Hongwu Emperor: Wikis

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Hongwu Emperor
Emperor of the Ming Dynasty
Reign 23 January 1368 [1] – 24 June 1398 (&0000000000000030.00000030 years, &0000000000000152.000000152 days)
Predecessor Dynasty Established
Successor Jianwen Emperor
Emperor of China
Reign 23 January 1368 – 24 June 1398 (&0000000000000030.00000030 years, &0000000000000152.000000152 days)
Predecessor Emperor Huizong
Successor Jianwen Emperor
Spouse Empress Xiao Ci (Ma Chunxiang)
Issue
26 sons and 16 daughters[2]
Full name
Family name: Zhū (朱)
Birth name: Chóngbā (重八)[3]
Given name: Xingzong (興宗), later Yuánzhāng (元璋)[4]
Courtesy name: Guóruì (國瑞)
Era name and dates
Hóngwǔ (洪武): 23 January 1368 - 5 February 1399 [5]
Posthumous name
Emperor Kaitian Xingdao Zhaoji Liji Dasheng Zhishen Renwen Yiwu Junde Chenggong Gao
開天行道肇紀立極大聖至神仁文義武俊德成功高皇帝
Temple name
Míng Tàizǔ
明太祖
Father Zhu Shizhen
Mother Chen Erniang
Born 21 October 1328(1328-10-21)
Haozhou, Anhui, Yuan Empire
Died 24 June 1398 (aged 69)
Nanjing, Jiangsu, Ming Empire
Burial Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum, Nanjing

The Hongwu Emperor (Chinese: 洪武帝Wade-Giles: Hung-wu Ti; October 21, 1328 – June 24, 1398), known variably by his given name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chinese: 朱元璋; Wade-Giles: Chu Yuan-chang) and by the temple name Taizu of the Ming (Chinese: 明太祖) was the founder and first emperor (1368–98) of the Ming Dynasty of China. His era name, Hongwu, means "great military power".

In the middle of the 1300s, with famine, plagues and peasant revolts sweeping across China, Zhu became a leader of an army that conquered China, ending the Yuan Dynasty and forcing the Mongols to retreat to the Mongolian steppes. With his seizure of the Yuan capital Dadu (present-day Beijing), he claimed the Mandate of Heaven and established the Ming Dynasty in the year 1368.

Contents

Early life

Zhu Yuanzhang was born in 1328 in a village in Zhongli (鍾離, modern day Fengyang, Anhui) as the youngest of four sons.[6] His family were poor peasants and he grew up under conditions of great hardship. Because his family did not have enough food, several of his siblings were "given away" by his parents. When he was 16 the Yellow River broke its banks and flooded the lands where his family was living. This was quickly followed by the plague in which his father, Zhu Shizhen (朱世珍, original name Zhu Wusi 朱五四) died, followed shortly by his mother Chen Erniang and all but one brother. Destitute, he accepted a suggestion that he take up a pledge his father had made and became a novice monk at a local Buddhist monastery, the Huangjue Temple.[7] Zhu did not remain in the monastery for long, as the monastery ran out of money and he was forced to leave it.

The next few years were hard. He travelled, begged for food, and saw at first-hand the troubles of the people. After some three years he returned to the monastery and stayed there until he was about 24 years old. He learned to read and write during his time with the Buddhist monks. In later years, while he remained sympathetic to Buddhism, he himself did not become a Buddhist. In trying to destroy a local rebellion, the Mongol army burned down Zhu's monastery. In 1352 Zhu joined one of the many groups of local rebels who were appearing throughout China. Zhu's natural abilities (leadership, determination, skill as a warrior, and a brilliant mind) allowed him to rise rapidly to a position of command in the group. Zhu's local rebels soon joined with the Red Turban Movement, a millenarian sect related to the White Lotus Society, and a sect combining cultural and religious traditions of Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, and other religions. By portraying himself as a defender of Confucianism and neo-Confucianism, Zhu emerged as a national leader against the collapsing Yuan Dynasty.

Exiling the Mongols and restoring Hua (華)

In 1356, Zhu's army conquered one of the major cities in China: Nanjing. This became his base of operations and was the official capital of the Ming empire throughout his lifetime. Zhu's government in Nanjing and the surrounding territory quickly became famous for its good governance and the city attracted vast numbers of people fleeing from other, more lawless regions. It is estimated the city population grew 10 times over the next 10 years.[8] The Mongol government, nearly paralyzed by internal factions fighting for control, made little effort to retake the Yangtze river valley and by 1358, nearly the whole of central and southern China was in the hands of different rebel groups. The Red Turbans themselves broke up, Zhu became the leader of a smaller faction (called the Ming around 1360), while the larger faction, under Chen Youliang, controlled the center of the Yangtze river valley.

Zhu was able to attract many talented followers. One such follower was Zhu Sheng(朱升), who is credited with giving this advice to Zhu: "Build high walls, stock up rations, and don't be too quick to call yourself a king." Another follower was Jiao Yu, an artillery officer who later compiled a military treatise outlining the various gunpowder weapons. Yet another was Liu Ji, a key advisor who, in later years, edited the military-technology treatise titled Huolongjing.

Starting in 1360, Zhu and Chen Youliang fought a protracted war for supremacy over the Red Turban territory. The pivotal moment in the war was the enormous Battle of Lake Poyang (1363), one of the largest naval battles in world history. The battle lasted three days and at the end of the third day, the larger navy of Chen Youliang broke away and retreated. Chen Youliang died a month later in battle, leaving Zhu the single strongest leader in China. He was 35 years old. Zhu did not fight in battle again, from this point on his generals fought campaigns which he directed from his palace in Nanjing.

In 1367 Zhu's forces defeated the other major warlord, Zhang Shicheng, whose Wu Kingdom was centered in Suzhou, and had previously included most of the Yangtze Delta, including the old Song Dynasty capital of Hangzhou.[9][10] This conquest gave Zhu's Ming government authority over the entire length of the Yangtze and much of the territory both north and south of the river. The other major warlords submitted to Zhu, and on the Chinese New Year of 1368 (January 20, 1368) Zhu proclaimed himself the Ming emperor in Nanjing and adopted "Hongwu" as the title of his reign. He used the motto 'Exiling the Mongols and Restoring Hua (華)'.

During 1368, Zhu fulfilled his motto's promise, as his armies headed north to take on the Mongols. The Mongols, somewhat curiously, gave up Beijing (September 1368) and the rest of northern China without much of a fight and fled north into their homeland in what is now Outer Mongolia.[11] The last loyal Yuan province of Yunan was captured in 1380 and China was unified again under the Ming.

Reign

Zhu Yuanzhang proclaimed himself emperor in 1368. The capital remained at Nanjing, and "Hongwu" was adopted as the title of his reign.

Under Hongwu, the Mongol bureaucrats who had dominated the government for nearly a century under the Yuan Dynasty were replaced by Han Chinese. Hongwu revamped the traditional Confucian examination system, which selected state bureaucrats or civil servants on the basis of merit and knowledge of literature and philosophy, mostly the Classics. Candidates for posts in the civil service, or in the officer corps of the 80,000-man army, once again had to pass the traditional competitive examinations, as required by the Classics. The Confucian scholar gentry, marginalized under the Yuan for nearly a century, once again assumed their predominant role in the Chinese state.

The rejection of things associated with the Mongols also continued into other areas. These included Mongol dress, which was discarded, and Mongol names, which stopped being used. Indeed, attacks on Mongol-associated items and places also included the attack of palaces and administrative buildings used by the Yuan rulers.[12]

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Land reform and peasantry

Having come from a peasant family, Hongwu knew only too well how much the farmers suffered from the gentry and the wealthy. Many of the latter, relying on their influence with the magistrates, not only encroached unscrupulously on the land of farmers, but also contrived through bribing lower officials to transfer the burden of taxation to the small farmers. To prevent such abuses, Hongwu instituted two very important systems: "Yellow Records" and "Fish Scale Records". These systems served to guarantee both the government's income from land taxes and the people's enjoyment of their property.

However, while the reforms were well-meaning, they did not eliminate the threat of the scholar-gentry to peasants. Rather, the expansion of the scholar-gentry and their growing prestige translated into more wealth and tax exemption for those related to government bureaucrats. The gentry gained new privileges, often allowing them to show off their wealth. They often were money-lenders and managers of gambling rings. Using their power, the scholar-gentry often expanded their estates at the expense of small farmers who were absorbed into the estates, both through outright purchase of peasants' land, and foreclosure on their mortgages during times of want. These peasants often became either tenants and workers, or left and searched for employment elsewhere.[13]

From the beginning of his government in 1357, great care was taken by Hongwu to distribute land to small farmers. It seems to have been his policy to favor the poor and try to help them to support themselves and their families. Public works projects, such as the construction of irrigation systems and dikes, were undertaken, in an attempt to help poor farmers. Additionally, demands on the peasantry for forced labor were reduced by Hongwu. In 1370, an order was given that some land in Hunan and Anhui should be distributed to young farmers who had reached manhood. This order was made in part to preclude the absorption of this land by unscrupulous landlords, and, as part of this decree, it was announced that the title to the land would not be transferable. During the middle part of his reign, an edict was published to the effect that those who brought fallow land under cultivation could keep it as their property without it ever being taxed. The people responded enthusiastically to this policy, and in 1393 cultivated land rose to 8,804,623 ching and 68 mou, a greater achievement than any other Chinese dynasty.

Military

Hongwu realized that the Mongols still posed a real threat to China. He decided that the orthodox Confucian view of the military as an inferior class to the scholar bureaucracy should be re-assessed, as maintaining a strong military was essential. Hongwu kept a powerful army organized on the military system known as Wei-so, which was similar to the Fu-ping system of the Tang Dynasty. While initially the Ming army was very effective, it rapidly lost its capacity for offensive operations after the death of the Yongle Emperor and it suffered a terrible defeat at the hands of the Mongols in 1449 at the Battle of Tumu Fort.

Military training was conducted within the soldiers' own military districts. In time of war, troops were mobilized from all over the empire on the orders of a Board of War, and commanders were chosen to lead them. As soon as the war was over, all of the troops returned to their respective districts and the commanders lost their military commands. This system largely avoided troubles of the kind which destroyed the Tang; namely military commanders who had large numbers of soldiers directly under their personal control. However, the downside was the Ming military, for large campaigns, was always placed under the control of a civilian official from the capital.

Consolidating control

Hongwu gained a reputation for killing many people. [14] He used many tortures, especially flaying and slow slicing.[15][16][17] He expected everyone to obey his rule.[18][19] One of his generals, Chang Yuchun, carried out massacres in some places,[20][21] in Shangdong and Hunan to avenge resistance against his army.[22][23][24][25][26] As time went on, Hongwu increasingly feared rebellions and coups. He even made it a capital offence for any of his advisors to criticise him. A story goes that a Confucian scholar who was fed up with Hongwu's policies decided to go to the capital and berate the emperor. When he gained an audience with the emperor, he brought his own coffin along with him. After delivering his speech he climbed into the coffin, expecting the emperor to execute him. Instead, the Emperor was so impressed by his bravery that he spared his life. He was also said to have ordered the massacre of several thousand people living in Nanjing after having heard one talked about him without respect.[27][28][29] In 1380 after much killing, a thunderbolt hit his palace and he stopped the massacres for some time afraid the supreme god would punish him.[30]

Hongwu also noted the destructive role of court eunuchs under the previous dynasties. He drastically reduced their numbers, forbidding them to handle documents, insisting that they remained illiterate, and executing those who commented on state affairs. Hongwu had a strong aversion to the imperial eunuchs, epitomized by a tablet in his palace stipulating: "Eunuchs must have nothing to do with the administration." However, this aversion to eunuchs being in the employ of an emperor was not popular with Hongwu's successors, and eunuchs soon returned to the emperors' courts after Hongwu. In addition to Hongwu's aversion to eunuchs, he never consented to any of his imperial relatives becoming court officials. This policy was fairly well-maintained by later emperors, and no serious trouble was caused by the empresses or their relatives.

Hongwu attempted, and largely succeeded in, the consolidation of control over all aspects of government, so that no other group could gain enough power to overthrow him. He also buttressed the country's defenses against the Mongols. As emperor, Hongwu increasingly concentrated power in his own hands. He abolished the prime minister's post, which had been head of the main central administrative body under past dynasties, by suppressing a plot for which he had blamed his chief minister. Many argue that the Hongwu emperor, because of his wish to concentrate absolute authority in his own hands, removed the only insurance against incompetent emperors.[citation needed] However Hongwu's actions were not entirely one-sided since he did create a new post, called "Grand Secretary", to take the place of the abolished prime minister. Ray Huang argued that Grand-Secretaries, outwardly powerless, could exercise considerable positive influence from behind the throne.[citation needed] Because of their prestige and the public trust which they enjoyed, they could act as intermediaries between the emperor and the ministerial officials, and thus provide a stabilising force in the court. He executed his tens of thousand officials and their relatives over sedition, treason, corruption or other charges.[31][32][33][34][35]

One of the reasons why the emperor eliminated the offices of grand councilor, particularly the prime minister, was due to Hu Wei-young's attempt to usurp the throne. Hu was the Senior grand councilor and a very close friend of the emperor. He was later executed. His actions greatly shocked the emperor and led the emperor to greatly distrust his high officials. To that end, he completely eliminated all the prime ministers and established four advisors or the Grand-Secretaries to work closely with, who were intellectually able, though low ranking. Eliminating the office of the prime minister was the very step that increased the emperor's autocracy in the government.

Legal code

The legal code drawn up in the time of the Hongwu emperor was considered one of the great achievements of the era. The History of Ming mentions that as early as 1364 the monarchy had started to draft a code of laws. This code was known as Da Ming lü (大明律), or Code of the Great Ming. The emperor devoted great personal care to the whole project, and in his instruction to the ministers told them that the code of laws should be comprehensive and intelligible, so as not to leave any loophole for lower officials to misinterpret the law through twisting its language. The Ming code laid much emphasis on family relations. The code was a great improvement on the code of the earlier Tang dynasty in regards to the treatment of slaves. Under the Tang code, slaves were treated as a species of domestic animal; if they were killed by a free citizen the law imposed no sanction on the killer. Under the Ming dynasty, however, the law protected both slaves and free citizens.

Confucianism

Backed by the Confucian scholar-gentry, Hongwu accepted the Confucian viewpoint that merchants were solely parasitic. Hongwu felt that agriculture should be the country's source of wealth and that trade was ignoble. Perhaps this view was the result of his having been a peasant himself. As a result, the Ming economic system emphasized agriculture, unlike the economic system of the Song Dynasty, which had preceded the Mongols and had relied on traders and merchant for revenues. Also as a result of this aversion to trade, Hongwu supported the creation of self-supporting agricultural communities.

However, Hongwu's prejudice against the merchants did not diminish the numbers of traders. On the contrary, commerce increased significantly under Hongwu due to the growth of industry throughout the empire. This growth in trade was due in part to poor soil conditions and the overpopulation of certain areas, which forced many people to leave their homes and seek their fortunes in trade. A book entitled Tu Pien Hsin Shu,[citation needed] written during the Ming dynasty, gives a detailed description about the activities of merchants at that time.

Growth of the Ming Dynasty and Death

Although Hongwu's rule saw the introduction of paper currency, its development was stifled from the beginning. Not understanding inflation, Hongwu gave out so much paper money as rewards that by 1425 the state was forced to reintroduce copper coins because the paper currency had sunk to only 1/70 of its original value.

During Hongwu's reign, the early Ming Dynasty was characterised by rapid and dramatic population growth, largely due to the increased food supply from Hongwu's agricultural reforms.[36] By the end of the dynasty, the population had risen by perhaps as much as 50%. This was stimulated by major improvements in agricultural technology, promoted by the pro-agrarian state which came to power in the midst of a pro-Confucian peasant's rebellion. Under his tutelage, living standards greatly improved.

Hongwu died after a reign of 30 years in 1398 at the age of 69. He killed doctors after his general Xu Da and Li Wenzhong (李文忠). After his death, his doctors were penalized.[37] Hongzhi Emperor and Jiajing Emperor's doctors were executed.[38] None of his reigning descendants lived as long as he did. He was buried at Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum on the Purple Mountain, east of Nanjing.

Assessment

Historians consider Hongwu to be one of the most significant Emperors of China. As historian Ebrey puts it "Seldom has the course of Chinese history been influenced by a single personality as much as it was by the founder of the Ming dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang."[39] Coming from the poorest of backgrounds his rise to power was stunningly fast. In eleven years he went from being a penniless monk to the most powerful war leader in China. Five years later, he was the Emperor. Simon Leys has described him as:-

'an adventurer from peasant stock, poorly educated, a man of action, a bold and shrewd tactician, a visionary mind, in many respects a creative genius; naturally coarse, cynical, and ruthless, he eventually showed symptoms of paranoia, bordering on psychopathy.'[40]

The famous folk song Feng Yang Flower Drum (凤阳花鼓) was blamed on him.[41] His protraits were controversial.[42]

Family

Hongwu's parents, grand-parents. great-grandparents and great-great-grandparents were given posthumous Imperial titles.

The great-great-grandfather of the Emperor was given the posthumous name of Emperor Xuan and the temple name of Dezu, and the great-great-grandmother was given the title of Empress Yuxuan. The great-grandfather was given the posthumous name of Emperor Heng and the temple name of Yizu, and the great-grandmother was given the title of Empress Heng. The grandfather of the Emperor was given the posthumous name of Emperor Yu and the temple name of Xizu, and the grandmother was given the title of Empress Yu. The father of the Emperor was given the posthumous name of Emperor Chun and the temple name of Renzu, and the mother of the Emperor, whose maiden name was Chen, was given the title of Empress Chun.[43]

Consorts

He was bad to those ladies-in-waiting forced to live in the palaces without freedom, ordered them lived there for life and cermented.[44][45] He massacred thousands of them.[46][47][48]He restricted freedom of many concubines and killed several.[49][50][51] And forced most alive suicide and buried with him.[52] Many descendents in power followed this and hundreds of beautiful girls died that way.

Sons

Daughters

Names

Hongwu also is known as Hung-Wu (same name, different transliteration system). Other names for him include, Zhu Yuanzhang (see above), his temple name Ming Tàizǔ (明太祖 -"Great Ancestor of the Ming"), and the "Beggar King" (an allusion to his early poverty).

Film and television

The Hongwu emperor's life story was the focus of a 2006 CCTV-8 period drama Chuan Qi Huang Di Zhu Yuan Zhang (传奇皇帝朱元璋). But it was criticized by audience because it has "too much dramatized romance" instead of historical events.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Was already in control of Nanjing since 1356, was made Duke of Wu (吳國公) by the rebelled leader Han Lin'er (韓林兒) in 1361, and started autonomous rule as self-proclaimed Prince of Wu (吳王) on February 4, 1364. Was proclaimed emperor on January 23, 1368, establishing the Ming Dynasty that same day.
  2. ^ Tsai, Shih-Shan Henry, Perpetual Happiness: The Ming Emperor Yongle, University of Washington Press, 2002.
  3. ^ Name given by his parents at birth and used only inside the family. This birth name, which means "double eight", was allegedly given to him because the combined age of his parents when he was born was 88 years.
  4. ^ Was known as Zhu Xingzong when he became an adult, a name that was changed to Zhu Yuanzhang in 1352 when he started to become famous among the rebelled leaders.
  5. ^ The era was officially re-established on July 30, 1402 when Emperor Jianwen was overthrown, with retroactivity for the 4 years of the Jianwen era, so that 1402 was considered the 35th year of Hongwu. The Hongwu era then ended on January 22, 1403, the next day being the start of the Yongle era.
  6. ^ Dreyer, 22-23.
  7. ^ Mote, J.F. Imperial China 900-1800 Harvard University Press (5 December 2003) ISBN 978-0674012127 pp.543-545 Google Books Search
  8. ^ Ebrey, "Cambridge Illustrated History of China", pg. 191
  9. ^ Edward L. Farmer, Zhu Yuanzhang and Early Ming Legislation: The Reordering of Chinese Society Following the Era of Mongol Rule. BRILL, 1995. ISBN 9004103910, 9789004103917. On Google Books. P 23.
  10. ^ Linda Cooke Johnson, Cities of Jiangnan in Late Imperial China. SUNY Press, 1993. ISBN 079141423X, 9780791414231 On Google Books, pp. 26-27.
  11. ^ Brooke (1998), pp. 17-18
  12. ^ Stearns, Peter N., et al. World Civilizations: The Global Experience. AP Edition DBQ Update. New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006. 508.
  13. ^ Stearns, Peter N., et al. World Civilizations: The Global Experience. AP Edition DBQ Update. New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006. 511.
  14. ^ 朱元璋的滥杀心理及其影响初探
  15. ^ 劉辰. 國初事迹
  16. ^ 李默. 孤樹裒談
  17. ^ 楊一凡(1988). 明大誥研究. Jiangsu Renmin Press.
  18. ^ 略論明太祖的教化性敕撰書
  19. ^ 明代十二种法律文献版本述略 ——《中国珍稀法律典籍续编》所辑文献研究之一
  20. ^ 三朱祸国,中国流氓文化恶性流变分析
  21. ^ 《中国史上的屠城与杀降》(4)
  22. ^ 洪武移民传说
  23. ^ 鞍山老人万里寻祖20年探出"小云南"
  24. ^ 朱元璋血洗湖南一事究竟是真是假?
  25. ^ 600年傳說之迷:朱元璋當年曾血洗湖南?
  26. ^ 洪武屠刀举,血洗绝人烟-朱元璋制造的湖南大屠杀
  27. ^ 有趣的南京地名
  28. ^ 长乐街:秦淮影照古廊房
  29. ^ 馬生龍. 鳳凰台紀事
  30. ^ 徐禎卿. 剪勝野聞
  31. ^ History of Ming, vol.139
  32. ^ 吳晗, 胡惟庸黨案考
  33. ^ 朱元璋多疑殺人數萬? 明初空印案之謎
  34. ^ 权与血—明帝国官场政治
  35. ^ 南北榜,科场案制造20多个冤鬼
  36. ^ Stearns, Peter N., et al. World Civilizations: The Global Experience. AP Edition DBQ Update. New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006. 366.
  37. ^ History of Ming, vol.187
  38. ^ 徐乾學. 修史條議
  39. ^ Ebrey, "Cambridge Illustrated History of China", pg. 190
  40. ^ Simon Leys, 'Ravished by Oranges' in New York Review of Books December 20, 2007 p.8
  41. ^ 凤阳花鼓歌词中‘凤阳’的范围及其背景分析
  42. ^ 明太祖朱元璋16种相貌真伪疑云(全版) _倪方六
  43. ^ from the History of Ming s:zh:明史/卷51 Zh.wikisource
  44. ^ ―故宫过客
  45. ^ 陳夢雷. 古今圖書集成·宮闈典·宫女部雜錄
  46. ^ 呂瑟. 明朝小史, vol.1
  47. ^ 明太祖《紀非錄》書後:秦周齊潭魯代靖江諸王罪行敘錄
  48. ^ 陈学霖(2001). 史林漫识. China Friendship Publishing Company.
  49. ^ 史夢蘭. 全史宮詞
  50. ^ 街巷轶事
  51. ^ 查繼佐. 罪惟錄, vol.3
  52. ^ 朱元璋陪葬妃子怎么死的?专家:上吊或灌水银——华夏文明——中国经济网

References

  • Brook, Timothy. (1998). The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22154-0 (Paperback).
  • Dreyer, Edward. (1982). Early Ming China: A Political History. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1105-4.
  • Stearns, Peter N., et al. (2006). World Civilizations: The Global Experience. AP Edition DBQ Update. New York: Pearson Education, Inc.
Hongwu Emperor
Born: 21 October 1328 Died: 24 June 1398
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Dynasty Established
Emperor of the Ming Dynasty
1368-1398
Succeeded by
The Jianwen Emperor
Preceded by
The Huizong Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty
Emperor of China
1368-1398

Hongwu Emperor
Emperor of the Ming Dynasty
Reign January 23, 1368[1] – June 24, 1398 (&000000000000003000000030 years, &0000000000000152000000152 days)
Predecessor Dynasty established
Successor Jianwen Emperor
Emperor of China
Reign January 23, 1368 – June 24, 1398 (&000000000000003000000030 years, &0000000000000152000000152 days)
Predecessor Emperor Huizong
Successor Jianwen Emperor
Spouse Empress Xiaoci
Issue
26 sons and 16 daughters[2]
Full name
Family name: Zhū (朱)
Birth name: Chóngbā (重八)[3]
Given name: Xīng​zōng​ (興宗), later Yuánzhāng (元璋)[4]
Courtesy name: Guóruì (國瑞)
Era name and dates
Hóngwǔ (洪武): January 23, 1368 - February 5, 1399 [5]
Posthumous name
Emperor Kaitian Xingdao Zhaoji Liji Dasheng Zhishen Renwen Yiwu Junde Chenggong Gāo​
開天行道肇紀立極大聖至神仁文義武俊德成功高皇帝
Temple name
Míng Tàizǔ
明太祖
Father Zhu Shizhen
Mother Chen Erniang
Born 21 October 1328(1328-10-21)
Haozhou, Anhui, Yuan Empire
Died 24 June 1398 (aged 69)
Nanjing, Jiangsu, Ming Empire
Burial Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum, Nanjing

The Hongwu Emperor (Chinese: 洪武帝; Wade–Giles: Hung-wu Ti; October 21, 1328 – June 24, 1398), known variably by his given name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chinese: 朱元璋; Wade–Giles: Chu Yuan-chang) and by his temple name Taizu of Ming (Chinese: 明太祖; literally "Great Ancestor of Ming"), was the founder and first emperor (1368–98) of the Ming Dynasty of China. His era name, Hongwu, means "vastly martial".

In the middle of the 14th century, with famine, plagues and peasant revolts sweeping across China, Zhu became a leader of an army that conquered China, ending the Yuan Dynasty and forcing the Mongols to retreat to the Mongolian steppes. With his seizure of the Yuan capital Khanbaliq (present-day Beijing), he claimed the Mandate of Heaven and established the Ming Dynasty in 1368.

Contents

Early life

Zhu was born in a poor peasant family in a village in Zhongli (鍾離, present day Fengyang, Anhui).[6] His father was Zhu Shizhen (朱世珍, original name Zhu Wusi 朱五四) and his mother was Chen Erniang. He had seven older brothers, several of whom were "given away" by his parents, as they did not have enough food to support the family. When he was 16, the Yellow River broke its banks and flooded the lands where his family lived. Subsequently, a plague killed his family, except one brother.

Destitute, Zhu accepted a suggestion to take up a pledge made by his late father, and became a novice monk at the Huangjue Temple,[7] a local Buddhist monastery. He did not remain there for long as the monastery ran short of funds and he was forced to leave.

For the next few years, Zhu led the life of a wandering beggar and personally experienced and saw the hardships of the common people. After about three years, he returned to the monastery and stayed there until he was around 24 years old. He learnt to read and write during the time he spent with the Buddhist monks. Although he did not become a Buddhist in later years, he still remained sympathetic towards Buddhism.

Rising in rebellion

The monastery where Zhu lived was eventually destroyed by an army that was suppressing a local rebellion. In 1352, Zhu joined one of the many insurgent forces that had risen in rebellion against the Mongol-ruled Yuan Dynasty. Zhu rose rapidly through the ranks and became a commander. His rebel force later joined the Red Turbans, a millenarian sect related to the White Lotus Society, and one that followed cultural and religious traditions of Buddhism, Zoroastrianism and other religions. Widely seen as a defender of Confucianism and neo-Confucianism among the predominant Han Chinese population in China, Zhu emerged as a leader of the rebels that were struggling to overthrow the Yuan Dynasty.

Establishment of the Ming Dynasty

In 1356, Zhu's army conquered Nanjing, which became his base of operations and the official capital of the Ming Dynasty during his reign. Zhu's government in Nanjing became famous for good governance and the city attracted vast numbers of people fleeing from other more lawless regions. It is estimated that Nanjing's population increased by 10 times over the next 10 years.[8] In the meantime, the Yuan government had been weakened by internal factions fighting for control and it made little effort to retake the Yangtze River valley. By 1358, central and southern China had fallen into the hands of different rebel groups. During that time, the Red Turbans also split up. Zhu became the leader of a smaller faction (called "Ming" around 1360) while the larger faction, under Chen Youliang, controlled the center of the Yangtze River valley.

Zhu was able to attract many talents into his service. One of them was Zhu Sheng (朱升), who advised Zhu: "Build high walls, stock up rations, and don't be too quick to call yourself a king." Another, Jiao Yu, was an artillery officer who later compiled a military treatise outlining the various types of gunpowder weapons. Another one, Liu Ji, became one of Zhu's key advisors, and edited the military-technology treatise titled Huolongjing in later years.

Starting from 1360, Zhu and Chen Youliang fought a protracted war for supremacy over the former Red Turban territory. The pivotal moment in the war was the Battle of Lake Poyang in 1363, one of the largest naval battles in history. The battle lasted three days and ended with the defeat and retreat of Chen's larger sized navy. Chen died a month later in battle. Zhu did not participate personally in any battles after that and remained in Nanjing, where he directed his generals to go on campaigns.

In 1367, Zhu's forces defeated Zhang Shicheng's Kingdom of Dazhou, which was centered in Suzhou and had previously included most of the Yangtze River Delta and the Song Dynasty's capital city of Hangzhou.[9][10] This victory granted Zhu's Ming government authority over the lands north and south of the Yangtze River. The other major warlords surrendered to Zhu and on January 20, 1368, Zhu proclaimed himself Emperor of the Ming Dynasty in Nanjing and adopted "Hongwu" as his regnal title. His dynasty's mission was to drive away the Mongols and restore Han Chinese rule in China.

In 1368, Ming armies headed north to attack territories that were still under the Yuan Dynasty's rule. The Mongols gave up their capital city of Khanbaliq (present-day Beijing) and the rest of northern China in September 1368 and retreated to Mongolia. The Ming army captured the last Yuan-controlled province of Yunan in 1380 and China was unified under the Ming Dynasty's rule.

Reign

Zhu proclaimed himself Emperor of China in 1368. His capital city remained in Nanjing and "Hongwu" was adopted as his regnal title.

Under Hongwu's rule, the Mongol bureaucrats who dominated the government in the Yuan Dynasty's time were replaced by Han Chinese officials. Hongwu revamped the traditional Confucian examination system, from which potential state officials were selected from, based on merit and their knowledge of literature and philosophy. Candidates for positions in the civil service and the officers corps of the military were required to pass the imperial examination, as required by the Classics. The Confucian scholar-bureaucrats, previously marginalized during the Yuan Dynasty, were reinstated to their predominant roles in the government.

Mongol related things, including garments and names, were discontinued from use and boycotted. There were also attacks on palaces and administrative buildings previously used by the Yuan rulers.[11]

Land reform and peasantry

As Hongwu came from a peasant family, he was aware of how peasants used to suffer under the oppression of the scholar-bureaucrats and the wealthy. Many of the latter, relying on their connections with government officials, encroached unscrupulously on peasants' lands and bribed the officials to transfer the burden of taxation to the poor. To prevent such abuse, Hongwu instituted two systems: Yellow Records and Fish Scale Records. These systems served to secure both the government's income from land taxes and affirm that peasants would not lose their lands.

However, the reforms did not eliminate the threat of the bureaucrats to peasants. Instead, the expansion of the bureaucrats and their growing prestige translated into more wealth and tax exemption for those in the government service. The bureaucrats gained new privileges and some became illegal money-lenders and managers of gambling rings. Using their power, the bureaucrats expanded their estates at the expense of peasants' lands through outright purchase of those lands and foreclosure on their mortgages whenever they wanted the lands. The peasants often became either tenants or workers, or sought employment elsewhere.[12]

Since the beginning of the Ming government in 1357, great care was taken by Hongwu to distribute land to peasants. One way was through forced migration to less dense areas.[13][14] Some of those people were tied to a pagoda tree in Hongdong (洪洞大槐樹) and moved.[15] Public works projects, such as the construction of irrigation systems and dikes, were undertaken in an attempt to help farmers. In addition, Hongwu also reduced the demands for forced labour on the peasantry. In 1370, Hongwu ordered that some lands in Hunan and Anhui should be given to young farmers who had reached adulthood. The order was intended to prevent landlords from seizing the land, as it also decreed that the titles to the lands were not transferable. During the middle part of his reign, Hongwu passed an edict, stating that those who brought fallow land under cultivation could keep it as their property without being taxed. The policy was well received by the people and in 1393, cultivated land rose to 8,804,623 ching and 68 mou, something not achieved during any other Chinese dynasty.[citation needed]

Military

Hongwu realized that the Mongols still posed a threat to China, even though they had been driven away after the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty. He decided to reassess the orthodox Confucian view that the military was an inferior class to the scholar bureaucracy. Hongwu kept a powerful army which in 1384 he re-organized using a model known as the Wèisuǒ system (simplified Chinese: 卫所制; traditional Chinese: 衛所制; literally "guard battalion"). Each military unit consisted of 5,600 men divided into five battalions and ten companies.[16] By 1393 the total number of Wèisuǒ troops had reached 1,200,000. Soldiers were also assigned land on which to grow crops whilst their positions were made heriditary.This type of system can be traced back to the Fǔbīng System (Chinese: 府兵制) of the Sui and Tang Dynasties. While the Ming army was initially very effective, it lost its capacity for offensive operations after the death of the Yongle Emperor, and was defeated by the Mongols in 1449 during the Tumu Crisis.[citation needed]

Training was conducted within local military districts. In times of war, troops were mobilized from all over the empire on the orders of the War Ministry, and commanders were appointed to lead them to battle. After the war, the army was disbanded into smaller groups and sent back to their respective districts, and the commanders had to return their authority to the state. This system helped to prevent military leaders from having too much power. However, one disadvantage was that the military was under the control of a civilian official for large campaigns, instead of a military general.[citation needed]

Consolidating control

Hongwu was infamous for killing many people.[17] He used many tortures, especially flaying and slow slicing.[18][19][20] He expected everyone to obey his rule.[21][22] One of his generals, Chang Yuchun, carried out massacres in some places,[23][24] in Shandong and Hunan to avenge resistance against his army.[25][26][27][28][29] As time went on, Hongwu increasingly feared rebellions and coups. He even made it a capital offence for any of his advisors to criticise him. A story goes that a Confucian scholar who was fed up with Hongwu's policies decided to go to the capital and berate the emperor. When he gained an audience with the emperor, he brought his own coffin along with him. After delivering his speech he climbed into the coffin, expecting the emperor to execute him. Instead, Hongwu was so impressed by his bravery that he spared his life. He was also said to have ordered the massacre of several thousand people living in Nanjing after having heard one talked about him without respect.[30][31][32] In 1380 after much killing, a thunderbolt hit his palace and he stopped the massacres for some time as he was afraid divine forces would punish him.[33]

Hongwu also noted the destructive role of court eunuchs under the previous dynasties. He drastically reduced their numbers, forbidding them to handle documents, insisting that they remained illiterate, and executing those who commented on state affairs. Hongwu had a strong aversion to the eunuchs, epitomized by a tablet in his palace stipulating: "Eunuchs must have nothing to do with the administration." However, this aversion to eunuchs being in the employ of an emperor was not popular with Hongwu's successors, and eunuchs soon returned to the emperors' courts after Hongwu. In addition to Hongwu's aversion to eunuchs, he never consented to any of his imperial relatives becoming court officials. This policy was fairly well-maintained by later emperors, and no serious trouble was caused by the empresses or their relatives.

Hongwu attempted, and largely succeeded in, the consolidation of control over all aspects of government, so that no other group could gain enough power to overthrow him. He also buttressed the country's defenses against the Mongols. As emperor, Hongwu increasingly concentrated power in his own hands. He abolished the chancellor's post, which had been head of the main central administrative body under past dynasties, by suppressing a plot for which he had blamed his chief minister. Many argue that the Hongwu Emperor, because of his wish to concentrate absolute authority in his own hands, removed the only insurance against incompetent emperors.[citation needed] However Hongwu's actions were not entirely one-sided since he did create a new post, called "Grand Secretary", to take the place of the abolished prime minister. Ray Huang argued that Grand-Secretaries, outwardly powerless, could exercise considerable positive influence from behind the throne.[citation needed] Because of their prestige and the public trust which they enjoyed, they could act as intermediaries between the emperor and the ministerial officials, and thus provide a stabilising force in the court. He executed his tens of thousand officials and their relatives over sedition, treason, corruption or other charges.[34][35][36][37][38]

One of the reasons why Hongwu eliminated the offices of grand councilor, particularly the chancellor, was due to Hu Weiyong's attempt to usurp the throne. Hu was the Senior Grand Councilor and a close friend of the emperor. He was later executed. His actions greatly shocked the emperor and led the emperor to greatly distrust his high officials. To that end, he completely eliminated all the chancellors and established four advisors or the Grand-Secretaries to work closely with, who were intellectually able, though low ranking. Eliminating the office of the chancellor was the very step that increased the emperor's autocracy in the government.

Legal code

The legal code drawn up in the time of the Hongwu Emperor was considered one of the great achievements of the era. The History of Ming mentioned that as early as 1364, the monarchy had started to draft a code of laws. This code was known as Code of the Great Ming or Laws of the Great Ming (大明律). The emperor devoted much time to the project and instructed his ministers that the code should be comprehensive and intelligible, so as not to allow any official to exploit loopholes in the code by deliberately misinterpreting it. The Ming code laid much emphasis on family relations. The code was a great improvement on the code of the earlier Tang Dynasty in regards to the treatment of slaves. Under the Tang code, slaves were treated as a species of domestic animal; if they were killed by a free citizen the law imposed no sanction on the killer. Under the Ming Dynasty, the law protected both slaves and free citizens.

Confucianism

Supported by the scholar-bureaucrats, Hongwu accepted the Confucian viewpoint that merchants were solely parasitic. Hongwu felt that agriculture should be the country's source of wealth and that trade was ignoble. As a result, the Ming economic system emphasized agriculture, unlike the economic system of the Song Dynasty, which had preceded the Mongols and had relied on traders and merchant for revenues. Hongwu also supported the creation of self-supporting agricultural communities.

However, Hongwu's prejudice against merchants did not diminish the numbers of traders. On the contrary, commerce increased significantly under Hongwu due to the growth of industry throughout the empire. This growth in trade was due in part to poor soil conditions and the overpopulation of certain areas, which forced many people to leave their homes and seek their fortunes in trade. A book titled Tu Pien Hsin Shu,[citation needed] written during the Ming Dynasty, gave a detailed description about the activities of merchants at that time.

Islam

Hongwu ordered the construction of several mosques in Nanjing, Yunnan, Guangdong and Fujian,[39] and had inscriptions praising Muhammed placed in mosques. He rebuilt the Jinjue Mosque in Nanjing and large numbers of Hui people moved to the city during his rule.[40]

He also wrote a 100 word praise on Islam, Allah and the prophet Muhammad. He had over 10 Muslim generals in his military,[41] including Chang Yuchun, Lan Yu, Ding Dexing, Mu Ying, Feng Sheng and Hu Dahai. In addition, Hongwu's spouse, Empress Ma, descended from a Muslim family while he was originally a member of a Muslim rebel group led by Guo Zhixin.

Loose tea

To combat corruption in the tea trade, Hongwu ordered the ceasing of compressed tea production. He decreed that tea take a simpler and less currency-ready form. The change was a vital development for further innovation in tea culture. Hongwu's 17th son, Zhu Quan, also wrote the Tea Manual (茶谱).

Development of the Ming Dynasty

Although Hongwu's rule saw the introduction of paper currency, its development was stifled from the beginning. Not understanding inflation, Hongwu gave out so much paper money as rewards that by 1425, the state was forced to reintroduce copper coins because the paper currency had sunk to only 1/70 of its original value.

During Hongwu's reign, the early Ming Dynasty was characterised by rapid and dramatic population growth, largely due to the increased food supply from Hongwu's agricultural reforms.[42] By the end of the dynasty, the population had risen by as much as 50%. This was stimulated by major improvements in agricultural technology, promoted by the pro-agrarian state which came to power in the midst of a pro-Confucian peasant's rebellion. During Hongwu's reign, living standards also greatly improved.[citation needed]

Death

Hongwu died in 1398 after reigning for 30 years at the age of 69. After his death, his physicians were penalized.[43] The Hongzhi Emperor and Jiajing Emperor's physicians were executed.[44] He was buried at Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum on the Purple Mountain, east of Nanjing.

Assessment

Historians consider Hongwu to be one of the most significant emperors of China. As historian Ebrey puts it "Seldom has the course of Chinese history been influenced by a single personality as much as it was by the founder of the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang."[45] His rise to power was fast despite him having from a poor and humble origin. In 11 years he went from being a penniless monk to the most powerful warlord in China. Five years later, he became emperor of China. Simon Leys described him as:-
'an adventurer from peasant stock, poorly educated, a man of action, a bold and shrewd tactician, a visionary mind, in many respects a creative genius; naturally coarse, cynical, and ruthless, he eventually showed symptoms of paranoia, bordering on psychopathy.'[46]

The folk song Fengyang Flower Drum (凤阳花鼓) was blamed on him.[47] His portraits were controversial.[48]

Family

Hongwu's parents, grand-parents. great-grandparents and great-great-grandparents were given posthumous Imperial titles.

The great-great-grandfather of the Emperor was given the posthumous name of Emperor Xuan and the temple name of Dezu, and the great-great-grandmother was given the title of Empress Yuxuan. The great-grandfather was given the posthumous name of Emperor Heng and the temple name of Yizu, and the great-grandmother was given the title of Empress Heng. The grandfather of the Emperor was given the posthumous name of Emperor Yu and the temple name of Xizu, and the grandmother was given the title of Empress Yu. The father of the Emperor was given the posthumous name of Emperor Chun and the temple name of Renzu, and the mother of the Emperor, whose maiden name was Chen, was given the title of Empress Chun.[49]

Consorts

Hongwu treated his ladies-in-waiting badly, forcing them to live in the palaces for life without freedom and behind cemented walls.[50][51] He massacred thousands of them.[52][53][54] He restricted the freedom of many concubines and killed several.[55][56][57] He also forced many of them to commit suicide and ordered that they will be buried with him after his death.[58] Hongwu had several Korean concubines, including Lady Han, who bore him a son, and Lady Kung.[59]

Popular culture

Zhu's life story was adapted into a 2006 Chinese historical drama television series titled Chuanqi Huangdi Zhu Yuanzhang (传奇皇帝朱元璋)[60]. Zhu is also featured as an antagonistic character in Jin Yong's Wuxia novel The Heaven Sword and Dragon Saber.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Hongwu was already in control of Nanjing since 1356 and was conferred the title of "Duke of Wu" (吳國公) by the rebel leader Han Lin'er (韓林兒) in 1361. He started autonomous rule as the self-proclaimed "Prince of Wu" (吳王) on February 4, 1364. He was proclaimed emperor on January 23, 1368 and established the Ming Dynasty on that same day.
  2. ^ Tsai, Shih-Shan Henry, Perpetual Happiness: The Ming Emperor Yongle, University of Washington Press, 2002.
  3. ^ Name given by his parents at birth and used only inside the family. This birth name, which means "double eight", was allegedly given to him because the combined age of his parents when he was born was 88 years.
  4. ^ He was known as "Zhu Xingzong" when he reached adulthood, and renamed himself "Zhu Yuanzhang" in 1352 when he started to become famous among the rebel leaders.
  5. ^ The era was officially re-established on July 30, 1402 when the Jianwen Emperor was overthrown, with retroactivity for the four years of the Jianwen era, so that 1402 was considered the 35th year of Hongwu. The Hongwu era then ended on January 22, 1403, the next day being the start of the Yongle era.
  6. ^ Dreyer, 22-23.
  7. ^ Mote, J.F. Imperial China 900-1800 Harvard University Press (5 December 2003) ISBN 978-0674012127 pp.543-545 Google Books Search
  8. ^ Ebrey, "Cambridge Illustrated History of China", pg. 191
  9. ^ Edward L. Farmer, Zhu Yuanzhang and Early Ming Legislation: The Reordering of Chinese Society Following the Era of Mongol Rule. BRILL, 1995. ISBN 9004103910, 9789004103917. On Google Books. P 23.
  10. ^ Linda Cooke Johnson, Cities of Jiangnan in Late Imperial China. SUNY Press, 1993. ISBN 079141423X, 9780791414231 On Google Books, pp. 26-27.
  11. ^ Stearns, Peter N., et al. World Civilizations: The Global Experience. AP Edition DBQ Update. New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006. 508.
  12. ^ Stearns, Peter N., et al. World Civilizations: The Global Experience. AP Edition DBQ Update. New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006. 511.
  13. ^ 祖先记忆、家园象征与族群历史
  14. ^ 明朝初年江南、山西移民的历史背景
  15. ^ 山西社科网
  16. ^ (In Chinese) She Yiyuan (佘一元), Shanhaiguan Chronicle (山海关志)
  17. ^ 朱元璋的滥杀心理及其影响初探
  18. ^ 劉辰. 國初事迹
  19. ^ 李默. 孤樹裒談
  20. ^ 楊一凡(1988). 明大誥研究. Jiangsu Renmin Press.
  21. ^ 略論明太祖的教化性敕撰書
  22. ^ 明代十二种法律文献版本述略 ——《中国珍稀法律典籍续编》所辑文献研究之一
  23. ^ 三朱祸国,中国流氓文化恶性流变分析
  24. ^ 《中国史上的屠城与杀降》(4)
  25. ^ 洪武移民传说
  26. ^ 鞍山老人万里寻祖20年探出"小云南"
  27. ^ 朱元璋血洗湖南一事究竟是真是假?
  28. ^ 600年傳說之迷:朱元璋當年曾血洗湖南?
  29. ^ 洪武屠刀举,血洗绝人烟-朱元璋制造的湖南大屠杀
  30. ^ 有趣的南京地名
  31. ^ 长乐街:秦淮影照古廊房
  32. ^ 馬生龍. 鳳凰台紀事
  33. ^ 徐禎卿. 剪勝野聞
  34. ^ History of Ming, vol.139
  35. ^ 吳晗, 胡惟庸黨案考
  36. ^ 朱元璋多疑殺人數萬? 明初空印案之謎
  37. ^ 权与血—明帝国官场政治
  38. ^ 南北榜,科场案制造20多个冤鬼
  39. ^ Tan Ta Sen, Dasheng Chen (2000). Cheng Ho and Islam in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 170. ISBN 9812308377. http://books.google.com/books?id=vIUmU2ytmIIC&pg=PA170&dq=zhu+yuanzhang+mosques&hl=en&ei=M2I_TNbcJ8P88AbJr-m-Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=zhu%20yuanzhang%20mosques&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  40. ^ Shoujiang Mi, Jia You (2004). Islam in China. 五洲传播出版社. p. 135. ISBN 7508505336. http://books.google.com/books?id=XULERYYEJo0C&pg=PA35&lpg=PA35&dq=zhu+yuanzhang+mosques&source=bl&ots=sC3s4a7Ohi&sig=PMfaDB4dKHT6ACoxBrv7XWgxht0&hl=en&ei=H2I_TNLfH4P58Abiv_iiAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CDIQ6AEwBzgK#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  41. ^ China China archaeology and art digest, Volume 3, Issue 4. Art Text (HK) Ltd. 2000. p. 29. http://books.google.com/books?ei=M2I_TNbcJ8P88AbJr-m-Cg&ct=result&id=0UzrAAAAMAAJ&dq=zhu+yuanzhang+mosques&q=zhu+yuanzhang. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  42. ^ Stearns, Peter N., et al. World Civilizations: The Global Experience. AP Edition DBQ Update. New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006. 366.
  43. ^ History of Ming, vol.187
  44. ^ 徐乾學. 修史條議
  45. ^ Ebrey, "Cambridge Illustrated History of China", pg. 190
  46. ^ Simon Leys, 'Ravished by Oranges' in New York Review of Books December 20, 2007 p.8
  47. ^ 凤阳花鼓歌词中‘凤阳’的范围及其背景分析
  48. ^ 明太祖朱元璋16种相貌真伪疑云(全版) _倪方六
  49. ^ from the History of Ming s:zh:明史/卷51 Zh.wikisource
  50. ^ ―故宫过客
  51. ^ 陳夢雷. 古今圖書集成·宮闈典·宫女部雜錄
  52. ^ 呂瑟. 明朝小史, vol.1
  53. ^ 明太祖《紀非錄》書後:秦周齊潭魯代靖江諸王罪行敘錄
  54. ^ 陈学霖(2001). 史林漫识. China Friendship Publishing Company.
  55. ^ 史夢蘭. 全史宮詞
  56. ^ 街巷轶事
  57. ^ 查繼佐. 罪惟錄, vol.3
  58. ^ 朱元璋陪葬妃子怎么死的?专家:上吊或灌水银——华夏文明——中国经济网
  59. ^ Association Denis Crispin Twitchett, John King Fairbank (1978). The Cambridge history of China, Volume 2; Volume 8. Cambridge University Press. p. 292. ISBN 0521243335. http://books.google.com/books?id=tVhvh6ibLJcC&pg=PA291&dq=girls+tribute+china&hl=en&ei=6pc3TNvrA8G78gbUhJW1Bg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=hung-wu%20korean%20concubine%20lady%20han&f=false. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  60. ^ Chuanqi Huangdi Zhu Yuanzhang on Sina.com

References

Hongwu Emperor
Born: 21 October 1328 Died: 24 June 1398
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Dynasty established
Emperor of the Ming Dynasty
1368–1398
Succeeded by
Jianwen Emperor
Preceded by
Huizong Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty
Emperor of China
1368–1398

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|Hongwu Emperor]] Hongwu Emperor (Chinese: 洪武帝; Wade-Giles: Hung-woo T'i; October 21, 1328June 24, 1398), also known by his given name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chinese: 朱元璋; Wade-Giles: Chu Yuan-chang) and by the temple name Taizu of the Ming (Chinese: 明太祖) was the first emperor of the Ming Dynasty.


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