any time a passage from one dialect to another may be dismissed.^ The view that Homer underwent at any time a passage from one dialect to another may be dismissed.

^ It has been thought indeed that the Homeric dialect was a mixed one, mainly Ionic, but containing Aeolic and even Doric forms; this, however, is a mistaken view of the processes of language.

^ In general, however, these are older forms, which must have existed in Ionic at one time, and may very well have belonged to the Ionic of Homer's time.

.The tendency of modern dialectologists is to divide the Greek dialects into Dorian and non-Dorian.^ The tendency of modern dialectologists is to divide the Greek dialects into Dorian and non-Dorian.

.The nonDorian dialects, Ionic, Attic and the various forms of Aeolic, are regarded as relatively closely akin, and go by the common name " Achaean."^ The nonDorian dialects, Ionic, Attic and the various forms of Aeolic, are regarded as relatively closely akin, and go by the common name " Achaean."

^ There are doubtless many Homeric forms which were unknown to the later Ionic and Attic, and which are found in Aeolic or other dialects.

^ The longest is written in the Ionic dialect , and bears the name of Herodotus, but is certainly spurious.

.They formed the common language of Greece before the Doric invasion.^ They formed the common language of Greece before the Doric invasion.

^ It has been thought indeed that the Homeric dialect was a mixed one, mainly Ionic, but containing Aeolic and even Doric forms; this, however, is a mistaken view of the processes of language.

.As the scene which Homer depicts is prae-Dorian Greece; it is reasonable to call his language Achaean.^ As the scene which Homer depicts is prae-Dorian Greece; it is reasonable to call his language Achaean.

.The historical divergences of Achaean into Aeolian and Ionic were later than the Migration, and were due to the well-known effects of change of soil and air.^ The historical divergences of Achaean into Aeolian and Ionic were later than the Migration , and were due to the well-known effects of change of soil and air .

^ Achaeans , Argives, Danai, we find Hellenes, subdivided into Dorians , Ionians, Aeolians - names either unknown to Homer, or mentioned in terms more significant than silence.

^ In one known case, the deity, Pundjel or Bunjil, takes the wives of Karween, who is changed into a crane.

.To what local variety of Achaean Homeric Greek belonged it is idle to ask.^ To what local variety of Achaean Homeric Greek belonged it is idle to ask.

^ The Epic of Homer was doubtless formed originally from a spoken variety of Greek, but became literary and conventional with time.

.Thessaly, Boeotia and Mycenae have equal claims.^ Thessaly, Boeotia and Mycenae have equal claims.

.It seems clearer that when once this local variety of Achaean had been used by poets of eminence as their vehicle for national history, it established its right to be considered the one poetical language of Hellas.^ It seems clearer that when once this local variety of Achaean had been used by poets of eminence as their vehicle for national history, it established its right to be considered the one poetical language of Hellas.

^ To what local variety of Achaean Homeric Greek belonged it is idle to ask.

^ Greeks spoke the same language - that is to say, that they understood one another, in spite of the inevitable local differences.

.As the dialect of the Arno in Italy, of Castille in Spain, by the virtue of the genius of the singers who used them, became literary " Italian " and " Spanish," so this variety of Achaean elevated itself to the position of the volgare illustre of Greece)] (T. W. A.) (c) The influence of Homer upon the subsequent course of Greek literature is a large subject, even if we restrict it to the centuries which immediately followed the Homeric age.^ To what local variety of Achaean Homeric Greek belonged it is idle to ask.

^ As the dialect of the Arno in Italy , of Castille in Spain , by the virtue of the genius of the singers who used them, became literary " Italian " and " Spanish," so this variety of Achaean elevated itself to the position of the volgare illustre of Greece)] (T. W. A.) ( c ) The influence of Homer upon the subsequent course of Greek literature is a large subject, even if we restrict it to the centuries which immediately followed the Homeric age.

^ It seems, then, that if we imagine Homer as a singer in a royal house of the Homeric age, but with more freedom regarding the limits of his subject, and a more tranquil audience than is allowed him in the rapid movement of the Odyssey, we shall probably not be far from the truth.

.It will be enough to observe that in the earliest elegiac poets, such as Archilochus, Tyrtaeus and Theognis, reminiscences of Homeric language and thought meet us on every page.^ It will be enough to observe that in the earliest elegiac poets, such as Archilochus , Tyrtaeus and Theognis, reminiscences of Homeric language and thought meet us on every page.

^ Such is the " action " (7rpa cs) which in Aristotle's opinion showed the superiority of Homer to all later epic poets.

^ Yet Arctinus of Miletus was said to have been a " disciple of Homer," and was certainly one of the earliest and most considerable of the " Cyclic " poets.

.If the same cannot be said of the ancient epic poems, that is because of the extreme scantiness of the existing fragments.^ If the same cannot be said of the ancient epic poems, that is because of the extreme scantiness of the existing fragments.

^ They must therefore have been, as Bentley had said, " a sequel of songs and rhapsodies," " loose songs not collected together in the form of an epic poem till about 50o years after."

.Much, however, is to be gathered from the arguments of the Trojan part of the Epic Cycle (preserved in the Codex Venetus of the Iliad, a full discussion of which will be found in the Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1884, pp.^ Much, however, is to be gathered from the arguments of the Trojan part of the Epic Cycle (preserved in the Codex Venetus of the Iliad, a full discussion of which will be found in the Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1884, pp.

^ Allen, Journal of Hellenic Studies , xvii.

^ The later poets sought to complete the story of the Trojan war by supplying the parts which did not fall within the Iliad and Odyssey - the so-called ante-homerica and post-homerica.

1-40). .An examination of these arguments throws light on two chief aspects of the relation between Homer and his " cyclic " successors.^ An examination of these arguments throws light on two chief aspects of the relation between Homer and his " cyclic " successors.

^ The same line of argument may be extended to the Hymns, and even to some of the lost works of the post-Homeric or so-called " Cyclic " poets.

^ His remarks on Homer (in the Poetics and elsewhere) show that he had made a careful study of the structure and leading ideas of the poems, but do not throw much light on the text.

.1. The later poets sought to complete the story of the Trojan war by supplying the parts which did not fall within the Iliad and Odyssey - the so-called ante-homerica and post-homerica. They did so largely from hints and passing references in Homer.^ They did so largely from hints and passing references in Homer.

^ The later poets sought to complete the story of the Trojan war by supplying the parts which did not fall within the Iliad and Odyssey - the so-called ante-homerica and post-homerica.

^ The quotation from the Iliad is of interest because it is made in order to show that Homer supported the story of the travels of Paris to Egypt and Sidon (whereas the Cyclic poem called the Cypria ignored them), and also because the part of the Iliad from which it comes is cited as the " Aristeia of Diomede."

.Thus the successive episodes of the siege related at length in the Little Iliad, and ending with the story of the Wooden Horse, are nearly all taken from passages in the Odyssey. Much the same may be said of the Nosti. 2. With this process of expansion and development (so to speak) of Homeric themes is combined the addition of new characters.^ Thus the successive episodes of the siege related at length in the Little Iliad, and ending with the story of the Wooden Horse, are nearly all taken from passages in the Odyssey.

^ Much the same may be said of the Nosti.

^ With this process of expansion and development (so to speak) of Homeric themes is combined the addition of new characters.

.Such, in the Little Iliad (e.g.^ Why have the works of Arctinus escaped the attraction which drew to the name of Homer such epics as the Cypria, the Little Iliad, the Thebaid, the Epigoni, the Taking of Oechalia and the Phocais.

^ Such, in the Little Iliad (e.g.

),
are the story of the .Palladium and of the treachery of Sinon.^ Palladium and of the treachery of Sinon.

.Such, too, in the Cypria are the new legendary figures - Palamedes, Iphigenia, Telephus, Laocoon.^ Such, too, in the Cypria are the new legendary figures - Palamedes , Iphigenia, Telephus, Laocoon .

.These new elements in the narrative are evidently due not only to the natural growth of legend in a people highly endowed with imagination, but in a large proportion also to the new 1 See D. B. Monro's Homer's Odyssey, books xiii.^ These new elements in the narrative are evidently due not only to the natural growth of legend in a people highly endowed with imagination, but in a large proportion also to the new 1 See D. B. Monro's Homer's Odyssey, books xiii.

^ They were only inspired by these popular songs; they only borrowed from them the traditional and legendary elements.

^ The first of these representations is evidently natural, considering the twenty eventful years that have passed; but the second, Kirchhoff holds, is the Ulysses of Calypso's 1 On this point see a paper by Professor Packard in the Trans.

- xxiv. .(Oxford, 1901, P. 455 sqq.^ (Oxford, 1901, P. 455 sqq.

), and the abstract of his paper on the Homeric Dialect read to the Congress of Historical Sciences at Rome, 1903: Atti del Congresso internazionale di scienze storiche, ii. 152, 153, 1905, " Il Dialetto omerico." races and countries with which the Greeks came into contact, as well as to their own rapid advance in wealth and civilization. .It will be observed that the two poems of Arctinus are remarkable for the proportion of new matter of the latter kind.^ It will be observed that the two poems of Arctinus are remarkable for the proportion of new matter of the latter kind.

^ The most obvious account of the matter is that Arctinus was never so far forgotten that his poems became the subject of dispute.

.The Aethiopis shows us the allies of Troy reinforced by two peoples that are evidently creations of oriental fancy, the Amazons and Memnon with his Aethiopians.^ The Aethiopis shows us the allies of Troy reinforced by two peoples that are evidently creations of oriental fancy, the Amazons and Memnon with his Aethiopians.

.The Iliu Persis, again, was the oldest authority for the story of Laocoon and of the consequent escape of Aeneas - a story which connected a surviving branch of the house of Priam with the later inhabitants of the Troad.^ The Iliu Persis , again, was the oldest authority for the story of Laocoon and of the consequent escape of Aeneas - a story which connected a surviving branch of the house of Priam with the later inhabitants of the Troad.

.On the other hand the fate of Creusa (sed me magna deum genetrix his detinet oris) is a link with the worship of Cybele.^ On the other hand the fate of Creusa ( sed me magna deum genetrix his detinet oris ) is a link with the worship of Cybele .

.The journey of Calchas to Colophon and his death there, as told in the Nosti, is another instance of the kind.^ The journey of Calchas to Colophon and his death there, as told in the Nosti, is another instance of the kind.

.These facts point to a familiarity with the Greek colonies in Asia which contrasts strongly with the silence of the Iliad and Odyssey.^ These facts point to a familiarity with the Greek colonies in Asia which contrasts strongly with the silence of the Iliad and Odyssey.

^ To the English reader familiar with the Iliad and Odyssey the Hymns must appear disappointing, if he come to them with an expectation of discovering merits like those of the immortal epics.

^ The result of these various considerations seems to be that the age which we may call the Homeric - the age which is brought before us in vivid outlines in the Iliad and Odyssey - lies beyond the earliest point to which history enables us to penetrate.

Study of Homer. - The Homeric Question. - .The
critical study of Homer began in Greece almost with the beginning of prose writing.^ The critical study of Homer began in Greece almost with the beginning of prose writing.

^ In this way the great Alexandrian school of Homeric criticism began with Zenodotus , the first chief of the museum, and was continued by Aristophanes and Aristarchus .

.The first name is that of Theagenes of Rhegium, contemporary of Cambyses (525 B.C.), who is said to have founded the " new grammar " (the older " grammar " being the art of reading and writing), and to have been the inventor of the allegorical interpretations by which it was sought to reconcile the Homeric mythology with the morality and speculative ideas of the 6th century B.C. The same attitude in the " ancient quarrel of poetry and philosophy " was soon afterwards taken by Anaxagoras; and after him by his pupil Metrodorus of Lampsacus, who explained away all the gods, and even the heroes, as elementary substances and forces (Agamemnon as the upper air, &c.^ The first name is that of Theagenes of Rhegium, contemporary of Cambyses (525 B.C.), who is said to have founded the " new grammar " (the older " grammar " being the art of reading and writing), and to have been the inventor of the allegorical interpretations by which it was sought to reconcile the Homeric mythology with the morality and speculative ideas of the 6th century B.C. The same attitude in the " ancient quarrel of poetry and philosophy " was soon afterwards taken by Anaxagoras ; and after him by his pupil Metrodorus of Lampsacus , who explained away all the gods, and even the heroes, as elementary substances and forces (Agamemnon as the upper air, &c.

^ In fact, Herodotus , the fifth century historian, says that Homer and Hesiod , an epic poet contemporary with Homer, first named the gods, determined their honors and functions and devised their physical appearance (2.53).
  • Homer's Iliad 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC ablemedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Everything in short was ripe for the reception of a book that brought together, with masterly ease and vigour, the old and the new Homeric learning, and drew from it the historical proof that Homer was no single poet, writing according to art and rule, but a name which stood for a golden age of the true spontaneous poetry of genius and nature.

).
.The next writers on Homer of the " grammatical " type were Stesimbrotus of Thasos (contemporary with Cimon) and Antimachus of Colophon, himself an epic poet of mark.^ The next writers on Homer of the " grammatical " type were Stesimbrotus of Thasos (contemporary with Cimon) and Antimachus of Colophon, himself an epic poet of mark.

^ In fact, Herodotus , the fifth century historian, says that Homer and Hesiod , an epic poet contemporary with Homer, first named the gods, determined their honors and functions and devised their physical appearance (2.53).
  • Homer's Iliad 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC ablemedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such is the " action " (7rpa cs) which in Aristotle's opinion showed the superiority of Homer to all later epic poets.

.The Thebaid of Antimachus, however, was not popular, and seems to have been a great storehouse of mythological learning rather than a poem of the Homeric school.^ The Thebaid of Antimachus, however, was not popular, and seems to have been a great storehouse of mythological learning rather than a poem of the Homeric school.

^ The contention for Homer, in short, began at a time when his real history was lost, and he had become a sort of mythical figure, an " eponymous hero," or personification of a great school of poetry .

^ It seems probable therefore that the introduction of the alphabet is not later than the composition of the Homeric poems.

.Other names of the pre-Socratic and Socratic times are mentioned by Xenophon, Plato and Aristotle.^ Other names of the pre-Socratic and Socratic times are mentioned by Xenophon , Plato and Aristotle.

.These were the " ancient Homerics " (01 apXaEoe `O,unpuccl), who busied themselves much with the hidden meanings of Homer; of whom Aristotle says, with his profound insight, that they see the small likenesses and overlook the great ones (Metaph. xii.^ These were the " ancient Homerics " (01 apXaEoe `O,unpuccl ), who busied themselves much with the hidden meanings of Homer; of whom Aristotle says, with his profound insight, that they see the small likenesses and overlook the great ones ( Metaph.

^ But one point you mention is true: Homer`s german voice sucks, that is why I stopped watching the show on TV and logged me in to this great site.
  • Watching: 2101 Homer the Whopper | Watch The Simpsons Online - FREE! 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.wtso.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When we are satisfied that each of the great Homeric poems is either wholly or mainly the work of a single poet, a question remains which has been matter of controversy in ancient as well as modern times - Are they the work of the same poet?

).
.The text of Homer must have attracted some attention when Antimachus came to be known as the " corrector " (ScopOwTi 7 s) of a distinct edition (iicSovcs).^ The text of Homer must have attracted some attention when Antimachus came to be known as the " corrector " ( ScopOwTi 7 s ) of a distinct edition (iicSovcs).

^ The editio princeps of Homer, published at Florence in 1488, by Demetrius Chalcondylas, and the Aldine editions of 1504 and 1517, have still some value beyond that of curiosity.

^ Such attempts usually start with the tacit assumption that each of the persons concerned - Lycurgus, Solon, Peisistratus, Hipparchus - must have done something for the text of Homer, or for the regulation of the rhapsodists.

.Aristotle is said himself to have made a recension for the use of Alexander the Great.^ Aristotle is said himself to have made a recension for the use of Alexander the Great .

This is unlikely. .His remarks on Homer (in the Poetics and elsewhere) show that he had made a careful study of the structure and leading ideas of the poems, but do not throw much light on the text.^ His remarks on Homer (in the Poetics and elsewhere) show that he had made a careful study of the structure and leading ideas of the poems, but do not throw much light on the text.

^ The quotation from the Iliad is of interest because it is made in order to show that Homer supported the story of the travels of Paris to Egypt and Sidon (whereas the Cyclic poem called the Cypria ignored them), and also because the part of the Iliad from which it comes is cited as the " Aristeia of Diomede."

^ He has made the occasional remark denoting his attraction to other women (including his neighbor's wife ), even in front of Marge on a occasion, but always shows his devotion to Marge in the end.
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.The real work of criticism became possible only when great collections of manuscripts began to be made by the princes of the generation after Alexander, and when men of learning were employed to sift and arrange these treasures.^ The real work of criticism became possible only when great collections of manuscripts began to be made by the princes of the generation after Alexander, and when men of learning were employed to sift and arrange these treasures.

^ The splendid patronage of letters by the successors of Alexander, and especially the great institutions which had been founded at Alexandria and Pergamum , had made an impression on the imagination of learned men which was reflected in the current notions of the ancient despots.

^ By presenting an array of discordant conjectures as to the number and nature of these scraps, he demonstrates the purely wilful and arbitrary nature of the critical method employed.

.In this way the great Alexandrian school of Homeric criticism began with Zenodotus, the first chief of the museum, and was continued by Aristophanes and Aristarchus.^ In this way the great Alexandrian school of Homeric criticism began with Zenodotus , the first chief of the museum, and was continued by Aristophanes and Aristarchus .

^ The critical study of Homer began in Greece almost with the beginning of prose writing.

^ Against the theory which sees in Peisistratus the author of the first complete text of Homer we have to set the absolute silence of Herodotus, Thucydides, the orators and the Alexandrian grammarians.

.In Aristarchus ancient philology culminated, as philosophy had done in Socrates.^ In Aristarchus ancient philology culminated, as philosophy had done in Socrates .

.All earlier learning either passed into his writings, or was lost; all subsequent research turned upon his critical and grammatical work.^ All earlier learning either passed into his writings, or was lost; all subsequent research turned upon his critical and grammatical work.

^ I bet Einstein turned himself into all sorts of colors before he invented the light bulb.
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^ What has all this farrago about savages to do with Dionysus?” I conceive some scholar, or literary critic asking, if such an one looks into this book.

.The means of forming a judgment of the Alexandrine criticism are scanty.^ The means of forming a judgment of the Alexandrine criticism are scanty.

.The literary form which preserved the works of the great historians was unfortunately wanting, or was not sufficiently valued, in the case of the grammarians.^ The literary form which preserved the works of the great historians was unfortunately wanting, or was not sufficiently valued, in the case of the grammarians.

^ Literary works are divided into various categories called genres in accordance with their characteristic form and content.
  • Homer's Iliad 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC ablemedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Abridgments and newer treatises soon drove out the writings of Aristarchus and other founders of the science.^ Abridgments and newer treatises soon drove out the writings of Aristarchus and other founders of the science.

.Moreover, a recension could not be reproduced without new errors soon creeping in.^ Moreover, a recension could not be reproduced without new errors soon creeping in.

.Thus we find that Didymus, writing in the time of Cicero, does not quote the readings of Aristarchus as we should quote a textus receptus. Indeed, the object of his work seems to have been to determine what those readings were.^ Indeed, the object of his work seems to have been to determine what those readings were.

^ Thus we find that Didymus , writing in the time of Cicero , does not quote the readings of Aristarchus as we should quote a textus receptus.

^ Didymus (contemporary of Cicero) on the recension of Aristarchus, Aristonicus (fl.

.Enough, however, remains to show that Aristarchus had a clear notion of the chief problems of philology (except perhaps those concerning etymology).^ Enough, however, remains to show that Aristarchus had a clear notion of the chief problems of philology (except perhaps those concerning etymology ).

.He saw, for example, that it was not enough to find a meaning for the archaic words (the yXwvaae, as they were called), but that common words (such as lrovos, go(30s) had their Homeric uses, which were to be gathered by due induction.^ He saw, for example, that it was not enough to find a meaning for the archaic words (the yXwvaae, as they were called), but that common words (such as lrovos, go(30s) had their Homeric uses, which were to be gathered by due induction .

^ Homer : You mean we're going to start doing it in the morning?
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^ If the language of Homer is so ambiguous where the use of writing would naturally be mentioned, we cannot expect to find more decisive references elsewhere.

.In the same spirit he looked upon the ideas and beliefs of Homer as a consistent whole, which might be determined from the evidence of the poems.^ In the same spirit he looked upon the ideas and beliefs of Homer as a consistent whole, which might be determined from the evidence of the poems.

^ Failing external testimony, the time and place of the Homeric poems can only be determined (if at all) by internal evidence.

^ This is of two main kinds: (a) evidence of history, consisting in a comparison of the political and social condition, the geography , the institutions, the manners, arts and ideas of Homer with those of other times; ( b ) evidence of language, consisting in a comparison with later dialects, in respect of grammar and vocabulary.

.He noticed especially the difference between the stories known to Homer and those given by later poets, and made many comparisons between Homeric and later manners, arts and institutions.^ He noticed especially the difference between the stories known to Homer and those given by later poets, and made many comparisons between Homeric and later manners, arts and institutions.

^ This is of two main kinds: (a) evidence of history, consisting in a comparison of the political and social condition, the geography , the institutions, the manners, arts and ideas of Homer with those of other times; ( b ) evidence of language, consisting in a comparison with later dialects, in respect of grammar and vocabulary.

^ Rear me this child that the Gods have given in my later years and beyond my hope; and he is to me a child of many prayers.

.Again, he was sensible of the paramount value of manuscript authority, and appears to have introduced no readings from mere conjecture.^ Again, he was sensible of the paramount value of manuscript authority, and appears to have introduced no readings from mere conjecture.

.The frequent mention in the Scholia of " better " and inferior " texts may indicate a classification made by him or by the general opinion of critics.^ The frequent mention in the Scholia of " better " and inferior " texts may indicate a classification made by him or by the general opinion of critics.

^ A few words remain to be said on the style and general character of the Homeric poems, and on the comparisons which may be made between Homer and analogous poetry in other countries.

.His use of the " obelus " to distinguish spurious verses, which made so large a part of his fame in antiquity, has rather told against him with modern scholars.'^ His use of the " obelus " to distinguish spurious verses, which made so large a part of his fame in antiquity, has rather told against him with modern scholars.'

.It is chiefly interesting as a proof of the confusion in which the text must have been before the Alexandrian times; for it is impossible to understand the readiness of Aristarchus to suspect the genuineness of verses unless the state of the copies had pointed to the existence of numerous interpolations.^ It is chiefly interesting as a proof of the confusion in which the text must have been before the Alexandrian times; for it is impossible to understand the readiness of Aristarchus to suspect the genuineness of verses unless the state of the copies had pointed to the existence of numerous interpolations.

^ But the question is - From what time are we to suppose that the preservation of long poems was generally secured by the existence of written copies?

^ It may just be glorified copy/pasting, but as another poster pointed out, it takes time, talent and dedication to do what you did.

.On this matter, however, we are left to conjecture.^ These, however, are matters of conjecture.

^ On this matter, however, we are left to conjecture.

.Our knowledge of Alexandrian criticism is derived almost wholly from a single document, the famous Iliad of the library of St Mark in Venice (Codex Venetus 454, or Ven.^ Our knowledge of Alexandrian criticism is derived almost wholly from a single document, the famous Iliad of the library of St Mark in Venice ( Codex Venetus 454, or Ven.

.A
), first published by the French scholar Villoison in 1788 (Scholia antiquissima ad Homeri Iliadem). This manuscript, written in the 10th century, contains (1) the best text of the Iliad, (2) the critical marks of Aristarchus and (3) Scholia, consisting mainly of extracts from four grammatical works, viz.^ This manuscript, written in the 10th century, contains (1) the best text of the Iliad, (2) the critical marks of Aristarchus and (3) Scholia, consisting mainly of extracts from four grammatical works, viz.

^ A ), first published by the French scholar Villoison in 1788 ( Scholia antiquissima ad Homeri Iliadem).

^ The unique Scholia Veneta on the Iliad were first made known by Villoison ( Homeri Ilias ad veteris codicis Veneti fidem recensita, Scholia in earn antiquissima ex eodem codice aliisque nunc primum edidit, cum A steriscis, Obeliscis, aliisque signis criticis, Joh.

.Didymus (contemporary of Cicero) on the recension of Aristarchus, Aristonicus (fl.^ Didymus (contemporary of Cicero) on the recension of Aristarchus, Aristonicus (fl.

^ Thus we find that Didymus , writing in the time of Cicero , does not quote the readings of Aristarchus as we should quote a textus receptus.

.24 B.C.) on the critical marks of Aristarchus, Herodian (fl.^ B.C.) on the critical marks of Aristarchus, Herodian (fl.

.A.D. 160) on the accentuation, and Nicanor (fl.^ A.D. 160) on the accentuation, and Nicanor (fl.

.A.D. 127) on the punctuation, of the Iliad. These extracts present themselves in two distinct forms.^ These extracts present themselves in two distinct forms.

^ These speeches form the cardinal points in the action of the Iliad - the framework into which everything else is set; and they have also the best title to the name of Homer.

^ Wolf had argued that if the cyclic writers had known the Iliad and Odyssey which we possess, they would have imitated the unity of structure which distinguishes these two poems.

.One series of scholia is written in the usual way, on a margin reserved for the purpose.^ One series of scholia is written in the usual way, on a margin reserved for the purpose.

.The other consists of brief scholia, written in very small characters (but of the same period) on the narrow space left vacant round the text.^ The other consists of brief scholia, written in very small characters (but of the same period) on the narrow space left vacant round the text.

^ This manuscript, written in the 10th century, contains (1) the best text of the Iliad, (2) the critical marks of Aristarchus and (3) Scholia, consisting mainly of extracts from four grammatical works, viz.

.Occasionally a scholium of this kind gives the substance of one of the longer extracts; but as a rule they are distinct.^ Occasionally a scholium of this kind gives the substance of one of the longer extracts; but as a rule they are distinct.

^ The reason for this is that sometimes a longer epithet is needed to suit the meter, while on other occasions a shorter one is needed.
  • Homer's Iliad 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC ablemedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some may be fragments of longer poems, but evidently they are not the work of any one poet.

.It would seem, therefore, that after the manuscript was finished the " marginal scholia " were discovered to be extremely defective, and a new series of extracts was added in a form which interfered as little as possible with the appearance of the book.'^ It would seem, therefore, that after the manuscript was finished the " marginal scholia " were discovered to be extremely defective, and a new series of extracts was added in a form which interfered as little as possible with the appearance of the book.'

^ One series of scholia is written in the usual way, on a margin reserved for the purpose.

.The mention of the Venetian Scholia leads us at once to the Homeric controversy; for the immortal Prolegomena of F. A. Wolf 3 appeared a few years after Villoison's publication, and was founded in great measure upon the fresh and abundant materials which it furnished.^ The mention of the Venetian Scholia leads us at once to the Homeric controversy; for the immortal Prolegomena of F. A. Wolf 3 appeared a few years after Villoison's publication, and was founded in great measure upon the fresh and abundant materials which it furnished.

^ Although Wolf at once perceived the value of the Venetian Scholia on the Iliad, the first scholar who thoroughly explored them was C. Lehrs ( De Aristarchi studiis Homericis, Konigsberg , 1833; 2nd ed., Leipzig, 1865).

^ The Prolegomena bore on the title-page the words " Volumen I."; but no second volume ever appeared, nor was any attempt made by Wolf himself to carry his theory further.

.Not that the " Wolfian theory " of the Homeric poems is directly supported by anything in the Scholia; the immediate object of the Prolegomena was not to put forward that theory, but to elucidate the new and remarkable conditions under which the text of Homer had to be settled, viz.^ Not that the " Wolfian theory " of the Homeric poems is directly supported by anything in the Scholia; the immediate object of the Prolegomena was not to put forward that theory, but to elucidate the new and remarkable conditions under which the text of Homer had to be settled, viz.

^ His remarks on Homer (in the Poetics and elsewhere) show that he had made a careful study of the structure and leading ideas of the poems, but do not throw much light on the text.

^ Strabo also says that the Chians put forward the Homeridae as an argument in support of their claim to Homer.

the discovery of an .apparatus criticus of the 2nd century B.C. The questions regarding the original structure and early history of the poems were raised (forced upon him, it may be said) by the critical problem; but they were really originated by facts and ideas of a wholly different order.^ See “Costumal of the Thirteenth Century,” with much learning on the subject, in Mr. Elton’s “Origins of English History,” especially p.

^ The Christian Fathers, Clemens of Alexandria at least, make this a part of their attack on the Mysteries; but it may be said that they were prejudiced or misinformed.

^ Homer may have been alarmed at how rigid my body had become, or perhaps by the fact that I was awake, yet not speaking to him in my usual reassuring tones.
  • Night of the Hunter - Gwen Cooper - Open Salon 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

.The 18th century, in which the spirit of classical correctness had the most absolute dominion, did not come to an end before a powerful reaction set in, which affected not only literature but also speculation and politics.^ The 18th century, in which the spirit of classical correctness had the most absolute dominion, did not come to an end before a powerful reaction set in, which affected not only literature but also speculation and politics.

^ The preservation of this vast mass can only be attributed to writing, which must therefore have been in use for two centuries or more before there was any considerable prose literature.

.In this movement the leading ideas were concentrated in the word Nature.^ In this movement the leading ideas were concentrated in the word Nature.

.The natural condition of society, natural law, natural religion, the poetry of nature, gained a singular hold, first on the English philosophers from Hume onwards, and then (through Rousseau chiefly) on the general drift of thought and action in Europe.^ The natural condition of society, natural law, natural religion, the poetry of nature, gained a singular hold, first on the English philosophers from Hume onwards, and then (through Rousseau chiefly) on the general drift of thought and action in Europe .

.In literature the effect of these ideas was to set up a false opposition between nature and art.^ In literature the effect of these ideas was to set up a false opposition between nature and art.

^ To these may be added, as occasionally of value, ( c ) much evidence of the direct influence of Homer upon the subsequent course of literature and art.

.As political writers imagined a patriarchal innocence prior to codes of law, so men of letters sought in popular unwritten poetry the freshness and simplicity which were wanting in the prevailing styles.^ As political writers imagined a patriarchal innocence prior to codes of law, so men of letters sought in popular unwritten poetry the freshness and simplicity which were wanting in the prevailing styles.

^ It is his noble and powerful style, sustained through every change of idea and subject, that finally separates Homer from all forms of " ballad-poetry " and " popular epic."

.The blind minstrel was the counterpart of the noble savage.^ The blind minstrel was the counterpart of the noble savage .

.The supposed discovery of the poems of Ossian fell in with this train of sentiment, and created an enthusiasm for the study of early popular poetry.^ The supposed discovery of the poems of Ossian fell in with this train of sentiment, and created an enthusiasm for the study of early popular poetry.

.Homer was soon drawn into the circle of inquiry.^ Homer was soon drawn into the circle of inquiry.

.Blackwell (Professor of Greek at Aberdeen) had insisted, in a book published in 1735, on the "naturalness" of Homer; and Wood (Essay on the Original Genius of Homer, London, 1769) was the first who maintained that Homer composed without the help of writing, and supported his thesis by ancient authority, and also by the parallel of Ossian.^ Of the earlier books Wood's Essay on the Original Genius and Writings of Homer is the most interesting.

^ Blackwell (Professor of Greek at Aberdeen) had insisted, in a book published in 1735, on the "naturalness" of Homer; and Wood ( Essay on the Original Genius of Homer, London , 1769) was the first who maintained that Homer composed without the help of writing, and supported his thesis by ancient authority, and also by the parallel of Ossian.

^ If the language of Homer is so ambiguous where the use of writing would naturally be mentioned, we cannot expect to find more decisive references elsewhere.

.Both these books were translated into German, and their ideas passed into the popular philosophy of the day.^ Both these books were translated into German, and their ideas passed into the popular philosophy of the day.

^ He points out some resemblances between these three books and the Argonautic fables, among them the circumstance that a fountain Artacia occurs in both.

.Everything in short was ripe for the reception of a book that brought together, with masterly ease and vigour, the old and the new Homeric learning, and drew from it the historical proof that Homer was no single poet, writing according to art and rule, but a name which stood for a golden age of the true spontaneous poetry of genius and nature.^ Everything in short was ripe for the reception of a book that brought together, with masterly ease and vigour, the old and the new Homeric learning, and drew from it the historical proof that Homer was no single poet, writing according to art and rule, but a name which stood for a golden age of the true spontaneous poetry of genius and nature.

^ Blackwell (Professor of Greek at Aberdeen) had insisted, in a book published in 1735, on the "naturalness" of Homer; and Wood ( Essay on the Original Genius of Homer, London , 1769) was the first who maintained that Homer composed without the help of writing, and supported his thesis by ancient authority, and also by the parallel of Ossian.

^ Why have the works of Arctinus escaped the attraction which drew to the name of Homer such epics as the Cypria, the Little Iliad, the Thebaid, the Epigoni, the Taking of Oechalia and the Phocais.

.The part of the Prolegomena which deals with the original form of the Homeric poems occupies pp.^ The part of the Prolegomena which deals with the original form of the Homeric poems occupies pp.

^ The result of Welcker's labours was to show that the Homeric poems had influenced both the form and the substance of epic poetry.

^ Homer leaving on raft: That wasn't part of the deal.
  • The Simpsons Quotes : Homer Simpson | planetclaire.org 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.planetclaire.org [Source type: Original source]

xl. - clx. (in the first edition). .Wolf shows how the question of the date of writing meets us on the 1 See the chapter in Cobet's Miscellanea critica, pp.^ Wolf shows how the question of the date of writing meets us on the 1 See the chapter in Cobet's Miscellanea critica, pp.

^ It would be cool if you would make a tutoriel to show us how you make this :D .

^ The only question was how clawed up and bloodied the burglar, or I, or both of us, would get in the process of my subduing him.
  • Night of the Hunter - Gwen Cooper - Open Salon 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

225-239.
.2 The existence of two groups of the Venetian Scholia was first noticed by Jacob La Roche, and they were first distinguished in the edition of W. Dindorf (Oxford, 1875).^ The existence of two groups of the Venetian Scholia was first noticed by Jacob La Roche , and they were first distinguished in the edition of W. Dindorf (Oxford, 1875).

^ A new edition has been published by the Oxford Press ( Scholia Graeca in Homeri Iliadem, ed.

^ The Scholia on the Odyssey were published by Buttmann (Berlin, 1821), and with greater approach to completeness by W. Dindorf (Oxford, 1855).

.There is also a group of Scholia, chiefly exegetical, a collection of which was published by Villoison from a MS. Ven.^ There is also a group of Scholia, chiefly exegetical, a collection of which was published by Villoison from a MS. Ven.

^ A ), first published by the French scholar Villoison in 1788 ( Scholia antiquissima ad Homeri Iliadem).

453 (s. xi.) in his edition of .1788, and has been again edited by W. Dindorf (Oxford, 1877).^ W. Dindorf (Oxford, 1877).

.The most important collection of this group is contained in the Codex Townleianus (Burney 86 s.^ The most important collection of this group is contained in the Codex Townleianus (Burney 86 s.

xi.) of the .British Museum, edited by E. Maass, (Oxford, 1887-1888).^ British Museum, edited by E. Maass, (Oxford, 1887-1888).

^ Dindorfius); six volumes have appeared (1875-1888), the last two edited by Professor E. Maass.

.The vast commentary of Eustathius (of the 12th century) marks a third stage in the progress of ancient Homeric learning.^ The vast commentary of Eustathius (of the 12th century) marks a third stage in the progress of ancient Homeric learning.

^ The vast commentary of Eustathius was first printed at Rome in 1542; the last edition is that of Stallbaum (Leipzig, 1827).

.Prolegomena ad Homerum, sive de operum Homericorum prisca et genuina forma variisque mutationibus et probabili ratione emendandi, scripsit Frid.^ Prolegomena ad Homerum, sive de operum Homericorum prisca et genuina forma variisque mutationibus et probabili ratione emendandi, scripsit Frid.

Aug. Wolfius, volumen i. (1795).
.threshold of the textual criticism of Homer and accordingly enters into a full discussion, first of the external evidence, then of the indications furnished by the poems.^ Homer and accordingly enters into a full discussion, first of the external evidence, then of the indications furnished by the poems.

^ In this case we have to consider not merely the indications of the poems, but also the external evidence which we possess regarding the use of writing in Greece.

^ Failing external testimony, the time and place of the Homeric poems can only be determined (if at all) by internal evidence.

.Having satisfied himself that writing was unknown to Homer, he is led to consider the real mode of transmission, and finds this in the Rhapsodists, of whom the Homeridae were an hereditary school.^ Having satisfied himself that writing was unknown to Homer, he is led to consider the real mode of transmission, and finds this in the Rhapsodists, of whom the Homeridae were an hereditary school.

^ If the language of Homer is so ambiguous where the use of writing would naturally be mentioned, we cannot expect to find more decisive references elsewhere.

^ The contention for Homer, in short, began at a time when his real history was lost, and he had become a sort of mythical figure, an " eponymous hero," or personification of a great school of poetry .

.And then comes the conclusion to which all this has been tending: " the die is cast " - the Iliad and Odyssey cannot have been composed in the form in which we know them without the aid of writing.^ And then comes the conclusion to which all this has been tending: " the die is cast " - the Iliad and Odyssey cannot have been composed in the form in which we know them without the aid of writing.

^ Thus the successive episodes of the siege related at length in the Little Iliad, and ending with the story of the Wooden Horse, are nearly all taken from passages in the Odyssey.

^ At all events we have here work visibly third rate, which cannot be said, in my poor opinion, about the immense mass of the Iliad and Odyssey.

.They must therefore have been, as Bentley had said, " a sequel of songs and rhapsodies," " loose songs not collected together in the form of an epic poem till about 50o years after."^ They must therefore have been, as Bentley had said, " a sequel of songs and rhapsodies," " loose songs not collected together in the form of an epic poem till about 50o years after."

^ But between these lays and Homer we must place the cultivation of epic poetry as an art.2 The pre-Homeric lays doubtless furnished the elements of such a poetry - the alphabet, so to speak, of the art; but they must have been refined and transmuted before they formed poems like the Iliad and Odyssey.

^ This, then, is the plausible explanation of most of the brief Hymns—they were preludes to epic recitations—but the question as to the long narrative Hymns with which the collection opens is different.

.This conclusion he then supports by the character attributed to the " Cyclic " poems (whose want of unity showed that the structure of the Iliad and Odyssey must be the work of a later time), by one or two indications of imperfect connexion, and by the doubts of ancient critics as to the genuineness of certain parts.^ Iliad and the Odyssey, and between Homer and the early Cyclic poems.

^ This conclusion he then supports by the character attributed to the " Cyclic " poems (whose want of unity showed that the structure of the Iliad and Odyssey must be the work of a later time), by one or two indications of imperfect connexion, and by the doubts of ancient critics as to the genuineness of certain parts.

^ The ancient Chorizontes observed that the messenger of Zeus is Iris in the Iliad, but Hermes in the Odyssey; that the wife of Hephaestus is one of the Charites in the Iliad, but Aphrodite in the Odyssey; that the heroes in the Iliad do not eat fish ; that Crete has a hundred cities according to the Iliad, and only ninety according to the Odyssey; that 7rpoirapotOe is used in the Iliad of place, in the Odyssey of time, &c.

.These, however, are matters of conjecture.^ These, however, are matters of conjecture.

^ On this matter, however, we are left to conjecture.

" Historia loquitur." .The voice of antiquity is unanimous in declaring that " Peisistratus first committed the poems of Homer to writing, and reduced them to the order in which we now read them."^ The voice of antiquity is unanimous in declaring that " Peisistratus first committed the poems of Homer to writing, and reduced them to the order in which we now read them."

^ The question whether writing was known in the time of Homer was raised in antiquity, and has been debated with especial eagerness ever since the appearance of Wolf's Prolegomena.

^ Let us now compare these data with the account given in the Homeric poems.

.The appeal of Wolf to the " voice of all antiquity " is by no means borne out by the different statements on the subject.^ The appeal of Wolf to the " voice of all antiquity " is by no means borne out by the different statements on the subject.

^ Homer uses no constructions loosely or without corresponding differences of meaning.

^ We have no means of knowing what the Aeolic and Ionic of say the 9th century were, or if there were such dialects at all.

.According to Heraclides Ponticus (pupil of Plato), the poetry of Homer was first brought to the Peloponnesus by Lycurgus, who obtained it from the descendants of Creophylus (Polit. fr.^ According to Heraclides Ponticus (pupil of Plato), the poetry of Homer was first brought to the Peloponnesus by Lycurgus, who obtained it from the descendants of Creophylus ( Polit.

^ He adds that there was a famous rhapsodist, Cynaethus of Chios, who was said to be the author of the Hymn to Apollo, and to have first recited Homer at Syracuse about the 69th Olympiad .

^ Under these influences the older stories of Lycurgus bringing Homer to the Peloponnesus, and Solon providing for the recitation at Athens, were thrown into the shade.

2). .Plutarch in his Life of Lycurgus (c.^ Plutarch in his Life of Lycurgus (c.

.4) repeats this story, with the addition that there was already a faint report of the poems in Greece, and that certain detached fragments were in the possession of a few persons.^ Greece, and that certain detached fragments were in the possession of a few persons.

^ In this case we have to consider not merely the indications of the poems, but also the external evidence which we possess regarding the use of writing in Greece.

^ And although we hear of " descendants of Creophylus " as in possession of the Homeric poems, there is no similar story about descendants of Homer himself.

.Again, the Platonic dialogue Hip parchus (which though not genuine is probably earlier than the Alexandrian times) asserts that Hipparchus, son of Peisistratus, first brought the poems to Athens, and obliged the rhapsodists at the Panathenaea to follow the order of the text, " as they still do," instead of reciting portions chosen at will.^ The Platonic dialogue Hipparchus attributes it to Hipparchus, son of Peisistratus .

^ Again, the Platonic dialogue Hip parchus (which though not genuine is probably earlier than the Alexandrian times) asserts that Hipparchus, son of Peisistratus, first brought the poems to Athens, and obliged the rhapsodists at the Panathenaea to follow the order of the text, " as they still do," instead of reciting portions chosen at will.

^ Only that Homer was recited in fragments by the rhapsodists, and that these partial recitations were made into a continuous whole by Peisistratus; which does not necessarily mean more than that Peisistratus did what other authorities ascribe to Solon and Hipparchus, viz.

.The earliest authority for attributing any work of the kind to Peisistratus is the well-known passage of Cicero (De Orat. 3.34: " Quis doctior eisdem temporibus illis, aut cujus eloquentia litteris instructior fuisse traditur quam Pisistrati ?^ Quis doctior eisdem temporibus illis, aut cujus eloquentia litteris instructior fuisse traditur quam Pisistrati ?

^ The earliest authority for attributing any work of the kind to Peisistratus is the well-known passage of Cicero ( De Orat.

^ Thus all the authority for the work of Peisistratus " reduces itself to the testimony of a single anonymous inscription " (Nutzhorn p.

qui primus .Homeri libros, confusos antea, sic disposuisse dicitur ut nunc habemus ").^ Homeri libros, confusos antea, sic disposuisse dicitur ut nunc habemus ").

.To the same effect Pausanias (vii.^ To the same effect Pausanias (vii.

p. .594) says that the change of the name Donoessa to Gonoessa (in Il. ii.^ Donoessa to Gonoessa (in Il.

.573) was thought to have been made by ' ` Peisistratus or one of his companions," when he collected the poems, which were then in a fragmentary condition.^ Peisistratus or one of his companions," when he collected the poems, which were then in a fragmentary condition.

^ In it Peisistratus is made to say of himself that he "collected Homer, who was formerly sung in fragments, for the golden poet was a citizen of ours, since we Athenians founded Smyrna."

^ The other statements repeat these words with various minor additions, chiefly intended to explain how the poems had been reduced to this fragmentary condition, and how Peisistratus set to work to restore them.

.Finally, Diogenes Laertius (i.^ Finally, Diogenes Laertius (i.

.57) says that Solon made a law that the poems should be recited with the help of a prompter so that each rhapsodist should begin where the last left off; and he argues from this that Solon did more than Peisistratus to make Homer known.^ Solon made a law that the poems should be recited " with prompting " (E inro/30Xij).

^ Each one is more disturbing than the last.

^ Solon made a law that the poems should be recited with the help of a prompter so that each rhapsodist should begin where the last left off; and he argues from this that Solon did more than Peisistratus to make Homer known.

.The argument is directed against a certain Dieuchidas of Megara, who appears to have maintained that the verses about Athens in the Catalogue (Il. ii.^ The argument is directed against a certain Dieuchidas of Megara , who appears to have maintained that the verses about Athens in the Catalogue ( Il.

54 6 -55 6) were interpolated by Peisistratus. .The passage is unfortunately corrupt, but it is at least clear that in the time of Solon, according to Diogenes, there were complete copies of the poems, such as could be used to control the recitations.^ The passage is unfortunately corrupt, but it is at least clear that in the time of Solon, according to Diogenes, there were complete copies of the poems, such as could be used to control the recitations.

^ The question as between Solon and Hipparchus cannot be settled; but it is at least clear that a due order of recitation was secured by the presence of a person charged to give the rhapsodists their cue (uiro(iXXav).

^ But the question is - From what time are we to suppose that the preservation of long poems was generally secured by the existence of written copies?

.Hence the account of Diogenes is quite irreconcilable with the notices on which Wolf relied.^ Hence the account of Diogenes is quite irreconcilable with the notices on which Wolf relied.

.It is needless to examine the attempts which have been made to harmonize these accounts.^ It is needless to examine the attempts which have been made to harmonize these accounts.

.Such attempts usually start with the tacit assumption that each of the persons concerned - Lycurgus, Solon, Peisistratus, Hipparchus - must have done something for the text of Homer, or for the regulation of the rhapsodists.^ Such attempts usually start with the tacit assumption that each of the persons concerned - Lycurgus, Solon, Peisistratus, Hipparchus - must have done something for the text of Homer, or for the regulation of the rhapsodists.

^ The text of Homer must have attracted some attention when Antimachus came to be known as the " corrector " ( ScopOwTi 7 s ) of a distinct edition (iicSovcs).

^ Only that Homer was recited in fragments by the rhapsodists, and that these partial recitations were made into a continuous whole by Peisistratus; which does not necessarily mean more than that Peisistratus did what other authorities ascribe to Solon and Hipparchus, viz.

.But we have first to consider whether any of the accounts come to us on such evidence that we are bound to consider them as containing a nucleus of truth.^ But we have first to consider whether any of the accounts come to us on such evidence that we are bound to consider them as containing a nucleus of truth.

^ Consider, am I even in aspect such as I was when first thine eyes beheld me?” .

.In the first place, the statement that Lycurgus obtained the poems from descendants of Creophylus must be admitted to be purely mythical.^ In the first place, the statement that Lycurgus obtained the poems from descendants of Creophylus must be admitted to be purely mythical.

^ And although we hear of " descendants of Creophylus " as in possession of the Homeric poems, there is no similar story about descendants of Homer himself.

^ According to Heraclides Ponticus (pupil of Plato), the poetry of Homer was first brought to the Peloponnesus by Lycurgus, who obtained it from the descendants of Creophylus ( Polit.

.But if we reject it, have we any better reason for believing the parallel assertion in the Platonic Hipparchus? It is true that Hipparchus is undoubtedly a real person.^ But if we reject it, have we any better reason for believing the parallel assertion in the Platonic Hipparchus?

^ It is true that Hipparchus is undoubtedly a real person.

.On the other hand it is evident that the Peisistratidae soon became the subject of many fables.^ On the other hand it is evident that the Peisistratidae soon became the subject of many fables.

.Thucydides notices as a popular mistake the belief that Hipparchus was the eldest son of Peisistratus, and that consequently he was the reigning " tyrant " when he was killed by Aristogiton.^ Thucydides notices as a popular mistake the belief that Hipparchus was the eldest son of Peisistratus, and that consequently he was the reigning " tyrant " when he was killed by Aristogiton.

^ It may even be suspected that anecdotes in praise of Peisistratus and Hipparchus were a delicate form of flattery addressed to the reigning Ptolemy .

^ The author makes (perhaps wilfully) all the mistakes about the family of Peisistratus which Thucydides notices in a well-known passage (vi.

.The Platonic Hipparchus follows this erroneous version, and may therefore be regarded as representing (at best) mere local tradition.^ The Platonic Hipparchus follows this erroneous version, and may therefore be regarded as representing (at best) mere local tradition.

.We may reasonably go further, and see in this part of the dialogue a piece of historical romance, designed to put the " tyrant " family in a favourable light, as patrons of literature and learning.^ We may reasonably go further, and see in this part of the dialogue a piece of historical romance, designed to put the " tyrant " family in a favourable light, as patrons of literature and learning.

^ Further, the want of smoothness and unity which is visible in this part of the Iliad may be due to other causes than difference of date or authorship.

^ This, however, is part of the historical romance of Compare the branch of myrtle at an Athenian feast (Aristoph., Nub., 1364).

.Again, the account of the Hipparchus is contradicted by Diogenes Laertius, who says that Solon provided for the due recitation of the Homeric poems.^ Again, the account of the Hipparchus is contradicted by Diogenes Laertius, who says that Solon provided for the due recitation of the Homeric poems.

^ Only that Homer was recited in fragments by the rhapsodists, and that these partial recitations were made into a continuous whole by Peisistratus; which does not necessarily mean more than that Peisistratus did what other authorities ascribe to Solon and Hipparchus, viz.

^ They are epic in character, and were recited by professional jongleurs (who may be compared to the aouSoi of Homer).

.The only good authorities as to this point are the orators Lycurgus and Isocrates, who mention the law prescribing the recitation, but do not say when or by whom it was enacted.^ The only good authorities as to this point are the orators Lycurgus and Isocrates , who mention the law prescribing the recitation, but do not say when or by whom it was enacted.

^ Liam J. Scanlan : I wouldn't say it's a good idea to hold the festival after avalanches occur after only normal voiced said words.
  • [4F10] Mountain of Madness 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.snpp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The result of these considerations seems to be that nothing rests on good evidence beyond the fact that Homer was recited by law at the Panathenaic festival.

.The inference seems a fair one, that the author of the law was really unknown.^ The inference seems a fair one, that the author of the law was really unknown.

^ With one exception, one show is in german, which gave me a real good laugh to be fair, hearing homers german counter part gave me nightmares though!
  • Watching: 2101 Homer the Whopper | Watch The Simpsons Online - FREE! 16 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.wtso.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With regard to the statements which attribute some work in connexion with Homer to Peisistratus, it was noticed by Wolf that Cicero, Pausanias and the others who mention the matter do so nearly in the same words, and, therefore, appear to have drawn from a common source.^ With regard to the statements which attribute some work in connexion with Homer to Peisistratus, it was noticed by Wolf that Cicero, Pausanias and the others who mention the matter do so nearly in the same words, and, therefore, appear to have drawn from a common source.

^ It was equally natural that the importance of his work as regards the text of Homer should be exaggerated.

^ When we are satisfied that each of the great Homeric poems is either wholly or mainly the work of a single poet, a question remains which has been matter of controversy in ancient as well as modern times - Are they the work of the same poet?

.This source was .in all probability an epigram quoted in two of the short lives of Homer, and there said to have been inscribed on the statue of Peisistratus at Athens.^ This source was .in all probability an epigram quoted in two of the short lives of Homer, and there said to have been inscribed on the statue of Peisistratus at Athens.

^ It is impossible of course to believe that a statue of Peisistratus was set up at Athens in the time of the free republic.

^ He adds that there was a famous rhapsodist, Cynaethus of Chios, who was said to be the author of the Hymn to Apollo, and to have first recited Homer at Syracuse about the 69th Olympiad .

In it Peisistratus is made to say of himself that he "collected Homer, who was formerly sung in fragments, for the golden poet was a citizen of ours, since we Athenians founded Smyrna." The other statements repeat these words with various minor additions, chiefly intended to explain how the poems had been reduced to this fragmentary condition, and how Peisistratus set to work to restore them. .Thus all the authority for the work of Peisistratus " reduces itself to the testimony of a single anonymous inscription " (Nutzhorn p.^ Thus all the authority for the work of Peisistratus " reduces itself to the testimony of a single anonymous inscription " (Nutzhorn p.

^ His speculations were thoroughly in harmony with the ideas and sentiment of the time, and his historical arguments, especially his long array of testimonies to the work of Peisistratus, were hardly challenged.

^ The earliest authority for attributing any work of the kind to Peisistratus is the well-known passage of Cicero ( De Orat.

40). .Now, what is the value of that testimony?^ Now, what is the value of that testimony?

.It is impossible of course to believe that a statue of Peisistratus was set up at Athens in the time of the free republic.^ It is impossible of course to believe that a statue of Peisistratus was set up at Athens in the time of the free republic.

^ D ) Joshua Fruhlinger : This show spent far too much time setting up this week's "zany situation."
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^ This source was .in all probability an epigram quoted in two of the short lives of Homer, and there said to have been inscribed on the statue of Peisistratus at Athens.

.The epigram is almost certainly a mere literary exercise.^ The epigram is almost certainly a mere literary exercise.

.And what exactly does it say?^ And what exactly does it say?

.Only that Homer was recited in fragments by the rhapsodists, and that these partial recitations were made into a continuous whole by Peisistratus; which does not necessarily mean more than that Peisistratus did what other authorities ascribe to Solon and Hipparchus, viz.^ Only that Homer was recited in fragments by the rhapsodists, and that these partial recitations were made into a continuous whole by Peisistratus; which does not necessarily mean more than that Peisistratus did what other authorities ascribe to Solon and Hipparchus, viz.

^ Again, the Platonic dialogue Hip parchus (which though not genuine is probably earlier than the Alexandrian times) asserts that Hipparchus, son of Peisistratus, first brought the poems to Athens, and obliged the rhapsodists at the Panathenaea to follow the order of the text, " as they still do," instead of reciting portions chosen at will.

^ Solon made a law that the poems should be recited with the help of a prompter so that each rhapsodist should begin where the last left off; and he argues from this that Solon did more than Peisistratus to make Homer known.

regulated the recitation.
.Against the theory which sees in Peisistratus the author of the first complete text of Homer we have to set the absolute silence of Herodotus, Thucydides, the orators and the Alexandrian grammarians.^ Against the theory which sees in Peisistratus the author of the first complete text of Homer we have to set the absolute silence of Herodotus, Thucydides, the orators and the Alexandrian grammarians.

^ As to Baumeister’s theory that the second part is Hesiodic, Gemoll finds a Hesiodic reminiscence in the first part (line 121), while there are Homeric reminiscences in the second part.

^ The author makes (perhaps wilfully) all the mistakes about the family of Peisistratus which Thucydides notices in a well-known passage (vi.

.And it can hardly be thought that their silence is accidental.^ And it can hardly be thought that their silence is accidental.

.Herodotus and Thucydides seem to tell us all that they know of Peisistratus.^ Herodotus and Thucydides seem to tell us all that they know of Peisistratus.

^ Thus hither have I come in my wandering, nor know I at all what land is this, nor who they be that dwell therein.

^ The author makes (perhaps wilfully) all the mistakes about the family of Peisistratus which Thucydides notices in a well-known passage (vi.

.The orators Lycurgus and Isocrates make a great deal of the recitation of Homer at the Panathenaea, but know nothing of the poems having been collected and arranged at Athens, a fact which would have redounded still more to the honour of the city.^ The orators Lycurgus and Isocrates make a great deal of the recitation of Homer at the Panathenaea, but know nothing of the poems having been collected and arranged at Athens, a fact which would have redounded still more to the honour of the city.

^ Again, the Platonic dialogue Hip parchus (which though not genuine is probably earlier than the Alexandrian times) asserts that Hipparchus, son of Peisistratus, first brought the poems to Athens, and obliged the rhapsodists at the Panathenaea to follow the order of the text, " as they still do," instead of reciting portions chosen at will.

^ The result of the notices now collected is to show that the early history of epic recitation consists of (r) passages in the Homeric hymns showing that poets contended for the prize at the great festivals, (2) the passing mention in Herodotus of rhapsodists at Sicyon, and (3) a law at Athens, of unknown date, regulating the recitation at the Panathenaea.

.Finally, the Scholia of the Ven.^ Finally, the Scholia of the Ven.

.A
contain no reference or allusion to the story of Peisistratus.^ A contain no reference or allusion to the story of Peisistratus.

.As these Scholia are derived in substance from the writings of Aristarchus, it seems impossible to believe that the story was known to him.^ As these Scholia are derived in substance from the writings of Aristarchus, it seems impossible to believe that the story was known to him.

.The circumstance that it is referred to in the Scholia Townleiana and in Eustathius, gives additional weight to this argument.^ The circumstance that it is referred to in the Scholia Townleiana and in Eustathius, gives additional weight to this argument.

.The result of these considerations seems to be that nothing rests on good evidence beyond the fact that Homer was recited by law at the Panathenaic festival.^ The result of these considerations seems to be that nothing rests on good evidence beyond the fact that Homer was recited by law at the Panathenaic festival.

^ Their instinct was correct, and we must not start the consideration of the Homeric question from these much neglected pieces.

^ Homer : Nothing is good enough for my sweety.
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.The rest of the story is probably the result of gradual expansion and accretion.^ The rest of the story is probably the result of gradual expansion and accretion .

.It was inevitable that later writers should speculate about the authorship of such a law, and that it should be attributed with more or less confidence to Solon or Peisistratus or Hipparchus.^ It was inevitable that later writers should speculate about the authorship of such a law, and that it should be attributed with more or less confidence to Solon or Peisistratus or Hipparchus.

^ Only that Homer was recited in fragments by the rhapsodists, and that these partial recitations were made into a continuous whole by Peisistratus; which does not necessarily mean more than that Peisistratus did what other authorities ascribe to Solon and Hipparchus, viz.

^ Solon made a law that the poems should be recited " with prompting " (E inro/30Xij).

.The choice would be determined in great measure by political feeling.^ The choice would be determined in great measure by political feeling.

.It is probably not an accident that Dieuchidas, who attributed so much to Peisistratus, was a Megarian.^ It is probably not an accident that Dieuchidas, who attributed so much to Peisistratus, was a Megarian.

.The author of the Hipparchus is evidently influenced by the anti-democratical tendencies in which he only followed Plato.^ The author of the Hipparchus is evidently influenced by the anti-democratical tendencies in which he only followed Plato.

.In the times to which the story of Peisistratus can be traced, the 1st century B.C., the substitution of the " tyrant " for the legislator was extremely natural.^ In the times to which the story of Peisistratus can be traced, the 1st century B.C., the substitution of the " tyrant " for the legislator was extremely natural.

.It was equally natural that the importance of his work as regards the text of Homer should be exaggerated.^ It was equally natural that the importance of his work as regards the text of Homer should be exaggerated.

.The splendid patronage of letters by the successors of Alexander, and especially the great institutions which had been founded at Alexandria and Pergamum, had made an impression on the imagination of learned men which was reflected in the current notions of the ancient despots.^ The splendid patronage of letters by the successors of Alexander, and especially the great institutions which had been founded at Alexandria and Pergamum , had made an impression on the imagination of learned men which was reflected in the current notions of the ancient despots.

^ The real work of criticism became possible only when great collections of manuscripts began to be made by the princes of the generation after Alexander, and when men of learning were employed to sift and arrange these treasures.

^ He noticed especially the difference between the stories known to Homer and those given by later poets, and made many comparisons between Homeric and later manners, arts and institutions.

.It may even be suspected that anecdotes in praise of Peisistratus and Hipparchus were a delicate form of flattery addressed to the reigning Ptolemy.^ It may even be suspected that anecdotes in praise of Peisistratus and Hipparchus were a delicate form of flattery addressed to the reigning Ptolemy .

^ Thucydides notices as a popular mistake the belief that Hipparchus was the eldest son of Peisistratus, and that consequently he was the reigning " tyrant " when he was killed by Aristogiton.

.Under these influences the older stories of Lycurgus bringing Homer to the Peloponnesus, and Solon providing for the recitation at Athens, were thrown into the shade.^ Under these influences the older stories of Lycurgus bringing Homer to the Peloponnesus, and Solon providing for the recitation at Athens, were thrown into the shade.

^ Only that Homer was recited in fragments by the rhapsodists, and that these partial recitations were made into a continuous whole by Peisistratus; which does not necessarily mean more than that Peisistratus did what other authorities ascribe to Solon and Hipparchus, viz.

^ At Athens there was a law that the Homeric poems should be recited ( 1 5446a-eat ) on every occasion of the Panathenaea .

.In the later Byzantine times it was believed that Peisistratus was aided by seventy grammarians, of whom Zenodotus and Aristarchus were the chief.^ In the later Byzantine times it was believed that Peisistratus was aided by seventy grammarians, of whom Zenodotus and Aristarchus were the chief.

^ In this way the great Alexandrian school of Homeric criticism began with Zenodotus , the first chief of the museum, and was continued by Aristophanes and Aristarchus .

^ It is impossible of course to believe that a statue of Peisistratus was set up at Athens in the time of the free republic.

.The great Alexandrian grammarians had become figures in a new mythology.^ The great Alexandrian grammarians had become figures in a new mythology.

^ The contention for Homer, in short, began at a time when his real history was lost, and he had become a sort of mythical figure, an " eponymous hero," or personification of a great school of poetry .

.It is true that Tzetzes, one of the writers from whom we have this story, gives a better version, according to which Peisistratus employed four men, viz.^ It is true that Tzetzes, one of the writers from whom we have this story, gives a better version, according to which Peisistratus employed four men, viz.

^ This has been especially noticed in the case of the story of Polyphemus , one that is found in many countries, and in versions which cannot all be derived from Homer.

.Onomacritus, Zopyrus of Heraclea, Orpheus of Croton, and one whose name is corrupt (written EbrucoyxuXos).^ Onomacritus , Zopyrus of Heraclea , Orpheus of Croton, and one whose name is corrupt (written EbrucoyxuXos).

.Many scholars (among them Ritschl) accept this account as probable.^ Many scholars (among them Ritschl) accept this account as probable.

.Yet it rests upon no better evidence than the other.^ Yet it rests upon no better evidence than the other.

^ Some parts were better than others.
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^ Thus the Greek genius had other and better materials to work on, in evolving Demeter, than the rather lowly animal which is associated with her rites.

.The effect of Wolf's Prolegomena was so overwhelming that, although a few protests were made at the time, the true Homeric controversy did not begin till after Wolf's death (1824).^ The effect of Wolf's Prolegomena was so overwhelming that, although a few protests were made at the time, the true Homeric controversy did not begin till after Wolf's death (1824).

^ The question whether writing was known in the time of Homer was raised in antiquity, and has been debated with especial eagerness ever since the appearance of Wolf's Prolegomena.

^ The Prolegomena bore on the title-page the words " Volumen I."; but no second volume ever appeared, nor was any attempt made by Wolf himself to carry his theory further.

.His speculations were thoroughly in harmony with the ideas and sentiment of the time, and his historical arguments, especially his long array of testimonies to the work of Peisistratus, were hardly challenged.^ His speculations were thoroughly in harmony with the ideas and sentiment of the time, and his historical arguments, especially his long array of testimonies to the work of Peisistratus, were hardly challenged.

^ Thus all the authority for the work of Peisistratus " reduces itself to the testimony of a single anonymous inscription " (Nutzhorn p.

.The first considerable antagonist of the Wolfian school was G. W. Nitzsch, whose writings cover the years 1828-1862, and deal with every side of the controversy.^ The first considerable antagonist of the Wolfian school was G. W. Nitzsch, whose writings cover the years 1828-1862, and deal with every side of the controversy.

.In the earlier part of his Meletemata (1830) he took up the question of written or unwritten literature, on which Wolf's whole argument turned, and showed that the art of writing must be anterior to Peisistratus.^ In the earlier part of his Meletemata (1830) he took up the question of written or unwritten literature, on which Wolf's whole argument turned, and showed that the art of writing must be anterior to Peisistratus.

^ All earlier learning either passed into his writings, or was lost; all subsequent research turned upon his critical and grammatical work.

^ Wolf shows how the question of the date of writing meets us on the 1 See the chapter in Cobet's Miscellanea critica, pp.

.In the later part of the same series of discussions (1837), and in his chief work (Die Sagenpoesie der Griechen, 1852), he investigated the structure of the Homeric poems, and their relation to the other epics of the Trojan cycle.^ In the later part of the same series of discussions (1837), and in his chief work ( Die Sagenpoesie der Griechen, 1852), he investigated the structure of the Homeric poems, and their relation to the other epics of the Trojan cycle.

^ When we are satisfied that each of the great Homeric poems is either wholly or mainly the work of a single poet, a question remains which has been matter of controversy in ancient as well as modern times - Are they the work of the same poet?

^ The later poets sought to complete the story of the Trojan war by supplying the parts which did not fall within the Iliad and Odyssey - the so-called ante-homerica and post-homerica.

.These epics had meanwhile been made the subject of a work which for exhaustive learning and delicacy of artistic perception has few rivals in the history of philology, the Epic Cycle of F. G. Welcker.^ These epics had meanwhile been made the subject of a work which for exhaustive learning and delicacy of artistic perception has few rivals in the history of philology, the Epic Cycle of F. G. Welcker.

^ The real work of criticism became possible only when great collections of manuscripts began to be made by the princes of the generation after Alexander, and when men of learning were employed to sift and arrange these treasures.

^ See “Costumal of the Thirteenth Century,” with much learning on the subject, in Mr. Elton’s “Origins of English History,” especially p.

.The confusion which previous scholars had made between the ancient post-Homeric poets (Arctinus, Lesches, &c.^ The confusion which previous scholars had made between the ancient post-Homeric poets (Arctinus, Lesches, &c.

^ The practice of poets or rhapsodists contending for the prize at the great religious festivals is of considerable antiquity, though apparently post-Homeric.

^ A few words remain to be said on the style and general character of the Homeric poems, and on the comparisons which may be made between Homer and analogous poetry in other countries.

) and the learned mythological writers .(such as the " scriptor cyclicus " of Horace) was first cleared up by Welcker.^ Horace) was first cleared up by Welcker.

.Wolf had argued that if the cyclic writers had known the Iliad and Odyssey which we possess, they would have imitated the unity of structure which distinguishes these two poems.^ Iliad and the Odyssey, and between Homer and the early Cyclic poems.

^ Wolf had argued that if the cyclic writers had known the Iliad and Odyssey which we possess, they would have imitated the unity of structure which distinguishes these two poems.

^ The art with which these threads are woven together was recognized by Wolf himself, who admitted the difficulty of applying his theory to the " admirabilis summa et compages " of the poem.

.The result of Welcker's labours was to show that the Homeric poems had influenced both the form and the substance of epic poetry.^ The result of Welcker's labours was to show that the Homeric poems had influenced both the form and the substance of epic poetry.

^ But between these lays and Homer we must place the cultivation of epic poetry as an art.2 The pre-Homeric lays doubtless furnished the elements of such a poetry - the alphabet, so to speak, of the art; but they must have been refined and transmuted before they formed poems like the Iliad and Odyssey.

^ The Epic of Homer was doubtless formed originally from a spoken variety of Greek, but became literary and conventional with time.

.In this way there arose a conservative school who admitted more or less freely the absorption of pre-existing lays in the formation of the Iliad and Odyssey, and also the existence of considerable interpolations, but assigned the main work of formation to prehistoric times, and to the genius of a great poet.^ In this way there arose a conservative school who admitted more or less freely the absorption of pre-existing lays in the formation of the Iliad and Odyssey, and also the existence of considerable interpolations, but assigned the main work of formation to prehistoric times, and to the genius of a great poet.

^ When we are satisfied that each of the great Homeric poems is either wholly or mainly the work of a single poet, a question remains which has been matter of controversy in ancient as well as modern times - Are they the work of the same poet?

^ The later poets sought to complete the story of the Trojan war by supplying the parts which did not fall within the Iliad and Odyssey - the so-called ante-homerica and post-homerica.

.Whether the two epics were by the same author remained an open question; the tendency of this group of scholars was decidedly towards separation.^ Whether the two epics were by the same author remained an open question; the tendency of this group of scholars was decidedly towards separation.

^ This, then, is the plausible explanation of most of the brief Hymns—they were preludes to epic recitations—but the question as to the long narrative Hymns with which the collection opens is different.

.Regarding the use of writing, too, they were not unanimous.^ Regarding the use of writing, too, they were not unanimous.

^ In this case we have to consider not merely the indications of the poems, but also the external evidence which we possess regarding the use of writing in Greece.

K. O. Muller, for instance, maintained the view of Wolf on this point, while he strenuously combated the inference which Wolf drew from it.
.The Prolegomena bore on the title-page the words " Volumen I."; but no second volume ever appeared, nor was any attempt made by Wolf himself to carry his theory further.^ The Prolegomena bore on the title-page the words " Volumen I."; but no second volume ever appeared, nor was any attempt made by Wolf himself to carry his theory further.

^ In the second edition, of which the first volume appeared in 1878, he abandoned this theory.

^ The art with which these threads are woven together was recognized by Wolf himself, who admitted the difficulty of applying his theory to the " admirabilis summa et compages " of the poem.

.The first important steps in that direction were taken by Gottfried Hermann, chiefly in two dissertations, De interpolationibus Homeri (Leipzig, 1832), and De iteratis Homeri (Leipzig, 1840), called forth by the writings of Nitzsch.^ G. Hermann's dissertations De interpolationibus Homeri (1832) and De iteratis apud Homerum (1840) are reprinted in his Opuscula.

^ The first important steps in that direction were taken by Gottfried Hermann , chiefly in two dissertations, De interpolationibus Homeri (Leipzig, 1832), and De iteratis Homeri (Leipzig, 1840), called forth by the writings of Nitzsch.

^ The first considerable antagonist of the Wolfian school was G. W. Nitzsch, whose writings cover the years 1828-1862, and deal with every side of the controversy.

As the word " interpolation " implies, Hermann did not maintain the hypothesis of a congeries of independent " lays." Feeling the difficulty of supposing that all the ancient minstrels sang of the " wrath of Achilles " or the " return of Ulysses " (leaving out even the capture of Troy itself), he was led to assume that two poems of no great compass dealing with these two themes became so famous at an early period as to throw other parts of the Trojan story into the background, and were then enlarged by successive generations of rhapsodists. .Some parts of the Iliad, moreover, seemed to him to be older than the poem on the wrath of Achilles; and thus in addition to the " Homeric " and " post-Homeric " matter he distinguished a pre-Homeric " element.^ Some parts of the Iliad, moreover, seemed to him to be older than the poem on the wrath of Achilles; and thus in addition to the " Homeric " and " post-Homeric " matter he distinguished a pre-Homeric " element.

^ Some parts were better than others.
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^ We seem through him to obtain a glimpse of an early post-Homeric age in Ionia, when the immediate disciples and successors of Homer were distinct figures in a trustworthy tradition - when they had not yet merged their individuality in the legendary " Homer " of the Epic Cycle .

.The conjectures of Hermann, in which the Wolfian theory found a modified and tentative application, were presently thrown into the shade by the more trenchant method of Lachmann, who (in two papers read to the Berlin Academy in 1837 and 1841) sought to show that the Iliad was made up of sixteen independent " lays," with various enlargements and interpolations, all finally reduced to order by Peisistratus.^ The conjectures of Hermann, in which the Wolfian theory found a modified and tentative application, were presently thrown into the shade by the more trenchant method of Lachmann, who (in two papers read to the Berlin Academy in 1837 and 1841) sought to show that the Iliad was made up of sixteen independent " lays," with various enlargements and interpolations, all finally reduced to order by Peisistratus.

^ In this way there arose a conservative school who admitted more or less freely the absorption of pre-existing lays in the formation of the Iliad and Odyssey, and also the existence of considerable interpolations, but assigned the main work of formation to prehistoric times, and to the genius of a great poet.

^ The quotation from the Iliad is of interest because it is made in order to show that Homer supported the story of the travels of Paris to Egypt and Sidon (whereas the Cyclic poem called the Cypria ignored them), and also because the part of the Iliad from which it comes is cited as the " Aristeia of Diomede."

.The first book, for instance, consists of a lay on the anger of Achilles (1-347), and two continuations, the return of Chryseis (430-492) and the scenes in Olympus (348-429, 493611).^ The first book, for instance, consists of a lay on the anger of Achilles (1-347), and two continuations, the return of Chryseis (430-492) and the scenes in Olympus (348-429, 493611).

^ On the other hand, it may be said, the second book opens with a direct reference to the events of the first, and the mention of Achilles in the speech of Thersites (ii.

^ There was first of all a " Return of Odysseus," relating chiefly the adventures with the Cyclops, Calypso and the Phaeacians; then a continuation, the scene of which lay in Ithaca, embracing the bulk of books xiii.-xxiii.

.The second book forms a second lay, but several passages, among them the speech of Ulysses (278-332), are interpolated.^ The second book forms a second lay, but several passages, among them the speech of Ulysses (278-332), are interpolated.

^ On the other hand, it may be said, the second book opens with a direct reference to the events of the first, and the mention of Achilles in the speech of Thersites (ii.

^ The passages in the second half of the Odyssey which describe the appearance of Ulysses do not give two wellmarked representations of him.

.In the third book the scenes in which Helen and Priam take part (including the making of the truce) are pronounced to be interpolations; and so on.^ In the third book the scenes in which Helen and Priam take part (including the making of the truce) are pronounced to be interpolations; and so on.

^ In the scene on the walls of Troy, in the third book of the Iliad, after Helen has pointed out Agamemnon, Ulysses and Ajax in answer to Priam's 1 " As a poet Homer must be acknowledged to excel Shakespeare in the truth, the harmony, the sustained grandeur, the satisfying completeness of his images " (Shelley, Essays, &c., i.

^ The truce of the third book is broken by Pandarus, and Agamemnon passes along the Greek ranks with words of encouragement, but without a hint of the treachery just committed.

.Regarding the evidence on which these sweeping results are founded, opinions will vary.^ Regarding the evidence on which these sweeping results are founded, opinions will vary.

^ The result of these considerations seems to be that nothing rests on good evidence beyond the fact that Homer was recited by law at the Panathenaic festival.

The degree of smoothness or consistency which is to be expected on the hypothesis of a single author will be determined by taste rather than argument. .The dissection of the first book, for instance, turns partly on a chronological inaccuracy which might well escape the poet as well as his hearers.^ The dissection of the first book, for instance, turns partly on a chronological inaccuracy which might well escape the poet as well as his hearers.

.In examining such points we are apt to forget that the contradictions by which a story is shown to be untrue are quite different from those by which a confessedly untrue story would be shown to be the work of different authors.^ In examining such points we are apt to forget that the contradictions by which a story is shown to be untrue are quite different from those by which a confessedly untrue story would be shown to be the work of different authors.

^ He concludes that the aged Ulysses belongs to the " continuation " (the change wrought by Athena's wand being a device to reconcile the two views), and hence that the continuation is the work of a different author.

^ He noticed especially the difference between the stories known to Homer and those given by later poets, and made many comparisons between Homeric and later manners, arts and institutions.

Structure of the Iliad

.The subject of the Iliad, as the first line proclaims, is the " anger of Achilles."^ The subject of the Iliad, as the first line proclaims, is the " anger of Achilles."

^ But in the Iliad the whole stress is laid on the anger of Achilles, which can only be satisfied by the defeat and extreme peril of the Greeks.'

.The manner in which this subject is worked out will appear from the following summary in which we distinguish (I) the plot, i.e. the story of the quarrel, (2) the main course of the war, which forms a sort of underplot, and (3) subordinate episodes.^ The manner in which this subject is worked out will appear from the following summary in which we distinguish (I) the plot, i.e.

.I. Quarrel of Achilles with Agamemnon and the Greek army - Agamemnon, having been compelled to give up his prize Chryseis, takes Briseis from Achilles - Thereupon Achilles appeals to his mother Thetis, who obtains from Zeus a promise that he will give victory to the Trojans until the Greeks pay due honour to her son - Meanwhile Achilles takes no part in the war.^ I. Quarrel of Achilles with Agamemnon and the Greek army - Agamemnon, having been compelled to give up his prize Chryseis, takes Briseis from Achilles - Thereupon Achilles appeals to his mother Thetis , who obtains from Zeus a promise that he will give victory to the Trojans until the Greeks pay due honour to her son - Meanwhile Achilles takes no part in the war.

^ It is Achilles himself who sings the stories of heroes (rcXEa av3p63 v7 in his tent , and Patroclus is waiting ( respondere paratus ), to take up the song in his turn ( Il.

^ The disposition of the Greeks to look to the west for the centres of religious feeling appears in the mention of Dodona and the Dodonaean Zeus , put in the mouth of the Thessalian Achilles.

.II. Agamemnon is persuaded by a dream sent from Zeus to take the field with all his forces.^ II. Agamemnon is persuaded by a dream sent from Zeus to take the field with all his forces.

^ XVI. Achilles is persuaded to allow Patroclus to take the field.

His attempt to test the temper of the army nearly leads to their return.
.Catalogue of the army (probably a later addition).^ Catalogue of the army (probably a later addition).

.Trojan muster - Trojan catalogue.^ Trojan muster - Trojan catalogue.

.III. Meeting of the Armies - Paris challenges Menelaus - Truce made.^ III. Meeting of the Armies - Paris challenges Menelaus - Truce made.

^ The " quarrel of the chiefs," the " muster of the army," the " duel of Paris and Menelaus," &c., are excellent beginnings, but have no satisfying conclusion.

." Teichoscopy," Helen pointing out to Priam the Greek leaders.^ Teichoscopy," Helen pointing out to Priam the Greek leaders.

^ The joy of Menelaus on seeing Paris, Priam's ignorance of the Greek leaders, the speeches of Agamemnon in his review of the ranks (in book iv.

.The duel - Paris is saved by Aphrodite.^ The duel - Paris is saved by Aphrodite.

.IV. Truce broken by Pandarus.^ IV. Truce broken by Pandarus .

^ The truce of the third book is broken by Pandarus, and Agamemnon passes along the Greek ranks with words of encouragement, but without a hint of the treachery just committed.

.Advance of the armies - Battle.^ Advance of the armies - Battle.

.V. Aristeia of Diomede - his combat with Aphrodite VI. - Meeting with Glaucus - Visit of Hector to the (I-31 I) city, and offering of a peplus to Athena.^ V. Aristeia of Diomede - his combat with Aphrodite VI. - Meeting with Glaucus - Visit of Hector to the (I-31 I) city, and offering of a peplus to Athena .

.(312-529) Visit of Hector to Paris - to Andromache.^ Visit of Hector to Paris - to Andromache .

.VII. Return of Hector and Paris to the field.^ VII. Return of Hector and Paris to the field.

.Duel of Ajax and Hector.^ Duel of Ajax and Hector.

.Truce for burial of dead.^ Truce for burial of dead.

.The Greeks build a wall round their camp.^ The Greeks build a wall round their camp.

.VIII. Battle - The Trojans encamp on the field.^ VIII. Battle - The Trojans encamp on the field.

.IX. Agamemnon sends an embassy by night, offering Achilles restitution and full amends - Achilles refuses.^ IX. Agamemnon sends an embassy by night, offering Achilles restitution and full amends - Achilles refuses.

.X. Doloneia - Night expedition of Odysseus and Diomede (in all probability added later).^ X. Doloneia - Night expedition of Odysseus and Diomede (in all probability added later).

.XI. Aristeia of Agamemnon - he is wounded - Wounding of Diomede and Odysseus.^ Moreover, three of the chief heroes, Agamemnon, Diomede and Ulysses, are wounded, and this circumstance, as Lachmann himself admitted, is steadily kept in mind throughout.

^ XI. Aristeia of Agamemnon - he is wounded - Wounding of Diomede and Odysseus.

.Achilles sends Antilochus to inquire about Machaon.^ Achilles sends Antilochus to inquire about Machaon.

.XI I. Storming of the wall - the Trojans reach the ships.^ XI I. Storming of the wall - the Trojans reach the ships.

XIII. Zeus ceases to watch the field - Poseidon secretly comes to the aid of the Greeks.
.XIV. Sleep of Zeus, by the contrivance of Hera.^ XIV. Sleep of Zeus, by the contrivance of Hera .

.XV. Zeus awakened - Restores the advantage to the Trojans - Ajax alone defends the ships.^ XV. Zeus awakened - Restores the advantage to the Trojans - Ajax alone defends the ships.

.XVI. Achilles is persuaded to allow Patroclus to take the field.^ XVI. Achilles is persuaded to allow Patroclus to take the field.

^ II. Agamemnon is persuaded by a dream sent from Zeus to take the field with all his forces.

Patroclus drives back the Trojans - kills Sarpedon - is himself killed by Hector.
.XVII. Battle for the body of Patroclus - Aristeia of Menelaus.^ XVII. Battle for the body of Patroclus - Aristeia of Menelaus.

.XVIII. News of the death of Patroclus is brought to Achilles - Thetis comes with the Nereids - promises to obtain new armour for him from Hephaestus.^ XVIII. News of the death of Patroclus is brought to Achilles - Thetis comes with the Nereids - promises to obtain new armour for him from Hephaestus .

^ Persephone is the Goddess of Death, yet with a promise of life to come.” .

.The shield of Achilles described.^ The shield of Achilles described.

.XIX. Reconciliation of Achilles - His grief and desire to avenge Patroclus.^ XIX. Reconciliation of Achilles - His grief and desire to avenge Patroclus.

.XX. The gods come down to the plain - Combat of Achilles with Aeneas and Hector, who escape.^ XX. The gods come down to the plain - Combat of Achilles with Aeneas and Hector, who escape.

.XXI. The Scamander is choked with slain - rises against Achilles, who is saved by Hephaestus.^ XXI. The Scamander is choked with slain - rises against Achilles, who is saved by Hephaestus.

^ XXII. Hector alone stands against Achilles - his flight round the walls - he is slain.

.XXII. Hector alone stands against Achilles - his flight round the walls - he is slain.^ XXII. Hector alone stands against Achilles - his flight round the walls - he is slain.

^ XXI. The Scamander is choked with slain - rises against Achilles, who is saved by Hephaestus.

.XXIII. Burial of Patroclus - Funeral games.^ XXIII. Burial of Patroclus - Funeral games.

.XXIV. Priam ransoms the body of Hector - his burial.^ XXIV. Priam ransoms the body of Hector - his burial.

.Such is the " action " (7rpa cs) which in Aristotle's opinion showed the superiority of Homer to all later epic poets.^ Such is the " action " (7rpa cs) which in Aristotle's opinion showed the superiority of Homer to all later epic poets.

^ Why have the works of Arctinus escaped the attraction which drew to the name of Homer such epics as the Cypria, the Little Iliad, the Thebaid, the Epigoni, the Taking of Oechalia and the Phocais.

^ The result of Welcker's labours was to show that the Homeric poems had influenced both the form and the substance of epic poetry.

.But the proof that his scheme was the work of a great poet does not depend merely upon the artistic unity which excited the wonder of Aristotle.^ But the proof that his scheme was the work of a great poet does not depend merely upon the artistic unity which excited the wonder of Aristotle.

.A number of separate " lays " might conceivably be arranged and connected by a man of poetical taste in a manner that would satisfy all requirements.^ A number of separate " lays " might conceivably be arranged and connected by a man of poetical taste in a manner that would satisfy all requirements.

.In such a case, however, the connecting passages would be slight and weak.^ In such a case, however, the connecting passages would be slight and weak.

.Now, in the Iliad these passages are the finest and most characteristic.^ Now, in the Iliad these passages are the finest and most characteristic.

.The element of connexion and unity is the story of the " wrath of Achilles "; and we have only to look at the books which give the story of the wrath to see how essential they are.^ The element of connexion and unity is the story of the " wrath of Achilles "; and we have only to look at the books which give the story of the wrath to see how essential they are.

^ These new elements in the narrative are evidently due not only to the natural growth of legend in a people highly endowed with imagination, but in a large proportion also to the new 1 See D. B. Monro's Homer's Odyssey, books xiii.

^ The only passage which can be interpreted as a reference to writing occurs in the story of Bellerophon , told by Glaucus in the sixth book of the Iliad.

.Even if the ninth book is rejected (as Grote proposed), there remain the speeches of the first, sixteenth and nineteenth books.^ Even if the ninth book is rejected (as Grote proposed), there remain the speeches of the first, sixteenth and nineteenth books.

^ On the other hand, it may be said, the second book opens with a direct reference to the events of the first, and the mention of Achilles in the speech of Thersites (ii.

^ The ninth book, on the other hand, was rejected by Grote, chiefly on the grounds that the embassy to Achilles ought to have put an end to the quarrel, and that it is ignored in later passages, especially in the speeches of Achilles (xi.

.These speeches form the cardinal points in the action of the Iliad - the framework into which everything else is set; and they have also the best title to the name of Homer.^ These speeches form the cardinal points in the action of the Iliad - the framework into which everything else is set; and they have also the best title to the name of Homer.

^ Why have the works of Arctinus escaped the attraction which drew to the name of Homer such epics as the Cypria, the Little Iliad, the Thebaid, the Epigoni, the Taking of Oechalia and the Phocais.

^ But between these lays and Homer we must place the cultivation of epic poetry as an art.2 The pre-Homeric lays doubtless furnished the elements of such a poetry - the alphabet, so to speak, of the art; but they must have been refined and transmuted before they formed poems like the Iliad and Odyssey.

.The further question, however, remains, What shorter narrative piece fulfilling the conditions of an independent poem has Lachmann succeeded in disengaging from the existing Iliad? It must be admitted that when tried by this test his " lays " generally fail.^ It must be admitted that when tried by this test his " lays " generally fail.

^ The further question, however, remains, What shorter narrative piece fulfilling the conditions of an independent poem has Lachmann succeeded in disengaging from the existing Iliad?

^ In general, however, these are older forms, which must have existed in Ionic at one time, and may very well have belonged to the Ionic of Homer's time.

.The " quarrel of the chiefs," the " muster of the army," the " duel of Paris and Menelaus," &c., are excellent beginnings, but have no satisfying conclusion.^ The " quarrel of the chiefs," the " muster of the army," the " duel of Paris and Menelaus," &c., are excellent beginnings, but have no satisfying conclusion.

^ The chief incidents in that part of the poem - the panic rush to the ships, the duels of Paris and Menelaus, and of Hector and Ajax, the Aristeia of Diomede - stand in no relation to the mainspring of the poem, the promise made by Zeus to Thetis.

^ III. Meeting of the Armies - Paris challenges Menelaus - Truce made.

.And the reason is not far to seek.^ And the reason is not far to seek.

.The Iliad is not a history, nor is it a series of incidents in the history, of the siege.^ The Iliad is not a history, nor is it a series of incidents in the history, of the siege.

.It turns entirely upon a single incident, occupying a few days only.^ It turns entirely upon a single incident, occupying a few days only.

.The several episodes of the poem are not so many distinct stories, each with an interest of its own.^ The several episodes of the poem are not so many distinct stories, each with an interest of its own.

.They are only parts of a single main event.^ They are only parts of a single main event.

.Consequently the type of epic poem which would be produced by an aggregation of shorter lays is not the type which we have in the Iliad. Rather the Iliad is itself a single lay which has grown with the growth of poetical art to the dimensions of an epic.^ Consequently the type of epic poem which would be produced by an aggregation of shorter lays is not the type which we have in the Iliad.

^ Rather the Iliad is itself a single lay which has grown with the growth of poetical art to the dimensions of an epic.

^ A number of separate " lays " might conceivably be arranged and connected by a man of poetical taste in a manner that would satisfy all requirements.

.But the original nucleus and parts of the incidents may be the work of a single great poet, and yet other episodes may be of different authorship, wrought into the structure of the poem in later times.^ But the original nucleus and parts of the incidents may be the work of a single great poet, and yet other episodes may be of different authorship, wrought into the structure of the poem in later times.

^ When we are satisfied that each of the great Homeric poems is either wholly or mainly the work of a single poet, a question remains which has been matter of controversy in ancient as well as modern times - Are they the work of the same poet?

^ It was necessary, of course, to divide the poem to be recited into parts, and to compel each contending rhapsodist to take the part assigned to him.

.Various theories have been based on this supposition.^ Various theories have been based on this supposition.

.Grote in particular held that the original poem, which he called the Achilleis, did not include books ii.-vii., ix., x., xxiii., xxiv.^ It is otherwise with the earlier books (especially ii.-vii.

^ Grote in particular held that the original poem, which he called the Achilleis, did not include books ii.-vii., ix., x., xxiii., xxiv.

^ It is true that in the thirteenth and fourteenth books the purpose of Zeus is thwarted for a time by other, gods; but in books ii.-vii.

.Such a view may be defended somewhat as follows.^ Such a view may be defended somewhat as follows.

.Of the books which relate the events during the absence of Achilles from the Greek ranks (ii.-xv.^ Of the books which relate the events during the absence of Achilles from the Greek ranks (ii.-xv.

^ The truce of the third book is broken by Pandarus, and Agamemnon passes along the Greek ranks with words of encouragement, but without a hint of the treachery just committed.

^ The joy of Menelaus on seeing Paris, Priam's ignorance of the Greek leaders, the speeches of Agamemnon in his review of the ranks (in book iv.

), the last five are directly related to the main action. .They describe the successive steps by which the Greeks are driven back, first from the plain to the rampart, then to their ships.^ They describe the successive steps by which the Greeks are driven back, first from the plain to the rampart, then to their ships.

.Moreover, three of the chief heroes, Agamemnon, Diomede and Ulysses, are wounded, and this circumstance, as Lachmann himself admitted, is steadily kept in mind throughout.^ Moreover, three of the chief heroes, Agamemnon, Diomede and Ulysses, are wounded, and this circumstance, as Lachmann himself admitted, is steadily kept in mind throughout.

^ XI. Aristeia of Agamemnon - he is wounded - Wounding of Diomede and Odysseus.

.It is otherwise with the earlier books (especially ii.-vii.^ It is otherwise with the earlier books (especially ii.-vii.

^ It is true that in the thirteenth and fourteenth books the purpose of Zeus is thwarted for a time by other, gods; but in books ii.-vii.

^ Grote in particular held that the original poem, which he called the Achilleis, did not include books ii.-vii., ix., x., xxiii., xxiv.

). .The chief incidents in that part of the poem - the panic rush to the ships, the duels of Paris and Menelaus, and of Hector and Ajax, the Aristeia of Diomede - stand in no relation to the mainspring of the poem, the promise made by Zeus to Thetis.^ The chief incidents in that part of the poem - the panic rush to the ships, the duels of Paris and Menelaus, and of Hector and Ajax, the Aristeia of Diomede - stand in no relation to the mainspring of the poem, the promise made by Zeus to Thetis.

^ I. Quarrel of Achilles with Agamemnon and the Greek army - Agamemnon, having been compelled to give up his prize Chryseis, takes Briseis from Achilles - Thereupon Achilles appeals to his mother Thetis , who obtains from Zeus a promise that he will give victory to the Trojans until the Greeks pay due honour to her son - Meanwhile Achilles takes no part in the war.

^ The quotation from the Iliad is of interest because it is made in order to show that Homer supported the story of the travels of Paris to Egypt and Sidon (whereas the Cyclic poem called the Cypria ignored them), and also because the part of the Iliad from which it comes is cited as the " Aristeia of Diomede."

.It is true that in the thirteenth and fourteenth books the purpose of Zeus is thwarted for a time by other, gods; but in books ii.-vii.^ It is true that in the thirteenth and fourteenth books the purpose of Zeus is thwarted for a time by other, gods; but in books ii.-vii.

^ Myself did make pledge, and promise, and strong oath, that, save me, none other of the eternal Gods should know the secret counsel of Zeus.

^ It is otherwise with the earlier books (especially ii.-vii.

it is not so much thwarted as ignored. .Further, the events follow without sufficient connexion.^ Further, the events follow without sufficient connexion.

.The truce of the third book is broken by Pandarus, and Agamemnon passes along the Greek ranks with words of encouragement, but without a hint of the treachery just committed.^ The truce of the third book is broken by Pandarus, and Agamemnon passes along the Greek ranks with words of encouragement, but without a hint of the treachery just committed.

^ IV. Truce broken by Pandarus .

^ Of the books which relate the events during the absence of Achilles from the Greek ranks (ii.-xv.

.The Aristeia of Diomede ends in the middle of the sixth book; he is uppermost in all thoughts down to ver.^ The Aristeia of Diomede ends in the middle of the sixth book; he is uppermost in all thoughts down to ver.

.311, but from this point, in the meetings of Hector with Helen and Andromache, and again in the seventh book when Hector challenges the Greek chiefs, his prowess is forgotten.^ Hector with Helen and Andromache, and again in the seventh book when Hector challenges the Greek chiefs, his prowess is forgotten.

^ And when in the third book Priam asks Helen about the Greek captains, or when in the seventh book nine champions come forward to contend with Hector, the want of the greatest hero of all is sufficiently felt.

^ Teichoscopy," Helen pointing out to Priam the Greek leaders.

.Once more, some of the incidents seem to belong properly to the beginning of the war.^ Once more, some of the incidents seem to belong properly to the beginning of the war.

^ And if some of the incidents (those of the third book in particular) seem to belong to the beginning of the war, it must be considered that poetically, and to the hearers of the Iliad, the war opens in the third book, and the incidents are of the kind that is required in such a place.

.The joy of Menelaus on seeing Paris, Priam's ignorance of the Greek leaders, the speeches of Agamemnon in his review of the ranks (in book iv.^ The joy of Menelaus on seeing Paris, Priam's ignorance of the Greek leaders, the speeches of Agamemnon in his review of the ranks (in book iv.

^ The truce of the third book is broken by Pandarus, and Agamemnon passes along the Greek ranks with words of encouragement, but without a hint of the treachery just committed.

^ Teichoscopy," Helen pointing out to Priam the Greek leaders.

), the building of the wall - all these are in place after the Greek landing, but hardly in the ninth year of the siege.
.On the other hand, it may be said, the second book opens with a direct reference to the events of the first, and the mention of Achilles in the speech of Thersites (ii.^ On the other hand, it may be said, the second book opens with a direct reference to the events of the first, and the mention of Achilles in the speech of Thersites (ii.

^ Even if the ninth book is rejected (as Grote proposed), there remain the speeches of the first, sixteenth and nineteenth books.

^ The ninth book, on the other hand, was rejected by Grote, chiefly on the grounds that the embassy to Achilles ought to have put an end to the quarrel, and that it is ignored in later passages, especially in the speeches of Achilles (xi.

239 sqq.) is sufficient to keep the main course of events in view. .The Catalogue is connected with its place in the poem by the lines about Achilles (686-694).^ The Catalogue is connected with its place in the poem by the lines about Achilles (686-694).

^ About that period Terpander is said to have given the lyre seven strings (as Mercury does in the poem), in place of the previous four strings.

.When Diomede is at the height of his Aristeia Helenus says (Il. vi.^ When Diomede is at the height of his Aristeia Helenus says ( Il.

^ V. Aristeia of Diomede - his combat with Aphrodite VI. - Meeting with Glaucus - Visit of Hector to the (I-31 I) city, and offering of a peplus to Athena .

.99), " We did not so fear even Achilles."^ We did not so fear even Achilles."

.And when in the third book Priam asks Helen about the Greek captains, or when in the seventh book nine champions come forward to contend with Hector, the want of the greatest hero of all is sufficiently felt.^ Hector with Helen and Andromache, and again in the seventh book when Hector challenges the Greek chiefs, his prowess is forgotten.

^ And when in the third book Priam asks Helen about the Greek captains, or when in the seventh book nine champions come forward to contend with Hector, the want of the greatest hero of all is sufficiently felt.

^ The truce of the third book is broken by Pandarus, and Agamemnon passes along the Greek ranks with words of encouragement, but without a hint of the treachery just committed.

.If these passages do not belong to the period of the wrath of Achilles, how are we to account for his conspicuous absence ?^ If these passages do not belong to the period of the wrath of Achilles, how are we to account for his conspicuous absence ?

^ The element of connexion and unity is the story of the " wrath of Achilles "; and we have only to look at the books which give the story of the wrath to see how essential they are.

.Further, the want of smoothness and unity which is visible in this part of the Iliad may be due to other causes than difference of date or authorship.^ Further, the want of smoothness and unity which is visible in this part of the Iliad may be due to other causes than difference of date or authorship.

^ If we may judge by line 51, and if Greek musical tradition be correct, the date of the Hymn cannot be earlier than the fortieth Olympiad.

^ (I may refer to my work, “Homer and the Epic,” for a defence of the unity of Iliad and Odyssey.
  • The Homeric Hymns</