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Honolulu, Hawaii
—  CDP  —
Aerial view of downtown from Honolulu Harbor
Nickname(s): Crossroads of the Pacific, Sheltered Bay
Location in Honolulu County and the state of Hawaii
Honolulu, Hawaii is located in Hawaii
Honolulu, Hawaii
Location in Hawaii
Coordinates: 21°18′32″N 157°49′34″W / 21.30889°N 157.82611°W / 21.30889; -157.82611Coordinates: 21°18′32″N 157°49′34″W / 21.30889°N 157.82611°W / 21.30889; -157.82611
Country United States United States
State  Hawaii
County Honolulu
 - CDP 105 sq mi (272.1 km2)
 - Land 85.7 sq mi (222.0 km2)
 - Water 19.3 sq mi (50.1 km2)
Elevation 0 ft (Sea Level 0 m)
Population (2000)
 - CDP 371,657
 - Estimate (July 2006[1]) 377,357
 Metro 909,863
Time zone Hawaii-Aleutian Standard Time (UTC-10)
Zip Code 96801-96825
Area code(s) 808
FIPS code 15-17000
GNIS feature ID 0366212

Honolulu is the capital of and the most populous census-designated place (CDP) in the U.S. state of Hawaii. Although Honolulu refers to the urban area on the southeastern shore of the island of Oahu, the city and the county are consolidated, known as the City and County of Honolulu, and the city and county is designated as the entire island. The City and County of Honolulu is the only incorporated city in Hawaii, as all other local government entities are administered at the county level. The population of the CDP was 371,657 at the 2000 census, while the population of the City and County was 909,863. In the Hawaiian language, Honolulu means "sheltered bay" or "place of shelter."



View of Honolulu Fort - Interior, c. 1853, painting by Paul Emmert

Evidence of the first settlement of Honolulu by the original Polynesian migrants to the archipelago comes from oral histories and artifacts. These indicate that there was a settlement where Honolulu now stands in the 12th century.[citation needed] However, after Kamehameha I conquered Oʻahu in the Battle of Nuʻuanu at Nuʻuanu Pali, he moved his royal court from the Island of Hawaiʻi to Waikīkī in 1804. His court later relocated, in 1809, to what is now downtown Honolulu.[citation needed]

In 1795, Captain William Brown of Great Britain was the first foreigner to sail into what is now Honolulu Harbor.[citation needed] More foreign ships would follow, making the port of Honolulu a focal point for merchant ships traveling between North America and Asia.[citation needed]

Queen Street, Honolulu, 1856, by George Henry Burgess
Upper Fort Street, Honolulu, 1867, by George Henry Burgess

In 1845, Kamehameha III moved the permanent capital of the Hawaiian Kingdom from Lahaina on Maui to Honolulu. He and the kings that followed him transformed Honolulu into a modern capital[citation needed], erecting buildings such as St. Andrew's Cathedral, ʻIolani Palace, and Aliʻiōlani Hale. At the same time, Honolulu became the center of commerce in the Islands, with descendants of American missionaries establishing major businesses in downtown Honolulu.[citation needed]

Despite the turbulent history of the late 19th century and early 20th century, which saw the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, Hawaiʻi's subsequent annexation by the United States, and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Honolulu would remain the capital, largest city, and main airport and seaport of the Hawaiian Islands.[citation needed]

An economic and tourism boom following statehood brought rapid economic growth to Honolulu and Hawaiʻi. Modern air travel would bring thousands and, as of 2007, 7.6 million visitors annually to the Islands.[2] Of these, about 62.3% in 2007 entered the state at Honolulu International Airport. Today, Honolulu is a modern city with numerous high-rise buildings, and Waikīkī is the center of the tourism industry in Hawaiʻi, with thousands of hotel rooms. The UK consulting firm Mercer, in a 2009 assessment "conducted to help governments and major companies place employees on international assignments", ranked Honolulu 29th worldwide in quality of living; the survey factored in political stability, personal freedom, sanitation, crime, housing, the natural environment, recreation, banking facilities, availability of consumer goods, education, and public services including transportation.[3]


Great Honolulu Chinatown Fire of 1900

Great Honolulu Chinatown Fire of 1900
Location Honolulu, Hawaii
Date January 20-February 6, 1900
Burned area 38 acres
Land use urban
Fatalities 40 (all from plague)

Witnesses said that a batch of bubonic plague was introduced to Honolulu on October 20, 1899 by an off loaded shipment of rice which had been carrying rats from the America Maru. At that time, Chinatown’s residences were in close proximity to each other were subject to poor living standards and sewage disposal. Plague infected 11 people. The response by the Board of Health included incinerating garbage, renovating the sewer system, putting Chinatown under quarantine, and most of all burning infected buildings. 41 fires were set, but on January 20, 1900 winds picked up and the fire spread to other buildings which was undesired.[4] The runaway fire burned for seventeen days and scorched 38 acres (15 Ha) of Honolulu. The fire campaign continued for another 31 controlled burns after the incident. The 7,000 homeless residents were housed in detention camps to maintain the quarantine until April 30. A total of 40 people died of the plague.

Wo Fat Building is an example of post-fire architecture, built 1900 after the fire

Critics accused the government of being driven by Sinophobia; regardless of the fire most likely being an accident, an exodus occurred. While the people rebuilt, they began to live in suburbs while continuing to work in Chinatown, to avoid going homeless if another disaster occurred. In addition the post-fire architecture began using masonry rather than wood, since the stone and brick buildings proved much more fire resistant during the fire.


Honolulu is located at 21°18′32″N 157°49′34″W / 21.30889°N 157.82611°W / 21.30889; -157.82611 (21.308950, -157.826182).[5]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 105.1 sq mi (272 km2). 85.7 sq mi (222 km2) of it is land and 19.4 sq mi (50 km2) of it (18.42%) is water.

The closest location on the mainland to Honolulu is the Point Arena, California Lighthouse, at 2,045 nautical miles (2,353 statute miles) or 3,787 kilometers.[6] (Nautical vessels require some additional distance to circumnavigate Makapu'u Point.) However, part of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska are slightly closer than California.


Honolulu is in a Wet and Dry Tropical zone (Köppen classification As) with a dry summer season. Nonetheless, its annual precipitation is low, bordering on a semi-arid climate, and the city receives plenty of sunshine throughout the year.[7] Despite its location in the tropics, the climate (temperature, precipitation and humidity) is moderated by Hawaii's mid-ocean location.

Temperatures vary little throughout the months, with average high temperatures of 80-89°F (27-32°C) and lows of 65-75°F (19-24°C) throughout the year. Temperatures rarely exceed 90's°F (32°C), with lows in the upper-50's°F (~15°C) occurring once or twice a year. Waters off the coast of Honolulu average 82°F (27°C) in the summer months and 77°F (25°C) in the winter months.[8]

Annual average precipitation is 18.3 inches (460 mm), which mainly occurs during the winter months of October through March, with very little rainfall during the summer. Honolulu has an average of 270 sunny days and 98 wet days a year.[9]

Climate data for Honolulu
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 88
Average high °F (°C) 80.4
Daily mean °F (°C) 73.0
Average low °F (°C) 65.7
Record low °F (°C) 52
Precipitation inches (mm) 2.73
Avg. precipitation days 8.8 7.9 9.0 8.6 7.3 5.8 7.2 5.4 6.9 7.3 9.1 9.7 93
Source: The Weather Channel[10] September 2008


Completed in 1928, Honolulu Hale is the city and county seat

The municipal offices of the City and County of Honolulu, including Honolulu Hale, the seat of the city and county, are located in the census-designated place.[11] The Hawaii state government buildings are also located in the CDP.

The Honolulu District is located on the southeast coast of Oahu between Makapuu and Halawa. The district boundary follows the Koolau crestline, so Makapuu Beach is in the Koolaupoko District. On the west, the district boundary follows Halawa Stream, then crosses Red Hill and runs just west of Aliamanu Crater, so that Aloha Stadium, Pearl Harbor (with the USS Arizona Memorial), and Hickam Air Force Base are actually all located in the island's Ewa District.

The United States Postal Service operates post offices in Honolulu CDP. The main Honolulu Post Office is located by the international airport at 3600 Aolele Street.[12] Federal Detention Center, Honolulu, operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, is in the CDP.[13]

Diplomatic missions

Several countries have diplomatic facilities in Honolulu CDP in the City and County of Honolulu. The Consulate-General of Japan in Honolulu is located at 1742 Nuuanu Avenue.[14] The Consulate-General of South Korea in Honolulu is located at 2756 Pali Highway.[15] The Consulate-General of the Philippines in Honolulu is located at 2433 Pali Highway.[16] The Consulate-General of the Federated States of Micronesia in Honolulu is located in Suite 908 at 3049 Ualena Street.[17] The Consulate-General of Australia in Honolulu is located in the penthouse of 1000 Bishop Street.[18] The Consulate-General of the Marshall Islands in Honolulu is located in Suite 301 at 1888 Lusitana Street.[19]


Panorama of Honolulu's waterfront.

Most of the city's commercial and industrial developments are located on a narrow but relatively flat coastal plain, while numerous ridges and valleys located inland of the coastal plain divide Honolulu's residential areas into distinct neighborhoods: some spread along valley floors (like Manoa in Manoa Valley) and others climb the interfluvial ridges. Within Honolulu proper can be found several volcanic cones: Punchbowl, Diamond Head, Koko Head (includes Hanauma Bay), Koko Crater, Salt Lake, and Aliamanu being the most conspicuous.


View of downtown from Punchbowl Crater
Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station
Downtown at Bishop and King streets, with First Hawaiian Center building (left) and Bank of Hawaii (right)
  • Downtown Honolulu is the financial, commercial, and governmental center of Hawaii. On the waterfront is Aloha Tower, which for many years was the tallest building in Hawaii. Currently the tallest building is the 438-foot (134 m)-tall First Hawaiian Center, located on King and Bishop Streets. The downtown campus of Hawaii Pacific University is also located there.
  • The Arts District Honolulu in downtown/Chinatown is on the eastern edge of Chinatown. It is a 12-block area bounded by Bethel & Smith Streets and Nimitz Highway and Beretania Street - home to numerous arts and cultural institutions. It is located within the Chinatown Historic District.[20]
  • The Capitol District is the eastern part of Downtown Honolulu. It is the current and historic center of Hawaii's state government, incorporating the Hawaii State Capitol, Iolani Palace, Honolulu Hale (City Hall), State Library, and the statue of King Kamehameha I, along with numerous government buildings.
  • Kakaʻako is a light-industrial district between Downtown and Waikīkī that has seen a large-scale redevelopment effort in the past decade. It is home to two major shopping areas, Ward Warehouse and Ward Centre. The John A. Burns School of Medicine, part of the University of Hawaiʻi at Manoa is also located there. A Memorial to the Ehime Maru Incident victims is built at Kakaako Waterfront Park.
  • Waikīkī is the world-famous tourist district of Honolulu, located between the Ala Wai Canal and the Pacific Ocean next to Diamond Head. Numerous hotels, shops, and nightlife opportunities are located along Kalakaua and Kuhio Avenues. Waikīkī Beach attracts millions of visitors a year. Just west of Waikīkī is Ala Moana Center, the world's largest open-air shopping center[citation needed]. A majority of the hotel rooms on Oahu are located in Waikīkī.
  • Manoa and Makiki are residential neighborhoods located in adjacent valleys just inland of downtown and Waikīkī. Manoa Valley is home to the main campus of the University of Hawaiʻi. President Barack Obama lived in Makiki with his maternal grandparents until graduating from Punahou School, apart from four years in Indonesia with his mother and stepfather.
  • Nuʻuanu and Pauoa are upper-middle-class residential districts located inland of downtown Honolulu. The National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific is located in Punchbowl Crater fronting Pauoa Valley.
  • Palolo and Kaimuki are neighborhoods east of Manoa and Makiki, inland from Diamond Head. Palolo Valley parallels Manoa and is a residential neighborhood. Kaimuki is primarily a residential neighborhood with a commercial strip centered on Waialae Avenue running behind Diamond Head. Chaminade University is located in Kaimuki.
  • Waialae and Kahala are upper-class districts of Honolulu located directly east of Diamond Head, where there are many high-priced homes. Also found in these neighborhoods are the Waialae Country Club and The Kahala Hotel & Resort.
  • East Honolulu includes the residential communities of ʻĀina Haina, Niu Valley, and Hawaiʻi Kai. These are considered upper-middle-class neighborhoods. The upscale gated communities of Waiʻalae ʻiki and Hawaiʻi Loa Ridge are also located here.
  • Kalihi and Palama are working-class neighborhoods with a number of government housing developments. Lower Kalihi, toward the ocean, is a light-industrial district.
  • Salt Lake and Aliamanu are (mostly) residential areas built in extinct tuff cones along the western end of the Honolulu District, not far from the Honolulu International Airport.
  • Moanalua is two neighborhoods and a valley at the western end of Honolulu, and home to Tripler Army Medical Center.


State of Hawaii's Capitol building

As of the census[21] of 2000, there were 371,657 people, 140,337 households, and 87,429 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 4,336.6 people per square mile (1,674.4/km2). There were 158,663 housing units at an average density of 1,851.3/sq mi (714.8/km2). The racial makeup of the CDP was 19.67% White, 1.62% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 55.85% Asian, 6.85% Pacific Islander, 0.89% from other races; and 14.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.37% of the population.

There were 140,337 households out of which 23.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.5% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.7% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size is 3.23.

In the CDP the population was spread out with 19.2% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.5 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $45,112, and the median income for a family was $56,311. Males had a median income of $36,631 versus $29,930 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $24,191. About 7.9% of families and 11.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.6% of those under the age of 18 and 8.5% of those 65 and older.

As of the 2008 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, White Americans made up 22.2% of Honolulu's population; of which 20.5% were non-Hispanic whites. Blacks or African Americans made up 2.3% of Honolulu's population; of which 2.2% were non-Hispanic blacks. American Indians made up 0.2% of Honolulu's population; of which 0.1% were non-Hispanic. Asian Americans made up 52.3% of Honolulu's population; of which 51.6% were non-Hispanic. Pacific Islander Americans made up 5.9% of Honolulu's population. Individuals from some other race made up 0.8% of the city's population; of which 0.2% were non-Hispanic. Individuals from two or more races made up 16.3% of the city's population; of which 15.0% were non-Hispanic. In addition, Hispanics and Latinos made up 4.5% of Honolulu's population.[22]


Go! Mokulele,[23] Hawaiian Airlines,[24] Island Air,[25] and Aloha Air Cargo are headquartered in the CDP.[26][27] Prior to its dissolution, Aloha Airlines was headquartered in the CDP.[28]


Honolulu International Airport reef runway
Aerial view of H-1 (looking east) from Honolulu Airport heading into downtown Honolulu


Located on the western end of the CDP, Honolulu International Airport (HNL) is the principal aviation gateway to the state of Hawaii. Kalaeloa Airport is primarily a commuter facility used by unscheduled air taxis, general aviation and transient and locally-based military aircraft.


Honolulu has the nation’s second highest metropolitan travel time during peak commute hours, second from Los Angeles. The following freeways, part of the Interstate Highway System serve Honolulu:

Other major highways that link Honolulu proper with other parts of the Island of Oahu are:

Like most major American cities, the Honolulu metropolitan area experiences heavy traffic congestion during rush hours, especially to and from the western suburbs of Kapolei, Ewa, Aiea, Pearl City, Waipahu, and Mililani.

There is a Hawaii Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project (HEVDP).[29]

Public transportation


Established by former Mayor Frank F. Fasi, Honolulu's TheBus system has been twice honored by the American Public Transportation Association bestowing the title of "America's Best Transit System" for 1994–1995 and 2000–2001. TheBus operates 107 routes serving Honolulu and outlying areas on Oahu with a fleet of 531 buses, and is run by the non-profit corporation Oahu Transit Services in conjunction with the city Department of Transportation Services. Honolulu is ranked 4th for highest per-capita use of mass transit in the United States.[30]

A ferry linked to TheBus began service in September 2007 known as TheBoat. Fare for TheBoat is $2.00, and ran from Barber's Point to Aloha Tower Marketplace daily. But on July 1, 2009, TheBoat service was discontinued.[31]


Currently, there is no urban rail transit system (whether a subway/elevated line or suburban commuter trains) in Honolulu. Electric street railways were once used during the early days of Honolulu's history. The first major attempt to establish a rapid transit line was called the Honolulu Area Rail Rapid Transit (HART) project. Originally proposed in 1968 by Mayor Neal S. Blaisdell and supported by his successor, Frank Fasi, HART was originally envisioned as a 29-mile (47 km) line from Pearl City to Hawaii Kai. By 1980, however, the project's length had been shorten to just an 8-mile (13 km) segment between the University of Hawaii at Manoa and Honolulu International Airport.

In the wake of proposed budget cuts by President Ronald Reagan, newly elected Mayor Eileen Anderson cancelled the project in 1981 and returned grants and funding to their sources,[32][33] arguing the project would break her vow of fiscal responsibility.[34][35]

After defeating Anderson in 1984 to regain the mayorship, Fasi started plans to revive the HART project. Funding avenues that Fasi explored included a substantial (66 percent) increase in the gasoline tax and diversion of money earmarked for then-stalled Interstate H-3 to be used for the project. In 1990, Governor John Waihee proposed allowing counties to collect a 0.5% increase in the excise tax to be used for transportation projects, and the state legislature approved the plan in May 1990. The counties would have until October 1, 1992 to enact the increase.

In October 1991, the Fasi administration chose Oahu Transit Group to develop the rail line, which was based on cars by AEG Westinghouse similar to those used in the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit system. The U.S. House amended a transit bill to include $618 million for Honolulu's project, about one-third of the cost, and the Council in November entered into a joint funding agreement with the state.

On September 23, 1992, the city council voted 5-4 against enacting the tax increase, which effectively destroyed the project. Fasi made unsuccessful attempts to have a rail referendum (which was struck down by the courts), and to have private investors fund part of the line. The House revoked funding for the project on May 11, 1993, citing lack of guaranteed local funding.

In 2005, under the administration of Mufi Hannemann, the city, county and state approved development of an action plan for a unspecific rapid transit system, known as the "Honolulu High-Capacity Transit Corridor Project", to be built in several phases. The initial line proposed linking Kapolei in West Oahu to the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Then on December 22, 2006 the city council approved a fixed-guideway system meant to accommodate a rapid transit system of rail or buses, running from Kapolei in West Oahu to Ala Moana, with spurs into Waikiki and Manoa.[36]

Opponents of the proposed rail system attempted to place a measure on the Honolulu ballot which would have prohibited any rail system from being used, but failed to gather the required signatures in time. In response, the Honolulu City Council voted to put a question on the Honolulu ballot which would direct the city transportation department to create a steel-wheel-on-steel-rail transit system.

On November 4, 2008, the residents of Honolulu voted to allow the process of developing the rail project to continue. The trains will be approximately 200 feet (61 m) long, electric, steel wheel to steel rail technology and will capable of carrying more than 300 passengers each.[37][38] The measure passed with 52% of the vote.[39]

The line is scheduled to open in five phases between 2012 and 2018:[40]

The rail line, as currently planned, will be built starting from suburban areas in Kapolei and Ewa, and progressing towards the urban center in Honolulu. This is because the first phase includes a baseyard for trains, and a planning decision by the city to delay the major infrastructure impacts associated with construction in the urban center to later phases of the project.[41]

Cultural institutions

With symbolic native-styled architectural features, First Hawaiian Center is the tallest building in Hawaii and home to one of two Contemporary Museum galleries

Performing arts

Established in 1900, the Honolulu Symphony is the oldest US symphony orchestra west of the Rocky Mountains. Other classical music ensembles include the Hawaii Opera Theatre. Honolulu is also a center for Hawaiian music. The main music venues include the Neal Blaisdell Center Concert Hall, the Waikiki Shell, and the Hawaii Theatre.

Honolulu also includes several venues for live theater, including the Diamond Head Theatre.

Visual arts

There are various institutions supported by the state and private entities for the advancement of the visual arts. The Honolulu Academy of Arts is endowed with the largest collection of Asian and Western art in Hawaii. It also has the largest collection of Islamic art, housed at the Shangri La estate. The academy hosts a film and video program dedicated to arthouse and world cinema in the museum's Doris Duke Theatre, named for the academy's historic patroness Doris Duke.

The Contemporary Museum is the only contemporary art museum in the state. It has two locations: main campus in Makiki and a multi-level gallery in downtown Honolulu at the First Hawaiian Center.

The Hawaii State Art Museum is also located in downtown Honolulu at No. 1 Capitol District Building and boasts a collection of art pieces created by local artists as well as traditional Hawaiian art. The museum is administered by the Hawaii State Foundation on Culture and the Arts.

Natural museums

The Bishop Museum is the largest of Honolulu's museums. It is endowed with the state's largest collection of natural history specimens and the world's largest collection of Hawaiiana and Pacific culture artifacts.[citation needed] The Honolulu Zoo is the main zoological institution in Hawaii while the Waikiki Aquarium is a working marine biology laboratory. The Waikiki Aquarium is partnered with the University of Hawaii and other universities worldwide. Established for appreciation and botany, Honolulu is home to several gardens: Foster Botanical Garden, Liliuokalani Botanical Garden, Walker Estate, among others.


Honolulu's climate lends itself to year-round fitness activities. In 2004, Men's Fitness magazine named Honolulu the fittest city in the United States.[42] Honolulu is also home to three large road races:

Ironman Hawaii was first held in Honolulu, it was the first ever Ironman and is also the World Champs.

Fans of spectator sports in Honolulu generally support the football, volleyball, basketball, and baseball programs of the University of Hawaii at Manoa.[citation needed] High school sporting events, especially football, are especially popular.

Honolulu has no professional sports teams. It was the home of the Hawaii Islanders (Pacific Coast League, 1961–1987), The Hawaiians (World Football League, 1974–1975), Team Hawaii (North American Soccer League, 1977), and the Hawaiian Islanders (af2, 2002–2004).

The NCAA football Hawaii Bowl is played in Honolulu. Honolulu has also hosted the NFL's annual Pro Bowl each February since 1980, though the 2010 Pro Bowl was played in Miami.[43] From 1993 to 2008, Honolulu hosted Hawaii Winter Baseball, featuring minor league players from Major League Baseball, Nippon Professional Baseball, Korea Baseball Organization, and independent leagues.


Venues for spectator sports in Honolulu include:

Aloha Stadium, a venue for American football and soccer (football), is located in the Halawa CDP.[44]


Honolulu is served by two daily newspapers, Honolulu Magazine, several radio stations and television stations, among other media.

Tourist attractions

See also Oahu tourist attractions
See also Sites related to President Obama in Honolulu


Colleges and universities

Colleges and universities in the Honolulu CDP include Honolulu Community College, Kapiolani Community College, the University of Hawaii at Manoa, Chaminade University, and Hawaii Pacific University.[27]

Primary and secondary schools

Hawaii Department of Education operates public schools in Honolulu. Public high schools within the CDP include Wallace Rider Farrington, Kaimuki, Kalani, Moanalua, William McKinley, and Theodore Roosevelt.[27]

Private schools such as Hawaii Baptist Academy, Iolani School, Kamehameha Schools, Mid-Pacific Institute, and Punahou School also exist.

Public libraries

Hawaii State Public Library System operates public libraries. The Hawaii State Library in the CDP serves as the main library of the system,[45] while the Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, also in the CDP, serves handicapped and blind people.[46]

Branches in the CDP include Aina Haina,[47] Hawaii Kai,[48] Kaimuki,[49] Kalihi-Palama,[50] Manoa,[51] McCully,[52] Salt Lake-Moanalua,[53] and Waikiki.[54]


  1. ^ http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/15/1517000.html
  2. ^ "2007 Annual Visitor Research Report". Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, State of Hawaii. 1 July 2008. http://hawaii.gov/dbedt/info/visitor-stats/visitor-research/2007-annual-research.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-30. 
  3. ^ "Quality of Living global city rankings 2009 – Mercer survey". Mercer. 28 April 2009. http://www.mercer.com/referencecontent.htm?idContent=1173105. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  4. ^ www.hawaiiforvisitors.com
  5. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  6. ^ Microsoft Streets and Trips 2007 Software, Copyright 2006 by Microsoft Corp. et al. Kilometers converted to nautical and statute miles by figures given in The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2007, Copyright World Alamnac Education Group, p.350-353
  7. ^ "Monthly Averages for Honolulu, HI". Weather.com. http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/USHI0026. Retrieved 2008-11-07. 
  8. ^ www.weather.com
  9. ^ http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=28119&refer=&units=us
  10. ^ "Monthly Averages for Honolulu, HI". The Weather Channel. 2008. http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USHI0026?from=36hr_bottomnav_undeclared. Retrieved 2008-09-19. 
  11. ^ www.honolulu.gov
  12. ^ "Post Office Location - HONOLULU." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 21, 2009.
  13. ^ "FDC Honolulu Contact Information." Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved on December 30, 2009.
  14. ^ "Visa & Travel." Consulate-General of Japan in Honolulu. Accessed August 17, 2008.
  15. ^ "Location." Consulate-General of South Korea in Honolulu. Retrieved on January 10, 2009.
  16. ^ "Other Philippine Missions in the U.S.." Consulate-General of the Philippines in Chicago. Retrieved on January 10, 2009.
  17. ^ "Department of Foreign Affairs, Overseas Embassies, Consulates, and Missions." Department of Foreign Affairs (Federated States of Micronesia). Retrieved on January 10, 2009.
  18. ^ "Australian Consulate-General in Honolulu, United States of America." Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved on January 10, 2009.
  19. ^ "Foreign Mission." Republic of the Marshall Islands. Retrieved on January 28, 2009.
  20. ^ http://www.artsdistricthonolulu.com/
  21. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  22. ^ http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=31200US261801517000&-qr_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_DP5&-context=adp&-ds_name=&-tree_id=308&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-format=
  23. ^ "Contact Us." Mesa Air Group. Retrieved on February 23, 2010.
  24. ^ "Corporate Headquarters." Hawaiian Airlines. Retrieved on May 20, 2009.
  25. ^ "Contact Information." Island Air. Retrieved on May 20, 2009.
  26. ^ "Locations." Aloha Air Cargo. Retrieved on May 21, 2009.
  27. ^ a b c "Honolulu CDP, HI." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on May 21, 2009.
  28. ^ "Aloha Airlines, Inc." BusinessWeek. Retrieved on May 21, 2009.
  29. ^ "Hawaii Center for Advanced Transportation Technologies". High Technology Development Corporation. http://www.htdc.org/programsservices/hcatt.html. Retrieved 2009-11-13. 
  30. ^ National Transit Database, Top Transit Cities (2006)
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