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Horst Schumann
May 1, 1906(1906-05-01) – May 5, 1983 (aged 77)
Place of birth Halle an der Saale, Kingdom of Prussia
Place of death Frankfurt am Main, West Germany
Allegiance  Nazi Germany
Service/branch Balkenkreuz.svg Luftwaffe
Flag Schutzstaffel.svg Schutzstaffel
Years of service 1939-1945
Rank SS-SturmbannfĂĽhrer
Unit Auschwitz

Dr. Horst Schumann (1 May 1906 - 5 May 1983), SS-SturmbannfĂĽhrer (Major), participated in sterilization and castration experiments at Auschwitz and was particularly interested in the mass sterilization of Jews by means of X-rays.

Contents

Early life

Schumann was born on 1 May 1906 in Halle an der Saale. His father Paul Schumann was also a doctor. Schumann entered the NSDAP in 1930 and joined the SA in 1932. In 1933, he received his medical degree after producing a thesis entitled "Frage der Jodresorption und der therapeutischen Wirkung sog. Jodbäder" ("The Question of Iodine Absorption and the Therapeutic Effects of so-called Iodine Baths"). He started his career as an assistant doctor in the Surgical Clinic of the clinic of Halle University.

Nazi Doctor

From 1934, Schumann was employed in the Public Health Office in Halle. He was recruited to the air force as a physician in 1939. He joined the Aktion T4 Euthanasia program in early October 1939, after a meeting with Dr. Viktor Brack in Hitler's chancellery. In January 1940, Schumann became head of the Grafeneck euthanasia centre in Wurttemberg, where mentally ill people were gassed with carbon monoxide in the first gas chamber. In the early summer of 1940 he was ordered to the Sonnenstein euthanasia centre. Schumann also belonged to a commission of doctors, the famous "Action 14 f 13", who transferred weak and sick prisoners from Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Dachau, FlossenbĂĽrg, Gross-Rosen, Mauthausen, Neuengamme and Niederhangen concentration camps to the euthanasia killing centers.

Auschwitz

Remains of the building at Auschwitz II (Birkenau) where Schuman committed his medical atrocities.

On 28 July 1941, Schumann arrived in Auschwitz. He worked at Block 30 in the women's hospital, where he set up an x-ray station in 1942. Here men and women were forcibly sterilized by being positioned repeatedly for several minutes between two x-ray machines, the rays aiming at their sexual organs. Most subjects died after great suffering, or were gassed immediately because the radiation burns from which they suffered rendered them unfit for work. Men's testicles were removed and sent to Breslau for histopathological examination. Schumann "...chose his test persons himself. They were always young, healthy, good-looking Jewish men, women and girls who looked like old people afterwards. The parts of the body that were treated with the rays were burnt, suppurating. Often the intestines were also affected. Many died. Part of Schumann's control tests, to check whether the radiation had worked, was the so-called semen check: a stick covered with a rubber hose was inserted into the rectum of the victim and the glands stimulated until ejaculation occurred so that the ejaculate could be tested for sperm..." (Klee, 53) Both kinds of samples were sent to the University of Breslau (today Wrocław) for examination.

Schumann also performed typhus experiments by injecting people with blood from typhus patients and then attempting to cure the newly infected subjects. Schumann left Auschwitz in September 1944 and was appointed to the Sonnenstein Clinic in Saxony which had earlier been converted into a military hospital.

While serving as a military doctor on the Western Front he was captured by the Americans in January 1945. He was released from captivity in October 1945. In April 1946 he began to work as a sports doctor for the city of Gladbeck. An application for a license for a hunting gun led to his being identified in 1951 so the GDR issued an arrest warrant. According to his own statement, Schumann served as a ship’s doctor for 3 years and because he did not have a German passport, he applied for one in Japan in 1954 and received it under his own name. Schumann then fled, first to Egypt and eventually settled in Khartoum in the Sudan as head of a hospital. He was forced to flee from Sudan in 1962 after being recognised by an Auschwitz survivor. Then he went to Ghana, where he received the protection of the head of state, Kwame Nkrumah.

In 1966, he was extradited from Ghana to West Germany where the trial against him was opened in Frankfurt on 23 September 1970. However, Schumann was released from prison on 29 July 1972 due to his heart condition and generally deteriorating health. However, he did not die until 5 May 1983, eleven years after he had been released. As Robert Jay Lifton has observed "...Schumann has great importance for us because of what he did — intense involvement in both direct medical killing and unusually brutal Auschwitz experiments — and what he was — an ordinary, but highly Nazified man and doctor..." (p.284).

See also

References

  • Dr. Robert J. Lifton, (1986) THE NAZI DOCTORS:Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. New York: Basic Books.
  • Klee, Ernst.

"Turning the tap on was no big deal" , (1990) -The gassing doctors during the Nazi period and afterwards, Dachau Review 2, History of Nazi Concentration Camps, Studies, Reports, Documents, Volume 2. edited by Wolfgang Benz and Barbara Distel, published for the Comite International de Dachau, Brussels. Verlag Dachauer Hefte, Alte Roemerstrasse 75, 8060 Dachau.

  • Klodzinski, Stanislaw: "Sterilisation und Kastration durch Röntgenstrahlen im Auschwitz-Lager. Verbrechen Horst Schumann" in Internationales Auschwitz-Komitee (Hrsg.) "Unmenschliche Medizin" Anthologie, Bd. 1, Teil 2, Warschau 1969.
  • Mitscherlich, Alexander/Mielke, Fred: "Medizin ohne Menschlichkeit", Frankfurt a. M. 1978, [ISBN 3-596-22003-3]

External links








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