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Male Bonobo
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Superfamily: Hominoidea
Family: Hominidae
Subfamily: Homininae
Tribe: Hominini
Gray, 1825

Subtribe Panina

Subtribe Hominina

Hominini is the tribe of Homininae that comprises humans (Homo) and two species of chimpanzee (Pan), their ancestors, and the extinct lineages of their common ancestor. Members of the tribe are called hominins (cf. Hominidae, "hominids"). The subtribe Hominina is the "human" branch, including genus Homo and its close relatives, but not Pan.

The creation of this taxon is the result of the current idea that the least similar species of a trichotomy should be separated from the other two. Through DNA comparison, scientists believe the Pan/Homo divergence was completed between 5.4 to 6.3 million years ago, after an unusual process of speciation that ranged over four million years.[1] It is interesting to note that no fossil species on the Pan side of the split have been determined; all of the extinct genera listed in the table to the right are ancestral to Homo, or are offshoots of such. However, both Orrorin and Sahelanthropus existed around the time of the split, and so may be ancestral to both humans and chimpanzees.

In the proposal of Mann and Weiss (1996),[2] the tribe Hominini includes Pan as well as Homo, but as separate subtribes. Homo (and, by inference, all bipedal apes) is in the subtribe Hominina, while Pan is in the subtribe Panina.

Family tree showing the extant hominoids: humans (genus Homo), chimpanzees (genus Pan), gorillas (genus Gorilla), orangutans (genus Pongo) and gibbons (four genera of the family Hylobatidae: Hylobates, Hoolock, Nomascus, and Symphalangus). Only humans and chimpanzees belong to the Hominini tribe.

See also


  1. ^ "Human and chimp genomes reveal new twist on origin of species". EurekAlert!/AAAS. 2006-05-17. Retrieved 2007-04-12.  
  2. ^ Mann, Alan and Mark Weiss (1996). "Hominoid Phylogeny and Taxonomy: a consideration of the molecular and Fossil Evidence in an Historical Perspective". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 5 (1): 169–181. doi:10.1006/mpev.1996.0011.  


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