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Coordinates: 51°33′23″N 0°12′46″E / 51.556503°N 0.212812°E / 51.556503; 0.212812

Hornchurch
Langtons house london.jpg
Langtons House
Hornchurch is located in Greater London
Hornchurch

 Hornchurch shown within Greater London
Population 25,470 (Hacton and St Andrew's wards 2007)[1]
OS grid reference TQ535865
    - Charing Cross 15.2 mi (24.5 km)  WSW
London borough Havering
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region London
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town HORNCHURCH
Postcode district RM11, RM12
Dialling code 01708
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
EU Parliament London
UK Parliament Hornchurch
London Assembly Havering and Redbridge
List of places: UK • England • London

Hornchurch is a suburban town in northeast London, England and part of the London Borough of Havering. It is located 15.2 miles (24.5 km) east northeast of Charing Cross and is one of the locally important district centres identified in the London Plan.[2] It comprises a number of shopping streets and a large residential area. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century, Hornchurch significantly expanded and increased in population, becoming an urban district in 1926 and has formed part of Greater London since 1965.[3] It is the location of Queen's Theatre and Havering Sixth Form College.

Contents

History

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Toponomy

Hornchurch is an Anglicised version of the Latin Monasterium Cornutum, a term that was also applied to the mother Abbey in Savoy. The earliest recorded use here was in 1222, meaning 'church with horn-like gables' and it was recorded as Hornechurch in 1233. The horned bull's head mounted on the eastern end of St Andrew's Church, near the town centre dates from much later; around the 18th Century.

Havering liberty in 1881. (1. Romford, 2. Havering-atte-Bower, 3. Hornchurch)

Origins

Stone Age tools, Bronze age and Iron age artefacts have been discovered in Hornchurch, indicating a lengthy occupation in pre-history. Roman remains, sufficient to indicate a settlement have also been found in South Hornchurch.[4] Historically, the parish was conterminous with the Royal Manor and Liberty of Havering-atte-Bower,[5] with Hornchurch village - then known as Suttons Manor, located in the south of the area. From the time of Edward the Confessor, the land was in Royal ownership - passing to William the Conqueror at the conquest. In 1086, the name Havering was applied to the entire district.[4]

Hornchurch originates from around the 12th century when Henry II gave 1,500 acres (6.1 km2) to the hospice of St Nicholas and St Bernard, Mountjoux, in Savoy as a gift.[4] A prosperous priory and church were established in Hornchurch, near the parish church, but the monks were forced out during the 14th century when a new law banned foreign land ownership. The lands were then given to Lord Chancellor William of Wykeham who made major renovations to the church. He subsequently gave Hornchurch to endow New College, Oxford, which still owns all the local church lands and buildings. Due to this, Saint Andrew's church was not adopted into the Diocese of Chelmsford until agreement was reached in the 1930s. The parish remains staffed by a Vicar temporal and his curates.

Modern history

During World War I and World War II nearby Hornchurch Airfield was an important RAF station; it was known as RAF Suttons Farm during WWI, with its HQ as far away as Upminster Hall. During WWII, the airfield was known as RAF Hornchurch, and was home mostly to a number of Spitfire squadrons, with an advanced sub-station at Rayleigh. The land has since been reused for a large housing development and Hornchurch Country Park.

Like most suburbs of London, Hornchurch had been entirely rural until the arrival of the railway which spurred huge property development during the early 1900s. Whole estates were constructed such as Emerson Park to the north. Development was fuelled further by the arrival of the electrified District Line during the 1930s with inter and post war housing developments south and west of Hornchurch in places such as Elm Park. Hornchurch Urban District was formed in 1926 from part of Romford Rural District. In 1934 it was enlarged to include Upminster, Cranham, and North Ockendon although none are today considered part of Hornchurch. The council offices were located at Langtons until 1965 when the present-day London Borough of Havering was formed. A.F.C. Hornchurch are the local football team, formed to replace Hornchurch F.C. with Havering Hockey Club (formerly Hornchurch Hockey Club) accommodating the field hockey fixtures from their Harrow Lodge Park base.

Economy

Hornchurch is identified in the London Plan as a "district centre", with few well known High Street names other than banks and a supermarket, with some small independent or specialist businesses and a growing number of restaurants and bars. The town centre competes mostly with nearby Romford and the out-of-town shopping centres of Lakeside and Bluewater.

Geography

The River Ingrebourne forms the boundary with Upminster to the east. Hornchurch borders Romford to the north west and Rainham to the south.

Demography

The Havering committee area for Hornchurch is defined as the wards of Hacton and St Andrew's.[6]

Transport

Fairkytes Arts Centre

There are no stations in central Hornchurch, however four stations are located within the town; Upminster Bridge tube station is located just within its eastern boundary, Hornchurch tube station is located about a half-mile south of the high street, Elm Park tube station is about a mile and a half to the south west and Emerson Park railway station is located about a half-mile to the north. The nearest main line railway station is at Upminster.

Hornchurch is served by the following Transport for London contracted London Bus routes: 165, 193, 248, 252, 256, 365, 370 and 372.

Education

References

  1. ^ "Mid-2007 Population Estimates for 2007 Wards in England". Office for National Statistics. 2009. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/statbase/Product.asp?vlnk=13893. Retrieved 2009-11-04.  
  2. ^ Mayor of London (May 2006). "The London Plan: East London Sub Regional Development Framework". Greater London Authority. http://www.london.gov.uk/mayor/planning/srdf/docs/east-srdf.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-19.  
  3. ^ Young, K. & Garside, P., (1982). Metropolitan London: Politics and Urban Change 1837-1981.  
  4. ^ a b c Hornchurch: Introduction, A History of the County of Essex: Volume 7 (1978), pp. 25-31. accessed: 10 June 2008
  5. ^ Vision of Britain - Havering atte Bower liberty
  6. ^ Hornchurch Area Committee (2009). "Hornchurch Area Committee (Hacton and St. Andrew’s Wards) Agenda". Havering London Borough Council. http://www.havering.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=19408&p=0.  

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