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Homo sapiens idaltu
Fossil range: Pleistocene (Lower Paleolithic)
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Subfamily: Homininae
Genus: Homo
Species: Homo sapiens
Subspecies: Homo sapiens idaltu
Trinomial name
Homo sapiens idaltu
White et al. 2003

Homo sapiens idaltu is an extinct subspecies of Homo sapiens that lived almost 160,000 years ago in Pleistocene Africa.[1] Idaltu is from the Saho-Afar word meaning "elder or first born".[1]

Location of discovery

The fossilized remains of H. s. idaltu were discovered at Herto Bouri in the Middle Awash site of Ethiopia's Afar Triangle in 1997 by Tim White, but were first unveiled in 2003.[1] Herto Bouri is a region of Ethiopia under volcanic layers. By using radioisotope dating, the layers date between 154,000 and 160,000 years old. Three well preserved crania are accounted for, the best preserved being from an adult male (BOU-VP-16/1) having a brain capacity of 1,450 cm3 (88 cu in). The other crania include another partial adult male and a six year old child.[1]

These fossils differ from those of chronologically later forms of early H. sapiens such as Cro-Magnon found in Europe and other parts of the world in that their morphology has many archaic features not typical of H. sapiens (although modern human skulls do differ across the globe).[1]

Despite the archaic features, these specimens were argued to represent the direct ancestors of modern Homo sapiens sapiens which, according to the "Recent African Origin (RAO)" or "Out-Of-Africa" theory, developed shortly after this period (Khoisan mitochondrial divergence dated not later than 110,000 BCE) in Eastern Africa. "The many morphological features shared by the Herto crania and AMHS, to the exclusion of penecontemporanous Neanderthals, provide additional fossil data excluding Neanderthals from a significant contribution to the ancestry of modern humans."[1]

A 2005 potassium-argon dating of volcanic tuff associated with the Omo remains showed them to date from about 195,000 years ago, making them older than the idaltu fossils and the earliest known remains of anatomically modern humans.[2]

An exact description was made, by its discoverers, of Homo sapiens idaltu.

"On the limited available evidence, a subspecies of Homo sapiens distinguished from Holocene anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) by greater craniofacial robusticity, greater anterior–posterior cranial length, and large glenoid-to-occlusal plane distance. Homo sapiens idaltu is distinguished from the holotype of Homo rhodesiensis (Woodward, 1921) by a larger cranial capacity, a more vertical frontal with smaller face, and more marked midfacial topography (for example, canine fossa). We consider the holotypes of H. helmei and H. njarasensis too fragmentary for appropriate comparisons."[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g White, Tim D.; Asfaw, B.; DeGusta, D.; Gilbert, H.; Richards, G. D.; Suwa, G.; Howell, F. C. (2003), "Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia", Nature 423 (6491): 742–747, doi:10.1038/nature01669 
  2. ^ McDougall, I.; Brown, F. H.; Fleagle, J. G. (2005), "Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia", Nature 433 (7027): 733–736, doi:10.1038/nature03258, PMID 15716951 

External links


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Theria
Infraclassis: Placentalia
Ordo: Primates
Subordo: Haplorrhini
Infraordo: Simiiformes
Parvordo: Catarrhini
Superfamilia: Hominoidea
Familia: Hominidae
Subfamilia: Homininae
Tribus: Hominini
Subtribus: Hominina
Genus: Homo
Species: Homo sapiens
Subspecies: †Homo sapiens idaltu

Name

Homo sapiens idaltu White et al., 2003

Reference

  • T. D. White, B. Asfaw, D. DeGusta, H. Gilbert, G. D. Richards, G. Suwa, & F. C. Howel 2003: Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature, 423: 742-747. Abstract

Vernacular names

Eesti: Vanem mõistusega inimene
Français: Homme de Herto
Hrvatski: Razumni čuvjek
Polski: Człowiek współczesny starszy
Türkçe: Yaşlı bilge insan
中文: 長者智人

Simple English

Archaic Humans
Fossil range: Pleistocene
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Subfamily: Homininae
Genus: Homo
Species: H. sapiens
Subspecies: H. s. idaltu
Trinomial name
Homo sapiens idaltu
White et al, 2003

Homo sapiens idaltu is an extinct subspecies of Homo sapiens that lived almost 160,000 years ago in Africa during from the Pleistocene period. Idaltu is the Afar word for "elder, first born".









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