Horticulture is the industry and science of plant cultivation including the process of preparing soil for the planting of seeds, tubers, or cuttings. Horticulturists work and conduct research in the disciplines of plant propagation and cultivation, crop production, plant breeding and genetic engineering, plant biochemistry, and plant physiology. The work particularly involves fruits, berries, nuts, vegetables, flowers, trees, shrubs, and turf. Horticulturists work to improve crop yield, quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects, diseases, and environmental stresses. Horticulture usually refers to gardening on a smaller scale, while agriculture refers to the large-scale cultivation of crops. The word is composite, from two words, horti, meaning grass, originating in the Greek χορτον, meaning the same (grass) and the word culture.
Horticulture involves 8 areas of study, which can be grouped into two broad sections - ornamentals and edibles:
Horticulturists can work in industry, government or educational institutions or private collections. They can be cropping systems engineers, wholesale or retail business managers, propagators and tissue culture specialists (fruits, vegetables, ornamentals, and turf), crop inspectors, crop production advisers, extension specialists, plant breeders, research scientists, and of course, teachers.
Disciplines which complement horticulture include biology, botany, entomology, chemistry, mathematics, genetics, physiology, statistics, computer science, and communications, garden design, planting design. Plant science and horticulture courses include: plant materials, plant propagation, tissue culture, crop production, post-harvest handling, plant breeding, pollination management, crop nutrition, entomology, plant pathology, economics, and business. Some careers in horticultural science require a masters (MS) or doctoral (PhD) degree.
Horticulture is practiced in many gardens, "plant growth centres" and nurseries. Activities in nurseries range from preparing seeds and cuttings to growing fully mature plants. These are often sold or transferred to ornamental gardens or market gardens.
Horticulture has a very long history. The study and science of horticulture dates all the way back to the times of Alexander the Great, and has been going on ever since, with present day horticulturists such as Freeman S. Howlett, the revolutionary horticulturist.  The origins of horticulture lie in the transition of human communities from nomadic hunter-gatherers to sedentary or semi-sedentary horticultural communities, cultivating a variety of crops on a small scale around their dwellings or in specialized plots visited occasionally during migrations from one area to the next. (such as the "milpa" or maize field of Mesoamerican cultures). In forest areas such horticulture is often carried out in swiddens ("slash and burn" areas). A characteristic of horticultural communities is that useful trees are often to be found planted around communities or specially retained from the natural ecosystem.
Horticulture primarily differs from agriculture in two ways, firstly it generally encompasses a smaller scale of cultivation, using small plots of mixed crops rather than large fields of single crops. Secondly horticultural cultivations generally include a wide variety of crops, even including fruit trees with ground crops. Agricultural cultivations however as a rule focus on one primary crop. In pre-contact North America the semi-sedentary horticultural communities of the Eastern Woodlands (growing maize, squash and sunflower) contrasted markedly with the mobile hunter-gatherer communities of the Plains people. In Central America, Maya horticulture involved augmentation of the forest with useful trees such as papaya, avocado, cacao, ceiba and sapodilla. In the cornfields, multiple crops were grown such as beans (using cornstalks as supports), squash, pumpkins and chilli peppers, in some cultures tended mainly or exclusively by women.
Community gardens often have several horticultural practices in use
HORTICULTURE (Lat. hortus, a garden), the art and science of the cultivation of garden plants, whether for utilitarian or for decorative purposes. The subject naturally divides itself into two sections, which we here propose to treat separately, commencing with the science, and passing on to the practice of the cultivation of flowers, fruits and vegetables as applicable to the home garden. The point of view taken is necessarily, as a rule, that of a British gardener.
Part I.-Principles Or Science Of Horticulture Horticulture, apart from the mechanical details connected with the maintenance of a garden and its appurtenances, may be considered as the application of the principles of plant physiology to the cultivation of plants from all parts of the globe, and from various altitudes, soils and situations. The lessons derived from the abstract principles enunciated by the physiologist, the chemist and the physicist require, however, to be modified to suit the special circumstances of plants under cultivation. The necessity for this modification arises from the fact that such plants are subjected to conditions more or less unnatural to them, and that they are grown for special purposes which are at variance, in degree at any rate, with their natural requirements.
The life of the plant (see Plants) makes itself manifest in the processes of growth, development and reproduction. By growth is here meant mere increase in bulk, and by development the series of gradual modifications by which a plant, originally simple in its structure and conformation, becomes eventually complicated, and endowed with distinct parts or organs. The reproduction of the higher plants takes place either asexually by the formation of buds or organs answering thereto, or sexually by the production of an embryo plant within the seed. The conditions requisite for the growth, development and reproduction of plants are, in general terms, exposure, at the proper time, to suitable amounts of light, heat and moisture, and a due supply of appropriate food. The various amounts of these needed in different cases have to be adjusted by the gardener, according to the nature of the plant, its " habit" or general mode of growth in its native country, and the influence to which it is there subjected, as also in accordance with the purposes for which it is to be cultivated, &c. It is but rarely that direct information on all these points can be obtained; but inference from previous experience, especially with regard to allied forms, will go far to supply such deficiencies. Moreover, it must be remembered that the conditions most favourable to plants are not always those to which they are subjected in nature, for, owing to the competition of other forms in the struggle for existence, liability to injury from insects, and other adverse circumstances, plants may actually be excluded from the localities best suited for their development. The gardener therefore may, and does, by modifying, improve upon the conditions under which a plant naturally exists. Thus it frequently happens that in our gardens flowers have a beauty and a fragrance, and fruits a size and savour denied to them in their native haunts. It behooves the judicious gardener, then, not to be too slavish in his attempts to imitate natural conditions, and to bear in mind that such attempts sometimes end in failure. The most successful gardening is that which turns to the best account the plastic organization of the plant, and enables it to develop and multiply as perfectly as possible. Experience, coupled with observation and reflection, as well as the more indirect teachings of tradition, are therefore of primary importance to the practical gardener.
We propose hereto notice briefly the several parts of a flowering plant, and to point out the rationale of the cultural procedures connected with them (see the references to separate articles at the end of article on Botany).
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The root, though not precluded from access of air, is not directly dependent for its growth on the agency of light. The efficiency of drainage, digging, hoeing and like operations is accounted for by the manner in which they promote aeration of the soil, raise its temperature and remove its stagnant water. Owing to their growth in length at, or rather in the immediate vicinity of, their tips, roots are enabled to traverse long distances by surmounting some obstacles, penetrating others, and insinuating themselves into narrow crevices. As they have no power of absorbing solid materials, their food must be of a liquid or gaseous character. It is taken up from the interstices between the particles of soil exclusively by the finest subdivisions of the fibrils, and in many cases by the extremely delicate thread-like cells which project from them and which are known as root-hairs. The importance of the root-fibres, or " feeding roots " justifies the care which is taken by every good gardener to secure their fullest development, and to prevent as far as possible any injury to them in digging, potting and transplanting, such operations being therefore least prejudicial at seasons when the plant is in a state of comparative rest.
In apparent disregard of the general rule just enunciated is the practice of root-pruning fruit trees, when, from the formation of wood being more active than that of fruit, they bear badly. The contrariety is more apparent than real, as the operation consists in the removal of the coarser roots, a process which results in the development of a mass of fine feeding roots. Moreover, there is a generally recognised quasi-antagonism between the vegetative and reproductive processes, so that, other things being equal, anything that checks the one helps forward the other.
So far as practical gardening is concerned, feeding by the roots after they have been placed in suitable soil is confined principally to the administration of water and, under certain circumstances, of liquid or chemical manure; and no operations demand more judicious management. The amount of water required, and the times when it should be applied, vary greatly according to the kind of plant and the object for which it is grown, the season, the supply of heat and light, and numerous other conditions, the influence of which is to be learnt by experience only. The same may be said with respect to the application of manures. The watering of pot-plants requires especial care. Water should as a rule be used at a temperature not lower than that of the surrounding atmosphere, and preferably after exposure for some time to the air.
Bottom-Heat.----The " optimum " temperature, or that best suited to promote the general activity of roots, and indeed of all vegetable organs, necessarily varies very much with the nature of the plant, and the circumstances in which it is placed, and is ascertained by practical experience. Artificial heat applied to the roots, called by gardeners " bottom-heat," is supplied by fermenting materials such as stable manure, leaves, &c., or by hot-water pipes. In winter the temperature of the soil, out of doors, beyond a certain depth is usually higher than that of the atmosphere, so that the roots are in a warmer and more uniform medium than are the upper parts of the plant. Often the escape of heat from the soil is prevented by " mulching," i.e. by depositing on it a layer of litter, straw, dead leaves and the like.
The Stem and its' subdivisions or branches raise to the light and air the leaves and flowers, serve as channels for the passage to them of fluids from the roots, and act as reservoirs for nutritive substances. Their functions in annual, biennial and herbaceous perennial plants cease after the ripening of the seed, whilst in plants of longer duration layer after layer of strong woody tissue is formed, which enables them to bear the strains which the weight of foliage and the exposure to wind entail. The gardener aims usually at producing stout, robust, short-jointed stems, instead of long lanky growths defective in woody tissue. To secure these conditions free exposure to light and air is requisite; but in the case of coppices and woods, or where long straight spars are needed by the forester, plants are allowed to grow thickly so as to ensure development in an upward rather than in a lateral direction. This and like matters will, however, be more fitly considered in dealing hereafter with the buds and their treatment.
The work of the leaves may briefly be stated to consist of the processes of nutrition, respiration and transpiration. Nutrition (assimilation) by the leaves includes the inhalation of air, and the interaction under the influence of light and in the presence of chlorophyll of the carbon dioxide of the air with the water received from the root, to form carbonaceous food. Respiration in plants, as in other organisms, is a process that goes on by night as well as by day and consists in plants in the breaking up of the complex carbonaceous substances formed by assimilation into less complex and more transportable substances. This process, which is as yet imperfectly understood, is attended by the consumption of oxygen, the liberation of energy in the form of heat, and the exhalation of carbon dioxide and water vapour. Transpiration is loss of water by the plant by evaporation, chiefly from the minute pores or stomata on the leaves. In xerophytic plants (e.g. cacti, euphorbias, &c.) from hot, dry and almost waterless regions where evaporation would be excessive, the leaf surface, and consequently the number of stomata, are reduced to a minimum, as it would be fatal to such plants to exhale vapour as freely in those regions as the broad-leaved plants that grow in places where there is abundance of moisture. Although transpiration is a necessary accompaniment of nutrition, it may easily become excessive, especially where the plant cannot readily recoup itself. In these circumstances " syringing " and " damping down " are of value in cooling the temperature of the air in hothouses and greenhouses and increasing its humidity, thereby checking excessive transpiration. Shading the glass with canvas or washes during the summer months has the same object in view. Syringing is also beneficial in washing away dirt and insects.
The recognition of the various forms of buds and their modes of disposition in different plants is a matter of the first consequence in the operations of pruning and training. Flowerbuds are produced either on the old wood, i.e. the shoots of the past year's growth, or on a shoot of the present year. The peach, horse-chestnut, lilac, morello cherry, black currant, rhododendron and many other trees and shrubs develop flower-buds for the next season speedily after blossoming, and these may be stimulated into premature growth. The peculiar short, stunted branches or " spurs " which bear the flower-buds of the pear, apple, plum, sweet cherry, red currant, laburnum, &c., deserve special attention. In the rose, passion-flower, clematis, honeysuckle, &c., in which the flowerbuds are developed at the ends of the young shoot of the year, we have examples of plants destitute of flower-buds during the winter.
The detached leaf-buds (gemmae or bulbils, of some plants are capable under favourable conditions of forming new plants. The edges of the leaves of Bryophyllum calycinum and of Cardamine pratensis, and the growths in the axils of the leaves of Lilium bulbiferum, as well as the fronds of certain ferns (e.g. Asplenium bulbiferum), produce buds of this character. It is a matter of familiar observation that the ends of the shoots of brambles take root when bent down to the ground. In some instances buds form on the roots, and may be used for purposes of propagation, as in the Japan quince, the globe thistle, the sea holly, some sea lavenders, Bocconia, Acanthus, &c. Of the tendency in buds to assume an independent existence gardeners avail themselves in the operations of striking " cuttings," and making " layers " and " pipings," as also in budding and grafting. In taking a slip or cutting the gardener removes from the parent plant a shoot having one or more buds or " eyes," in the case of the vine one only, and places it in a moist and sufficiently warm situation, where, as previously mentioned, undue evaporation from the surface is prevented. For some cuttings, pots filled with light soil, with the protection of the propagating-house and of bell-glasses, are requisite; but for many of our hardy deciduous trees and shrubs no such precautions are necessary, and the insertion of a short shoot about half its length into moist and gritty ground at the proper season suffices to ensure its growth. In the case of the more delicate plants, the formation of roots is preceded by the production from the cambium of the cuttings of a succulent mass of tissue, the callus. It is important in some cases, e.g. zonal pelargoniums, fuchsias, shrubby calceolarias, dahlias, carnations, &c., to retain on the cutting some of its leaves, so as to supply the requisite food for storage in the callus. In other cases, where the buds themselves contain a sufficiency of nutritive matter for the young growths, the retention of leaves is not necessary. The most successful mode of forming roots is to place the cuttings in a mild bottom-heat, which expedites their growth, even in the case of many hardy plants whose cuttings strike roots in the open soil. With some hard-wooded trees, as the common white-thorn, roots cannot be obtained without bottom-heat. It is a general rule throughout plant culture that the activity of the roots shall be in advance of that of the leaves. Cuttings of deciduous trees and shrubs succeed best if planted early in autumn while the soil still retains the solar heat absorbed during summer. For evergreens August or September, and for greenhouse and stove-plants the spring and summer months, are the times most suitable for propagation by cuttings.
Layering consists simply in bending down a branch and keeping it in contact with or buried to a small depth in the soil until roots are formed; the connexion with the parent plant may then be severed. Many plants can be far more easily propagated thus than by cuttings.
Grafting or " working " consists in the transfer of a branch, the " graft " or " scion," from one plant to another, which latter is termed the " stock." The operation must be so performed that the growing tissues, or cambium-layer of the scion, may fit accurately to the corresponding layer of the stock. In budding, as with roses and peaches, a single bud only is implanted. Inarching is essentially the promotion of the union of a shoot of one plant to that of another of the same or allied species or variety. The outer bark of each being removed, the two shoots are kept in contact by ligature until union is established, when the scion is completely severed from its original attachments. This operation is varied in detail according to the kind of plant to be propagated, but it is essential in all cases that the affinity between the two plants be near, that the union be neatly effected, and that the ratio as well as the season of growth of stock and scion be similar.
The selection of suitable stocks is a matter still requiring much scientific experiment. The object of grafting is to expedite and increase the formation of flowers and fruit. Strong-growing pears, for instance, are grafted on the quince stock in order to restrict their tendency to form " gross " shoots and a superabundance of wood in place of flowers and fruit. Apples, for the same reason, are " worked " on the " paradise " or "doucin " stocks, which from their influence on the scion are known as dwarfing stocks. Scions from a tree which is weakly, or liable to injury by frosts, are strengthened by engrafting on robust stocks. Lindley has pointed out that, while in Persia, its native country, the peach is probably best grafted on the peach, or on its wild type the almond, in England, where the summer temperature of the soil is much lower than that of Persia, it might be expected, as experience has proved, to be most successful on stocks of the native plum.
The soil in which the stock grows is a point demanding attention. From a careful series of experiments made in the Horticultural Society's Garden at Chiswick, it was found that where the soil is loamy, or light and slightly enriched with decayed vegetable matter, the apple succeeds best on the doucin stock, and the pear on the quince; and where it is chalky it is preferable to graft the apple on the crab, and the pear on the wild pear. For the plum on loamy soils the plum, and on chalky and light soils the almond, are the most desirable stocks, and for the cherry on loamy or light rich soils the wild cherry, and on chalk the " mahaleb " stock.
The form and especially the quality of fruit is more or less affected by the stock upon which it is grown. The Stanwick nectarine, so apt to crack and not to ripen when worked in the ordinary way, is said to be cured of these propensities by being first budded close to the ground, on a very strong-growing Magnum Bonum plum, worked on a Brussels stock, and by then budding the nectarine on the Magnum Bonum about a foot from the ground. The fruit of the pear is of a higher colour and smaller on the quince stock than on the wild pear; still more so on the medlar. On the mountain ash the pear becomes earlier.
The effects produced by stock on scion, and more particularly by scion on stock, are as a rule with difficulty appreciable. Nevertheless, in exceptional cases modified growths, termed " grafthybrids," have been obtained which have been attributed to the commingling of the characteristics of stock and scion (see Hybridism). Of these the most remarkable example is Cytisus Adami, a tree which year after year produces some shoots, foliage and flowers like those of the common laburnum, others like those of the very different looking dwarf shrub C. purpureus, and others again intermediate between these. We may hence infer that C. purpureus was grafted or budded on the common laburnum, and that the intermediate forms are the result of graft-hybridization. Numerous similar facts have been recorded. Among gardeners the general opinion is against the possibility of graft-hybridization. The wonder, however, seems to be that it does not occur more frequently, seeing that fluids must pass from stock to scion, and matter elaborated in the leaves of the scion must certainly to some extent enter the stock. It is clear, nevertheless, from examination that as a rule the wood of the stock and the wood of the scion retain their external characters year by year without change. Still, as in the laburnum just mentioned, in the variegated jasmine and in Abutilon Darwinii, in the copper beech and in the horse-chestnut, the influence of a variegated scion has occasionally shown itself in the production from the stock of variegated shoots. At a meeting of the Scottish Horticultural Association (see Gard. Chron., Jan. to, 1880, figs. 12-14) specimens of a small roundish pear, the " Aston Town," and of the elongated kind known as " Beurre Clairgeau," were exhibited. Two more dissimilar pears hardly exist. The result of working the Beurre Clairgeau upon the Aston Town was the production of fruits precisely intermediate in size, form, colour, speckling of rind and other characteristics. Similar, though less marked, intermediate characters were obvious in the foliage and flowers.
Double grafting (French, greffe sur greffe) is sufficiently explained by its name. By means of it a variety may often be propagated, or its fruit improved in a way not found practicable under ordinary circumstances. For its successful prosecution prolonged experiments in different localities and in gardens devoted to the purpose are requisite.
By removal from one place to another the growth of every plant receives a check. How this check can be obviated or reduced, with regard to the season, the state of atmosphere, and the condition and circumstances of the plant generally, is a matter to be considered by the practical gardener.
As to season, it is now admitted with respect to deciduous trees and shrubs that the earlier in autumn planting is performed the better; although some extend it from the period when the leaves fall to the first part of spring, before the sap begins to move. If feasible, the operation should be completed by the end of November, whilst the soil is still warm with the heat absorbed during summer. Attention to this rule is specially important in the case of rare and delicate plants. Early autumn planting enables wounded parts of roots to be healed over, and to form fibrils, which will be ready in spring, when it is most required, to collect food for the plant. Planting late in spring should, as far as possible, be avoided, for the buds then begin to awaken into active life, and the draught upon the roots becomes great. It has been supposed that because the surface of the young leaves is small transpiration is correspondingly feeble; but it must be remembered, not only that their newlyformed tissue is unable without an abundant supply of sap from the roots to resist the excessive drying action of the atmosphere, but that, in spring, the lowness of the temperature at that season in Great Britain prevents the free circulation of the sap. The comparative dryness of the atmosphere in spring also causes a greater amount of transpiration then than in autumn and winter. Another fact in favour of autumnal planting is the production of roots in winter.
The best way of performing transplantation depends greatly on the size of the trees, the soil in which they grow, and the mechanical appliances made use of in lifting and transporting them. The smaller the tree the more successfully can it be removed. The more argillaceous and the less siliceous the soil the more readily can balls of earth be retained about the roots. All planters lay great stress on the preservation of the fibrils; the point principally disputed is to what extent they can with safety be allowed to be cut off in transplantation. Trees and shrubs in thick plantations, or in sheltered warm places, are ill fitted for planting in bleak and cold situations. During their removal it is important that the roots be covered, if only to prevent desiccation by the air. Damp days are therefore the best for the operation; the dryest months are the most unfavourable. Though success in transplanting depends much on the humidity of the atmosphere, the most important requisite is warmth in the soil; humidity can be supplied artificially, but heat cannot.
Pruning, or the removal of superfluous growths, is practised in order to equalize the development of the different parts of trees, or to promote it in particular directions so as to secure a certain form, and, by checking undue luxuriance, to promote enhanced fertility. In the rose-bush, for instance, in which, as we have seen, the flower-buds are formed on the new wood of the year, pruning causes the old wood to " break," i.e. to put forth a number of new buds, some of which will produce flowers at their extremities. The manner and the time in which pruning should be accomplished, and its extent, vary with the plant, the objects of the operation, i.e. whether for the production of timber or fruit, the season and various other circumstances. So much judgment and experience does the operation call for that it is a truism to say that bad pruning is worse than none. The removal of weakly, sickly, overcrowded and gross infertile shoots is usually, however, a matter about which there can be few mistakes when once the habit of growth and the form and arrangement of the buds are known. Winter pruning is effected when the tree is comparatively at rest, and is therefore less liable to " bleeding " or outpouring of sap. Summer pruning or pinching off the tips of such of the younger shoots as are not required for the extension of the tree, when not carried to too great an extent, is preferable to the coarser more reckless style of pruning. The injury inflicted is less and not so concentrated; the wounds are smaller, and have time to heal before winter sets in. The effects of badly-executed pruning, or rather hacking, are most noticeable in the case of forest trees, the mutilation of which often results in rotting, canker and other diseases. Judicious and timely thinning so as to allow the trees room to grow, and to give them sufficiency of light and air, will generally obviate the need of the pruning-saw, except to a relatively small extent.
Training is a procedure adopted when it is required to grow plants in a limited area, or in a particular shape, as in the case of many plants of trailing habit. Judicious training also may be of importance as encouraging the formation of flowers and fruit. Growth in length is mainly in a vertical direction, or at least at the ends of the shoots; and this should be encouraged, in the case of a timber tree, or of a climbing plant which it is desired should cover a wall quickly; but where flowers or fruit are specially desired, then, when the wood required is formed, the lateral shoots may often be trained more or less downward to induce fertility. The refinements of training, as of pruning, may, however, be carried too far; and not unfrequently the symmetrically trained trees of the French excite admiration in every respect save fertility.
Here we may conveniently mention certain variations from the normal condition in the size, form or disposition of buds or shoots on a given plant. An inferior variety of pear, for instance, may suddenly produce a shoot bearing fruit of superior quality; a beech tree, without obvious cause, a shoot with finely divided foliage; or a camellia an unwontedly fine flower. When removed from the plant and treated as cuttings or grafts, such sports may be perpetuated. Many garden varieties of flowers and fruits have thus originated. The cause of their production is very obscure.
Flowers, whether for their own sake or as the necessary precursors of the fruit and seed, are objects of the greatest concern to the gardener. As a rule they are not formed until the plant has arrived at a certain degree of vigour, or until a sufficient supply of nourishment has been stored in the tissues of the plant. The reproductive process of which the formation of the flower is the first stage being an exhaustive one, it is necessary that the plant, as gardeners say, should get " established " before it flowers. Moreover, although the green portions of the flower do indeed perform the same office as the leaves, the more highly coloured and more specialized portions, which are further removed from the typical leaf-form, do not carry on those processes for which the presence of chlorophyll is essential; and the floral organs may, therefore, in a rough sense, be said to be parasitic upon the green parts. A check or arrest of growth in the vegetative organs seems to be a necessary preliminary to the development of the flower.
A diminished supply of water at the root is requisite, so as to check energy of growth, or rather to divert it from leaf-making. Partial starvation will sometimes effect this; hence the grafting of freegrowing fruit trees upon dwarfing stocks, as before alluded to, and also the " ringing " or girdling of fruit trees, i.e. the removal from the branch of a ring of bark, or the application of a tight cincture, in consequence of which the growth of the fruits above the wound or the obstruction is enhanced. On the same principle the use of small pots to confine the roots, root-pruning and lifting the roots, and exposing them to the sun, as is done in the case of the vine in some countries, are resorted to. A higher temperature, especially with deficiency of moisture, will tend to throw a plant into a flowering condition. This is exemplified by the fact that the temperature of the climate of Great Britain is too low for the flowering, though sufficiently high for the growth of many plants. Thus the Jerusalem artichoke, though able to produce stems and tubers abundantly, only flowers in exceptionally hot seasons.
The operation of forcing is based upon the facts just mentioned. By subjecting a plant to a gradually increasing temperature, and supplying water in proportion, its growth may be accelerated; its season of development may be, as it were, anticipated; it is roused from a dormant to an active state. Forcing therefore demands the most careful adjustment of temperature and supplies of moisture and light.
Deficiency of light is less injurious than might at first be expected, because the plant to be forced has stored up in its tissues, and available for use, a reserve stock of material formed through the agency of light in former seasons. The intensity of the colour of flowers and the richness of flavour of fruit are, however, deficient where there is feebleness of light. Recent experiments show that the influence of electric light on chlorophyll is similar to that of sunlight, and that deficiencies of natural light may to some extent be made good by its use. The employment of that light for forcing purposes would seem to be in part a question of expense. The advantage hitherto obtained from its use has consisted in the rapidity with which flowers have been formed and fruits ripened under its influence, circumstances which go towards compensating for the extra cost of production.
The art of retarding the period of flowering in certain plants consists, in principle, in the artificial application of cold temperatures whereby the resting condition induced by low winter temperature is prolonged. For commercial purposes, crowns of lily of the valley, tulip and other bulbs, and such deciduous woody plants as lilac and deciduous species of rhododendron, while in a state of rest, are packed in wet moss and introduced into coldstorage chambers, where they may be kept in a state of quiescence, if desired, throughout the following summer. The temperature of the cold chamber is varied from the freezing-point of water, to a few degrees lower, according to the needs of the plants under treatment. When required for use they are removed to cool sheds to thaw, and are then gradually inured to higher temperatures. The chief advantages of retarded plants are: - (a) they may be flowered almost at will; (b) they are readily induced to flower at those times when unretarded plants refuse to respond to forcing. Coldstorage chambers form a part of the equipment of most of the leading establishments where flowers are grown for market.
The taste of the day demands that " double flowers " should be largely grown. Though in many instances, as in hyacinths, they are less beautiful than single ones, they always present the advantage of being less evanescent. Under the vague term " double " many very different morphological changes are included. The flower of a double dahlia, e.g. offers a totally different condition of structure from that of a rose or a hyacinth. The double poinsettia, again, owes its so-called double condition merely to the increased number of its scarlet involucral leaves, which are not parts of the flower at all. It is reasonable, therefore, to infer that the causes leading to the production of double flowers are varied. A good deal of difference of opinion exists as to whether they are the result of arrested growth or of exuberant development, and accordingly whether restricted food or abundant supplies of nourishment are the more necessary for their production. It must suffice here to say that double flowers are most commonly the result of the substitution of brightly-coloured petals for stamens or pistils or both, and that a perfectly double flower where all the stamens and pistils are thus metamorphosed is necessarily barren. Such a plant must needs be propagated by cuttings. It rarely happens, however, that the change is quite complete throughout the flower, and so a few seeds may be formed, some of which may be expected to reproduce the double-blossomed plants. By continuous selection of seed from the best varieties, and " roguing ' or eliminating plants of the ordinary type, a " strain " or race of double flowers is gradually produced.
Fertilization. - In fertilization - the influence in flowering plants of the male-cell in the pollen tube upon the eggcell in the ovule (see Botany) - there are many circumstances of importance horticulturally, to which, therefore, brief reference must be made. Flowers, generally speaking, are either self-fertilized, cross-fertilized or hybridized. Self-fertilization occurs when the pollen of a given flower affects the egg-cell of the same individual flower. Cross-fertilization varies both in manner and degree. In the simplest instances the pollen of one flower fertilizes the ovules of another on the same plant, owing to the stamens arriving at maturity in any one flower earlier or later than the pistils.
Cross-fertilization must of necessity occur when the flowers are structurally unisexual, as in the hazel, in which the male and female flowers are monoecious, or separate on the same plant, and in the willow, in which they are dioecious, or on different plants. A conspicuous example of a dioecious plant is the common aucuba, of which for years only the female plant was known in Britain. When, through the introduction of the male plant from Japan, its fertilization was rendered possible, ripe berries, before unknown, became common ornaments of the shrub.
The conveyance of pollen from one flower to another in crossfertilization is effected naturally by the wind, or by the agency of insects and other creatures. Flowers that require the aid of insects usually offer some attraction to their visitors in the shape of bright colour, fragrance or sweet juices. The colour and markings of a flower often serve to guide the insects to the honey, in the obtaining of which they are compelled either to remove or to deposit pollen. The reciprocal adaptations of insects and flowers demand attentive observation on the part of the gardener concerned with the growing of grapes, cucumbers, melons and strawberries, or with the raising of new and improved varieties of plants. In wind-fertilized plants the flowers are comparatively inconspicuous and devoid of much attraction for insects; and their pollen is smoother and smaller, and better adapted for transport by the wind, than that of insectfertilized plants, the roughness of which adapts it for attachment to the bodies of insects.
It is very probable that the same flower at certain times and seasons is self-fertilizing, and at others not so. The defects which cause gardeners to speak of certain vines as " shy setters," and of certain strawberries as " blind," may be due either to unsuitable conditions of external temperature, or to the non-accomplishment, from some cause or other, of cross-fertilization. In a vinery, tomatohouse or a peach-house it is often good practice at the time of flowering to tap the branches smartly with a stick so as to ensure the dispersal of the pollen. Sometimes more delicate and direct manipulation is required, and the gardener has himself to convey the pollen from one flower to another, for which purpose a small camel's-hair pencil is generally suitable. The degree of fertility varies greatly according to external conditions, the structural and functional arrangements just alluded to, and other causes which may roughly be called constitutional. Thus, it often happens that an apparently very slight change in climate alters the degree of fertility. In a particular country or at certain seasons one flower will be self-sterile or nearly so, and another just the opposite.
Some of the most interesting results and many of the gardener's greatest triumphs have been obtained by hybridization, i.e. the crossing of two individuals not of the same but of two distinct species of plants, as, for instance, two species of rhododendron or two species of orchid (see Hybridism). It is obvious that hybridization differs more in degree than in kind from cross-fertilization. The occurrence of hybrids in nature explains the difficulty experienced by botanists in deciding on what is a species, and the widely different limitations of the term adopted by different observers in the case of willows, roses, brambles, &c. The artificial process is practically the same in hybridization as in cross-fertilization, but usually requires more care. To prevent self-fertilization, or the access of insects, it is advisable to remove the stamens and even the corolla from the flower to be impregnated, as its own pollen or that of a flower of the same species is often found to be " prepotent." There are, however, cases, e.g. some passion-flowers and rhododendrons, in which a flower is more or less sterile with its own, but fertile with foreign pollen, even when this is from a distinct species. It is a singular circumstance that reciprocal crosses are not always or even often possible; thus, one rhododendron may afford pollen perfectly potent on the stigma of another kind, by the pollen of which latter its own stigma is unaffected.
The object of the hybridizer is to obtain varieties exhibiting improvements in hardihood, vigour, size, shape, colour, fruitfulness, resistance to disease or other attributes. His success depends not alone on skill and judgment, for some seasons, or days even, are found more propitious than others. Although promiscuous and hap-hazard procedures no doubt meet with a measure of success, the best results are those which are attained by systematic work with a definite aim.
Hybrids are sometimes less fertile than pure-bred species, and are occasionally quite sterile. Some hybrids, however, are as fertile as pure-bred plants. Hybrid plants may be again crossed, or even re-hybridized, so as to produce a progeny of very mixed parentage. This is the case with many of our roses, dahlias, begonias, pelargoniums, orchids and other long or widely cultivated garden plants.
In modified forms of plants there is frequently a tendency to " sport " or revert to parental or ancestral characteristics. So markedly is this the case with hybrids that in a few generations all traces of a hybrid origin may disappear. The dissociation of the hybrid element in a plant must be obviated by careful selection. The researches of Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884), abbot of the Augustinian monastery at Briinn, in connexion with peas and other plants, apparently indicate that there is a definite natural law at work in the production of hybrids. Having crossed yellow and green seeded peas both ways, he found that the progeny resulted in all yellow coloured seeds. These gave rise in due course to a second generation in which there were three yellows to one green. In the third generation the yellows from the second generation gave the proportion of one pure yellow, two impure yellows, and one green; while the green seed of the second generation threw only green seeds in the third, fourth and fifth generations. The pure yellow in the third generation also threw pure yellows in the fourth and fifth and succeeding generations. The impure yellows, however, in the next generation gave rise to one pure yellow, one pure green, to two impure yellows, and so on from generation to generation. Accordingly as the green or the yellow predominated in the progeny it was termed " dominant," while the colour that disappeared was called " recessive." It happened, however, that a recessive colour in one generation becomes the dominant in a succeeding one.
The length of the period during which seeds remain dormant after their formation is very variable. The conditions for germination are much the same as for growth in general. Access to light is not required, because the seed contains a sufficiency of stored-up food. The temperature necessary varies according to the nature and source of the seed. Some seeds require prolonged immersion in water to soften their shells; others are of so delicate a texture that they would dry up and perish if not kept constantly in a moist atmosphere. Seeds buried too deeply receive a deficient supply of air. As a rule, seeds require to be sown more deeply in proportion to their size and the lightness of the soil.
The time required for germination in the most favourable circumstances varies very greatly, even in the same species, and in seeds taken from one pod. Thus the seeds of Primula japonica, though sown under precisely similar conditions, yet come up at very irregular intervals of time. Germination is often slower where there is a store of available food in the perisperm, or in the endosperm, or in the embryo itself, than where this is scanty or wanting. In the latter case the seedling has early to shift for itself, and to form roots and leaves for the supply of its needs.
Supposing seedlings to have been developed, it is found that a large number of them present considerable variations, some being especially robust, others peculiar in size or form. Those most suitable for the purpose of the gardener are carefully selected for propagation, while others not so desirable are destroyed; and thus after a few generations a fixed variety, race or strain superior to the original form is obtained. Many garden plants have originated solely by selection; and much has been done to improve our breeds of vegetables, flowers and fruit by systematic selection.
Large and well-formed seeds are to be preferred for harvesting. The seeds should be kept in sacks or bags in a dry place, and if from plants which are rare, or liable to lose their vitality, they are advantageously packed for transmission to a distance in hermetically sealed bottles or jars filled with earth or moss, without the addition of moisture.
It will have been gathered from what has been said that seeds cannot always be depended on to reproduce exactly the characteristics of the plant which yielded them; for instance, seeds of the greengage plum or of the Ribston pippin will produce a plum or an apple, but not these particular varieties, to perpetuate which grafts or buds must be employed. (M. T. M.; W. R. W.) Part Ii. - The Practice Of Horticulture The details of horticultural practice naturally range under the three heads of flowers, fruits and vegetables (see also Fruit And Flower Farming). There are, however, certain general aspects of the subject which will be more conveniently noticed apart, since they apply alike to each department. We shall therefore first treat of these under four headings: formation and preparation of the garden, garden structures and edifices, garden materials and appliances, and garden operations.
I. Formation and Preparation of the Garden. Site. - The site chosen for the mansion will more or less determine that of the garden, the pleasure grounds and flower garden being placed so as to surround or lie contiguous to it, while the fruit and vegetable gardens, either together or separate, should be placed on one side or in the rear, according to fitness as regards the nature of the soil and subsoil, the slope of the surface or the general features of the park scenery. In the case of villa gardens there is usually little choice: the land to be occupied is cut up into plots, usually rectangular, and of greater or less breadth, and in laying out these plots there is generally a smaller space left in the front of the villa residence and a larger one behind, the front plot being usually devoted to approaches, shrubbery and plantations, flower beds being added if space permits, while the back or more private plot has a piece of lawn grass with flower beds next the house, and a space for vegetables and fruit trees at the far end, this latter being shut off from the lawn by an intervening screen of evergreens or other plants. Between these two classes of gardens there are many gradations, but our remarks will chiefly apply to those of larger extent.
The almost universal practice is to have the fruit and vegetable gardens combined; and the flower garden may sometimes be conveniently placed in juxtaposition with them. When the fruit and vegetable gardens are combined, the smaller and choicer fruit trees only should be admitted, such larger-growing hardy fruits as apples, pears, plums, cherries, &c., being relegated to the orchard.
Ground possessing a gentle inclination towards the south is desirable for a garden. On such a slope effectual draining is easily accomplished, and the greatest possible benefit is derived from the sun's rays. It is well also to have an open exposure towards the east and west, so that the garden may enjoy the full benefit of the morning and evening sun, especially the latter; but shelter is desirable on the north and north-east, or in any direction in which the particular locality may happen to be exposed. In some places the south-western gales are so severe that a belt of trees is useful as a break wind and shelter.
A hazel-coloured loam, moderately light in texture, is well adapted for most garden crops, whether of fruits or vegetables, especially a good warm deep loam resting upon chalk; and if such a soil occurs naturally in the selected site, but little will be required in the way of preparation. If the soil is not moderately good and of fair depth, it is not so favourable for gardening purposes. Wherever the soil is not quite suitable, but is capable of being made so, it is best to remedy the defect at the outset by trenching it all over to a depth of 2 or 3 ft., incorporating plenty of manure with it. A heavy soil, although at first requiring more labour, generally gives far better results when worked than a light soil. The latter is not sufficiently retentive of moisture and gets too hot in summer and requires large quantities of organic manures to keep it in good condition. It is advantageous to possess a variety of soils; and if the garden be on a slope it will often be practicable to render the upper part light and dry, while the lower remains of a heavier and damper nature.
Natural soils consist of substances derived from the decomposition of various kinds of rocks, the bulk consisting of clay, silica and lime, in various proportions. As regards preparation, draining is of course of the utmost importance. The ground should also be trenched to the depth of 3 ft. at least, and the deeper the better so as to bring up the subsoil - whether it be clay, sand, gravel, marl, &c. - Jor exposure to the weather and thus convert it from a sterile mass into a living soil teeming with bacteria. In this operation all stones larger than a man's fist must be taken out, and all roots of trees and of perennial weeds carefully cleared away. When the whole ground has been thus treated, a moderate liming will, in general, be useful, especially on heavy clay soils. After this, supposing the work to have occupied most of the summer, the whole may be laid up in ridges, to expose as great a surface as possible to the action of the winter's frost.
Argillaceous or clay soils are those which contain a large percentage (45-50) of clay, and a small percentage (5 or less) of lime. These are unfitted for garden purposes until improved by draining, liming, trenching and the addition of porous materials, such as ashes, burnt ballast or sand, but when thoroughly improved they are very fertile and less liable to become exhausted than most other soils. Loamy soils contain a considerable quantity (30-45%) of clay, and smaller quantities of lime, humus and sand. Such soils properly drained and prepared are very suitable for orchards, and when the proportion of clay is smaller (20-30%) they form excellent garden soils, in which the better sort of fruit trees luxuriate. Manly soils are those which contain a considerable percentage (10-20) of lime, and are called clay marls, loamy marls and sandy marls, according as these several ingredients preponderate. The clay marls are, like clay soils, too stiff for garden purposes until well worked and heavily manured; but loamy marls are fertile and well suited to fruit trees, and sandy marls are adapted for producing early crops. Calcareous soils, which may also be heavy, intermediate or light, are those which contain more than 20% of lime, their fertility depending on the proportions of clay and sand which enter into their composition; they are generally cold and wet. Vegetable soils or moulds, or humus soils, contain a considerable percentage (more than 5) of humus, and embrace both the rich productive garden moulds and those known as peaty soils.
The nature of the subsoil is of scarcely less importance than that of the surface soil. Many gardeners are still afraid to disturb an unsuitable subsoil, but experienced growers have proved that by bringing it up to the surface and placing plenty of manure in the bottoms of the various trenches, the very best results are attained in the course of a season or so. An uneven subsoil, especially if retentive, is most undesirable, as water is apt to collect in the hollows, and thus affect the upper soil. The remedy is to make the plane of its surface agree with that of the ground. When there is a hard pan this should be broken up with the spade or the fork, and have plenty of manure mixed with it. When there is an injurious preponderance of metallic oxides or other deleterious substances, the roots of trees would be affected by them, and they must therefore be removed. When the subsoil is too compact to be pervious to water, effectual drainage must be resorted to; when it is very loose, so that it drains away the fertile ingredients of the soil as well as those which are artificially supplied, the compactness of the stratum should be increased by the addition of clay, marl or loam. The best of all subsoils is a dry bed of clay overlying sandstone.
In laying out the garden, the plan should be prepared in minute detail before commencing operations. The form of the kitchen and fruit garden should be square or oblong, rather than curvilinear, since the working and cropping of the ground can thus be more easily carried out. The whole should be compactly arranged, so as to facilitate working, and to afford convenient access for the carting of the heavy materials. This access is especially desirable as regards the store-yards and framing ground, where fermenting manures and tree leaves for making up hot beds, coals or wood for fuel and ingredients for composts, together with flower-pots and the many necessaries of garden culture, have to be accommodated. In the case of villas or picturesque residences, gardens of irregular form may be permitted; when adapted to the conditions of the locality, they associate better with surrounding objects, but in such gardens wall space is usually limited.
The distribution of paths must be governed by circumstances. Generally speaking, the main paths for cartage should be 8 ft. wide, made up of 9 in. hard core covered by 4 in. of gravel or ash, with a gentle rise to centre to throw off surface water. The smaller paths, not intended for cartage, should be 4 ft. to 6 ft. wide, according to circumstances, made up of 6 in. hard core and 3 in. of gravel or ash, and should be slightly raised at centre.
A considerable portion of the north wall is usually covered in front with the glazed structures called forcing-houses, and to these the houses for ornamental plants are sometimes attached; but a more appropriate site for the latter is the flower garden, when that forms a separate department. It is well, however, that everything connected with the forcing of fruits or flowers should be concentrated in one place. The frame ground, including melon and pine pits, should occupy some well-sheltered spot in the slips, or on one side of the garden, and adjoining to this may be found a suitable site for the compost ground, in which the various kinds of soils are kept in store, and in which also composts may be prepared.
As walls afford valuable space for the growth of the choicer kinds of hardy fruits, the direction in which they are built is of considerable importance. In the warmer parts of the country the wall on the north side of the garden should be so placed as to face the sun at about an hour before noon, or a little to the east of south; in less favoured localities it should be made to face direct south, and in still more unfavourable districts it should face the sun an hour after noon, or a little west of south. The east and west walls should run parallel to each other, and at right angles to that on the north side, in all the most favoured localities; but in colder or later ones, though parallel, they should be so far removed from a right angle as to get the sun by eleven o'clock. On the whole, the form of a parallelogram with its longest sides in the proportion of about five to three of the shorter, and running east and west, may be considered the best form, since it affords a greater extent of south wall than any other.
Fig, i represents a garden of one acre and admits of nearly double the number of trees on the south aspect as compared with the east and west; it allows a greater number of espalier or pyramid trees to face the south; and it admits of being divided into equal principal compartments, each of which forms nearly a square. The size of course can be increased to any requisite extent. That of the royal gardens at Frogmore, 760 ft. from east to west and 440 ft. from north to south, is nearly of the same proportions.
The spaces between the walls and the outer fence are called " slips." A considerable extent is sometimes thus enclosed, FIG. I. - Plan of Garden an acre in area. and utilized for the growth of such vegetables as potatoes, winter greens and sea kale, for the small bush fruits, and for strawberries. The slips are also convenient as affording a variety of aspects, and thus helping to prolong the season of particular vegetable crops.
A screen of some kind to temper the fury of the blast is absolutely necessary. If the situation is not naturally well sheltered, the defect may be remedied by masses of forest trees disposed at a considerable distance so as not to shade the walls or fruit trees. They should not be nearer than, say, 50 yds., and may vary from that to ioo or 150 yds. distance according to circumstances, regard being had especially to peculiarities occasioned by the configuration of the country, as for instance to aerial currents from adjacent eminences. Care should be taken, however, not to hem in the garden by crowded plantations, shelter from the prevailing strong winds being all that is required, while the more open it is in other directions the better. The trees employed for screens should include both those of deciduous and of evergreen habit, and should suit the peculiarities of local soil and climate. Of deciduous trees the sycamore, wych-elm, horse-chestnut, beech, lime, plane and poplar may be used, - the abele or white poplar, Populus alba, being one of the most rapidgrowing of all trees, and, like other poplars, well suited for nursing other choicer subjects; while of evergreens, the holm oak, holly, laurel (both common and Portugal), and such conifers as the Scotch, Weymouth and Austrian pines, with spruce and (South.) silver firs and yews, are suitable. The conifers make the most effective screens.
Extensive gardens in exposed situations are often divided into compartments by hedges, so disposed as to break the force of high winds. Where these are required to be narrow as well as lofty, holly, yew or beech is to be preferred; but, if there is sufficient space, the beautiful laurel and the bay may be employed where they will thrive. Smaller hedges may be formed of evergreen privet or of tree-box. These subordinate divisions furnish, not only shelter but also shade, which, at certain seasons, is peculiarly valuable.
Belts of shrubbery may be placed round the slips outside the walls; and these may in many cases, or in certain parts, be of sufficient breadth to furnish pleasant retired promenades, at the same time that they serve to mask the formality of the walled gardens, and are made to harmonize with the picturesque scenery of the pleasure ground.
Although water is one of the most important elements in plant life, we do not find one garden in twenty where even ordinary precautions have been taken to secure a competent supply. Rain-water is the best, next to that river or pond water, and last of all that from springs; but a chemical analysis should be made of the last before introducing it, as some spring waters contain mineral ingredients injurious to vegetation. Iron pipes are the best conductors; they should lead to a capacious open reservoir placed outside the garden, and at the highest convenient level, in order to secure sufficient pressure for effective distribution, and so that the wall trees also may be effectually washed. Stand-pipes should be placed at intervals beside the walks and in other convenient places, from which water may at all times be drawn; and to which a garden hose can be attached, so as to permit of the whole garden being readily watered. The mains should be placed under the walks for safety, and also that they may be easily reached when repairs are required. Pipes should also be laid having a connexion with all the various greenhouses and forcing-houses, each of which should be provided with a cistern for aerating the daily supplies. In fact, every part of the garden, including the working sheds and offices, should have water supplied without stint.
Gardens of large extent should be encircled by an outer boundary, which is often formed by a sunk wall or ha-ha surrounded by an invisible wire fence to exclude ground game, or consists of a hedge with low wire fence on its inner side. Occasionally this sunk wall is placed on the exterior of the screen plantations, and walks lead through the trees, so that views are obtained of the adjacent country. Although the interior garden receives its form from the walls, the ring fence and plantations may be adapted to the shape and surface of the ground. In smaller country gardens the enclosure or outer fence is often a hedge, and there is possibly no space enclosed by walls, but some divisional wall having a suitable aspect is utilized for the growth of peaches, apricots, &c., and the hedge merely separates the garden from a paddock used for grazing. The still smaller gardens of villas are generally bounded by a wall or wood fence, the inner side of which is appropriated to fruit trees. For the latter walls are much more convenient and suitable than a boarded fence, but in general these are too low to be of much value as aids to cultivation, and they are best covered with bush fruits or with ornamental plants of limited growth.
The best material for the construction of garden walks is good binding gravel. The ground should be excavated to the depth of a foot or more - the bottom being made firm and slightly concave, so that it may slope to the centre, where a drain should be introduced; or the bottom may be made convex and the water allowed to drain away at the sides. The bottom g in. should be filled in compactly with hard, coarse materials, such as stones, brickbats, clinkers, burned clay, &c., on which should be laid 2 or 3 in. of coarse gravel, and then r or 2 in. of firm binding gravel on the surface. The surface of the walks should be kept well rolled, for nothing contributes more to their elegance and durability.
All the principal lines of walk should be broad enough to allow at least three persons to walk abreast; the others may be narrower, but a multitude of narrow walks has a puny effect. Much of the neatness of walks depends upon the material of which they are made. Gravel from an inland pit is to be preferred; though occasionally very excellent varieties are found upon the sea-coast. Gravel walks must be kept free from weeds, either by hand weeding, or by the use of one of the many weed killers now on the market. In some parts of the country the available material does not bind to form a close, even surface, and such walks are kept clean by hoeing.
Grass walks were common in English gardens during the prevalence of the Dutch taste, but, owing to the frequent humidity of the climate, they have in a great measure been discarded. Grass walks are made in the same way as grass lawns. When the space to be thus occupied is prepared, a thin layer of sand or poor earth is laid upon the surface and over this a similar layer of good soil. This arrangement is adopted in order to prevent excessive luxuriance in the grass. In many modern gardens pathways made of old paving stones lead from the house to different parts. They give an old-fashioned and restful appearance to a garden, and in the interstices charming little plants like thyme, Ionopsidium acaule, &c., are allowed to grow.
Walks are separated from the adjoining beds and borders in a variety of ways. If a living edging is adopted, by far the best is afforded by the dwarf box planted closely in line. It is of extremely neat growth, and when annually clipped will remain in good order for many years. Very good edgings, but of a less durable character, are formed by thrift. (Armeria vulgaris), double daisy (Bellis perennis), gentianella. (Gentiana acaulis) and London pride (Saxifrage umbrosa),, Cerastium tomentosum, Stachys lavata and the beautiful evergreen Veronica rupestris with sheets of bright blue flowers, close to the ground, or by some of the finer grasses very carefully selected, such as the sheep's fescue (Festuca ovina) or its glaucous-leaved variety. Indeed, any low-growing herbaceous plant, susceptible of minute division, is suitable for an edging. Amongst shrubby plants suitable for edgings are the evergreen candytuft (Iberis sempervirens), Euonymus radicans variegata, ivy, and Euonymus microphyllus - a charming little evergreen with small serrated leaves. Edgings may also be formed of narrow slips of sandstone flag, slate, tiles or bricks. One advantage of using edgings of this kind, especially in kitchen gardens, is that they do not harbour slugs and similar vermin, which all live edgings do, and often to a serious extent, if they are left to grow large. In shrubberies and large flower-plots, verges of grass-turf, from r to 3 ft. in breadth, according to the size of the border and width of the walk, make a very handsome edging, but they should not be allowed to rise more than an inch and a half above the gravel, the grass being kept short by repeated mowings, and the edges kept trim and well-defined by frequently clipping with shears and cutting once or twice a year with an edging iron.
II. Garden Structures. Walls. - The position to be given to the garden walls has been already referred to. The shelter afforded by a wall, and the increased temperature secured by its presence, are indispensable in the climate of Great Britain, for the production of all the finer kinds of outdoor fruits; and hence the inner side of a north wall, having a southern aspect, is appropriated to the more tender kinds. It is, indeed, estimated that such positions enjoy an increased temperature equal to 7° of latitude - that is to say, the mean temperature within a few inches of the wall is equal to the mean temperature of the open plain 7° farther south. The eastern and western aspects are set apart for fruits of a somewhat hardier character.
Where the inclination of the ground is considerable, and the presence of high walls would be objectionable, the latter may be replaced by sunk walls. These should not rise more than 3 ft. above the level of the ground behind them. As dryness is favourable to an increase of heat, such walls should be either built hollow or packed behind to the thickness of 3 or 4 ft.
with rubble stones, flints, brickbats or similar material, thoroughly drained at bottom. For mere purposes of shelter a height of 6 or 7 ft. will generally be sufficient for the walls of a garden, but for the training of fruit trees it is found that an average height of 12 ft. is more suitable. In gardens of large size the northern or principal wall may be 14 ft., and the side walls 12 ft. in height; while smaller areas of an acre or so should have the principal walls 12 and the side walls io ft. in height. As brick is more easily built hollow than stone, it is to be preferred for garden walls. A 14-in. hollow wall will take in its construction 12,800 bricks, while a solid 9-in. one, with piers, will take 11,000; but the hollow wall, while thus only a little more costly, will be greatly superior, being drier and warmer, as well as more substantial. Bricks cannot be too well burnt for garden walls; the harder they are the less moisture will they absorb. Many excellent walls are built of stone. The best is dark-coloured whinstone, because it absorbs very little moisture, or in Scotland Caithness pavement 4 in. thick. The stones can be cut (in the quarries) to any required length, and built in regular courses. Stone walls should always be built with thin courses for convenience of training over their surface. Concrete walls, properly coped and provided with a trellis, may in some places be cheapest, and they are very durable. Common rubble walls are the worst of all.
The coping of garden walls is important, both for the preservation of the walls and for throwing the rain-water off their surfaces. It should not project less than from 2 to 22 in., but in wet districts may be extended to 6 in. Stone copings are best, but they are costly, and Portland cement is sometimes substituted. Temporary copings of wood, which may be fixed by means of permanent iron brackets just below the stone coping, are extremely useful in spring for the protection of the blossoms of fruit trees. They should be 9 in. or 1 ft. wide, and should be put on during spring before the blossom buds begin to expand; they should have attached to them scrim cloth (a sort of thin canvas), which admits light pretty freely, yet is sufficient to ward off ordinary frosts; this canvas is to be let down towards evening and drawn up again in the morning. These copings should be removed when they are of no further utility as protectors, so that the foliage may have the full benefit of rain and dew. Any contrivance that serves to interrupt radiation, though it may not keep the temperature much above freezing, will be found sufficient. Standard fruit trees must be left to take their chance; and, indeed from the lateness of their flowering, they are generally more injured by blight, and by drenching rains, which wash away the pollen of the flowers, than by the direct effects of cold.
Espalier Rails. - Subsidiary to walls as a means of training fruit trees, espalier rails were formerly much employed, and are still used in many gardens. In their simplest form, they are merely a row of slender stakes of larch or other wood driven into the ground, and connected by a slight rod or fillet at top. The use of iron rails has now been almost wholly discontinued on account of metallic substances acting as powerful conductors of both heat and cold in equal extremes. Standards from which galvanized wire is tightly strained from one end to the other are preferable and very convenient. Trees trained to them are easily got at for all cultural operations, space is saved, and the fruit, while freely exposed to sun and air, is tolerably secure against wind. They form, moreover, neat enclosures for the vegetable quarters, and, provided excess of growth from the centre is successfully grappled with, they are productive in soils and situations which are suitable.
These include all those structures which are more intimately associated with the growth of ornamental plants and flowers, and comprise conservatory, plant stove, greenhouse and the subsidiary pits and frames. They should be so erected as to present the smallest extent of opaque surface consistent with stability. With this object in view, the early improvers of hot-house architecture substituted metal for wood in the construction of the roofs, and for the most part dispensed with back walls; but the conducting power of the metal caused a great irregularity of temperature, which it was found difficult to control; and, notwithstanding the elegance of metallic houses, this circumstance, together with their greater cost, has induced most recent authorities to give the preference to wood. The combination of the two, however, shows clearly that, without much variation of heat or loss of light, any extent of space may be covered, and houses of any altitude constructed.
The earliest notice we have of such structures is given in the Latin writers of the 1st century (Mart. Epigr. viii. 14 and 68); the to which allusion is made by various Greek authors, have no claim to be mentioned in this connexion. Columella (xi. 3, 51, 52) and Pliny (H.N. xix. 23) both refer to their use in Italy for the cultivation of the rarer and more delicate sorts of plants and trees. Seneca has given us a description of the application of hot water for securing the necessary temperature. The botanist Jungermann had plant houses at Altdorf in Switzerland; those of Loader, a London merchant, and the conservatory in the Apothecaries' Botanic Garden at Chelsea, were among the first structures of the kind erected in British gardens. These were, however, ill adapted for the growth of plants, as they consisted of little else than a huge chamber of masonry, having large windows in front, with the roof invariably opaque. The next step was taken when it became fashionable to have conservatories attached to mansions, instead of having them in the pleasure grounds. This arrangement brought them within the province of architects, and for nearly a century utility and fitness for the cultivation of plants were sacrificed, as still is often the case, to the unity of architectural expression between the conservatory and the mansion.
Plant houses must be as far as possible impervious to wet and cold air from the exterior, provision at the same time being made for ventilation, while the escape of warm air from the interior must also be under control. The most important part of the enclosing material is necessarily glass. But as the rays of light, even in passing through transparent glass, lose much of their energy, which is further weakened in proportion to the distance it has to travel, the nearer the plant can be placed to the glass the more perfectly will its functions be performed; hence the importance of constructing the roofs at such an angle as will admit the most light, especially sunlight, at the time it is most required. Plants in glass houses require for their fullest development more solar light probably than even our best hot-houses transmit - certainly much more than is transmitted through the roofs of houses as generally constructed.
Plant houses constructed of the best Baltic pine timber are very durable, but the whole of the parts should be kept as light as possible. In many houses, especially those where ornament is of no consequence, the rafters are now omitted, or only used at wide intervals, somewhat stouter sash-bars being adopted, and stout panes of glass (usually called 21-oz.) 12 to 18 in. wide, made use of. Such houses are very light; being also very close, they require careful ventilation. The glass roof is commonly designed so as to form a uniform plane or slope from back to front in lean-to houses (fig. 2), and from centre to sides in span-roofed houses. To secure the greatest possible influx of light, some horticulturists recommend curvilinear roofs; but the superiority of these is largely due to the absence of rafters, which may also be dispensed with in plain roofs. They are very expensive to build and maintain. Span and ridge-and-furrow roofs, the forms now mostly preferred, are exceedingly well adapted for the admission of light, especially when they are glazed to within a few inches 2. - Lean-to Plant House.
of the ground. They can be made, too, to cover in any extent of area without sustaining walls. Indeed, it has been proposed to support such roofs to a great extent upon suspension principles, the internal columns of support being utilized for conducting the rain-water off the roof to underground drains or reservoirs. The lean-to is the least desirable form, since it scarcely admits of elegance of design, but it is necessarily adopted in many cases.
In glazing, the greater the surface of glass, and the less space occupied by rafters and astragals as well as overlaps, the greater the admission of light. Some prefer that the sash-bars should be grooved instead of rebated, and this plan exposes less putty to the action of the weather. The simple bedding of the glass, without the use of over putty, seems to be widely approved; but the glass may be fixed in a variety of other ways, some of which are. patented.
The Conservatory is often built in connexion with the mansion, so as to be entered from the drawing-room or boudoir. But when so situated it is apt to suffer from the shade of the building, and is objectionable on account of admitting damp to the drawing-room. Where circumstances will admit, it is better to place it at some distance from the house, and to form a connexion by means of a glass corridor. In order that the conservatory may be kept gay with flowers, there should be a subsidiary structure to receive the plants as they go out of bloom. The conservatory may also with great propriety be placed in the flower garden, where it may occupy an elevated terrace, and form the termination of one of the more important walks.
Great variety of design is admissible in the conservatory, but it ought always to be adapted to the style of the mansion of which it is a prominent appendage. Some very pleasing examples are to be met with which have the form of a parallelogram with a lightly rounded roof; others of appropriate character are square or nearly so, with a ridge-and-furrow roof. Whatever the form, there must be light in abundance; and the shade both of buildings and of trees must be avoided. A southern aspect, or one varying to south-east or south-west, is preferable; if these aspects cannot be secured, the plants selected must be adapted to the position. The central part of the house may be devoted to permanent plants; the side stages and open spaces in the permanent beds should be reserved for the temporary plants.
The Greenhouse is a structure designed for the growth of such exotic plants as require to be kept during winter in a temperature considerably above the freezing-point. The best form is the spanroofed, a single span being better even than a series of spans such as form the ridge-and-furrow roof. For plant culture, houses at a comparatively low pitch are better than higher ones where the plants have to stand at a greater distance from the glass, and therefore in greater gloom. Fig. 3 represents a convenient form of greenhouse. It is 20 ft. wide and 12 ft. high, and may be of any convenient length. The side walls are surmounted by short upright sashes which open outwards by machinery a, and the roof is provided with sliding upper sashes for top ventilation. The upper sashes may also be made to lift, and are in many respects more convenient to operate. In the centre is a two-tier stage 6 ft. wide, for plants, with a pathway on each side 3 ft. wide, and a side stage 4 ft. wide, the side stages being flat, and the centre stage having the middle portion one-third of the width elevated I ft. above the rest so as to lift up the middle row of plants nearer the light. Span-roofed houses of this character should run north and south so as to secure an equalization of light, and should be warmed by two flow, and one or two return 4-in. hot-water pipes. carried under the side stages along each side and across each end. Where it is desired to cultivate a large number of plants, it is much better to increase the number of such houses than to provide larger structures. The smaller houses are far better for cultural purposes, while the plants can be classified, and the little details of management more conveniently attended to. Pelargoniums, cinerarias, calceolarias, cyclamens, camellias, heaths, roses and other specialities might thus have to themselves either a whole house or part of a house, the conditions of which could then be more accurately fitted to the wants of the inmates.
The lean-to house is in most respects inferior to the span-roofed; one of the latter could be converted into two of the former of opposite aspects by a divisional wall along the centre. Except where space does not permit a span-roofed building to be introduced, a lean-to is not to be recommended; but a house of this class may often be greatly improved by adopting a half-span or hipped roof - that is, one with a short slope behind and a longer in front.
Where the cultivation of large specimens has to be carried on, a span-roofed house of greater height and larger dimensions may sometimes prove useful; but space for this class of plants may generally be secured in a house of the smaller elevation, simply by lowering or removing altogether the staging erected for smaller plants, and allowing the larger ones to stand on or nearer the floor. The Plant Stove differs in no respect from the greenhouse except in having a greater extent of hot-water pipes for the purpose, of securing a greater degree of heat, although, as the plants in stove houses often attain a larger size, and many of them require a bed of coco-nut fibre, tan or leaf mould to supply with bottom heat, b: !, b a somewhat greater elevation may perhaps be occasionally required in some of the houses. For the smaller plants, and for all choicer subI ? I jects, the smaller size of house already recom mended for greenhouses, a: o 00 namely 20 ft. wi d e and r QOo 12 ft. high, with a side table of 4 ft. on each side, 5------- ? ° 5 a pathway of 3 ft. and a central stage on two levels of 6 ft. wide, will be preferable, because more easily managed as to the supply of heat and moisture. It will be seen (fig. 4) that along the ridge of the roof a raised portion or lantern light b, b is introduced, which permits of the fixing of two continuous ventilators, one along each side, for the egress of heated and foul air, openings a, a being also provided in the side walls opposite the hot-water pipes for the admission of pure cold air. This type of house is also very suitable for greenhouse plants, but would not need so much heating apparatus. Three or four rows of flow and return pipes respectively will be required on each side, according to the heat proposed to be maintained.
In their interior fittings plant stoves require more care than greenhouses, which are much drier, and in which consequently the staging does not so soon decay. In stoves the stages should be of slate or stone where practicable, and the supports of iron. These should be covered with a layer of 2 or 3 in. of some coarse gritty material, such as pounded spar, or the shell sand obtained on the sea-coast, on which the pots are to stand; its use is to absorb moisture and gradually give it out for the benefit of the plants. The pathways should be paved with tiles, brick or stone, or made of concrete and cement, and the surface should be gently rounded so that the water required for evaporation may drain to the sides while the centre is sufficiently dry to walk upon; they should also have brick or stone edgings to prevent the water so applied soaking away at the sides and thus being wasted.
The principal of these are the vinery, peach house, cucumber and melon house and orchard house. These, or a portion of them, especially the vineries and peacheries, are frequently brought together into a range along the principal interior or south wall of the garden, where they are well exposed to sun and light, an ornamental plant house being some-;° FIG. 5. - Lean-to Vinery.
times introduced into the centre of the range in order to give effect to the outline of the buildings. When thus associated, the houses are usually of the lean-to class, which have the FIG. 3. - Section of Greenhouse.
pO O .
FIG. 4. - Section of Plant Stove.
advantage of being more easily warmed and kept warm than buildings having glass on both sides, a matter of great importance for forcing purposes.
The Vinery is a house devoted to the culture of the grape-vine, which is by far the most important exotic fruit cultivated in English gardens. When forming part of a range a vinery would in most cases be a lean-to structure, with a sharp pitch (45°-50°) if intended for early forcing, and a flatter roof (40°) with longer rafters if designed for the main and late crops. (I) The lean-to (fig. 5) is the simplest form, often erected against some existing wall, and the best for early forcing, being warmer on account of the shelter afforded by the back wall. In this house the principal part of the roof is a fixture, ventilation being provided for by small lifting sashes against the back wall, and by the upright front sashes being hung on a pivot so as to swing outwards on the lower side. The necessary heat is provided by four 4-in. hot-water pipes, which would perhaps be best placed if all laid side by side, while the vines are planted in front and trained upwards under the roof. A second set of vines may be planted against the back wall, and will thrive there until the shade of the roof becomes too dense. (2) The hip-roofed or threequarter span (fig. 6) is a combination of the lean-to s and the span-roofed, uniting to a great degree the ad vantages of both, being warmer than the span and lighter than the lean-to. The heating and ventilating arrangements are much the same as in the lean-to, only the top sashes which open are on the back slope, and therefore do not interfere so much with the vines on the front slope. In both this and the lean-to the aspect should be as nearly due south as possible. Houses of this form are excellent for general purposes, and they are well adapted both for muscats, which require a high temperature, and for late-keeping grapes. (3) The span-roofed (fig. 7), the most elegant and ornamental form, is especially adapted for isolated positions; indeed, no other form affords so much roof space for the development of the vines. The amount of light admitted being very great, these houses answer well for general purposes and for the main crop. The large amount of glass or cooling surface, however, makes it more difficult to keep up a high and regular temperature in them, and from this cause they are not so well adapted for very early or very late crops. They are best, nevertheless, when grapes and ornamental plants are grown in the same house, except, indeed, in very wet and cold districts, where, in consequence of its greater warmth, the lean-to is to be preferred.
0 5 15 on piers and arches to allow the roots to pass outwards into a prepared border, the trees being planted just within the house. Abundant means of ventilation should be provided.
For more general purposes the house represented in fig. 8 will be found more useful. One set of trees is planted near the front, and trained to an arched trellis b. Another set is planted at the back, and trained on a trellis c,which is nearly upright, and leans against the back wall; or the back wall itself may be used for training. There are no upright front sashes, but to facilitate ventilation there are ventilators d in the front wall, and the upper roof sashes are made to move up to FIG. 8. - Peach House.
and down for the same object. Two or three hot-water pipes are placed near the front wall. The back wall is usually planted with dwarf and standard trees alternately, the latter being temporary, and intended to furnish the upper part of the trellis, while the permanent dwarfs are gradually filling up the trellis from below. In any case the front trellis should stop conveniently short of the top of the sashes if there are trees against the back wall, in order to admit light to them. They would also be better carried up nearly parallel to the roof, and at about i ft. distant from it, supposing there were no trees at the back.
A span-roofed house, being lighter than a lean-to, would be so much the better for peach culture, especially for the crop grown just _. ?-.. g ?r/?/? /?%?, NMI i / i /? - '//i ?, IN= / /. / i //? ? ? / ?j ??, .??/ ?/ -- /?/?--- /ii'---, WAN // // / i.; / // // / i / /. ,/ d//, /% l///, / ,.G///„ FIG. 7. - Span-Roofed Vinery.
This type of house, cheaply constructed, is in general use for raising grapes for market.
The Peach House is a structure in which the ripening of the fruit is accelerated by the judicious employment of artificial heat. For early forcing, as in vineries, the lean-to form is to be preferred, and the house may have a tolerably sharp pitch. A width of 7 or 8 ft., with the glass slope continued down to within a foot or two of the ground, and without any upright front sashes, will be suitable for such a house, which may also be conveniently divided into compartments of from 30 to 50 ft. in length according to the extent of the building, small houses being preferable to larger ones. As a very high temperature is not required, two or three pipes running the whole length of the house will suffice. The front wall should be built FIG. 9. Forcing House.
in anticipation of those from the open - walls since a high temperature is not required. A low span, with dwarf side walls, and a lantern ventilator along the ridge, the height in the centre being 9 ft., would be very well adapted for the purpose. The trees should be planted inside and trained up towards the ridge on a trellis about a foot from the glass, the walls being arched to permit the egress of the roots. A trellis path should run along the centre, and movable pieces of trellis should be provided to prevent trampling on the soil while dressing and tying in the young wood.
The Forcing House. - Whenever continuous supplies of cucumbers, melons and tomatoes are required, it is most convenient to grow them in properly constructed forcing houses. Span-roofed houses (fig. 9), are probably the most useful for the purpose. They are usually FIG. 6. - Hip-Roofed Vinery.
00 00 12 to 14 ft. wide, by Io to 12 ft. high, and of any convenient length. Heating is effected by means of hot-water pipes below the beds, and against the side ventilators. The walls bordering the central paths are arched or clotted to admit heat from the chambers below the beds. Side pipes are occasionally dispensed with, heat being obtained by means of slots at the back of the beds, communicating with the chambers. The beds are also of use for plunging pot plants. Ventilation is provided at sides and top.
Pits and frames of various kinds are frequently used for the cultivation of cucumbers and melons, as well as hot beds covered by ordinary garden frames. In these cases the first supply of heat is derived from the hot bed made up within the pit. When the heat of the original bed subsides, linings of fermenting dung must be added, and these must be kept active by occasional turnings and the addition of fresh material as often as required. It is better, however, to effect both top and bottom heating by hot-water pipes.
Orchard Houses are span-roofed or lean-to structures, in which various fruits are cultivated without the aid of artificial heat. Peaches, nectarines, apricots, cherries and the more tender varieties of plums and pears succeed well in houses of this kind. The types of houses in general use are substantially as shown in fig. 7, for spanroofed, and as fig. 5, for lean-to; in each case without the heating apparatus. The orchard house is among the most generally useful of all garden structures. These houses require careful management in early summer so as to induce the more delicate varieties of peaches and nectarines to complete and ripen their growth before cold, sunless weather sets in.
In commercial establishments where utility is of more importance than ornament, the glass houses and hot water apparatus are not of so elaborate a type as indicated in the foregoing remarks, and in many cases excellent produce is grown in structures more or less dilapidated. In some places movable greenhouses have been erected for market purposes, so that the soil may be exposed to the sweetening effect of the weather, when the glass roof is moved to an adjoining patch.
These are used both for the summer growth and winter protection of various kinds of ornamental plants, for the growth of such fruits as cucumbers, melons and strawberries, and for the forcing of vegetables. When heat is required, it is sometimes supplied by means of fermenting dung, or dung and leaves, or tanner's bark, but it is much more economically provided by hot-water pipes. Pits of many different forms have been designed, but it may be sufficient here to describe one or two which can be recommended for general purposes.
An excellent pit for wintering bedding-out plants or young greenhouse stock is shown at fig. 10. It is built upon the pigeon-hole principle as high as the ground level a, a, and above that in 9-in. brickwork. At a distance of 9 in. retaining walls b, b are built up to the ground level, and the spaces between the two are covered by thick boarding, which is to be shut down as shown at c in cold weather to exclude frost, and opened as shown at d in mild weather to promote The height of the pit of the plants; and, to from the havoc caused by accidents, and very short ones being objectionable as multiplying the chances of drip, and the exclusion of light by the numerous lappings; panes about 12 in. long are of convenient size for garden lights of this character. In all gardens FIG. 11. - Hot-Bed Three-Light Frame.
the frames and lights should be of one size so as to be interchangeable, and a good supply of extra lights (sashes) may always be turned to good account for various purposes.
Span-roof garden frame (fig. 12) may under some circumstances be useful as a substitute for the three-light frame. It is adapted for storing plants in winter, for nursing small plants in summer and for the culture of melons and other crops requiring glass shelter. These frames are made I I in. high in front, 22 at the back and 32 at the FIG. 12. - Span-Roof Frame.
ridge, with ends of 1 1-in. red deal; the sashes, which are 2 in. thick, open by gearing, the front and back separately. The lights are hinged so that they can be turned completely back when necessary. This more direct and ready access to the plants within is one of the principal recommendations of this form of pit.
Mushroom House. - Mushrooms may be grown in sheds and cellars, or even in protected ridges in the open ground, but a special structure is usually devoted to them. A lean-to against the north side of the garden wall will be found suitable for the purpose, though a span-roofed form may also be adopted, especially if the building stands apart.
The internal arrangement of a lean-to mushroom house is shown in fig. 13. The length may vary from 30 ft. to 60 ft.; a convenient width is to ft., which admits of a 31 ft. central path, and beds 3 ft. wide on each side. The shelves should be of slate a, a, supported by iron uprights b, b, each half having a front ledge of bricks set on edge in cement c, c. The slabs of slate forming the shelves should not be too closely fitted, as a small interval will prevent the accumulation of moisture at the bottom of the bed. They may be supported by iron standards or brick piers, back and front, bearing up a flat bar of iron on which the slates may rest; the use of the bar will give wider intervals between the supports, which will be found convenient for filling and emptying the beds. The roof may be tiled or ??
slated; but, to prevent ??? ? \ the hot injurious influence \ o n, there should ? ,. r sh 1 ? .?
t, ,. be an inner roof or ceil-?
ing d, the space between ,° 5 '9 which and the outer roof e should be packed with sawdust. A hot-water pipe f should run along both sides of the pathway, close to the front ledge of the lowest beds. The different shelves can be planted in succession; and the lower ones, especially those on the floor level, as being most convenient, can be utilized for forcing sea-kale and rhubarb.
The Fruit Room. - This important store should be dark, moderately dry, with a steady, moderately cool atmosphere, FIG. io. - Ventilated Plant Pit.
a free circulation of air through the pit. might be reduced according to the size secure the interior against frost, flow and return hot-water pipe e should pass along beneath the staging, which should be a strong wooden trellis supported by projections in the brickwork. The water which drains from the plants or is spilt in watering would fall on the bottom, which should be made porous to carry it away. For many plants this under current of ventilation would be exceedingly beneficial, especially when cold winds prevented the sashes from being opened. A pit of this character may be sunk into the ground deeper than is indicated in the figure if the subsoil is dry and gravelly, but in the case of a damp subsoil it should rather be more elevated, as the soil could easily be sloped up to meet the retaining wall.
Frames (fig. II) should be made of the best red deal, I 4 in. thick. A convenient size is 6 ft. wide, 24 in. high at the back and 15 in front; and they are usually 12 ft. long, which makes three lights and sashes, though they can be made with two lights or one light for particular purposes. Indeed, a one-light frame is often found very convenient for many purposes. The lights should be 2 in. thick, and glazed with 21 oz. sheet glass, in broad panes four or five to the breadth of a light, and of a length which will work in conveniently and economically, very long panes being undesirable FIG. 13. - Lean-to Mushroom House.
Materials And Appliances.
and with the means of giving sufficient ventilation to keep the air sweet. It should also be sufficiently commodious to permit of the fruit being arranged in single layers on the shelves or trays. A type of building which is becoming increasingly popular for this purpose, and which is in many respects superior to the older, and often more expensive structures, is built of wood, with or without brick foundations, and is thickly thatched with reeds or other non-conducting material externally - on walls and roof - while the interior is matchboarded. Ventilation is afforded at the ends, usually by tilting laths, operated by a cord. Two doors are provided at one end - an inner, and an outer - the inner being glazed at the top to admit light. They are generally span roofed, about 6 ft. high at the eaves, and 8 or io ft. high at the ridge, according to width.
The length and breadth of these stores should be governed by the amount and character of the storage accommodation to be provided. If intended for storage only, a width of 9 ft. 6 in. would suffice, but if intended to combine display with storage, the internal diameter should be about 13 ft. In the former type, the walls are fitted with four rows of shelves, about 3 ft. wide, and about i ft. 6 in. apart. The shelves are of deal strips, 2 or 3 in. wide, laid about i in. apart for ventilation. These are being superseded, however, by sliding-out trays of convenient lengths and about 9 in. deep, working on fixed framework. By this means the storage accommodation is nearly doubled and the fruit is more easily manipulated. The central gangway is about 3 ft. 6 in. wide. In the latter a central exhibition bench about 3 ft. wide and of convenient height is provided. Gangways 22 ft. wide flank this, while the shelves or drawers with which the walls are fitted are about 21 ft. wide.
This consists mainly in the storing only of such fruits as are dry and in proper condition; in judicious ventilation, especially in the presence of large quantities of newlygathered fruit; in the prompt removal of all decaying fruit; and in the exclusion of vermin. It is also advisable to wash all woodwork and gangways annually with a weak solution of formalin, or other inodorous germicide.
Plant houses were formerly heated in a variety of ways - by fermenting organic matter, such as dung, by smoke flues, by steam and by hot water circulating in iron pipes. The last-named method has proved so satisfactory in practice that it is now in general use for all ordinary purposes. The water is heated by a furnace, and is conveyed from the boiler into the houses by a main or " flow " pipe, connected by means of syphon branches with as many pipes as it is intended to serve. When cooled it is returned to the boiler by another main or " return " pipe. Heat is regulated in the structures by means of valves on the various branch pipes. The flow pipe is attached to the boiler at its highest point, to take the heated water as it ascends. The return pipe is connected with the boiler at or near its lowest point. The highest points of the pipes are fitted with small taps, for the removal of air, which would retard circulation if allowed to remain. Heating by hot water may be said to depend, in part, on the influence of gravity on water being to some extent overcome by heating in a boiler. It ascends the flow pipe by convection, where its onward journey would speedily end if it were not for the driving force of other molecules of water following, and the suction set up by the gravitation into the boiler of the cooled water by the return pipe. The power of water to conduct heat is very low. The conducting power of the iron in which it is conveyed is high. It is, however, probable that conduction is to some extent a factor in the process.
It is a mistake to stint the quantity of piping, since it is far more economical and better for the plants to have a larger surface heated moderately than a smaller surface heated excessively. In view of the fact that air expands, becomes lighter and rises, under the influence of heat, the pipes should be set near the floor. If intended to raise the temperature of the structure, they should be set on iron or brick supports just clear of walls, earth or other heatabsorbing bodies. Those intended to provide bottom heat, however, are set in (a) water tanks running under the beds, or (b) in enclosed dry chambers under the beds, or are (c) embedded in the soil or plunging material. The first-named method is distinctly superior to the others. Pipes of 2 in., 3 in., 4 in. and 6 in. diameters are mostly used, the 4 in. size being the most convenient for general purposes. The joints are packed or caulked with tow, smeared with a mixture of white and red lead. Flanged joints are made to bolt together on washers of vulcanized rubber.
There are numerous types of boilers in use, illustrative of efforts to secure as much exposure as possible to the action of the flames. The water-tube type, with multiple waterways, consists of a number of separate tubes j oined together in various ways. Some of these are built in the form of a blunt cone, and are known as conical tubular boilers. Others are built with the tubes arranged horizontally, and are known as horizontal tubular boilers. The majority of the latter are more or less saddle-shaped. Boilers with a single waterway are of three principal types, the Cornish, the saddle and the conical. The Cornish is cylindrical with the furnace occupying about half the length of the cylinder. The saddle is so named from its supposed resemblance to a saddle. It is set to span the furnace, additional exposure to heat being secured in a variety of ways by flues. Exposure in the conical boiler is direct on its inner surface, and is supplemented by flues. Tubular boilers, especially the horizontal types, are very powerful and economical. The Cornish type is a rather slow and steady boiler, and is much used for providing heat for large areas. The saddle boiler is very commonly employed to provide heat for moderately sized and small areas. Both are powerful and economical. Conical boilers are more expensive to set by reason of their shape, and are not so convenient to manipulate as the horizontal kinds. All the above types require a setting of masonry. Portable boilers are convenient for heating small. areas, and are less expensive to instal than those described above. They are less economical, however, owing to loss of heat from their exposed surfaces. What are called sectional boilers as used in America and on the Continent are being introduced to British gardens. Portions can be added or taken away according to the amount of heating surface required.
Water Supply. - Wastage of water in the boilers should be made good automatically from a cistern controlled by means of a ball-cock. It should be placed as high above the boiler as practicable. The feed should connect with the return pipe near the point at which it enters the boiler.
These have usually to be excavated to admit of the boilers being set below the level of the pipes they are intended to serve. In consequence of their depth, the draining of stokeholds often presents difficulties. Care should be taken to allow sufficient room to properly manipulate the fires and to store fuel. It is important that the ventilation should be as efficient as practicable, especially where coke fuel is to be used.
The management of the furnaces is relatively easy, and consists in adapting the volume and intensity of the fires to particular needs. It involves the keeping clean of flues, ashpits and especially the fires themselves. Where coke or ordinary hard coal are used, the removal of clinkers should be done systematically, and the fires stirred. Anthracite coal fires should not be stirred more than is absolutely necessary, and should not be fed in driblets. They require more draught than coke fires, but care must be taken not to give too much, as excessive heat is likely to melt or soften the fire-bars. Draught is regulated in the ashpit by opening or closing the bottom door of the furnace and by the damper on the smoke shaft. The latter must be of a fairly good height, according to circumstances, to secure a good draught.
The importance of sun heat to the general well-being of plant life, its influence on the production of flowers and the ripening of edible fruits, has long been appreciated in horticulture. The practice of " closing up " early in the afternoon, i.e. the closing of ventilators (accompanied by syringing and damping of surfaces to produce a humid atmosphere) has for its object the conservation of as much solar heat as practicable.
This consists in the admission of air for the purpose of preventing stagnation of the atmosphere and for the regulation of temperature. Means of affording ventilation in all plant houses should be provided in at least two places - as near the floor as practicable, and at the top. Mechanical contrivances whereby whole sets of ventilators may be operated simultaneously are now in common use, and are much more convenient and economical than the older method of working each ventilator separately. Efficient ventilating can only be effected by the exercise of common sense and vigilance, and care must be taken to avoid cold draughts through the houses.
III. Garden Materials and Appliances. Soils and Composts. - The principal soils used in gardens, either alone, or mixed to form what are called composts, are - loam, sand, peat, leaf-mould and various mixtures and combinations of these made up to suit the different subjects under cultivation.
Loam is the staple soil for the gardener; it is not only used extensively in the pure and simple state, but enters into most of the composts prepared specially for his plants. For garden purposes loam should be rather unctuous or soapy to the touch when moderately dry, not too clinging nor adhesive, and should readily crumble when a compressed handful is thrown on the ground. If it clings together closely it is too heavy and requires amelioration by the admixture of gritty material; if it has little or no cohesion when squeezed tightly in the hand, it is ] too light, and needs to be improved by the addition of heavier or clayey material. Sound friable loam cut one sod deep from the surface of a pasture, and stacked up for twelve months in a heap or ridge, is invaluable to the gardener. When employed for making vine borders, loam of a somewhat heavier nature can be used with advantage, on account of the porous materials which should accompany it. For stone fruits a calcareous loam is best; indeed, for these subjects a rich calcareous loam used in a pure and simple state cannot be surpassed. Somewhat heavy loam y are best for potting pine apples, for melons and strawberries, fruit trees in pots, &c., and may be used with the addition of manures only; but for ornamental plants a loam of a somewhat freer texture is preferable and more pleasant to work. Loam which contains much red matter (iron) should be avoided.
Sand is by itself of little value except for striking cuttings, for which purpose fine clean sharp silver sand is the best; and a somewhat coarser kind, if it is gritty, is to be preferred to the comminuted sands which contain a large proportion of earthy matter. River sand and the sharp grit washed up sometimes by the road side are excellent materials for laying around choice bulbs at planting time to prevent contact with earth which is perhaps manure-tainted. Sea sand may be advantageously used both for propagating purposes and for mixing in composts. For the growth of pot plants sand is an essential part of most composts, in order to give them the needful porosity to carry off all excess of moisture from the roots. If the finer earthy sands only are obtainable, they must be rendered sharper by washing away the earthy particles. Washed sand is best for all plants like heaths, which need a pure and lasting peaty compost.
Peat soil is largely employed for the culture of such plants as rhododendrons, azaleas, heaths, &c. In districts where heather and gritty soil predominate, the peat soil is poor and unprofitable, but selections from both the heathy and the richer peat soils, collected with judgment, and stored in a dry part of the compost yard, are essential ingredients in the cultivation of many choice pot plants, such as the Cape heaths and many of the Australian plants. Many monocotyledons do well in peat, even if they do not absolutely require it.
Leaf-mould is eminently suited for the growth of many freegrowing plants, especially when it has been mixed with stable manure and has been subjected to fermentation for the formation of hot beds. It any state most plants feed greedily upon it, and when pure or free from decaying wood or sticks it is a very safe ingredient in composts; but it is so liable to generate fungus, and the mycelium or spawn of certain fungi is so injurious to the roots of trees, attacking them if at all sickly or weakened by drought, that many cultivators prefer not' to mix leaf-mould with the soil used for permanent plants, as peaches or choice ornamental trees. For quick growing plants, however, as for example most annuals cultivated in pots, such as balsams, cockscombs, globe-amaranths and the like, for cucumbers, and for young soft-wooded plants generally, it is exceedingly useful, both by preventing the consolidation of the soil and as a manure. The accumulations of light earth formed on the surface in woods where the leaves fall and decay annually are leaf-mould of the finest quality. Leaves collected in the autumn and stored in pits or heaps, and covered with a layer of soil, make beautiful leaf-mould at the end of about twelve months, if frequently drenched with water or rain during this period.
Composts are mixtures of the foregoing ingredients in varying proportions, and in combination with manures if necessary, so as to suit particular plants or classes of plants. The chief point to be borne in mind in making these mixtures is not to combine in the same compost any bodies that are antagonistic in their nature, as for example lime and ammonia. In making up composts for pot plants, the fibrous portion should not be removed by sifting, except for small-sized pots, but the turfy portions should be broken up by hand and distributed in smaller or larger lumps throughout the mass. When sifting is had recourse to, the fibrous matter should be rubbed through the meshes of the sieve along with the earthy particles. Before being used the turfy ingredients of composts should lie together in a heap only long enough for the roots of the herbage to die, not to decompose.
Manures (see Manure). - These are of two classes, organic and inorganic - the former being of animal and vegetable, the latter of mineral origin. The following are organic manures: Farm-yard manure consists of the mixed dung of horses and cattle thrown together, and more or less soaked with liquid drainings of the stable or byre. It is no doubt the finest stimulant for the growth of plants, and that most adapted to restore the fertile elements which the plants have abstracted from exhausted soils. This manure is best fitted for garden use when in a moderately fermented state.
Horse dung is generally the principal ingredient in all hot bed manure; and, in its partially decomposed state, as afforded by exhausted hot beds, it is well adapted for garden use. It is most beneficial on cold stiff soils. It should not be allowed to lie too long unmoved when fresh, as it will then heat violently, and the ammonia is thus driven off. To avoid this, it should be turned over two or three times if practicable, and well moistened - preferably with farm-yard drainings.
Cow dung is less fertilizing than horse dung, but being slower in its action it is more durable; it is also cooler, and therefore better for hot dry sandy soils. Thoroughly decayed, it is one of the best of all manures for mixing in composts for florists' flowers and other choice plants.
Pig dung is very powerful, containing more nitrogen than horse dung; it is therefore desirable that it should undergo moderate fermentation, which will be secured by mixing it with litter and a portion of earth. When weeds are thrown to the pigs, this fermentation becomes specially desirable to kill their seeds.
Night-soil is an excellent manure for all bulky crops, but requires to be mixed with earth or peat, or coal-ashes, so as both to deodorize it and to ensure its being equally distributed. Quicklime should not be used, as it dispels the greater part of the ammonia. When prepared by drying and mixing with various substances, night-soil is sold as desiccated night-soil or native guano, the value of which depends upon the materials used for admixture.
Malt-dust is an active manure frequently used as a top-dressing, especially for fruit trees in pots. It is rapid in its action, but its effects are not very permanent. Rape dust is somewhat similar in its character and action.
Bones are employed as a manure with decided advantage both to vegetable crops and to fruit trees, as well as to flowers. For turnips bone manure is invaluable. The effects of bones are no doubt mainly due to the phosphates they contain, and they are most effectual on dry soils. They are most quickly available when dissolved in sulphuric acid.
Guano is a valuable manure now much employed, and may be applied to almost every kind of crop with decided advantage. It should be mixed with six or eight times its weight of loam or ashes, charred peat, charcoal-dust or some earthy matter, before it is applied to the soil, as from its causticity it is otherwise not unlikely to kill or injure the plants to which it is administered. Peruvian guano is obtained from the excreta of South American sea-birds, and fish guano from the waste of fish. Both are remarkable for the quantity of nitrates and phosphates they contain.
Pigeon dung approaches guano in its power as manure. It should be laid up in ridges of good loamy soil in alternate layers to form a compost, which becomes a valuable stimulant for any very choice subjects if cautiously used. The dung of the domestic fowl is very similar in character.
Liquid manure, consisting of the drainings of dung-heaps, stables, cowsheds, &c., or of urine collected from dwelling houses or other sources, is a most valuable and powerful stimulant, and can be readily applied to the roots of growing plants. The urine should be allowed to putrefy, as in its decomposition a large amount of ammonia is formed, which should then be fixed by sulphuric acid or gypsum; or it may be applied to the growing crops after being freely diluted with water or absorbed in a compost heap. Liquid manures can be readily made from most of the solid manures when required, simply by admixture with water. When thus artificially compounded, unless for immediate use, they should be made strong for convenience of storage, and applied as required much diluted.
The following are inorganic manures: Ammonia is the most powerful and one of the most important of the constituents of manures generally, since it is the chief source whence plants derive their nitrogen. It is largely supplied in all the most fertilizing of organic manures, but when required in the inorganic state must be obtained from some of the salts of ammonia, as the sulphate, the muriate or the phosphate, all of which, being extremely energetic, require to be used with great caution. These salts of ammonia may be used at the rate of from 2 to 3 cwt. per acre as a top-dressing in moist weather. When dissolved in water they form active liquid manures. The most commonly used nitrogenous manures are nitrate of soda, nitrate of potash and sulphate of ammonia, the prices of which are constantly fluctuating.
Potash and soda are also valuable inorganic manures in the form of carbonates, sulphates, silicates and phosphates, but the most valuable is the nitrate of potash. The price, however, is generally so high that its use is practically nil, except in small doses as a liquid manure for choice pot plants. Cheaper substitutes, however, are now found in sulphate of potash, and muriate of potash and kainit. The two last-named must not be applied direct to growing crops, but to the soil some weeks in advance of sowing or cropping. The manures of this class are of course of value only in cases where the soil is naturally deficient in them. On this account the salts of soda are of less importance than those of potash. The value of wood ashes as a manure very much depends upon the carbonate and other salts of potash which they contain.
Phosphoric acid, in the form of phosphates, is a most valuable plant food, and is absorbed by most plants in fairly large quantities from the soil. It induces the earlier production of flowers and fruits. In a natural state it is obtained from bones, guano and wood ashes; and in an artificial condition from basic slag or Thomas's phosphate, coprolites and superphosphate of lime.
Lime in the caustic state is beneficially applied to soils which contain an excess of inert vegetable matter, and hence may be used for the improvement of old garden soils saturated with humus, or of peaty soils not thoroughly reclaimed. It does not supply the place of organic manures, but only renders that which is present available for the nourishment of the plants. It also improves the texture of clay soils.
Gypsum, or sulphate of lime, applied as a top-dressing at the rate of 2 to 3 cwt. per acre, has been found to yield good results, especially on light soils. It is also employed in the case of liquid manures to fix the ammonia.
Gas lime, after it has been exposed to the air for a few months is an excellent manure on heavy soils. In a fresh state it is poisonous and fatal to vegetation, and is often used for this reason to dress land infested with wireworms, grubs, club-root fungus, &c.
Burnt clay has a very beneficial effect on clay land by improving its texture and rendering soluble the alkaline substances it contains. The clay should be only slightly burnt, so as to make it crumble down readily; in fact, the fire should not be allowed to break through, but should be constantly repressed by the addition of material. The burning should be effected when the soil is dry.
Vegetable refuse of all kinds, when smother-burned in a similar way, becomes a valuable mechanical improver of the soil; but the preferable course is to decompose it in a heap with quicklime and layers of earth, converting it into leaf-mould. Potato haulms, and club-rooted cabbage crops should, however, never be mixed with ordinary clean vegetable refuse, as they would be most likely to perpetuate the terrible diseases to which they are subject. The refuse of such plants should be burned as early as possible. The ash may be used as manure.
Soot forms a good top-dressing; it consists principally of charcoal, but contains ammonia and a smaller proportion of phosphates and potash, whence its value as a manure is derived. It should be kept dry until required for use. It may also be used beneficially in preventing the attacks of insects, such as the onion gnat and turnip fly, by dusting the plants or dressing the ground with it.
Common salt acts as a manure when used in moderate quantities, but in strong doses is injurious to vegetation. It suits many of the esculent crops, as onions, beans, cabbages, carrots, beet-root, asparagus, &c.; the quantity applied varies from 5 to to bushels per acre. It is used as a top-dressing sown by the hand. Hyacinths and other bulbs derive benefit from slight doses, while to asparagus as much as 20 lb to the rood has been used with beneficial effect. At the rate of from 6 to to bushels to the acre it may be used on garden lawns to prevent worm casts. For the destruction of weeds on gravel walks or in paved yards a strong dose of salt, applied either dry or in a very strong solution, is found very effective, especially a hot solution, but after a time much of it becomes washed down, and the residue acts as a manure; its continued application is undesirable, as gravel so treated becomes pasty.
Garden Tools, &c. - Most of these are so well known that we shall not discuss them here. They are, moreover, illustrated and described in the catalogues of most nurserymen and dealers in horticultural sundries.
The importance of properly labelling plants can hardly be over-estimated. For ordinary purposes labels of wood of various sizes (sold in bundles) are the most convenient. These should be wiped with a little white paint or linseed oil, and written with a soft lead pencil before the surface becomes dry. Copying-ink pencils should not be used, as water will wash away the writing. For permanent plants, as trees, roses, &c., metallic labels with raised type are procurable from dealers, and are neat, durable and convenient. Permanent labels may also be made from sheet lead, the names being punched in by means of steel type. For stove and greenhouse plants, orchids, ferns, &c., labels made of xylonite, zinc and other materials are also used.
IV. Garden Operations. Propagation. - The increase of plants, so far as the production of new individuals of particular kinds is concerned, is one of the most important and constantly recurring of gardening operations. In effecting this, various processes are adopted, which will now be described.
I. By Seeds. - This may be called the natural means of increasing the number of any particular kind of plant, but it is to be remembered that we do not by that means secure an exact reproduction of the parent, especially in the case of plants raised or evolved in the course of generations by hybridization and selection. We may get a progeny very closely resembling it, yet each plant possessing a distinct individuality of its own; or we may get a pro. eny very unlike the parent, or a mixed progeny showing various degrees of divergence. Many seeds will grow freely if sown in a partially ripened state; but as a general rule seeds have to be kept for some weeks or months in store, and hence they should be thoroughly ripened before being gathered. They should be sown in fine rich soil, and such as will not readily get consolidated. In the case of outdoor crops, if the soil is inclined to be heavy, it is a good plan to cover all the smaller seeds with a light compost. Very small seeds should only have a sprinkling of light earth or of sand, and sometimes only a thin layer of soft moss to exclude light and preserve an equable degree of moisture. Somewhat larger seeds sown indoors may be covered to the depth of one-eighth or;,one-fourth of an inch, according to their size. Outdoor crops require to be sown, the smaller seeds from z to i in., and the larger ones from 2 to 4 in. under the surface, the covering of the smaller ones especially being light and open. Many seeds grow well when raked in; that is, the surface on which they are scattered is raked backwards and forwards until most of them are covered. Whatever the seeds, the ground should be made tolerably firm both beneath and above them; this may be done by treading in the case of most kitchen garden crops, which are also better sown in drills, this admitting the more readily of the ground being kept clear from weeds by hoeing. All seeds require a certain degree of heat to induce germination. For tropical plants the heat of a propagating house-75° to 80°, with a bottom heat of 80° to 90° - is desirable, and in many cases absolutely necessary; for others, such as half-hardy annuals, a mild hot bed, or a temperate pit ranging from 60° to 70°, is convenient; while of course all outdoor crops have to submit to the natural temperature of the season. It is very important that seeds should be sown when the ground is in a good working condition, and not clammy with moisture.
This mode of increase applies specially to bulbous plants, such as the lily and hyacinth, which produce little bulbs on the exterior round their base. Most bulbs do so naturally to a limited but variable extent; when more rapid increase is wanted the heart is destroyed, and this induces the formation of a larger number of offsets. The stem bulbs of lilies are similar in character to the offsets from the parent bulb. The same mode of increase occurs in the gladiolus and crocus, but their bulb-like permanent parts are called corms, not bulbs. After they have ripened in connexion with the parent bulb, the offsets are taken off, stored in appropriate places, and at the proper season planted out in nursery beds.
The tuber is a fleshy underground stem, furnished with eyes which are either visible, as in the potato and in some familiar kinds of Tropaeolum (T. tuberosum) and of Oxalis (0. crenata), or latent, as in the Chinese yam (Dioscorea Batatas). When used for propagation, the tubers are cut up into what are called " sets," every portion having an eye attached being capable of forming an independent plant. The cut portions of bulky sets should be suffered to lie a short time before being planted, in order to dry the surface and prevent rotting; this should not, however, be done with such tropical subjects as caladiums, the tubers of which are often cut up into very small fragments for propagation, and of course require to be manipulated in a properly heated propagating pit. No eyes are visible in the Chinese yam, but slices of the long club-shaped tubers will push out young shoots and form independent plants, if planted with ordinary care.
Division, or partition, is usually resorted to in the case of tufted growing plants, chiefly perennial herbs; they may be evergreen, as chamomile or thrift, or when dormant may consist only of underground crowns, as larkspur or lily-of-thevalley; but in either case the old tufted plant being dug up may be divided into separate pieces, each furnished with roots, and, when replanted, generally starting on its own account without much check. Suffruticose plants and even small shrubs may be propagated in this way, by first planting them deeper than they are ordinarily grown, and then after the lapse of a year, which time they require to get rooted, taking them up again and dividing them into parts or separate plants. Box-edging and southernwood are examples. The same ends may sometimes be effected by merely working fine soil in amongst the base of the stems, and giving them time to throw out roots before parting them.
5. By Suckers. - Root suckers are young shoots from the roots of plants, chiefly woody plants, as may often be seen in the case of the elm and the plum. The shoots when used for propagation must be transplanted with all the roots attached to them, care being taken not to injure the parent plant. If they spring from a thick root it is not to be wantonly severed, but the soil should be removed and the sucker taken off by cutting away a clean slice of the root, which will then heal and sustain no harm. Stem suckers are such as proceed from the base of the stem, as is often seen in the case of the currant and lilac. They should be removed in any case; when required for propagation they should be taken with all the roots attached to them, and they should be as thoroughly disbudded below ground as possible, or they are liable to continue the habit of suckering. In this case, too, the soil should be carefully opened and the shoots removed with a suckering iron, a sharp concave implement with long iron handle (fig. 14). When the number of roots is limited, the tops FIG. 14. - Suckering Iron.
should be shortened, and some care in watering and mulching should be bestowed on the plant if it is of value.
The young string-like shoots produced by the strawberry are a well-known example of runners. The process of rooting these runners should be facilitated by fixing them close down to the soil, which is done by small wooden hooked pegs or by stones; hair-pins, short lengths of bent wire, &c., may also be used. After the roots are formed, the strings are cut through, and the runners become independent plants.
Not unlike the runner, though growing in a very different way, are the bud-plants formed on the fronds of several kinds of ferns belonging to the genera Asplenium, Woodwardia, Polystichum, Lastrea, Adiantum, Cystopteris, &c. In some of these (Adiantum caudatusn, Polystichum lepidocaulon) the rachis of the frond is lengthened out much like the string of the strawberry runner, and bears a plant at its apex. In others (Polystichum angulare proliferum) the stipes below and the rachis amongst the pinnae develop buds, which are often numerous and crowded. In others again (Woodwardia orientalis, Asplenium bulbiferum), buds are numerously produced on the upper surface of the fronds. These will develop on the plant if allowed to remain. For propagation the bulbiferous portion is pegged down on the surface of a pot of suitable soil; if kept close in a moist atmosphere, the little buds will soon strike root and form independent plants. In Cystopteris the buds are deciduous, falling off as the fronds acquire maturity, but, if collected and pressed into the surface of a pot of soil and kept close, they will grow up into young plants the following season. In some genera of flowering plants, and notably in Bryophyllum, little plants form on various parts of the leaves. In some Monocotyledons, ordinarily in Chlorophytum, and exceptionally in Phalaenopsis and others, new plants arise on the flower stems.
8. By Layers. - Layering consists in preparing the branch of a plant while still attached to the parent, bending it so that the part operated on is brought under ground, and then fixing it there by means of a forked peg. Some plants root so freely that they need only pegging down; but in most cases the arrest of the returning sap to form a callus, and ultimately young roots, must be brought about artificially, either by twisting the branch, by splitting it, by girding FIG. 15. - Propagation by Layers - a, tonguing; b, ringing.
it closely with wire, by taking off a ring of bark, or by " tonguing." In tonguing the leaves are cut off the portion which has to be brought under ground, and a tongue or slit is then cut from below upwards close beyond a joint, of such length that, when the cut part of the layer is pegged an inch or two (or in larger woody subjects 3 or 4 in.) below the surface, the elevation of the point of the shoot to an upright position may open the incision, and thus set it free, so that it may be surrounded by earth to induce it to form roots. The whole branch, except a few buds at the extremity, is covered with soil. The best seasons for these operations are early spring and midsummer, that is, before the sap begins to flow, and after the first flush of growth has passed off. One whole summer, sometimes two, must elapse before the layers will be fully rooted in the case of woody plants; but such plants as carnations and picotees, which are usually propagated in this way, in favourable seasons take only a few weeks to root, as they are layered towards the end of the blooming season in July, and are taken off and planted separately early in the autumn. Fig. 15 shows a woody plant with one layer prepared by tonguing and another by ringing.
In general, each shoot makes one layer, but in plants like the Wistaria or Clematis, which make long shoots, what is called serpentine layering may be adopted; that is, the shoot is taken alternately below and above the surface, as frequently as its length permits. There must, however, be a joint at the underground part where it is to be tongued and pegged, and at least one sound bud in each exposed part, from which a shoot may be developed to form the top of the young plant.
When a plant is too high or its habit does not conveniently admit of its being layered, it may often be increased by what is called circumposition, the soil being carried up to the branch operated on. The branch is to be prepared by ringing or notching or wiring as in layering, and a temporary stand made to support the vessel which is to contain the soil. The vessel may be a flower-pot sawn in two, so that the halves may be bound together when used, or it may be a flower-pot or box with a side slit which will admit the shoot; this vessel is to be filled compactly with suitable porous earth, the opening at the slit being stopped by pieces of slate or tile. The earth must be kept moist, which is perhaps best done by a thick mulching of moss, the moss being also bound closely over the openings in the vessel, and all being kept damp by frequent syringings. Gardeners often dispense with the pot, using sphagnum moss and leaf-mould only when propagating indiarubber plants, perpetual carnations, dracaenas, &c.
10. By Grafts. - Grafting is so extensively resorted to that it is impossible here to notice all its phases. It is perhaps of most importance as the principal means of propagating our hardy kinds of fruit, especially the apple and the pear; but the process is the same with most other fruits and ornamental hardy trees and shrubs that are thus propagated. The stocks are commonly divided into two classes: - (1) free stocks, which consist of seedling plants, chiefly of the same genus or species as the trees from which the scions are taken; and (2) dwarfing stocks, which are of more diminutive growth, either varieties of the same species or species of the same or some allied genus as the scion, which have a tendency to lessen the expansion of the engrafted tree. The French Paradise is the best dwarfing stock for apples, and the quince for pears. In determining the choice of stocks, the nature of the soil in which the grafted trees are to grow should have full weight. In a soil, for example, naturally moist, it is proper to graft pears on the quince, because this plant not only thrives in such a soil, but serves to check the luxuriance thereby produced. The scions should always be ripened portions of the wood of the preceding year, selected from healthy parents; in the case of shy-bearing kinds, it is better to obtain them from the fruitful branches. The scions should be taken off some weeks before they are wanted, and half-buried in the earth, since the stock at the time of grafting should in point of vegetation be somewhat in advance of the graft. During winter, grafts may be conveyed long distances, if carefully packed. If they have been six weeks or two months separated from the parent plant, they should be grafted low on the stock, and the earth should be ridged up round them, leaving only one bud of the scion exposed above ground. The best season for grafting apples and similar hardy subjects in the open air is in March and April; but it may be commenced as soon as the sap in the stock is fairly in motion.
Whip-grafting or Tongue-grafting (fig. 16) is the most usual mode of performing the operation when there is no great difference in thickness between the stock and scion. The stock is headed off by an oblique transverse cut as shown at a, a slice is then pared off the side as at b, and on the face of this a tongue or notch is made, the cut being in a downward direction; the scion c is pared off in a similar way by a single clean sharp cut, and this is notched or tongued in the opposite direction as the figure indicates; the two are then fitted together as shown at d, so that the inner bark of each may come in contact at least on one side, and then tied round with damp soft bast as at e; next some grafting clay is taken on the forefinger and pushed down on each side so as to fill out the space between the top of the stock and the graft, and a portion is also rubbed over the ligatures on the side where the graft is placed, a handful of the clay is then taken, flattened out, and rolled closely round the whole point of junction, being finished off to a tapering form both above and below, as shown by the dotted line f. To do this deftly, the hands should be plunged from time to time in dry ashes, to prevent the clay from sticking to them. Various kinds of grafting wax are now obtainable, and are a great improvement upon the clay process. Some cold mastics become very pliable with the warmth of the hands. They are best applied with a piece of flat wood; or very liquid waxes may be applied with a brush.
a?c Cleft-grafting (fig. 17) is another method in common use. The stock a is cleft down from the horizontal cut d (but not nearly so FIG. 16. - Whip-grafting or Tongue-grafting.
much as the sketch would indicate), and the scion, when cut to a thin wedge form, as shown at c and e, is inserted into the cleft; the whole is then bound up and clayed as in the former case. This is not so good a plan as whip-grafting; it is improved by sloping the stock on one side to the size of the graft.
Crown-grafting or Rind-grafting (fig. 18) is preferable to cleftgrafting, inasmuch as it leaves no open spaces in the wood. The stock b is cut off horizontally or nearly so in January or February. At grafting time a slit is cut in the bark f, f, a wedge-shaped piece of FIG. 1 8. - Crown-Grafting.
iron or a small chisel being inserted to raise the bark; the scion is then cut to the same wedge-shaped form g, h, and inserted in the space opened for it between the alburnum and the bark, after which it is tied down and clayed or waxed over in the manner already described.
Side-grafting is performed like whip-grafting, the graft being inserted on the side of a branch and not at the cut end of the stock. It may be practised for the purpose of changing a part of the tree, and is sometimes very useful for filling out vacant spaces, in trained trees especially.
Marching is another form of side-grafting. Here the graft is fixed to the side of the stock, which is planted or potted close to the plant to be worked. The branches are applied to the stock while yet attached to the parent tree, and remain so until united. In the case of trained trees, a young shoot is sometimes inarched to its parent stem to supply a branch where one has not been developed in the ordinary way.
For the propagation by grafts of stove and greenhouse plants the process adopted is whip-grafting or a modification of it. The parts are, however, sometimes so small that the tongue of the graft is dispensed with, and the two stems simply pared smooth and bound together. In this way hardy rhododendrons of choice sorts, greenhouse azaleas, the varieties of the orange family, camellias, roses, rare conifers, clematises and numerous other plants are increased. Raffia - which has taken the place of bast - is generally used for tying, and grafting wax is only used occasionally with such plants under glass. All grafting of this kind is done in the propagating house, at any season when grafts are obtainable in a fit state - the plants when operated on being placed in close frames warmed to a suitable temperature. Roses and clematis, however, are generally grafted from January to March and April.
Root-grafting is sometimes resorted to where extensive increase is an object, or where stem-grafting or other means of propagation are not available. In this case the scion is grafted directly on to a portion of the root of some appropriate stock, both graft and stock being usually very small; the grafted root is then potted so as to cover the point of junction with the soil, and is plunged in the bed of the propagating house, where it gets the slight stimulus of a gentle bottom heat. Dahlias (fig. 19), paeonies, and Wistarias may be FIG. 19. - Root-grafting FIG. 20. - Root-grafting of of Dahlia. Woody Plant.
grafted by inserting young shoots into the neck of one of the fleshy roots of each kind respectively - the best method of doing so being to cut a triangular section near the upper end of the root, just large enough to admit the young shoot when slightly pared away on two sides to give it a similar form. In the case of large woody plants thus worked (fig. 20) the grafted roots, after the operation is completed, are planted in nursery beds, so that the upper buds only are exposed to the atmosphere, as shown in the figure.
I I. By Buds. - Budding is the inserting of a bud of a choice variety cut with a portion of bark into the bark of the stock of an inferior nature where it is bound gently but firmly. Stone fruits, such as peaches, apricots, plums, cherries, &c., are usually propagated in this way, as well as roses and many other plants. In the propagating house budding may be done at any season when the sap is in motion; but for fruit trees, roses, &c., in the open air, it is usually done in July or August, when the buds destined for the following year are completely formed in the axils of the leaves, and when the bark separates freely from the wood it covers. Those buds are to be preferred, as being best ripened, which occur on the middle portion of a young shoot, and which are quite dormant at the time.
The simplest and most generally practised form of budding is that called shield-budding or T-budding (fig. 21). The operator should be FIG. 21. - Shield-budding.
provided with a sharp budding knife having a thin ivory or bone handle, for raising the bark of the stock. A horizontal incision is made in the bark quite down to the wood, and from this a perpendicular slit is drawn upwards to the extent of perhaps an inch, so that the slit has a resemblance to the letter T, as at a. A bud is then cut by a clean incision from the tree intended to be propagated, having a portion of the wood attached to it, and so that the whole may be about i in. long, as at d. The bit of wood e must be gently withdrawn, care being taken that the bud adheres wholly to the bark or shield, FIG. 17. - Cleft-Grafting.
as it is called, of which f is a side view. The bark on each side of the perpendicular slit being then cautiously opened, as at b, with the handle of the knife, the bud and shield are inserted as shown at c. The upper tip of the shield is cut off horizontally, and brought to fit the bark of the stock at the transverse incision. Slight ties of soft cotton wool or worsted, or moist raffia, are then applied. In about a month or six weeks the ligatures may be removed or slit with the knife to allow for the swelling stem, when, if the operation has been successful, the bud will be fresh and full, and the shield firmly united to the wood. In the following spring a strong shoot will be thrown out, and to prevent its being blown out by the wind, must be fastened to a stake, or to the lower portion of the old stock which has been left for the purpose.
To be successful the operation should be performed with a quick and light hand, so that no part of the delicate tissues be injured, as would happen if they were left for a time exposed, or if the bud were forced in like a wedge. The union is effected as in grafting, by means of the organizable sap or cambium, and the less this is disturbed until the inner bark of the shield is pressed and fixed against it the better. Trees to be grown in the form of a bush are usually budded low down on the stem of the stock as near the root as possible to obviate the development of wild suckers later on. Standard trees, however, are budded on a sturdy young shoot close to the top. In either case the stocks should have been carefully planted at least the previous November when the work is to be done in the open air the following July or August.
12. By Branch Cuttings. - Propagation by cuttings is the mode of increase most commonly adopted, next to that by seeds. It is effected by taking a portion from a branch or shoot of the plant, and placing it in the soil. There are great differences to be observed in the selection and treatment of cuttings. Sometimes soft green leafy shoots, as in Verbena (fig. 22, a), are used; sometimes the shoots FIG. 22. - Propagation by Cuttings.
must be half-ripened, and sometimes fully matured. So of the mode of preparation; some will root if cut off or broken off at any point and thrust into wet earth or sand in a warm place (fig. 22, a); others require to be cut with the utmost care just below a joint or leaf-base, and by a keen blade so as to sever the tissues without tearing or bruising; and others again after being cut across may be split up for a short distance, but there seems to be no particular virtue in this. It is usual and in most cases necessary to cut away the lower portion of a cutting up to just below the node or joint (fig. 22, b, d, e). The internodal parts will'not often divide so as to form separate individual plants; sometimes, however, this happens; it is said that the smallest piece of Torenia asiatica, for instance, will grow. Then as to position, certain cuttings grow readily enough if planted outdoors in the open soil, some preferring shade, others sunshine, while less hardy subjects must be covered with a bell-glass, or must be in a close atmosphere with bottom heat, or must have the aid of pure silver sand to facilitate their rooting (fig. 22, c). Cuttings should in all cases be taken from healthy plants, and from shoots of a moderate degree of vigour. It is also important to select leafy growths, and not such as will at'once run up to flower. Young shoots which have become moderately firm generally make the best cuttings, but sometimes the very softest shoots strike more readily. For all indoor plants in a growing state spring is a good time for taking cuttings, but at any time during the summer months is also favourable if cuttings are obtainable.
Cuttings of deciduous plants should be taken off after the fall of the leaf. These cuttings should be about 6 in. to i ft. in length, and should be planted at once in the ground so as to leave only the top with the two or three preserved buds exposed. If a clean stem, however, is desired, a longer portion may be left uncovered. Gooseberries, currants, roses and many hardy 'deciduous trees and shrubs are easily propagated in this way if the cuttings are inserted in welldrained soil about the end of October or early in November.
Cuttings of growing plants are prepared by removing with a sharp knife, and moderately close, the few leaves which would otherwise be buried in the soil; they are then cut clean across just below a joint; the fewer the leaves thus removed, however, the better, as if kept from being exhausted they help to supply the elaborated sap out of which the roots are formed. Free-rooting subjects strike in any lightish sandy mixture; but difficult subjects should have thoroughly well-drained pots, a portion of the soil proper for the particular plants made very sandy, and a surfacing of clean sharp silver sand about as deep as the length of the cutting.
Such difficult plants as heaths are reared in silver sand, a stratum of which is placed over the sandy peat soil in a specially prepared cutting pot, and thus the cuttings, though rooting in the sand under a bell-glass, find at once on the emission of roots congenial soil for them to grow in (fig. 22, c).
Hardy plants, such as pinks, pansies, &c., are propagated by cuttings planted a during early summer in light rich soil. The cuttings of pinks are called pipings (fig. 22, d), and are planted about June, while pansies may be renewed in this way both in spring and in autumn.
Many plants maybe propagated by planting their leaves or portions of the leaves as cuttings, as, for example, the Gloxinia (fig. 23, a) and Gesnera, the succulent Sempervivum, Echeveria, Pachyphytum and their allies, and such hard-leaved plants as Theophrasta (fig. 23, b). The leaves are best taken off with the base whole, and should be planted in well-drained sandy soil; in due time they form roots, and ultimately from some latent bud a little shoot which forms the young plant. The treatment is precisely like that of branch cuttings. Gloxinias, begonias, &c., grow readily from fragments of the leaves cut clean through the thick veins and ribs, and planted edgewise like cuttings. This class of subjects may also be fixed flat on the surface of the cutting pot, by means of little pegs or hooks, the main ribs being cut across at in tervals, and from these points roots, and eventually young tubers, will be produced (fig. 24). (14. By Root Cuttings. - Some plants which are not easily increased by other means propagate readily from root cuttings. Amongst the indoor plants which may be so treated, Bouvardia, Pelargonium, 1 ?. Aralia and Wigandia may be mentioned. The modus operandi is to turn the plant out of its pot, shake away the soil so as to free the roots, and then select as many pieces of the stouter roots as may be required. These are cut up into half-inch lengths (more or less), and inserted in light sandy soil round the margin of a cutting pot, so that the upper end of the root cutting may be level with the soil or only just covered by it. The pots should be watered so as to settle the soil, and be placed in the close atmosphere of the propagating pit or frame, where they will need scarcely any water until the buds are seen pushing through the surface.
There are various herbaceous plants which may be similarly treated, such as sea-kale and horseradish, and, among ornamental plants, the beautiful autumn-blooming Anemone japonica, Bocconia cordata, Dictamnus Fraxinella - the burning bush; the sea hollies (Eryngium), the globe thistle (Echinops ritro), the Oriental poppy (Papaver orientale), the sea lavender (Statice latifolia), Senecio pulcher, &c. The sea-kale and horseradish require to be treated in the open garden, where the cut portions should be planted in lines in wellworked soil; but the roots of the others should be planted in pots and kept in a close frame with a little warmth till the young shoots have started.
Various hardy ornamental trees are also increased in this way, as the quince, elm, robinia and mulberry, and the rose amongst shrubs. The most important use to which this mode of propagation is put is, however, the increase of roses, and of the various plums used as stocks for working the choicer stone fruits. The method in the latter case is to select roots averaging the thickness of the little finger, to cut these into lengths of about 3 or 4 in., and to plant them FIG. 23. - Leaf Cuttings.
FIG. 24. - Leaf-Propagation of Begonia.
in lines just beneath the surface in nursery beds. The root cuttings of rose-stocks are prepared and treated in a similar way.
15. By Cuttings of Single Eyes. - This mode of propagation is by cutting the ripened young branches into short lengths, each containing one well-matured bud or eye, with a short portion of the stem above and below. It is a common mode of propagating vines, the eyes being in this case cut from the ripened leafless wood. The eyes (fig. 25, a) are planted just below the surface in pots of light soil, which are placed in a hot bed or propagating pit, and in due time each pushes up a young shoot which forms the future stem, while from about its base the young roots are produced (fig. 25, b) which convert it into an independent plant. In the case of plants with persistent leaves, the stem may be cut through just above and below the bud, retaining the leaf which is left on the cutting, the old wood and eye being placed beneath the soil and the leaf left exposed. In this way the india-rubber tree (Ficus elastica), for example, and many other tender plants may be increased with the aid of a brisk bottom heat. Many of the free-growing soft-wooded plants may also be grown from cuttings of single joints of the young wood, where rapid increase is desired; and in the case of opposite-leaved plants two cuttings may often be made from one joint by splitting the stem longitudinally, each cutting consisting of a leaf and a perfect bud attached to half the thickness of the stem.
In preparing a fruit tree for transplantation, the first thing to be done is to open a trench round it at a distance of from 3 to 4 ft., according to size. The trench should be opened to about two spades' depth, and any coarse roots which may extend thus far from the trunk may be cut clean off with a sharp knife. The soil between the trench and the stem is to be reduced as far as may seem necessary or practicable by means of a digging fork, the roots as soon as they are liberated being fixed on one side and carefully preserved. By working in this way all round the ball, the best roots will be got out and preserved, and the ball lightened of all superfluous soil. The tree will then be ready to lift if carefully prized up from beneath the ball, and if it does not lift readily, it will probably be found that a root has struck downwards, which will have to be sought out and cut through. Whenever practicable, it is best to secure a ball of earth round the roots. On the tree being lifted from its hole the roots should be examined, and all which have been severed roughly with the spade should have the ends cut smooth with the knife to facilitate the emission of fibres. The tree can then be transported to its new position. The hole for its reception should be of sufficient depth to allow the base of the ball of earth, or of the roots, to stand so that the point whence the uppermost roots spring from the stem may be 2 or 3 in. below the general surface level. Then the bottom being regulated so as to leave the soil rather highest in the centre, the plant is to be set in the hole in the position desired, and steadied there by hand. Next the roots from the lower portion of the ball are to be sought out and laid outwards in lines radiating from the stem, being distributed equally on all sides as nearly as this can be done; some fine and suitable good earth should be thrown amongst the roots as they are thus being placed, and worked in well up to the base of the ball. The soil covering the roots may be gently pressed down, but the tree should not be pulled up and down, as is sometimes done, to settle the soil. This done, another set of roots higher up the ball must be laid out in the same way, and again another, until the whole of the roots, thus carefully laid, are embedded as firmly as may be in the soil, which may now receive another gentle treading. The stem should next be supported permanently, either by one stake or by three, according to its size. The excavation will now be filled up about two-thirds perhaps; and if so the tree may have a thorough good watering, sufficient to settle the soil closely about its roots. After twenty-four hours the hole may be levelled in, with moderate treading, if the water has soaked well in, the surface being left level and not sloping upwards towards the stem of the tree. In transplanting trees of the ornamental class, less need be attempted in respect to providing new soil, although the soil should be made as congenial as practicable. Generally speaking,, fruit trees are best transplanted when three or four years of age,. in which time they will have acquired the shape given by the nurseryman, who generally transplants his stock each autumn to produce large masses of root fibres. Nowadays, however, quite large trees, chiefly of an ornamental character, and perhaps weighing several tons, are lifted with a large ball of soil attached to the roots, by means of a special tree-lifting machine, and are readily transferred from one part of the garden to another, or even for a distance of several miles, without serious injury. The best season for transplanting deciduous trees is during the early autumn months. As regards evergreens opinions are divided, some preferring August and September, others April or May. They can be successfully planted at either period, but for subjects which are at all difficult to remove the spring months are to be preferred.
In transplanting smaller subjects, such as plants for the flower garden, much less effort is required. The plant must be lifted with as little injury to its rootlets as possible, and carefully set into the hole, the soil being filled in round it, and carefully pressed close by the hand. For moving small plants the garden trowel is a very convenient tool, but we are inclined to give the preference to the hand-fork. For larger masses, such as stronggrowing herbaceous plants, a spade or digging-fork will be requisite and the soil may be trodden down with the feet.
When seedlings of vigorous plants have to be " pricked out," a dibble or dibber is the best implement to be used. The ground being prepared and, if necessary, enriched, and the surface made fine and smooth, a hole is made with the dibble deep enough and large enough to receive the roots of the seedling plants without doubling them up, and the hole is filled in by working the soil close to the plant with the point of the dibble. The pricking out of seedlings in pots in the propagating pit is effected in a similar way. The plants, indeed, often require to be removed and set from 2 in. to i in. apart before they have become sufficiently developed to admit of being handled with any degree of facility, and for these a pointed stick of convenient size is used as a dibble. In delicate cases, such as seedling gloxinias and begonias, it is best to lift the little seedling on the end of a flattish pointed stick, often cleft at the apex, pressing this into the new soil where the plant is to be placed, and liberating it and closing the earth about it by the aid of a similar stick held in the other hand.
Garden pots are made with a comparatively large hole in the bottom, and those of the largest size have also holes at the side near the bottom; these openings are to prevent the soil becoming saturated or soured with superabundant water. To prepare the pot for the plant, a broadish piece of potsherd, called a " crock," is placed over the large hole, and if there be side holes they also are covered. The bottom crock is made from a piece of a broken garden pot, and is laid with the convex side upwards; then comes a layer of irregular pieces of crock of various sizes, about i in. deep in a 5-in. pot, 2 in. in an 11 -in. or 12 -in. pot, &c. The mode of crocking a pot is shown in fig. 26. A few of the coarser lumps from the outer FIG. 25. - Cutting of Single Eye.
FIG. 26. - Section of Pot showing Crocks.
edge of the heap of potting soil are spread over the crocks. The same end, that of keeping the finer particles of the soil from mixing with the drainage crocks, may be attained by shaking in a little clean moss. A handful or two of the soil is then put in, and on this the plant with its roots spread out is to be set, a trifle higher than the plant should stand in the pot when finished off; more soil is to be added, and the whole pressed firmly with the fingers, the base of the stem being just below the pot-rim, and the surface being smoothed off so as to slope a little outwards. When finished off, the pots should be watered well, to settle the soil; but they should stand till the water has well drained away, since, if they are moved about while the fresh soil is very wet, there will be a risk of its becoming puddled or too much consolidated. Larger plants do not need quite such delicate treatment, but care should be taken not to handle the roots roughly. The soil for these may be somewhat coarser, and the amount of drainage material more ample. Larger bodies of soil also require to be more thoroughly consolidated before watering; otherwise they would settle down so as to leave an unsightly void at the pot-rim.
Some plants, especially when potted temporarily, may be dealt with in a simpler way. A single crock may be used in some cases, and in others no crock at all, but a handful of half-decayed leaves or half-decayed dung thrown into the bottom of the pot. This mode of potting does well for bulbs, such as hyacinths, which are either thrown away or planted out when the bloom is over. The bedding plants generally may be potted in this way, the advantage being that at planting-out time there is less risk of disturbing the roots than if there were potsherds to remove. Plants of this character should be potted a little less firmly than specimens which are likely to stand long in the pot, and indeed the soil should be made comparatively light by the intermixture of leaf-mould or some equivalent, in order that the roots may run freely and quickly into it.
For epiphytal plants like orchids the most thorough drainage must be secured by the abundant use of potsherds, small pots being sometimes inserted inside the larger ones, or by planting in shallow pots or pans, so that there shall be no large mass of soil to get consolidated. For most of these the lightest spongy but sweet turfy peat must be used, this being packed lightly about the roots, and built up above the pot-rim, or in some cases freely mixed before use with chopped sphagnum moss and small pieces of broken pots or nodules of charcoal. The plants under these conditions often require to be supported by wooden pegs or sticks. Some of the species grow better when altogether taken out of the soil and fixed to blocks of wood, but in this case they require a little coaxing with moss about the roots until they get established. In other cases they are planted in open baskets of wood or wire, using the porous peat and sphagnum compost. Both blocks and baskets are usually suspended from the roof of the house, hanging free, so that no accumulation of water is possible. These conditions of orchid-growing have undergone great changes of late years, and the plants are grown much as other stove and greenhouse plants in ordinary pots with composts not only of peat but of leaf-mould, and fibres from osmunda and polypodium ferns.
When repotting is adopted as a temporary expedient, as in the case of bedding-out plants which it is required to push forward as much as possible, it will suffice if provision is made to prevent the drainage hole from getting blocked, and a rich light compost is provided for the encouragement of the roots. When, however, a hard-wooded plant has to be repotted, the case is different; it may stand without further potting for one year or two years or more, and therefore much more care is necessary. The old ball of earth must be freed from all or most of the old crocks without doing injury to the roots, and the sharp edge of the upper surface gently rubbed off. If there be any sour or sodden or effete soil into which the roots have not run, this should be carefully picked out with a pointed stick. The ball is to be set on the new soil just high enough that when finished the base of the stem may be somewhat below the pot-rim, and the space between the old ball and the sides of the pot is to be filled in gradually with the prepared compost, which is from time to time to be pressed down with a blunt-ended flat piece of wood called a potting-stick, so as to render the new soil as solid as the old. The object of this is to prevent the plant from starving by the water applied all running off by way of the new soil, and not penetrating the original ball of earth. When this amount of pressure is necessary, especially in the case of loamy composts, the soil itself should be rather inclined to dryness, and should in no case be sufficiently moist to knead together into a pasty mass. In ordinary cases the potting soil should be just so far removed from dryness that when a handful is gently pressed it may hang together, but may lose its cohesion when dropped.
When plants are required to stand in ornamental china pots or vases, it is better, both for the plants and for avoiding risk of breakage, to grow them in ordinary garden pots of a size that will drop into the more valuable vessels. Slate pots or tubs, usually square, are sometimes adopted, and are durable and otherwise unobjectionable, only, their sides being less porous, the earth does not dry so rapidly, and some modification of treatment as to watering is necessary. For large conservatory specimens wooden tubs, round or square, are frequently used; these should be coated with pitch inside to render them more durable.
Various other contrivances take the place of garden pots for special purposes. Thus shallow square or oblong wooden boxes, made of light, inexpensive wood, are very useful for seedsowing, for pricking out seedlings, or for planting cuttings. When the disturbance of the roots incidental to all transplanting is sought to be avoided, the seed or plant is started in some cases in squares of turf (used grassy-side downwards), which can when ready be transferred to the place the plant is to occupy. Cucumber and melon plants and vines reared from eyes are sometimes started in this way, both for the reason above mentioned and because it prevents the curling of the roots apt to take place in plants raised in pots. Strips of turf are sometimes used for the rearing of early peas, which are sown in a warmish house or frame, and gradually hardened so as to bear exposure before removal to the open air.
The guiding principle in watering plants is to do it thoroughly when it is required, and to abstain from giving a second supply till the first has been taken up.
When watering becomes necessary for kitchen-garden crops, the hose should be laid on and the lines of esculents allowed to drink their fill, if fresh succulent vegetables are desired. So also, if well-swelled and luscious fruits, such as strawberries, are required, there must be no parching at the roots. This applies even more strongly to conservatory borders and to forcinghouses than to the outside fruit-tree borders, because from these the natural rain supply is in most cases more distinctly cut off. In the case of forcing-houses, the water should be heated before being applied to the borders containing the roots of the trees.
In the watering of pot plants the utmost care is requisite if the plant be a shy-growing or valuable one, and yet it is almost impossible to give any intelligible instruction for performing the operation. The roots should never be suffered either to get thoroughly dry or to get sodden with excess of water. An adept will know by the ring of the pot on striking it with his knuckles whether water is wanted or not, according as it rings loud and clear or dull and heavy. With very choice subjects watering may be necessary two or three times a day in drying summer weather. It is a wrong though common practice to press the surface of the soil in the pot in order to feel if it is moist enough, as this soon consolidates it, and prevents it from getting the full benefit of aeration.
In all heated houses the water used should be warmed at least up to the temperature of the atmosphere, so as to avoid chilling the roots. This is also necessary in the case of water used for syringing the plants, which should be done two or three times a day in all stoves and forcing-houses, especially during the period when the young growth is being developed. The damping of all absorbent surfaces, such as the floors or bare walls, &c., is frequently necessary several times a day in the growing season, so as to keep up a humid atmosphere; hence the advantage of laying the floors a little rounded, as then the water draws off to the sides against the kerbstone, while the centre remains dry for promenaders.
In cooler structures it becomes necessary in the dull season of the year to prevent the slopping of water over the plants or on the floor, as this tends to cause " damping off," - the stems assuming a state of mildewy decay, which not infrequently, if it once attacks a plant, will destroy it piece by piece. For the same reason cleanliness and free ventilation under favourable weather conditions are of great importance.
Pruning is a very important operation in the fruit garden, its object being twofold - (i) to give form to the tree, and (2) to induce the free production of flower buds as the precursors of a plentiful crop of fruit. To form a standard tree, either the stock is allowed to grow up with a straight stem, by cutting away all side branches up to the height required, say about 6 ft., the scion or bud being worked at that point, and the head developed therefrom; or the stock is worked close to the ground, and the young shoot obtained therefrom is allowed to grow up in the same way, being pruned in its progress to keep it single and straight, and the top being cut off when the desired height is reached, so as to cause the growth of lateral shoots. If these are three or four in number, and fairly balanced as to strength and position, little pruning will be required. The tips of unripened wood should be cut back about one-third their length at an outwardly placed bud, and the chief pruning thereafter required will be to cut away inwardly directed shoots which cross or crowd each other and tend to confuse the centre of the tree. Bushy heads should be thinned out, and those that are too large cut back so as to remodel them. If the shoots produced are not sufficient in number, or are badly placed, or very unequal in vigour, the head should be cut back moderately close, leaving a few inches only of the young shoots, which should be pruned back to buds so placed as to furnish shoots in the positions desired. When worked at the top of a stem formed of the stock, the growth from the graft or bud must be pruned in a similar way. Three or four leading shoots should be selected to pass ere long into boughs and form a well-balanced framework for the tree; these boughs, however, will soon grow beyond any artificial system the pruner may adopt.
To form a dwarf or bush fruit tree the stock must be worked near the ground, and the young shoot produced from the scion or bud must be cut back to whatever height it is desired the dwarf stem should be, say 1-1 to 2 ft. The young shoots produced from the portion of the new wood retained are to form the framework of the bush tree, and must be dealt with as in the case of standard trees. The growth of inwardly directed shoots FIG. 27. - Dwarf-Tree Pruning.
is to be prevented, and the centre kept open, the tree assuming a cup-shaped outline. Fig. 27, reduced from M. Hardy's excellent work, Traite" de la taille des arbres fruitiers, will give a good idea how these dwarf trees are to be manipulated, a showing the first year's development from the maiden tree after being headed back, and b the form assumed a year or two later.
In forming a pyramidal tree, the lateral growths, instead of being removed, as in the standard tree, are encouraged to the utmost; and in order to strengthen them the upper part of the leading shoot is removed annually, the side branches being also shortened somewhat as the tree advances in size. In fig. 28, reduced from M. Hardy's work, a shows a young, FIG. 28. - Pyramid Pruning.
tree with its second year's growth, the upright shoot of the maiden tree having been moderately headed back, being left longer if the buds near the base promise to break freely, or cut shorter if they are weak and wanting in vigour. The winter pruning,. carried out with the view to shape the tree into a well-grown pyramid, would be effected at the places marked by a cross line. The lowest branch would have four buds retained, the end one being on the lower side of the branch. The two next would be cut to three buds, which here also are fortunately so situated that the one to be left is on the lower side of the branches. The fourth is not cut at all owing to its shortness and weakness, its terminal bud being allowed to grow to draw strength into it. The fifth is an example where the bud to which the shoot should be cut back is badly placed; a shoot resulting from a bud left on the upper side is apt instead of growing outwards to grow erect, and lead to confusion in the form of the tree; to avoid this it is tied down in its proper place during the summer by a small twig. The upper shoots are cut closer in. Near the base of the stem are two prominent buds, which would produce two vigorous shoots, but these would be too near the ground, and the buds should therefore be suppressed; but, to strengthen the lower part, the weaker buds just above and below the lowest branch should be forced into growth, by making a transverse incision close above each. Fig. 28, b, shows what a similar tree: would be at the end of the third year's growth.
In order to bring a young tree into the cordon shape, all its side branches are shortened back, either to form permanent spurs, as in the case of pears, or to yield annual young shoots, as in peaches and nectarines. The single-stemmed cordon may be trained horizontally, obliquely at any required angle, or vertically if required, the first two arrangements being preferable. If a double cordon is required, the original young stem must be headed back, and the two best shoots produced must be selected, trained right and left, and treated as for the single cordon.
The forms chiefly adopted for trees trained to walls and espalier rails are the fan-shaped, the half-fan and the horizontal, with their various modifications.
The maiden tree is headed down, and two shoots led away right and left. Two laterals should be allowed to grow from the upper side of them, one from near the base, the other from near the middle, all others being pinched out beyond the second or third leaf during summer, but cut away to the last bud in winter. The tree will thus consist of six shoots, probably 3 ft. to 4 ft. long, which are not to be pruned unless they are unequal in strength, a defect which is rather to be remedied by summer pinching than by winter pruning. The second year three young shoots are to be left on each of the six, one close to the base, one about the middle, and one at the point, the rest being rubbed off. These three shoots will produce laterals, of which one or two may be selected and laid in; and thus a number of moderately strong fertile shoots will be obtained, and at the end of the season a comparatively large tree will be the result.
The method of pruning formerly adopted for the formation of a fan-shaped tree was to head down the maiden plant to about two eyes, so placed as to yield a young shoot on each side (fig. 29), the supernumerary shoots being rubbed off while quite young, and the reserved shoots trained against the wall FIG. 29. - Pruning for Fanshaped Tree.
during the summer so as to get them well matured. The next year they were cut back again, often nearly to the base, in order that the lower pair of these shoots might each produce two well-placed young shoots, and the upper pair three young shoots. The tree would thus consist of ten shoots, to be laid out at regular distances, and then if closely cut the frame-work of the tree would be as in fig. 30. These main shoots were not again to be shortened back, but from each of them three young shoots were to be selected and trained in two, on the upper side, one near the base, and the other halfway up, and one on the lower side placed about midway between these two; these with the leading shoot, which was also to be nailed in, made four branches of the current year from each of the ten main branches, and the form of the tree would therefore be that of fig. 31. The other young shoots produced were pinched off while quite young, to throw all the strength of the tree into those which were to form its basis, and to secure abundant light and air. In after years the leading shoot was not to be cut back, but all the lateral shoots were to be shortened, and from these year by year other shoots were to be selected to fill up the area occupied by the tree.
In pruning for a horizontal tree the young maiden tree has to be headed back nearly to its base, and from the young shoots three are to be selected, the two best-placed lower ones to form an opposite or nearly opposite pair of main branches, and the best-placed upper one to continue the erect stem (fig. 32). This upper shoot is at the next winter pruning to be cut down to within about a foot of the point whence it sprung, and its buds rubbed off except the upper one for a leader, and one on each side just below it to furnish another pair of side shoots; these being trained in position, the tree would appear as in fig. 33.
FIG. 32. - Pruning for Horizontally trained Tree.
The same course is to be followed annually till the space is filled. Sometimes in very favourable soils and with vigorous trees two pairs of branches may be obtained in one season by summerstopping the erect shoots and selecting others from the young growths thus induced, but more commonly the trees have to be built up by forming one pair of branches annually. The shoots are not at first lowered to the horizontal line, but are brought down gradually and tied to thin stakes; and while the tree is being formed weak shoots may be allowed to grow in a more erect position than it is ultimately intended they should occupy. Thus in four or five years the tree will have FIG. 34. - The same - fifth year.
acquired something of the character of fig. 34, and will go on thus increasing until the space is filled.
The half-fan is a combination of the two forms, but as regards pruning does not materially differ from the horizontal, as two opposite side branches are produced in succession upwards till the space is filled, only they are not taken out so abruptly, but are allowed to rise at an acute angle and then to curve into the horizontal line.
In all the various forms of cordons, in horizontal training, and in fan and half-fan training, the pruning of the main branches when the form of the tree is worked out will vary in accordance with the kind of fruit under treatment. Thus in the peach, nectarine, apricot, plum and cherry, which are commonly trained fan-fashion, the first three (and also the morello cherry if grown) will have to be pruned so as to keep a succession of young annual shoots, these being their fruit-bearing wood. The others are generally pruned so as to combine a moderate supply of young wood with a greater or less number of fruit spurs. In the pear and apple the fruit is borne principally on spurs, and hence what is known as spur-pruning has to be adopted, the young shoots being all cut back nearly to their base, so as to cause fruit buds to evolve from the remaining eyes or buds. Cordons of apples and pears have to be similarly treated, but cordons of peaches and nectarines are pruned so as to provide the necessary annual succession of young bearing wood.
FIG. 30. - The same - third year.
FIG. 31. - The same - fourth year.
FIG. 33. - The same - third year.
Fruit trees trained as espaliers, fans or cordons against walls, trellises or fences, are not only pruned carefully in the winter but must be also pruned during the early summer months. Many of the smaller, useless shoots are rubbed out altogether; the best are allowed to grow perhaps a foot or more in length, and then either have the tips pinched out with the finger and thumb, or the ends may be cracked or broken, and allowed to hang down, but are not detached completely. This is called summer pruning, and is an important operation requiring knowledge on the part of the gardener to perform properly. Shoots of peaches, nectarines and morello cherries are "laid in," that is, placed in between fruiting shoots where there is the space to be ripened for next year's crop.
Summer Pruning should be performed while the shoots are yet young and succulent, so that they may in most cases be nipped off with the thumb-nail. It is very necessary in the case of trees trained to a flat surface, as a wall or espalier rail, to prevent undue crowding. In some cases, as, for example, with peaches, the superfluous shoots are wholly removed, and certain selected shoots reserved to supply bearing wood for next year. In others, as pears, the tops of the young shoots are removed, leaving three or four leaves and their buds at the base, to be developed into fruit buds by the additional nourishment thus thrown into them (fig. 35, a). One or two may push out a late summer growth, b; this will serve as a vent for the vigour FIG. 35. - Summer Pruning for Spurs. of the tree, and if the lowermost only go to the formation of a fruit spur, the object will have been gained. They are cut to the last dormant bud in winter.
But summer pruning has been much extended since the introduction of restricted growth and the use of dwarfing stocks. Orchard-house trees, and also pyramidal and bush trees of apples, pears and plums, are mainly fashioned by summer pruning; in fact, the less the knife is used upon them, except in the necessary cutting of the roots in potted trees, the better. In the case of orchard-house plants no shoots are suffered to lengthen out, except as occasionally wanted to fill up a gap in the outline of the tree. On the contrary, the tops of all young shoots are pinched off when some three or four leaves are formed, and this is done again and again throughout the season. When this pruning is just brought to a balance with the vigour of the roots, the consequence is that fruit buds are formed all over the tree, instead of a thicket of sterile and useless wood. Pyramidal and bush trees out of doors are, of course, suffered to become somewhat larger, and sufficient wood must be allowed to grow to give them the form desired; but after the first year or two, when the framework is laid out, they are permitted to extend very slowly, and never to any great extent, while the young growths are continually nipped off, so as to clothe the branches with fruit buds as closely placed as will permit of their healthy development.
The nature of the cut itself in pruning is of more consequence, especially in the case of fruit trees, than at first sight may appear. The branches should be separated by a clean cut at an angle of about 45°, just at the back of a bud, the cut entering on a level with the base of the bud and passing out on a level with its top (fig. 36, a), for when cut in this way the wound becomes rapidly covered with new wood, as soon as growth recommences, whereas if the cut is too close the bud is starved, or if less close an ugly and awkward snag is left. Fig 36, b and c, are examples of the former, and d, e, f of the latter. In fact there is only one right way to cut a shoot and that is as shown at a. The Pruning of flowering plants is generally a much lighter matter than the pruning of fruit trees. If a young seedling or cutting of any soft-wooded plant is to be bushy, it must have [[[Garden Operations]] its top nipped out by the thumb-nail or pruning-scissors at a very early stage, and this stopping must be repeated frequently. If what is called a well-furnished plant is required, an average of from 2 to 3 in. is all the extension that must be permitted - FIG. 36. - Cuts - Good and Bad.
sometimes scarcely so much - before the top is nipped out; and this must be continued until the desired size is attained, whether that be large or small. Then generally the plant is allowed to grow away till bloom or blooming shoots are developed. To form a pyramidal plant, which is a very elegant and useful shape to give to a decorative pot plant, the main stem should be encouraged to grow upright, for a length perhaps of 6 or 8 in. before it is topped; this induces the formation of laterals, and favours their development. The best-placed upper young shoot is selected and trained upright to a slender stake, and this also is topped when it has advanced 6 or 8 in. further, in order to induce the laterals on the second portion to push freely. This process is continued till the required size is gained. With all the difficult and slow-growing plants of the hard-wooded section, all the pruning must be done in this gradual way in the young wood as the plant progresses.
Some plants, like pelargoniums, can only be kept handsomely formed and well furnished by cutting them down severely every season, after the blooming is over. The plants should be prepared for this by keeping them rather dry at the root, and after cutting they must stand with little or no water till the stems heal over, and produce young shoots, or " break," as it is technically termed. The appearance of a specimen pelargonium properly pruned is shown in fig. 37, in which a shows a young plant, the head of which has been taken off to form a cutting, and whose buds are ready to break into young shoots. Three shoots will be produced, and these, after growing from 4 to 6 in. in length, should be stopped by pinching out the point, this giving rise to lateral shoots. These will blossom in due course, and, after being ripened thoroughly by full exposure to the sun, should be cut back as shown at b. This is the proper foundation for a good specimen, and illustrates how all such subjects should be pruned to keep them stocky and presentable in form.
Root-pruning is most commonly practised in fruit-tree cultivation. It is often resorted to as a means of restoring fertility in plants which have become over rank from an excess of nourishment in the soil, or sterile from want of it. The effect of root-pruning in the first case is to reduce the supply of crude sap to the branches, and consequently to cause a check in their development. In the second case all roots that have struck downwards into a cold uncongenial subsoil must be pruned off if they cannot be turned in a lateral direction, and all the lateral ones that have become coarse and fibreless must also be shortened back by means of a clean cut with a sharp knife, while a compost of rich loamy soil with a little bone-meal, and leaf-mould or old manure, should be filled into the trenches from which the old sterile soil has been taken. The operation is best performed early in autumn, and may be safely resorted to in the case of fruit trees FIG. 37.
of moderate age, and even of old trees if due care be exercised. In transplanting trees all the roots which may have become bruised or broken in the process of lifting should be cut clean away behind the broken part, as they then more readily strike out new roots from the cut parts. In all these cases the cut should be a clean sloping one, and made in an upward and outward direction.
The root-pruning of pot-plants is necessary in the case of many soft-wooded subjects which are grown on year after year - pelargoniums and fuchsias, for example. After the close pruning of the branches to which they are annually subjected, and when the young shoots have shot forth an inch or two in length, they are turned out of their pots and have the old soil shaken away from their roots, the longest of which, to the extent of about half the existing quantity, are then cut clean away, and the plants repotted into small pots. This permits the growing plant to be fed with rich fresh soil, without having been necessarily transferred to pots of unwieldy size by the time the flowering stage is reached.
One of the expedients for inducing a state of fruitfulness in trees is the ringing of the branches or stem, that is, removing a narrow annular portion of the bark, by which means, it is said, the trees are not only rendered productive, but the quality of the fruit is at the same time improved. The advantage depends on the obstruction given to the descent of the sap. The ring should be cut out in spring, and be of such a width that the bark may remain separated for the season. A tight ligature of twine or wire answers the same end. The advantages of the operation may generally be gained by judicious root pruning, and it is not at all adapted for the various stone fruits.
What is called training is the guiding of the branches of a tree or plant in certain positions which they would not naturally assume, the object being partly to secure their full exposure to light, and partly to regulate the flow and distribution of the sap. To secure the former object, the branches must be so fixed as to shade each other as little as possible; and to realize the second, the branches must have given to them an upward or downward direction, as they may require to be encouraged or repressed.
a " Something of the same vegetative FIG. 38. - Diagram illustrating Branch Distribution. vigour which is given to a plant or tree by hard pruning is afforded by training in an upward direction so as to promote the flow of the sap; while the repression effected by summer pruning is supplemented by downward training, which acts as a check. One main object is the preservation of equilibrium in the growth of the several parts of the tree; and for this various minor details deserve attention. Thus a shoot will grow more vigorously whilst waving in the air than when nailed close to the wall; consequently a weak shoot should be left free, whilst its stronger antagonist should be restrained; and a luxuriant shoot may be retarded for some time by having its tender extremity pinched off to allow a weaker shoot to overtake it.
By the prudent use of the knife, fruit trees may be readily trained into the forms indicated below, which are amongst the best out of the many which have been devised.
The training of standard and bush trees in the open ground has been already referred to under the section Pruning. When the growth of pyramids is completed, the outline is something like that of fig. 39, and very pretty trees are thus formed. It is better, however, especially if the tendency to bear fruit is rather slack, to adopt what the French call en quenouille training 40), which consists in tying or weighting the tips of the branches so as to give them all a downward curve. Pear trees FIG. 39. - Pyramidal Training. FIG. 40. - Training en quenouille. worked on the quince stock, and trained en quenouille, are generally very fertile.
Wall trees, it must be evident, are placed in a very unnatural and constrained position, and would in fact soon be reduced to a state of utter confusion if allowed to grow unrestricted; hence the following modes of training have been adopted.
Horizontal Training (fig. 41) has long been a favourite form in England. There is one principal ascending stem, from which o ', FIG. 41. - Horizontal Training.
the branches depart at right angles, at intervals of about a foot. Horizontal training is best adapted to the apple and the pear; and for the more twiggy growing slender varieties, the forms shown in fig. 42 have been recommended. In these the horizontal branches are placed wider, 18 to zo in. apart, and the smaller shoots are trained between them, either on both sides, as at a, or deflexed from the lower side, as at b. The latter is an excellent method of reclaiming neglected trees. Every alternate FIG. 42. - Forms of Horizontal Training.
branch should be taken away, and the spurs cut off, after which the young shoots are trained in, and soon produce good fruit.
[GARDEN OPERATIONS ,
In Fan Training (fig. 43) there is no leading stem, but the branches spring from the base and are arranged somewhat like the ribs of a fan. This mode of training is commonly adopted for the peach, nectarine, apricot and morello cherry, to which . .. - a. ] it is best adapted. Though sometimes adopted, it is not so well suited as the horizontal form for apples and pears, because, when the branches reach the top of the wall, where they must FIG. 43. - Fan Training.
be cut short, a hedge of young shoots is inevitable. A modification of the fan shape (fig. 44) is sometimes adopted for stone fruits, such as the plum and apricot. In this the object is to establish a number of mother branches, and on these to form a series of subordinate members, chiefly composed of bearing wood. The mother branches or limbs should not be numerous, but well marked, equal in strength and regularly disposed. The FIG. 44. - Modified Fan Training.
side branches should be pretty abundant, short and not so vigorous as to rival the leading members.
The Half fan mode of training, which is intermediate between horizontal and fan training, is most nearly allied to the former, but the branches leave the stem at an acute angle, a disposition supposed to favour the more equal distribution of the sap. Sometimes, as in fig. 45, two vertical stems are adopted, but there is no particular advantage in this, and a single-stemmed tree is more manageable. The half-fan form is well adapted for such fruits FIG. 45. - Half-Fan Training.
as the plum and the cherry; and, indeed, for fruits of vigorous habit, it seems to combine the advantages of both the foregoing.
Trees must be fixed to the walls and buildings against which they are trained by means of nails and shreds (neat medicated strips are now sold for this purpose), or in cases where it is desired to preserve the wall surface intact, by permanent nails or studs driven in in regular order. Sometimes the walls are furnished with galvanized wires, but this has been objected to as causing cankering of the shoots, for which, however, painting is recommended as a remedy. By crossing the tying material between the wire and the wood, however, and so preventing. them from coming in contact, there is no danger. If they are adopted, the wires should be a few inches away from the wall, to allow free circulation of air between it and the tree, and thus avoid the scorching or burning of leaves and fruits during the summer months in very hot places. Care should be taken that the ties or fastenings do not eventually cut into the bark as the branches swell with increased age. When shreds and nails are used, short thick wire nails and " medicated shreds " are the best; the ordinary cast iron wall nails being much too brittle and difficult to drive into the wall. It must be remembered that nails spoil a wall sooner or later, whereas a wire trellis is not only much neater, but enables the gardener to tie his trees up much more quickly.
For tying plants to trellises and stakes soft tarred string or raffia (the fibre from the Raphia palm of Madagascar) is used. In training greenhouse plants the young branches should be drawn outwards by means of ties fastened to a string or wire FIG. 46. - Clematis trained on Balloon-Shaped Trellis.
under the pot-rim; the centre then fills up, and slender stakes are used as required; but the fewer these are in number the better. Climbers are trained from the bottom around or across trellises, of which the cylindrical or the balloon-shaped, or sometimes the flat oval or circular, are the best forms. The size should be adapted to the habit of the plant, which should cover the whole by the time flowers are produced. Bast fibre and raffia fibre are to be preferred for light subjects of this character, as they can be split to any degree of fineness. Very durable trellises for greenhouse climbers are made of slender round iron rods for standards, having a series of hooks on the inner edge, into which rings of similar metal are dropped; the rings may be graduated so as to form a broad open top, or may be all of the same size, when the trellis will assume the cylindrical form. Fig. 46 shows a pot specimen of clematis trained over a balloonshaped trellis.
The training of certain bedding plants over the surface of the soil is done by small pegs of birch wood or bracken, by loops of wire or cheap hair-pins, or sometimes by loops of raffia having the ends fixed in the soil by the aid of the dibble. The object is to fill up the blank space as quickly and as evenly as possible.
Forcing is the accelerating, by special treatment, of the growth of certain plants, which are required to be had in leaf, in flower or in fruit before their natural season, - as, for instance, the leaves of mint at Eastertide or the leafstalks of sea-kale and rhubarb at Christmas, the flowers of summer in the depth of winter, or some of the choicest fruits perfected so much before their normal period as to complete, with the retarded crops of winter, the circle of the seasons.
In the management of artificial heat for this purpose, a considerable degree of caution is required. The first stages of forcing should, of course, be very gentle, so that the whole growth of the plants may advance in harmony. The immediate application of a very hot atmosphere would unduly force the tops, while the roots remained partially or wholly inactive; and a strong bottom heat, if it did not cause injury by its excess, would probably result in abortive growth.
Any sudden decrease of warmth would be very prejudicial to the progress of vegetation through the successive stages of foliation, inflorescence and fructification. But it is not necessary that one unvarying range of temperature should be kept up at whatever pains or risk. Indeed, in very severe weather it is found better to drop a little from the maximum temperature by fire heat, and the loss so occasioned may be made good by a little extra heat applied when the weather is more genial. Night temperatures also should always be allowed to drop somewhat, the heat being increased again in the morning. In other words, the artificial temperature should increase by day and decrease by night, should rise in summer and fall in winter, should, in short, imitate as nearly as possible the varying influence of the sun.
For the growth of flowers generally, and for that of all fruits, every ray of light to be obtained in the dull winter season is required, and therefore every possible care should be taken to keep the glass clean. A moist genial atmosphere too is essential, a point requiring unremitting attention on account of the necessity of keeping up strong fires. With moisture as with heat, the cultivator must hold his hand somewhat in very severe or very dull weather; but while heat must not drop so as to chill the progressing vegetation, so neither must the lack of moisture parch the plants so as to check their growth.
There are some few subjects which when forced do not require a light house. Thus amongst flowers the white blossoms of the lilac, so much prized during winter, are produced by forcing purple-flowered plants in darkness. Rhubarb and sea-kale among esculents both need to be forced in darkness to keep them crisp and tender, and mushrooms also are always grown in dark structures. In fact, a roomy mushroom house is one of the most convenient of all places for forcing the vegetables just referred to. The lilac would be better placed in a dark shed heated to about 70° or 80°, in which some dung and leaves could be allowed to lie and ferment, giving off both a genial heat and moisture.
One of the most important preliminaries to successful forcing is the securing to the plants a previous state of rest. The thorough ripening of the preceding season's wood in fruit trees and flowering plants, and of the crown in perennial herbs like strawberries, and the cessation of all active growth before the time they are to start into a new growth, are of paramount importance. The ripening process must be brought about by free exposure to light, and by the application of a little extra heat with dryness, if the season should be unfavourable; and both roots and tops must submit to a limitation of their water supply. When the ripening is perfected, the resting process must be aided by keeping the temperature in which they await the forcing process as low as each particular subject can bear. (See Retardation above.) V. Flowers. Flower Garden and Pleasure Grounds. - Wherever there is a flower garden of considerable magnitude, and in a separate situation, it should be constructed on principles of its own. The great object must be to exhibit to advantage the graceful forms and glorious hues of flowering plants and shrubs. Two varieties of flower gardens have chiefly prevailed in Britain. In one the ground is turf, out of which flower-beds, of varied patterns, are cut; in the other the flower-beds are separated by gravel walks, without the introduction of grass. When the flower garden is to be seen from the windows, or any other elevated point of view, the former is to be preferred; but where the surface is irregular, and the situation more remote, and especially where the beauty of flowers is mainly looked to, the choice should probably fall on the latter.
The flower garden may include several different compartments.. Thus, for example, there is the " Rock Garden," which should consist of variously grouped masses of large stones, those which are remarkable for being figured by water-wearing, or containing petrifactions or impressions, or showing something of natural stratification, being generally preferred. In the cavities between the stones, filled with earth, alpine or trailing plants are inserted,. and also some of the choicest flowers. In proper situations, a small pool of water may be introduced for the culture of aquatic plants. In these days the rock-garden is a most important feature, and it requires a good deal of care and skill to arrange the boulders, walks, pools or streams in natural and artistic fashion. The selection of suitable alpines, perennials and shrubs and trees also necessitates considerable knowledge on the part of the gardener. A separate compartment laid out on some regular plan is of ten set apart for roses, under the name of the " Rosery." A moist or rather a shady border, or a section of the pleasure ground supplied with bog earth, may be devoted to what is called the " American Garden," which, as it includes. the gorgeous rhododendrons and azaleas, forms one of the grandest features of the establishment during the early summer, while if properly selected the plants are effective as a garden of evergreens at all seasons. The number of variegated and various-coloured hardy shrubs is now so great that a most pleasant plot for a " Winter Garden " may be arrayed with plants. of this class, with which may be associated hardy subjects which flower during that season or very early spring, as the Christmas rose, and amongst bulbs the crocus and snowdrop. Later the spring garden department is a scene of great attraction; and some of the gardens of this character, as those of Cliveden and Belvoir, are among the most fascinating examples of horticultural art. The old-fashioned stereotyped flower garden that one met with almost everywhere is rapidly becoming a thing of the past, and grounds are now laid out more in accordance with their natural disposition, their climatic conditions and their suitability for certain kinds of plants. Besides the features already mentioned there are now bamboo gardens, Japanese gardens, water gardens and wall gardens, each placed in the most suitable position and displaying its own special features.
In the formation of lawns the ground must be regularly broken up so that it may settle down evenly, any deep excavations that may have to be filled in being very carefully rammed down to prevent subsequent settlement. The ground must also be thoroughly cleared of the roots of all coarse, perennial weeds, and be worked to a fine tilth ready for turfing or sow ing. The more expeditious method is of course to lay down turf, which should be free from weeds, and is cut usually in strips of i ft. wide, 3 ft. long, and about i in. in thickness.
This must be laid very evenly and compactly, and should then be beaten down firmly with the ~^ ^ implement called a turf-beater 4' (fig. 47). When there is a large. 4t4kr,-,' space to cover, it is much the cheaper plan to sow the lawn with grass-seeds, and equally effective, though the sward takes much longer to thicken. It is of the utmost importance that a good selection of grasses be made, and that pure seeds should be obtained (see Grass And Grassland). The follow ing sorts can be recommended, the quantities given being those for sowing an acre of ground: - FIG. 47. - Turf-Beater.
Crested Dog's-tail Festuca duriuscula - Hard Fescue Festuca ovina - Sheep's Fescue .
Lolium perenne tenue. .. . 18 lb Poa nemoralis sempervirens - Evergreen Meadow-grass. 3 ib Poa trivialis - Trivial Meadow-grass.. 3 lb Trisetum flavescens - Yellow Oat-grass. 2 lb Trifolium repens - Dutch Clover. ... 6 lb The seeds should be thoroughly mixed, and very evenly sown, after which the surface should be raked over to bury them, and then rolled down while dry so as to finish it off smooth and level. When thus sown, lawns require to be promptly weeded. During the growing season established lawns should be mown at least once a week. They should be occasionally rolled, and towards autumn they require frequent sweepings to remove worm-casts.
Hardy Annuals. - Annual plants are those which grow up from seed, flower, ripen seed, and die in the course of one season - one year. They are useful in the mixed garden, for though in some cases they are of short duration, many of them are possessed of much beauty of hue and elegance of form. Annuals may be divided into three classes: the hardy, which are sown at once in the ground they are to occupy; the half-hardy, which succeed best when aided at first by a slight hot bed, and then transplanted into the open air; and the tender, which are kept in pots, and treated as greenhouse or stove plants, to which departments they properly belong. Some of the more popular annuals, hardy and half-hardy, have been very much varied as regards habit and the colour of the flowers, and purchases may be made in the seed shops of such things as China asters, stocks, Chinese and Indian pinks, larkspurs, phloxes and others, amongst which some of the most beautiful of the summer flowers may be found.
The hardy annuals may be sown in the open ground during the latter part of March or beginning of April, as the season may determine, for the weather should be dry and open, and the soil in a free-working condition before sowing is attempted. In favourable situations and seasons some of the very hardiest, as Silene pendula, Saponaria, Nemophila, Gilia, &c., may be sown in September or October, and transplanted to the beds or borders for very early spring flowering. Those sown in spring begin to flower about June. The plants, if left to flower where they are sown, should be thinned out while young, to give them space for proper development. It is from having ample room that pricked out transplanted seedlings often make the finest plants. The soil should be rich and light.
The half-hardy series are best sown in pots or pans under glass in mild,heat, in order to accelerate germination. Those of them which are in danger of becoming leggy should be speedily removed to a cooler frame and placed near the glass, the young plants being pricked off into fresh soil, in other pots or pans or boxes, as may seem best in each case. All the plants must be hardened off gradually during the month of April, and may generally be planted out some time in May, earlier or later according to the season.
The class of tender annuals, being chiefly grown for greenhouse decoration, should be treated much the same as soft-wooded plants, being sown in spring, and grown on rapidly in brisk heat, near the glass, and finally hardened off to stand in the greenhouse when in flower.
We add a select list of some of the more distinct annuals desirable for general cultivation as decorative plants for the open air Acroclinium roseum: half-hardy, I ft., rose-pink or white; everlasting.
Antirrhinum majus (Snapdragon): hardy, 6 in. to 2 ft., white, yellow and red. This plant is perennial, but is best treated as an annual.
Arnebia cornuta: hardy, z2 to 2 ft. yellow.
Bartonia aurea: hardy, 2 ft., golden yellow; showy and free. Brachycome iberidifolia: half-hardy, i ft., blue or white with dark disk.
Calendula officinalis Meteor: hardy, i ft., orange striped with yellow.
Calliopsis or Coreopsis bicolor (tinctoria) : hardy, 2 to 3 ft., yellow and chestnut-brown.
Calliopsis or Coreopsis Drummondii: hardy, I to 2 ft., golden yellow with red disk.
Callistephus hortensis or chinensis (the China aster): half-hardy, 6 in. to i z ft.; there are several groups of various colours. The species itself is a very handsome plant.
Campanula Loreyi: hardy, i z ft., purplish-lilac or white. Campanula macrostyla: hardy, I to 2 ft., purple, beautifully veined. Carnations, Marguerite: half-hardy, 9 to 12 in., colours various. Centaurea Cyanus: hardy, 3 ft., blue, purple, pink or white; showy.
Centranthus macrosiphon: hardy, t; to 2 ft., rosy-carmine. Centranthus ruber (known as Pretty Betsy and Red Valerian): hardy, 2 to 3 ft., red.
C. coronarium, a yellow-flowered species requires similar treatment. Clarkia pulchella: hardy, IZ ft., rosy-purple; some varieties very handsome.
Collinsia bicolor: hardy, r i ft., white and purple; pretty.
Collinsia verna: hardy, I ft., white and azure; sow as soon as ripe.
Convolvulus tricolor atroviolacea: hardy, i ft., white, blue and yellow. This is the Convolvulus minor of gardens.
Cosmos bipinnatus: half-hardy, 3 ft., rose, purple, white; requires sunny spots.
Dianthus chinensis (Indian pink): half-hardy, 6 in. to ft., various shades of red and white.
Delphinium Ajacis and Delphinium Consolida (Larkspurs): hardy, 3 ft., various colours.
Erysimum Peroffskianum: hardy, 2 ft., deep orange; in erect racemes.
Eschscholtzia californica: hardy, II ft., yellow with saffron eye. Eschscholtzia crocea flore-pleno: hardy, t 2 ft., orange yellow; double.
Eutoca viscida: hardy, 2 ft., bright blue, with white hairy centre. Gaillardia Drummondii (pitta): half-hardy, t z ft., crimson, yellow margin.
Gilia achilleaefolia: hardy, 2 ft., deep blue; in large globose heads. Godetia Lindleyana: hardy, 2 to 3 ft., rose-purple, with crimson spots.
Godetia Whitneyi: hardy, i ft., rosy-red, with crimson spots. The variety Lady Albemarle is wholly crimson, and very handsome. Gypsophila elegans: hardy, t z ft., pale rose; branched very gracefully.
Helianthus cucumerifolius: hardy, 3 to 4 ft., golden yellow, black disk; branching, free and bold without coarseness.
Helichrysum bracteatum: half-hardy, 2 ft.; the incurved crimson, rose and other forms very handsome.
Hibiscus Trionum (africanus) : hardy, t z ft., cream colour, dark purple centre.
Iberis umbellata (Candytuft): hardy, t ft., white, rose, purple, crimson. Some new dwarf white and flesh-coloured varieties are very handsome.
Kaulfussia amelloides: hardy, t ft., blue or rose; the var. kermesina is deep crimson.
Kochia scoparia (Belvedere or lawn cypress): hardy, graceful green foliage, turning purple in autumn.
Koniga maritima (Sweet Alyssum): hardy, I ft., white; fragrant, compact.
Lathyrus odoratus (Sweet Pea): hardy; there are two races, dwarf and tall, the latter - far and away the most beautiful - requires support; various colours; numerous immensely popular forms. Lavatera trimestris: hardy, 3 ft., pale-rose, showy malvaceous flowers.
Leptosiphon densiflorus: hardy in light soil, i ft., purplish or rosy-lilac.
Leptosiphon roseus: hardy in light soil, 6 in., delicate rose; fine in masses.
Linaria bipartita splendida: hardy, I ft., deep purple.
Linum grandiflorum: hardy, I ft., splendid crimson; var. roseum is pink.
Lupinus luteus: hardy, 2 ft., bright yellow, fragrant.
Lupinus mutabilis Cruickshanksii: hardy, 4 ft., blue and yellow; changeable.
Lupinus nanus: hardy, I ft., bluish-purple; abundant flowering. Lychnis Coeli-rosa: hardy, t2 ft., rosy-purple, with pale centre; pretty.
Lychnis oculata cardinalis: hardy, z 2 ft., rosy-crimson; very brilliant.
Malcolmia maritima (Virginian Stock): hardy, 6 in., lilac, rose or white.
Malope trifida: hardy, 3 ft., rich glossy purplish-crimson; showy. M. grandiflora is a finer plant in every way.
Matthiola annua (Ten-week Stock and its variety, the intermediate stock): half-hardy, I to 2 ft., white, rose and red.
Matthiola graeca (Wallflower-lvd. Stock): hardy, I ft., various as in Stock.
Mesembryanthemum tricolor: half-hardy, 3 in., pink and crimson, with dark centre.
Mimulus cupreus: half-hardy, 6 in., coppery red, varying considerably.
Mimulus luteus tigrinus: half-hardy, t ft., yellow spotted with red; var. duplex has hose-in-hose flowers.
Mirabilis Jalapa: half-hardy, 3 ft., various colours; flowers evening-scented.
Nemesia floribunda: hardy, I ft., white and yellow; pretty and compact.
Nemophila insignis: hardy, 6 in., azure blue, with white centre. Nemophila maculata: hardy, 6 in., white, with violet spots at the edge.
Nicotiana affinis: half-hardy, 2 to 3 ft., white.
. 6lb 3 lb 3 lb Nicotiana Sanderae: half-hardy, 2 to 3 ft., white, crimson, scarlet, &c.
Nigella hispanica: hardy, 12 ft., pale blue, white or dark purple. Oenothera odorata: hardy, 2 to 3 ft., yellow; fragrant.
Omphalodes linifolia (Venus's Navelwort): hardy, I ft., white. Papaver Rhoeas flore-pleno: hardy, 2 ft., scarlet and other colours; showy.
Papaver somniferum flore-pleno: hardy, 3 ft., white, lilac, rose, &c.; petals sometimes fringed.
Petunia violacea hybrida: half-hardy, I z ft., various colours; sow in heat.
Pharbitis hispida: hardy, 6 ft., various; the many-coloured twining Convolvulus major. Phlox Drummondii: half-hardy, I ft., various colours.
Platystemon californicus: hardy, i ft., sulphur yellow; neat and distinct.
Portulaca splendens: half-hardy, 6 in., crimson, rose, yellow, white, &c., single and double; splendid prostrate plants for sunny rockwork. Pyrethrum Parthenium aureum: half-hardy, I ft.; grown for its golden foliage, and much used for bedding.
Reseda odorata (Mignonette): hardy, I ft., greenish, but exquisitely fragrant; there are some choice new sorts.
Rhodanthe maculata: half-hardy, IZ ft., rosy-pink or white; larger flower-heads than the next.
Rhodanthe Manglesii: half-hardy, i ft., rosy-pink; a drooping everlasting.
Salpiglossis sinuata: half-hardy, 2 to 3 ft., yellow, purple, crimson, &c.; much varied and beautifully veined.
Sanvitalia procumbens flore-pleno: half-hardy, 6 in., golden yellow; procumbent.
Saponaria calabrica: hardy, 6 to 8 in., bright rose pink or white; continuous blooming, compact-growing.
Scabiosa atropurpurea: hardy, I to 2 ft., rose, white, lilac, crimson, &c.
Schizanthus pinnatus: hardy, I to 2 ft., purple-lilac, prettily blotched; curiously lobed flowers.
Schizopetalon Walkeri: hardy, i ft., white, sweet-scented at night; curiously fringed petals.
Senecio elegans: half-hardy, '1 ft., white, rose or purple; the various double forms are showy.
Silene pendula: hardy, i ft., bright rose pink; very showy in masses; var. compacta forms close dense tufts.
Silene Pseudo-Atocion: hardy, i ft., rose pink; free-flowering. Specularia Speculum: hardy, 6 in., reddish-violet; free-flowering. Sphenogyne speciosa: half-hardy, i ft., orange-yellow, with black ring around the disk.
Statice Bonduelli (Sea Lavender): half-hardy, 12 ft., yellow. S. Limonum: bluish purple.
S. sinuata: white, blue, yellow.
S. Suworowi: lilac.
Tagetes sinuata: half-hardy, IZ ft., golden yellow; continuous blooming, with elegant foliage. The French and African marigolds, favourites of some, are allied to this.
Tropaeolum aduncum (Canary creeper): half-hardy, ro ft., yellow, fringed; an elegant climber.
Tropaeolum majus (the nasturtium of gardens): hardy. There are two races, dwarf and tall, various shades of red and yellow.
Waitzia aurea: half-hardy, 12 ft., golden yellow; a showy everlasting.
Xeranthemum annuum flore-pleno: hardy, 2 ft., lilac-purple; floriferous.
Zinnia elegans: half-hardy, I to 2 ft., various colours.
Hardy Biennials. - Biennials live through one winter period. They require to be sown in the summer months, about June or July, in order to get established before winter; they should be pricked out as soon as large enough, and should have ample space so as to become hardy and stocky. They should be planted in good soil, but not of too stimulating a character. Those that are perfectly hardy are best planted where they are to flower in good time during autumn. This transplanting acts as a kind of check, which is rather beneficial than otherwise. Of those that are liable to suffer injury in winter, as the Brompton and Queen Stocks, a portion should be potted and wintered in cold frames ventilated as freely as the weather will permit.
The number of biennials is not large, but a few very desirable garden plants, such as the following, occur amongst them: Agrostemma coronaria (Rose Campion): hardy, I ft., bright rose-purple or rose and white.
Beta Cicla variegata: hardy, 2 ft., beautifully coloured leaves and midribs, crimson, golden, &c.
Campanula Medium (Canterbury Bell): hardy, 2 ft., blue, white, rose, &c. The double-flowered varieties of various colours are very handsome.
Campanula Medium calycanthema: hardy, 2 ft., blue or white; hose-in-hose flowered.
Catananche coerulea: hardy, 2 to 3 ft., blue or white.
Celsia cretica: hardy, 4 to 5 ft., yellow, with two dark spots near centre; in spikes.
Cheiranthus Cheiri (Wallflower): hardy, 11 to 2 ft., red, purple, yellow, &c.; really a perennial but better as a biennial.
Coreopsis grandiflora: hardy, 2 to 3 ft., bright yellow; the finest member of the genus.
Dianthus barbatus (Sweet William): hardy, I to I i ft., crimson, purple, white or parti-coloured.
Dianthus chinensis (Indian Pink): half-hardy, I ft., various; flower earlier if treated as biennials; must be protected from frost. Digitalis purpurea (Foxglove): hardy, 3 to 5 ft., rosy-purple or' white; beautifully spotted; the variety called gloxinioides has regular, erect flowers.
Echium pomponium: hardy, 4 ft., rosy-pink.
Hedysarum coronarium (French Honeysuckle): hardy, 2 to 3 ft., scarlet or white; fragrant.
Hesperis tristis (Night-scented Rocket): hardy, 3 ft., dull purplish; fragrant at night.
Lunaria biennis (Honesty): hardy, 2 to 3 ft., purple; the silvery dissepiment attractive among everlastings.
Matthiola incana (two groups, the Brompton and the Queen stocks): hardy, 2 to 21 ft., white, red and purple.
Meconopsis. Charming members of the poppy family, of which M. aculeata, purple; M. grandis, purple; M. heterophylla, coppery orange; M. nepalensis, golden yellow; M. integrifolia, yellow; M. simplicifolia, violet purple, are grown with care in sheltered spots, and in rich, very gritty soil.
Michauxia campanuloides, a remarkable bell flower, 3 to 8 ft. high, white tinged purple. Requires rich loam in warm sheltered spots. Oenothera biennis and O. Lamarckiana (Evening primrose): hardy, 5 ft., bright yellow; large.
Scabiosa caucasica: hardy, 3 ft., blue, white.
Silene compacta: half-hardy, 3 to 6 inches, bright pink; clustered as in S. Armeria. Verbascum Blattaria: hardy, 3 to 4 ft., yellowish, with purple hairs on the filaments; in tall spikes.
Hardy Herbaceous Perennials. - ThiS term includes not only those fibrous-rooted plants of herbaceous habit which spring up from the root year after year, but also those old-fashioned subjects known as florists' flowers, and the hardy bulbs. Some of the most beautiful of hardy flowering plants belong to this class. When the length of the flowering season is considered, it will be obvious that it is impossible to keep up the show of a single border or plot for six months together, since plants, as they are commonly arranged, come dropping into and out of flower one after another; and even where a certain number are in bloom at the same time, they necessarily stand apart, and so the effects of contrast, which can be perceived only among adjacent objects, are lost. To obviate this defect, it has been recommended that ornamental plants should be formed into four or five separate suites of flowering, to be distributed over the garden. Not to mention the more vernal flowers, the first might contain the flora of May; the second that of June; the third that of July; and the fourth that of August and the following months. These compartments should be so intermingled that no particular class may be entirely absent from any one quarter of the garden.
Before beginning to plant, it would be well to construct tables or lists of the plants, specifying their respective times of flowering, colours and heights. To diversify properly and mingle well together the reds, whites, purples, yellows and blues, with all their intervening shades, requires considerable taste and powers of combination; and ascertained failures may be rectified at the proper time the next season. The one great object aimed at should be to present an agreeable contrast - a floral picture; and, as at particular seasons a monotony of tint prevails, it is useful at such times to be in possession of some strong glaring colours. White, for instance, should be much employed in July, to break the duller blues and purples which then preponderate. Orange, too, is very effective at this season. On the other hand, yellows are superabundant in autumn, and therefore reds and blues should then be sought for. The flower-gardener should have a small nursery, or reserve garden, for the propagation of the finer plants, to be transferred into the borders as often as is required.
As a rule, all the fibrous-rooted herbaceous plants flourish in good soil which has been fairly enriched with manure, that of a loamy character being the most suitable. Many of them also grow satisfactorily in a peaty soil if well worked, especially if they have a cool moist subsoil. Pentstemons and phloxes, amongst others, succeed well in soil of this character, but the surface must be well drained; the former are rather apt to perish in winter in loamy soil, if at all close and heavy. The herbaceous border should be a distinct compartment varying from 6 to to ft. in width, and perhaps backed up by evergreens under certain conditions. Such a border will take in about four lines of plants, the tallest being placed in groups at the back and in the centre, and the others graduated in height down to the front. In the front row patches of the white arabis, the yellow alyssum, white, yellow, blue, or purple violas, and the purple aubrietia, recurring at intervals of 5 or 6 yards on a border of considerable length, carry the eye forwards and give a balanced kind of finish to the whole. The same might be done with dianthuses or the larger narcissi in the second row, with paeonies, columbines and phloxes in the third, and with delphiniums, aconitums and some of the taller yellow composites as helianthus and rudbeckia at the back. Spring and autumn flowers, as well as those blooming in summer, should be regularly distributed throughout the border, which will then at no season be devoid of interest in any part. Many of the little alpines may be brought into the front line planted between suitable pieces of stone, or they may be relegated to a particular spot, and placed on an artificial rockery. Most of the hardy bulbs will do well enough in the border, care being taken not to disturb them while leafless and dormant.
Some deep-rooting perennials do not spread much at the surface, and only require refreshing from time to time by top-dressings. Others, as the asters, spread rapidly; those possessing this habit should be taken up every second or third year, and, a nice patch being selected for replanting from the outer portions, the rest may be either thrown aside, or reserved for increase; the portion selected for replanting should be returned to its place, the ground having meanwhile been well broken up. Some plants are apt to decay at the base, frequently from exposure caused by the lifting process going on during their growth; these should be taken up annually in early autumn, the soil refreshed, and the plants returned to their places, care being taken to plant them sufficiently deep.
Only a section of some of the best of the decorative hardy perennials can be noted, before we pass on to those popular subjects of this class which have been directly influenced by the hybridizer and improver. Many more might be added to the subjoined list Acaena. - Neat trailing plants adapted for rockwork, thriving in sandy soil. A. microphylla and A. myriophylla have pretty spiny heads of flowers.
Pretty dwarf tufted plants, with needle-shaped leaves, adapted for rockwork. A. glumaceum and A. venustum bear bright pink flowers in July and August. Light sandy loam.
Bold handsome plants, with stately spikes, 2 to 3 ft. high, of flowers with spiny bracts. A. mollis, A. latifolius, and A. longifolius are broad-leaved sorts; A. spinosus and A. spinosissimus have narrower spiny toothed leaves.
Handsome composite plants, the stronger ones of easy culture in common soil. A. Eupatorium and filipendula, 3 to 4 ft., have showy yellow corymbose flowers; A. rosea, 2 ft., rosy-crimson; and A. Ptarmica flore-pleno, 2 ft., double white flowers. Others suitable for front lines or rockwork are A. tomentosa, 9 in., bright yellow; A. aegyptiaca, ft., silvery leaves and yellow flowers; A. umbellata, 8 in., silvery leaves and white flowers; and A. Clavennae, 6 in., with silvery leaves and pure white flowers.
Handsome border plants, the tall stems crowned by racemes of showy hooded flowers. A. Camarum, 3 to 4 ft., has deep purple flowers in August; A. sinense, to 2 ft., has large dark purple flowers in September; A. variegatum, 3 ft., has the flowers white edged with blue; A. autumnale, 3 ft., has pale blue flowers; A. Anthora, I to 2 ft., yellow; and A. japonicum, 22 ft., deep blue flowers, produced in September and October. A. Wilsoni, a new species from China, 6 ft high, with bluish-purple flowers.
Bell-shaped flowers. A. stylosa, 2 ft., pale blue, elegant; A. denticulata, '1 ft., dark blue; and in A. liliifolia, ft., pale blue, sweet-scented - all blooming during summer. Light soil.
A. vernalis, ft., has large bright yellow stellate flowers in April. Deep light soil. A. amurensis is a fine Chinese species.
Free growing, dwarf and showy. A. reptans, 8 in., has creeping runners, which A. genevensis has not; both bear handsome spikes of blue labiate flowers. Ordinary soil.
Hardy bulbs of the garlic family, some species of which are ornamental; the inflorescence is umbellate. In A. azureum, I to 2 ft., the flowers are deep-blue; in A. Moly, I ft., golden yellow; in A. neapolitanum, IIft., white, very handsome; in A. triquetrum, 8 in., white with green central stripes; in A. pedemontanum, 9 in., reddish-violet, very beautiful, the umbels nodding.
Beautiful plants with fleshy tuberous roots, which are the better if not often disturbed. A. aurantiaca, 2 to 3 ft., orange streaked with red, in July and August; A. chilensis, 2 to 3 ft., blood-red, streaked with yellow, affording many varieties. Deep sandy loam or peat. Should be planted at least 6 or 8 in. deep.
The hollyhock is a noble perennial, 6 to 15 ft. high, with flowers of every colour except blue. Requires rich loamy soil and plenty of space.
Showy rockwork or front row border plants of easy culture in any light soil; the plants should be frequently renewed from cuttings. A. saxatile, with greyish leaves, and deep yellow flowers, produced in April and May, and the dwarfer A. montanum are useful.
Noble half-hardy bulbs, for planting near the front wall of a hothouse or greenhouse; the soil must be deep, rich and well drained. A. Belladonna, the Belladonna Lily, 3 ft., has large funnel-shaped flowers in September, of a delicate rose colour. The variety A. blander has paler flowers, almost white.
Pretty boraginaceous herbs, easily grown. A. italica, 3 to 4 ft., has blue star-like flowers. A. sempervirens, ft., rich blue, is well suited for rough borders.
Pretty dwarf rock plants, requiring rather careful management and a gritty soil. A. Vitaliana, yellow; A. Wulfeniana, purplish-crimson; A. villosa, white or pale rose; A. lactea, white with yellow eye; A. lanuginosa, delicate rose; and A. Chamaejasme, delicate rose, are some of the best.
The Japanese kinds, A. japonica, flowers white and purple, are very easily grown and are particularly fine in autumn. The scarlet A. fulgens, and A. coronaria, the poppy anemone, are useful for the front, or in nooks in the rockery; while the common hepatica (A. hepatica) with its bright blue flowers should also have a place.
Composite plants, with everlasting flowers. A. margaritacea, 12 to 2 ft., has white woolly stems and leaves, an,' white flower-heads.
Charming border flowers. A. Liliastrum, St Bruno's Lily, I ft., bears pretty white sweet-scented flowers in May; A. Hookeri (Chrysobactron), 2 ft., with long racemes of bright golden yellow flowers, requires cool peaty soil.
The Columbine family, consisting of beautiful border flowers in great variety, ranging from I to 2 or 3 ft. in height. Besides the common purple A. vulgaris with its numerous varieties, double and single, there are of choice sorts A. alpina and A. pyrenaica, blue; A. glandulosa, A. jucunda, and A. coerulea, blue and white; A. leptoceras, blue and yellow; A. canadensis, A. Skinneri, and A. truncata (californica), scarlet and yellow; A. chrysantha, yellow; and A. fragrans, white or flesh-colour, very fragrant. Light rich garden soil.
Dwarf close-growing evergreen cruciferous plants, adapted for rockwork and the front part of the flower border, and of the easiest culture. A. albida forms a conspicuous mass of greyish leaves and white blossoms. There is also a charming double variety. A. lucida, which is also white-flowered, bears its bright green leaves in rosettes, and has a variety with prettily gold-margined leaves.
A renaria. - Evergreen rock plants of easy culture. A. graminifolia and A. laricifolia are tufted, with grassy foliage and white flowers, while A. balearica, a creeping rock plant, has tiny leaves and solitary white flowers.
The Thrift or Sea-Pink, of which the common form A. maritima is sometimes planted as an edging for garden walks; there are three varieties, the common pale pink, the deep rose, and the white, the last two being the most desirable. A. cephalotes, ft., is a larger plant, with tufts of linear lance-shaped leaves, and abundant globular heads of deep rose flowers, in June and July.
A. tuberoses is a handsome fleshy-rooted plant, very impatient of being disturbed, and preferring good peat soil; it grows I to 12 ft. high, and bears corymbs of deep yellow and orange flowers in September. A. incarnate, 2 to 4 ft., produces deep rose sweet-scented flowers towards the end of summer.
The woodruff, a charming white-flowered plant with leaves in circles. Well adapted for carpeting the border or rockery.
Handsome liliaceous plants, with fleshy roots, erect stems, and showy flowers, thriving in any good garden soil. A. albus, 4 ft., A. aestivus, 4 ft., and A. ramosus, 4 ft., have all long tapering keeled leaves, and simple or branched spikes of white flowers; A. luteus, 2 ft., has awl-shaped leaves and dense spikes of fragrant yellow flowers; A. capillaris is similar to A. luteus, but more slender and elegant.
A very large family of autumn-blooming composites, including some ornamental species, all of the easiest culture. Of these, A. alpinus, I ft., and A. Amellus, 11 ft., with its var. bessarabicus, have broadish blunt leaves, and large starry bluish flowers; A. longifolius formosus, 2 ft., bright rosy lilac; A. elegans, 3 to 5 ft., small pale purple or whitish; A. laxus, 2 ft., purplish-blue; A. pendulus, 22 ft., white, changing to rose; A. pyrenaeus, 2 to 3 ft., lilac-blue; A. turbinellus, 2 to 3 ft., mauve-coloured, are showy border plants; and A. Novae Angliae, 5 to 6 ft., rosy-violet; A. cyaneus, 5 ft., blue-lilac; and A. grandiflorus, 3 ft., violet, are especially useful from their late-flowering habit.
A. japonica, I to 12 ft., better known as Hoteia japonica or Spiraea japonica, thrives in peaty or sandy soil; its glossy tripinnate leaves, and feathery panicles of white flowers early in summer, are very attractive. It proves to be a fine decorative potplant, and invaluable for forcing during the spring.
Showy pea - flowered plants, the smaller species adapted for rockwork; sandy soil. A. dasyglottis, 6 in., has bluishpurple flowers in August and September; and A. monspessulanus, 8 in., crimson-purple in July; while A. hypoglottis, 6 in., produces in summer compact heads of pretty flowers, which are either purple or white. There are many very ornamental kinds.
Beautiful dwarf spring-blooming rock plants, forming carpety tufts of flowers of simple cruciferous form. A. deltoidea is of a deep lilac-blue; A. Campbelliae is more compact and rather darker, approaching to purple; A. grandiflora and graeca are rather larger, but of a lighter hue. Light sandy soil.
The bamboo family are elegant arborescent grasses (see Bamboo).
Stoutish erect-growing, 2 to 3 ft., with smooth foliage and spikes of pea-like flowers. B. australis is purplish-blue, B. alba, white, B. exaltata, deep blue; all flowering in the summer months.
B. perennis flore-pleno, the Double Daisy, consists of dwarf showy plants 3 to 4 in. high, flowering freely in spring if grown in rich light soil, and frequently divided and transplanted. The white and pink forms, with the white and red quilled, and the variegated-leaved aucubaefolia, are some of the best.
Stately poppyworts, 6 to 8 ft. B. cordata has heartshaped lobed leaves, and large panicles of small flesh-coloured flowers. Sometimes called Macleaya. Deep sandy loam.
Pretty bulbous plants. B. grandiflora, i ft., has large bluish-purple flowers; B. coccinea, 2 to 3 ft., has tubular campanulate nodding flowers of a rich crimson with green tips. Sandy loam.
Pretty spring-flowering crocus-like. bulbs. B. vernum, 4 to 6 in. high, purplish-lilac, blooms in March. Good garden soil.
Robust composite herbs with striking foliage, for the back of herbaceous or shrubbery borders. B. cordifolium, 4 ft., has large cordate leaves, and heads of rich orange flowers in cymose panicles in July. Also called Telekia speciosa. Calandrinia. - Showy dwarf plants for sunny rockwork, in light sandy soil. C. umbellate, 3 to 4 in., much branched, with narrow hairy leaves, and corymbs of magenta-crimson flowers in the summer months.
Beautiful bulbous plants, called mariposa lilies, requiring warm sheltered spots in rich gritty and well-drained soil. There are several species known, the best being albus, elegans, luteus, Plummerae, splendens, Purdyi, venustus and Weedi. Caltha. - Showy marsh plants, adapted for the margins of lakes, streamlets or artificial bogs. C. palustris flore-pleno, i ft., has double brilliant yellow flowers in May.
Twining plants with running perennial roots. C. pubescens flore-pleno, 8 to to ft., has showy double-pink convolvuloid flowers in July; C. dahurica is a handsome single-flowered summerblooming kind, with rosy-coloured flowers.
A beautiful bulbous plant 2 to 3 ft. high with large pale blue flowers. Also a white variety.
Beautiful, as well as varied in habit and character. They are called bell-flowers. C. pulla, 6 in., purplish, nodding, on slender erect stalks; C. turbinata, 9 in., purple, broad-belled; C. carpatica, i ft., blue, bfoad-belled; C. nobilis, 12 ft., long-belled, whitish or tinted with chocolate; C. persicifolia, 2 ft., a fine border plant, single or double, white or purple, blooming in July; and C. pyramidalis, 6 ft., blue or white, in tall branching spikes, are good and diverse. There are many other fine sorts.
Bold-habited composites of showy character; common soil. C. babylonica, 5 to 7 ft., has winged stems, silvery leaves, and yellow flower-heads from June to September; C. montana, 3 ft., deep bright blue or white.
Showy free-flowering plants, for rockwork, banks, or stony soil. C. ruber, 2 ft., branches and blooms freely all summer, and varies with rosy, or crimson, or white flowers. It clothes the chalk cuttings on some English railways with a sheet of colour in the blooming season.
Pretty rock plants, for light stony soils. C. alpinus, 6 in., grows in dense tufts, and bears sulphur-yellow flowers in May.
C. ochroleucus is similar in character.
Charming dwarf hardy bulbous plants of the liliaceous order, blooming in the early spring in company with Scilla sibirica, and of equally easy cultivation. C. Luciliae, 6 in., has starshaped flowers of a brilliant blue with a white centre. C. gigantea is the finest of the few known species. It blooms from February to April.
Apart from the florist's varieties of C. indicum there are a few fine natural species. One of the best for the flower border is C. maximum and its varieties - all with beautiful white flowers having yellow centres. C. latifoliuin is also a fine species.
Showy autumn-blooming bulbs (corms), with crocuslike flowers, all rosy-purple or white. C. speciosum, C. autumnale, single and double, C. byzantinum, and C. variegatum are all worth growing.
C. majalis, the lily of the valley, a well-known sweet-scented favourite spring flower, growing freely in rich garden soil; its spikes, 6 to 9 in. high, of pretty white fragrant bells, are produced in May and June. Requires shady places, and plenty of old manure each autumn.
Effective composite plants, thriving in good garden soil. C. auriculata, 2 to 3 ft., has yellow and brown flowers in July and August; C. lanceolata, 2 to 3 ft., bright yellow, in August; next to the biennial C. grandiflora it is the best garden plant.
Interesting and elegant plants, mostly tuberous, growing in good garden soil. C. bracteata, 9 in., has sulphur-coloured flowers in April, and C. nobilis, i ft., rich yellow, in May; C. solida, with purplish, and C. tuberosa, with white flowers, are pretty springflowering plants, 4 to 6 in. high. C. thalictrifolia, i ft., yellow, May to October.
Charming tuberous-rooted plants of dwarf habit, suitable for sheltered rockeries, and growing in light gritty soil.
C. europaeum, reddish-purple, flowers in summer, and C. hederaefolium in autumn.
Beautiful terrestrial orchids, requiring to be planted in peat soil, in a cool and rather shady situation. C. spectabile, I z to 2 ft., white and rose colour, in June, is a lovely species, as is C. Calceolus, i ft., yellow and brown, in May; all are full of interest and beauty.
The Larkspur family, tall showy plants, with spikes of blue flowers in July. Distinct sorts are D. grandiflorum and D. grandiflorum flore-pleno, 2 to 3 ft., of the richest dazzling blue, flowering on till September; D. chinense, 2 ft., blue, and its doublerlowered variety, are good, as is D. Barlowi, 3 ft., a brilliant double blue-purple. D. nudicaule, 2 ft., orange-scarlet, very showy, is best treated as a biennial, its brilliant flowers being produced freely in the second year from the seed.
Chiefly rock plants with handsome and fragrant flowers, the smaller sorts growing in light sandy soil, and the larger border plants in rich garden earth. Of the dwarfer sorts for rock gardens, D. alpinus, D. caesius, D. deltoides, D. dentosus, D. neglectus, D. petraeus, and D. glacialis are good examples; while for borders or larger rockwork D. plumarius, D. superbus, D. Fischeri, D. cruentus, and the clove section of D. Caryophyllus are most desirable.
Very elegant plants, of easy growth in good soil. D. spectabilis, 2 to 3 ft., has paeony-like foliage, and gracefully drooping spikes of heart-shaped pink flowers, about May, but it should have a sheltered place, as it suffers from spring frosts and winds; D. formosa and D. eximia, I ft., are also pretty rosy-flowered species.
D. Fraxinella is a very characteristic and attractive plant, 2 to 3 ft., with bold pinnate leaves, and tall racemes of irregular-shaped purple or white flowers. It is everywhere glandular, and strongly scented.
Stately erect-growing plants, with long racemes of pouch-shaped drooping flowers. The native D. purpurea, or foxglove, 3 to 5 ft., with its dense racemes of purple flowers, spotted inside, is very showy, but is surpassed by the garden varieties that have been raised. It is really a biennial, but grows itself so freely as to become perennial in the garden. An erect flowered form is called gloxinioides. The yellow-flowered D. lutea and D. grandiflora are less showy. Good garden soil, and frequent renewal from seeds.
Showy composites of free growth in ordinary soil. D. caucasicum and D. austriacum, I to 12 ft., both yellow-flowered, bloom in spring and early summer. D. plantagineum excelsum, 3 to 5 ft. high, is the best garden plant.
Good rockwork cruciferous plants. D. alpina, D. aizoides, D. ciliaris, D. Aizoon, and D. cuspidata bear yellow flowers in early spring; D. cinerea and D. ciliata have white flowers. Gritty welldrained soil.
Handsome labiate plants, requiring a warm and well-drained soil. D. argunense, i 2 ft., D. austriacum, I ft., D. grandiflorum, i ft., and D. Ruyschianum, I z ft., with its var. japonicum, all produce showy blue flowers during the summer months.
Stout growing showy composites for late summer and autumn flowering, requiring rich deep soil, and not to be often disturbed. E. angustifolia, 3 to 4 ft., light purplish-rose, and E. intermedia, 3 to 4 ft., reddish-purple, are desirable kinds. E. purpurea (often called Rudbeckia) is the showiest species. Height 3 to 4 ft., with rosy-purple flowers.
A lovely poppywort about I ft. high, with pure white flowers 2 to 3 in. across. Root-stocks thick, creeping.
Pretty plants, growing about I ft. high, with elegant foliage, and curious flowers. E. macranthum, white flowers, and E. rubrum, red, are distinctly spurred; E. pinnatum and E. Perralderianum, yellow, less so. They bloom in spring, and prefer a shady situation and a peaty soil.
A charming tuberous rooted plant, called winter aconite. Flowers bright yellow, January to March, close to the ground.
Noble plants with thick rootstocks, large sword-like leaves, and spikes of flowers from 3 to to ft. high. They require warm sunny spots and rich gritty soil. The best kinds are robustus, pink, 6 to io ft.; himalaicus, 4 to 8 ft., white; Aitchisoni, 3 to 5 ft., red; Bungei, 2 to 3 ft., yellow; and aurantiacus, 2 to 3 ft., orangeyellow. There are now several hybrid forms.
Composite plants, variable in character. E. purpureus, i z ft., with pink flower-heads, having narrow twisted ray-florets; E. Roylei, I ft., dark blue; and E. pulchellus, i ft., rich orange, flowering during the summer, are among the best kinds. Good ordinary garden soil.
E. alpinus is a beautiful little alpine for rockwork, 3 to 6 in., of tufted habit, with small-toothed leaves, and heads of pinkish-purple or, in a variety, white flowers, early in summer. Sandy well-drained soil.
Handsome dwarf tufted plants. E. Manescavi, i to I z ft., has large purplish-red flowers in summer; E. Reichardi, a minute stemless plant, has small heart-shaped leaves in rosette-like tufts, and white flowers striped with pink, produced successively. Light soil.
Very remarkable plants of the umbelliferous order, mostly of an attractive character. E. amethystinum, 2 ft., has the upper part of the stem, the bracts, and heads of flowers all of an amethystine blue. Some of more recent introduction have the aspect of the pine-apple, such as E. bromeliaefolium, E. pandanifolium, and E. eburneum. Deep light soil.
E. dens-canis, the Dog's Tooth Violet, is a pretty dwarf bulbous plant with spotted leaves, and rosy or white flowers produced in spring, and having reflexed petals. Mixed peaty and loamy soil, deep and cool. Several charming American species are now in cultivation.
Plants whose beauty resides in the bracts or floral leaves which surround the inconspicuous flowers. E. aleppica, 2 ft., XIII. 2 5 and E. Characias, 2 to 3 ft., with green bracts, are fine plants for rockwork or sheltered corners.
Gigantic umbelliferous plants, with magnificent foliage, adapted for shrubbery borders or open spots on lawns. They have thick fleshy roots, deeply penetrating, and therefore requiring deep soil, which should be of a light or sandy character. F. communis, F. glauca, and F. tingitana, the last with glossy lozenge-shaped leaflets, grow 8 to to ft. high; F. Ferulago, with more finely cut leaves, grows 5 to 6 ft. high. They flower in early spring, and all have a fine appearance when in bloom, on account of their large showy umbels of yellow flowers.
A large genus of liliaceous bulbs, the best known of which is the crown imperial (F. imperialis) and the snake's head (F. Meleagris). There are many charming species grown, such as aurea, pudica, recurva, sewerzowi, askabadensis, &c.
Pretty liliaceous plants, with simple conspicuously longitudinal-ribbed leaves, the racemose flowers funnel-shaped and deflexed. F. Sieboldiana, i ft., has lilac flowers; F. grandiflora, 18 in., is white and fragrant; F. coerulea, 18 in., is violet-blue; F. albo-marginata, i 5 in., has the leaves edged with white, and the flowers lilac. Rich garden soil.
Showy composite plants, thriving in good garden soil.
G. aristata, 2 ft., has large yellow flower-heads, 2 or 3 in. across, in summer; G. Baeselari and G. Loiselii have the lower part of the rayflorets red, the upper part yellow.
The Snowdrop. Early spring-flowering amaryllidaceous bulbs, with pretty drooping flowers, snow-white, having the tips of the enclosed petals green. The common sort is C. nivalis, which blossoms on the first break of the winter frosts; C. Imperoti, G. Elwesi and G. plicatus have larger flowers.
A neat little rock plant, 6 to 8 in. high, with pretty round leaves and white flowers. Requires moist peaty soil. Galega officinalis. - A strong-growing leguminous plant, 2 to 5 ft. high, with pinnate leaves, and masses of pinkish purple pea-like flowers. Also a white variety. Grows anywhere.
A fine bulbous plant, 3 to 4 ft. high, with drooping white flowers.
G. Lindheimeri, 3 to 5 ft., is much branched, with elegant white and red flowers of the onagraceous type, in long slender ramose spikes during the late summer and autumn months. Light garden soil; not long-lived.
Beautiful tufted erect-stemmed plants preferring a strong rich loamy soil. G. acaulis, known as the Gentianella, forms a close carpet of shining leaves, and in summer bears large erect tubular deep blue flowers. G. Andrewsii, i ft., has, during summer, large deep blue flowers in clusters, the corollas closed at the mouth; G. asclepiadea, 18 in., purplish-blue, flowers in July.
Showy border flowers, mostly growing to a height of i 2 or 2 ft., having deeply cut leaves, and abundant saucershaped blossoms of considerable size. G. ibericum, platypetalum, armenum and Endressi are desirable purpleand rose-flowered sorts; G. sanguineum, a tufted grower, has the flowers a deep rose colour; and the double-flowered white and blue forms of G. pratense and G. sylvaticum make pretty summer flowers. Good garden soil.
A South African genus of composites requiring very warm sunny spots and rich gritty soil. G. Jamesoni, with large scarlet marguerite-like flowers, and G. viridiflora, with white flowers tinged with lilac, are best known. Numerous hybrids have been raised, varying in colour from creamy white to salmon, pink, yellow, red and orange.
Pretty rosaceous plants. The single and double flowered forms of G. chiloense and its varieties grandiflorum and miniatum, 2 ft., with brilliant scarlet flowers; G. coccineum, 6 to 12 in., scarlet, and G. montana, 9 in., yellow, are among the best sorts. Good garden soil.
A pretty rosaceous plant about 2 ft. high. Flowers white in graceful panicles; flourishes in a mixture of sandy peat and loam.
Remarkable rhubarb-like plants with huge lobed leaves, often 6 ft. across. They should be grown near water as they like much moisture, and a good loamy soil. G. manicata and G. scabra are the two kinds grown.
The Pampas-Grass, a noble species, introduced from Buenos Aires; it forms huge tussocks, 4 or 5 ft. high, above which towards autumn rise the bold dense silvery plumes of the inflorescence. It does best in sheltered nooks.
Interesting caryophyllaceous plants, thriving in dryish situations. G. paniculata, 2 ft., from Siberia, forms a dense semi-globular mass of small white flowers from July onwards till autumn, and is very useful for cutting.
A pretty rock plant with dense tufts of leaves and bluish-lilac flowers. It likes fibrous peat in fissures of the rocks.
Showy composites of free growth in lightish soil.
H. autumnale, 4 ft., bears a profusion of yellow-rayed flower-heads in August and September.
Dwarf subshrubby plants well suited for rockwork, and called Sun-Roses from their blossoms resembling small wild roses and their thriving best in sunny spots. Some of the handsomest are H. roseum, mutabile, cupreum and rhodanthum, with red flowers; H. vulgare flore-pleno, grandiflorum and stramineum, with yellow flowers; and H. macranthum and papyraceum, with the flowers white.
The Sunflower genus, of which there are several. ornamental kinds. H. multiflorus, 4 ft., and its double-flowered varieties, bear showy golden yellow flower-heads in profusion, and are well adapted for shrubbery borders; H. orgyalis, 8 ft., has drooping willow-like leaves. Many other showy species.
Composite plants, with the flower-heads of the scarious character known as Everlastings. H. arenarium, 6 to 8 in., is a pretty species, of dwarf spreading habit, with woolly leaves and corymbs of golden yellow flowers, about July.
Charming every early blooming dwarf ranunculaceous herbs. H. niger or Christmas Rose, the finest variety of which is called maximus, has white showy saucer-shaped flowers; H. orientalis, i ft., rose-coloured; H. atrorubens, i ft., purplish-red; and H. colchicus, i ft., deep purple. Deep rich loam.
The name of the day lilies of which H. fulva, H. disticha, H. flava, H. Dumortieri and H. aurantiaca major are the most showy, all with yellow or orange flowers. They flourish in any garden soil.
Charming little tufted plants requiring good loamy soil, and sometimes included with Anemone. H. triloba, 4 in., has three-lobed leaves, and a profusion of small white, blue, or pink single or double flowers, from February onwards; H. angulosa, from Transylvania, 6 to 8 in., is a larger plant, with sky-blue flowers.
H. matronalis, I to 2 ft., is the old garden Rocket, of which some double forms with white and purplish blossoms are amongst the choicest of border flowers. They require a rich loamy soil, not too dry, and should be divided and transplanted into fresh soil annually or every second year, in the early autumn season.
H. sanguinea and its varieties are charming and brilliant border plants with scarlet flowers in long racemes. Rich. and well-drained soil.
Showy malvaceous plants. H. Moscheutos, rosecoloured, and H. palustris, purple, both North American herbs, 3 to 5 ft. high, are suitable for moist borders or for boggy places, near the margin of lakes.
The Candytuft, of which several dwarf spreading subshrubby species are amongst the best of rock plants, clothing the surface with tufts of green shoots, and flowering in masses during May and June. The best are I. saxatilis, 6 to u p in.; I. sempervirens, 12 to 15 in.; and I. Pruitii (variously called coriacea, carnosa, correaefolia), 12 in.
I. Delavayi is the best species for the open air. It grows 2 ft. high and has large tubular rosy carmine blossoms. It likes rich sandy loam and sunny spots.
Handsome climbing herbs, increased by seeds or division. L. grandiflorus, 3 ft., has large rose-coloured flowers with purplish-crimson wings, in June; L. latifolius, the everlasting pea, 6 ft., has bright rosy flowers in the late summer and autumn; the vars. albus, white, and superbus, deep rose, are distinct. Ordinary garden soil.
L. thuringiaca, 4 ft., is a fine erect-growing malvaceous plant, producing rosy-pink blossoms freely, about August and. September. Good garden soil.
Snowflake. Pretty early-blooming bulbs, quite hardy. L. vernum, 6 in., blooms shortly after the snowdrop, and should have a light rich soil and sheltered position; L. carpaticum, flowers, about a month later; L. pulchellum, i 2 ft., blooms in April and May; and L. aestivum, 2 ft., in May. All have white pendant flowers, tipped with green.
Pretty composites with the flower-heads collected into spikes. L. pumila, i ft., L. squarrosa, 2 to 3 ft., L. spicata, 3 to 4 ft., L. pycnostachya, 3 to 4 ft., all have rosy-purplish flowers. Deep, cool, and moist soil.
Toadflax. Pretty scrophulariads, of which L. alpina,. 3 to 6 in., with bluish-violet flowers having a brilliant orange spot, is suitable for rockwork; L. dalmatica, 4 ft., and L. genistifolia, 3 ft., both yellow-flowered, are good border plants; L. vulgaris, the common British toad-flax, and its regular peloriate form, are very handsome and free flowering during the summer months.
Flax. L. alpinum, 6 in., large, dark blue L. narbonnense, i 2 ft., large, blue; L. perenne, i 2 ft., cobalt blue; and L. arboreum (flavum), i ft., yellow, are all pretty. The last is liable to suffer from damp during winter, and some spare plants should be wintered in a frame. It is really shrubby in character.
L. prostratum, 3 in., is a trailing evergreen herb, with narrow hairy leaves, and paniculate brilliant blue flowers in May and June. Well adapted for rockwork or banks of sandy soil.
Showy erect-growing plants with papilionaceous. flowers, thriving in good deep garden soil. L. polyphyllus, 3 ft., forms noble tufts of palmate leaves, and long spikes of bluishpurple or white flowers in June and July; L. arboreus is subshrubby,. and has yellow flowers.
Brilliant erect-growing caryophyllaceous plants, thriving best in beds of peat earth or of deep sandy loam. L. chalcedonwa, 3 ft., has dense heads of bright scarlet flowers, both single and double, in June and July; L. fulgens, I ft., vermilion; L. Haageana, 12 ft., scarlet; and L. grandiflora, i to 2 ft., with clusters of scarlet, crimson, pink and white flowers. All large-flowered and showy, but require a little protection in winter.
The best known is the Creeping Jenny, L. Nummularia, much used for trailing over rockeries and window boxes, with bright yellow flowers. The variety aurea with golden leaves is also popular. Other species that grow from 2 to 3 ft. high, and are good border plants, are L. clethroides, with white spikes of flowers; L. vulgaris, L. thyrsiflora, L. ciliata, L. verticillata and L. punctata, all yellow.
M. moschata, 2 ft., with a profusion of pale pink or white flowers, and musky deeply cut leaves, though a British plant, is worth introducing to the flower borders when the soil is light and free.
The Welsh poppy, M. cambrica, i to 2 ft. high, yellow, and M. Wallichi, from the Himalayas, 4 to 6 ft. high with pale blue flowers, are the best known perennials of the genus. The last-named, however, is best raised from seeds every year, and treated like the biennial kinds.
M. virginica, to I z ft., azure blue, shows flowers in drooping panicles in May and June. It does best in shady peat borders.
Monkey-flower. Free-blooming, showy scrophulariaceous plants, thriving best in moist situations. M. cardinalis, 2 to 3 ft., has scarlet flowers, with the limb segments reflexed; M. luteus and its many garden forms, i to I z ft., are variously coloured and often richly spotted; and M. cupreus, 8 to io in., is bright coppery-red. M. moschatus is the Musk-plant, of which the variety Harrisoni is a greatly improved form, with much larger yellow flowers.
Handsome labiate plants, flowering towards autumn, and preferring a cool soil and partially shaded situation. M. didyma, 2 ft., scarlet or white; M. fistulosa, 3 ft., purple; and M. purpurea, 2 ft., deep purple, are good border flowers.
Pretty dwarf spring-flowering bulbs. M. botryoides (Grape Hyacinth), 6 in., blue or white, is the handsomest; M. moschatum (Musk Hyacinth), Io in., has peculiar livid greenishyellow flowers and a strong musky odour; M. monstrosum (Feather Hyacinth) bears sterile flowers broken up into a feather-like mass. Good garden soil.
A remarkable plant, I to 2 ft. high, with large blue forget-me-not-like flowers. Requires gritty peat soil and cool situations, but must be protected from frost in winter.
Forget-me-not. Lovely boraginaceous plants. M. dissitiflora, 6 to 8 in., with large, handsome and abundant sky-blue flowers, is the best and earliest, flowering from February onwards; it does well in light cool soils, preferring peaty ones, and should be renewed annually from seeds or cuttings. M. rupicola, 2 to 3 in., intense blue, is a fine rock plant, preferring shady situations and gritty soil; M. sylvatica, i ft., blue, pink or white, used for spring bedding, should be sown annually in August.
N. Mussinii, i ft., is a compactly spreading greyishleaved labiate, with lavender-blue flowers, and is sometimes used for bedding or for marginal lines in large compound beds.
N. rivularis, 4 in., from La Plata, has slender, creeping, rooting stems, bearing stalked ovate leaves, and large funnel-shaped white flowers, with a remarkably long slender tube; especially adapted for rockwork, requiring moist sandy loam.
See Wate R-Lil Y.
The genus of the Evening Primrose, consisting of showy species, all of which grow and blossom freely in rich deep soils. Oe. missouriensis (macrocarpa), 6 to 12 in., has stout trailing branches, lance-shaped leaves and large yellow blossoms; Oe. taraxacifolia, 6 to 12 in., has a stout crown from which the trailing branches spring out, and these bear very large white flowers, changing to delicate rose; this perishes in cold soils, and should therefore be raised from seed annually. Of erect habit are Oe. speciosa, I to 2 ft., with large white flowers; Oe. fruticosa, 2 to 3 ft., with abundant yellow flowers; and Oe. serotina, 2 ft., also bright yellow.
Elegant dwarf boraginaceous plants. O. verna, 4 to 6 in., a creeping, shade-loving plant, has bright blue flowers in the very early spring; O. Luciliae, 6 in., has much larger lilac-blue flowers, and is an exquisite rock plant for warm, sheltered spots. Light sandy soil.
O. taurica, 6 to 8 in., is a charming boraginaceous plant from the Caucasus, producing hispid leaves and cymose heads of drooping, tubular, yellow flowers. It is of evergreen habit, and requires a warm position on the rockwork and well-drained sandy soil; or a duplicate should be sheltered during winter in a cold, dry frame.
The Star of Bethlehem. O. arabicum can only be grown in the warmest parts of the kingdom, and then requires protection in winter. Other species, all bulbous, are O. nutans, 0. pyramidale, O. pyrenaicum, and the common Star of Bethlehem, 0. umbellatum; all are easily grown, and have white flowers.
A magnificent bellflower from Bokhara, 4 to 5 ft. high, and white flowers tinted and veined with lilac, 3 to 5 in. across. Requires rich, gritty loam of good depth, as it produces tuberous roots I to 2 ft. long.
Handsome scrophulariaceous plants, from Chile, thriving in moist, well-drained peaty soil, and in moderate shade. O. coccinea, I ft., has erect racemes of pendent crimson flowers.
The Poppy. Very showy plants, often of strong growth, and of easy culture in ordinary garden soil. P. orientale, 3 ft., has crimson-scarlet flowers, 6 in. across, and the variety bracteatum closely resembles it, but has leafy bracts just beneath the blossom. P. alpinum, 6 in., white with yellow centre; P. nudicaule, i ft., yellow, scented, and P. pilosum, i to 2 ft., deep orange, are ornamental smaller kinds.
The popular garden varieties have sprung from P. Hartwegii and P. Cobaea. Other distinct kinds are P. campanulatus, 12 ft., pale rose, of bushy habit; P. humilis, 9 in., bright blue; P. speciosus, cyananthus and Jaffrayanus, 2 to 3 ft., all bright blue; P. barbatus, 3 to 4 ft., scarlet, in long terminal panicles; P. Murrayanus, 6 ft., with scarlet flowers and connate leaves; and P. Palmeri, 3 to 4 ft., with large, wide-tubed, rose-coloured flowers.
P. fragrans, the Winter Heliotrope, though of weedy habit, with ample cordate coltsfoot-like leaves, yields in January and February its abundant spikes, about i ft. high, of greyish flowers scented like heliotrope; it should have a corner to itself.
Bold and showy labiates, growing in ordinary soil. P. Russelliana (lunariaefolia), 4 ft., yellow, and P. tuberosa, 3 ft., purplish-rose, both with downy hoary leaves, come in well in broad flower borders.
P. Alkekengi from South Europe has long been known in gardens for its bright orange-red globular calyxes. It has been surpassed by the much larger and finer P. Francheti from Japan; the brilliant calyxes are often 3 in. in diameter in autumn. Grows in any garden soil.
Tall, autumn-blooming labiates, of easy growth in ordinary garden soils. P. imbricata, 5 to 6 ft., has pale purple flowers in closely imbricated spikes.
Ornamental strong-growing perennials requiring much space. P. acinosa, from the Himalayas, 3 to 4 ft., with whitish flowers in erect spikes. P. decandra, the North American Poke Weed or Red Ink plant, grows 5 to io ft. high, has fleshy poisonous roots, erect purple stems and white flowers. P. icosandra, from Mexico, 2 to 3 ft., pinky white. The foliage in all cases is handsome. Ordinary garden soil.
P. grandifiorum, 6 to 24 in. high, is a fine Chinese perennial with flattish, bell-shaped flowers, 2 to 3 in. across, and purple in colour. The variety Mariesi (or pumilum) is dwarf, with larger, deeper-coloured flowers. Requires rich sandy loam.
Ornamental herbs with large lobed leaves. P. Emodi, 6 to 12 in. high, from the Himalayas, has large white or palerose flowers, and in autumn bright red, hen's-egg-like fruits. P. peltatum, the North American mandrake, has large umbrella-like leaves and white flowers; P. pleianthum, from China, purple. They all require moist, peaty soil in warm, sheltered nooks.
Pretty border flowers. P. coeruleum (Jacob's Ladder), 2 ft., has elegant pinnate leaves, and long panicles of blue rotate flowers. The variety called variegatum has very elegantly marked leaves, and is sometimes used as a margin or otherwise in bedding arrangements. Good garden soil.
Elegant liliaceous plants, with rhizomatous stems. P. multiflorum (Solomon's Seal), 2 to 3 ft., with arching stems, and drooping white flowers from the leaf axils, is a handsome border plant, doing especially well in partial shade amongst shrubs, and also well adapted for pot culture for early forcing. Good garden soil.
A large family, varying much in character, often weedy, but of easy culture in ordinary soil. P. vacciniifolium, 6 to to in., is a pretty prostrate subshrubby species, with handsome rose-pink flowers, suitable for rockwork, and prefers boggy soil; P. affine (Brunonis), I ft., deep rose, is a showy border plant, flowering in the late summer; P. cuspidatum, 8 to To ft., is a grand object for planting where a screen is desired, as it suckers abundantly, and its tall spotted stems and handsome cordate leaves have quite a noble appearance. Other fine species are P. baldschuanium, a climber, P. sphaerostachyum, P. lanigerum, P. polystachyum and P. sachalinense, all bold and handsome.
The double varieties are fine garden plants obtained from P. argyrophylla atrosanguinea and P. nepalensis. The colours include golden-yellow, red, orange-yellow, crimson, maroon and intermediate shades. They all flourish in rich sandy soil.
Beautiful and popular spring flowers, of which many forms are highly esteemed in most gardens. P. vulgaris, 6 in., affords numerous handsome singleand double-flowered varieties, with various-coloured flowers for the spring flower-beds and borders. Besides this, P. Sieboldii (cortusoides amoena), I ft., originally deep rose with white eye, but now including many varieties of colour, such as white, pink, lilac and purple; P. japonica, to 2 ft., crimson-rose; P. denticulate, ft., bright bluish-lilac, with its allies P. erosa and P. purpurea, all best grown in a cold frame; P. viscosa, 6 in., purple, and its white variety nivalis, with P. pedemontana and P. spectabilis, 6 in., both purple; and the charming little Indian P. rosea, 3 to 6 in., bright cherry-rose colour, are but a few of the many beautiful kinds in cultivation. Pulmonaria. - Handsome dwarf, boraginaceous plants, requiring good deep garden soil. P. officinalis, i ft., has prettily mottled leaves and blue flowers; P. sibirica is similar in character, but has broader leaves more distinctly mottled with white.
Composite plants of various character, but of easy culture. P. Parthenium eximium, 2 ft., is a handsome double white form of ornamental character for the mixed border; P. uliginosum, 5 to 6 ft., has fine large, white, radiate flowers in October; P. Tchihatchewii, a close-growing, dense evergreen, creeping species, with long-stalked, white flower-heads, is adapted for covering slopes in lieu of turf, and for rockwork.
R. pyrenaica, 3 to 6 in., is a pretty dwarf plant, requiring a warm position on the rockwork and a moist, peaty soil more or less gritty; it has rosettes of ovate spreading root-leaves, and large purple, yellow-centred, rotate flowers, solitary, or two to three together, on naked stalks.
The florists' ranunculus is a cultivated form of R. asiaticus (see [[Ranunculus). R]]. amplexicaulis ., i ft., white; R. aconitifolius, I to 2 ft., white, with its double variety R. aconitifolius flore-pleno (Fair Maids of France); and R. acris flore-pleno (Bachelor's Buttons), 2 ft., golden yellow, are pretty. Of dwarfer interesting plants there are R. alpestris, 4 in., white; R. gramineus, 6 to io in., yellow; R. parnassifolius, 6 in., white; and R. rutaefolius, 4 to 6 in., white with orange centre.
Handsome herbs of the saxifrage family. R.' podophylla with large bronzy-green leaves cut into 5 large lobes, and tall branching spikes 3 to 4 ft. high - the whole plant resembling one of the large meadow sweets. R. aesculifolia, yellowish-white; R. Henrici, deep purple; R. pinnata, fleshy pink; and R. sambucifolia, white, are recently introduced species from China. They require rich sandy peat and warm sheltered spots.
R. Coulteri, a fine Californian plant, with large white flowers on shoots often as high as 7 ft.; R. trichocalyx is similar. Both require very warm, sunny spots and rich, sandy soil, and should not be disturbed often.
Bold-habited composite plants, well suited for shrubbery borders, and thriving in light loamy soil. The flowerheads have a dark-coloured elevated disk. R. Drummondii, 2 to 3 ft., with the ray-florets reflexed, yellow at the tip and purplishbrown towards the base; R. fulgida, 2 ft. golden-yellow with dark chocolate disk, the flower-heads 2 to 3 in. across; and R. speciosa, 2 to 3 ft., orange-yellow with blackish-purple disk, the flower-heads 3 to 4 in. across, are showy plants.
Graceful water or marsh plants with hastate leaves, and tuberous, running and fibrous roots. S. japonica plena; S. lancifolia, S. macrophylla and S. sagittifolia, are among the best kinds, all with white flowers.
The Sage, a large genus of labiates, often very handsome, but sometimes too tender for English winters. S. Sclarea, 5 to 6 ft., is a very striking plant little more than a biennial, with branched panicles of bluish flowers issuing from rosy-coloured bracts; S. patens, 2 ft., which is intense azure, has tuberous roots, and may be taken up, stored away and replanted in spring like a dahlia. S. pratensis, 2 ft., blue, a showy native species, is quite hardy; the variety lupinoides has the centre of the lower lip white.
A very large genus of rock and border plants of easy culture. The Megasea group, to which S. ligulata, S. cordifolia and S. crassifolia belong, are early-flowering kinds of great beauty, with fleshy leaves and large cymose clusters of flowers of various shades of rose, red and purple. Another very distinct group with silvery foliage - the crustaceous group - contains some of our choicest Alpines. Of these S. caesia, S. calyciflora, S. Cotyledon are among the best known. Some of the species look more like lichens than flowering plants. The green moss-like saxifrages are also a very distinct group, with dense tufted leaves which appear greener in winter than in summer. The flowers are borne on erect branching stems and are chiefly white in colour. Saxifraga umbrosa (London Pride) and S. Geum belong to still another group, and are valuable alike on border and rockery. S. peltata is unique owing to its large peltate leaves, often i ft. to 18 in. across, with stalks i to 2 ft. long. Flowers in April, white or pinkish. Likes plenty of water and a moist peaty soil or marshy place. S. sarmentosa, the well-known " mother of thousands," is often grown as a pot plant in cottagers' windows.
Beautiful dwarf bulbous plants, thriving in well-worked sandy loam, or sandy peat. S. bifolia, 3 in., and S. sibirica, 4 in., both intense blue, are among the most charming of early spring flowers; S. patula, 6 to 8 in., and S. campanulata, i ft., with tubular greyish-blue flowers, freely produced, are fine border plants, as is the later-blooming S. peruviana, 6 to 8 in., dark blue or white.
Pretty succulent plants of easy growth, and mostly suitable for rockwork. They are numerous, varied in the colour of both leaves and foliage, and mostly of compact tufted growth.
S. spectabile, I to II ft., pink, in great cymose heads, is a fine plant for the borders, and worthy also of pot-culture for greenhouse decoration. Mention may also be made of the common S. acre (Stonecrop), 3 in., yellow, and its variety with yellow-tipped leaves.
House-Leek. Neat-growing, succulent plants, forming rosettes of fleshy leaves close to the ground, and rapidly increasing by runner-like offsets; they are well adapted for rockwork, and do best in sandy soil. The flowers are stellate, cymose, on stems rising from the heart of the leafy rosettes. S. arachnoideum, purplish, S. arenarium, yellow, S. globiferum and S. Laggeri, rose, grow when in flower 3 to 6 in. high; S. calcareum, rose colour, and S. Boutignianum, pale rose, both have glaucous leaves tipped with purple; S. Heuffelii, yellow, with deep chocolate leaves, and S. Wulfeni, sulphur-yellow, are from 8 to 12 in. high.
A large genus with comparatively few good garden plants. Large and coarse-growing kinds like S. Doria, S. macrophyllus and S. sarracenicus are good for rough places; all yellowflowered. S. pulcher is a charming plant, 2 to 3 ft. high, with rosypurple flower-heads, having a bright orange centre. It likes a warm corner and moist soil. S. clivorum, from China, has large roundish leaves and orange-yellow flowers. It flourishes near water and in damp places.
S. galacifolia, a beautiful tufted plant 2 to 3 in. high, with roundish crenate leaves, on long stalks, and white funnelshaped flowers inMarch and April. S. uniflora from Japan is closely related. The leaves of both assume rich purple-red tints in autumn. Warm sunny situations and rich sandy loam and peat are required.
Pretty caryophyllaceous plants, preferring sandy loam, and well adapted for rockwork. S. alpestris, 6 in., white, and S. quadridentata, 4 in., white, are beautiful tufted plants for rockwork or the front parts of borders; S. maritima flore-pleno, 6 in., white, S. Elizabethae, 4 in., bright rose, and S. Schafta, 6 in., purplish-rose, are also good kinds.
Pretty dwarf iridaceous plants, thriving in peaty soil. S. grandiflorum, 10 in., deep purple or white, blooms about April, and is a fine plant for pot-culture in cold frames.
Graceful bulbous plants from South Africa. S. grandiflora, with deep violet-purple, and S. tricolor, with rich orange-red, flowers are best known. S. pulcherrima, a lovely species, 3 to 6 ft. high, with drooping blood-red blossoms, is now referred to the genus Dierama. A warm, light, but rich soil in sheltered spots required.
Vigorous growing plants of great beauty, preferring good, deep, rather moist soil; the flowers small but very abundant, in large corymbose or spicate panicles. S. Aruncus, 4 ft., white; S. astilbioides, 2 ft., white; S. Filipendula, t2 ft., and S. Ulmaria, 3 ft., both white; S. palmata, 2 ft., rosy-crimson; and S. venusta, 3 ft., carmine rose, are some of the best.
Pretty plants with broad, radical leaves, and a muchbranched inflorescence of numerous small flowers. S. latifolia, 2 ft., greyish-blue; S. tatarica, I ft., lavender-pink; S. speciosa, i z ft., rose colour; and S. eximia, r z ft., rosy-lilac - are good border plants.
S. bellidifolia, 9 in., lavender; S. emarginata, 6 in., purple; S. globulariaefolia, 9 in., white; and S. nana, 4 in. - are good sorts for the rockery.
S. speciosa, I to 2 ft., is a showy composite, of easy culture in good garden soil; it produces large corymbs of flowerheads, with numerous narrow blue ray-florets surrounding the yellow disk. Now more generally known as Erigeron.
S. pennata (Feather Grass), i 2 ft., is a very gracefulhabited grass, with stiff slender erect leaves, and long feathery awns to the seeds.
S. cyanea, 2 ft., is a grand, autumn-flowering, composite plant, with blue flower-heads, 4 in. across. Sandy loam and warm situation.
Rather coarse-growing but showy boraginaceous plants, succeeding in ordinary soil. S. caucasicum, 2 ft., with blue flowers changing to red, is one of the finer kinds for early summer blooming.
Free-growing but rather weedy ranunculaceous plants, in many cases having elegantly cut foliage. T. aquilegifolium, 2 ft., purplish from the conspicuous stamens, the leave's glaucous, is a good border plant; and T. minus has foliage somewhat resembling that of the Maidenhair fern. Ordinary garden soil.
T. cordifolia, the foam flower, is very ornamental in border or rockery. Leaves heart-shaped lobed and toothed; flowers white starry; ordinary garden soil.
Lovely bulbous plants called tiger flowers, useful in the warmest parts of the kingdom for the border in rich but gritty soil. T. Pavonia, the peacock tiger flower, from Mexico, grows to 2 ft. high, with plaited sword-like leaves, and large flowers about 6 in. across, having zones of violet and yellow blotched with purple and tipped with scarlet. There are many varieties, all charming.
T. grandiflorum, the wood-lily of North America, is the finest. It has large white flowers and grows freely in peaty soil in shady borders. There are several other species, some with purplish flowers.
A genus of South African plants with fibrous-coated corms or solid bulbs, often known as montbretas. T. crocata, 2 ft., orange-yellow, T. crocosmiaeflora, 2 to 21 ft., orange-scarlet, and T. Pottsi, 3 to 4 ft., bright yellow, are the best-known varieties, of which there are man y subsidiary ones, some being very large and free in flowering. A rich, gritty soil, and warm, sunny situations are best for these plants., Triteleia. - Charming spring-flowering bulbs, thriving in any good sandy soil. T. Murrayana, 8 in., lavender-blue, and T. uniflora, 6 in., white, are both pretty plants of the easiest culture, either for borders or rockeries.
Splendid stoutish-growing plants of noble aspect, familiarly known as the Poker plant, from their erect, rigid spikes of flame-coloured flowers; sometimes called Kniphofia. T. Uvaria, 3 to 4 ft., bright orange-red, passing to yellow in the lower flowers, is a fine autumnal decorative plant. They should be protected from frosts by a covering of ashes over the crown during winter.
Showy ranunculaceous plants, of free growth, flowering about May and June. T. europaeus, 18 in., lemon globular; T. asiaticus, 2 ft., deep yellow; and T. napellifolius, 2 to 22 ft., golden yellow, are all fine showy kinds. Rich and rather moist soil.
Splendid dwarfish bulbs, thriving in deep, sandy, wellenriched garden soil, and increased by offsets. They bloom during the spring and early summer months. T. Gesneriana, the parent of the florists' tulip, 12 to 18 in., crimson and other colours; T. Eichleri, ft., crimson with dark spot; T. Greigi, i ft., orange with dark spot edged with yellow, and having dark spotted leaves; T. oculus solis, i ft., scarlet with black centre; and T. sylvestris, 12 to 18 in., bright yellow, are showy kinds.
Distinct liliaceous plants with bold ornamental leaves regularly folded and plaited. V. album, 3 to 5 ft., has whitish blossoms in dense panicles, I to 2 ft. long. V. nigrum, 2 to 3 ft., has blackish-purple flowers, also V. Maacki, 2 ft. Rich sandy loam and peat.
Showy border flowers of erect spire-like habit, of the easiest culture. V. Chaixii, 4 to 5 ft., yellow, in large pyramidal panicles; V. phoeniceum, 3 ft., rich purple or white; and V. formosum, 6 ft., golden yellow in dense panicles, are desirable species.
The Speedwell family, containing many ornamental members; all the hardy species are of the easiest cultivation in ordinary garden soil. The rotate flowers are in close, erect spikes, sometimes branched. V. crassifolia, 2 ft., dark blue; V. incarnata, '1 ft., flesh-colour; V. corymbosa, i 1 ft., pale blue in corymboselyarranged racemes; V. gentianoides, 2 ft., grey with blue streaks; V. spicata, blue, and its charming white variety alba; and V. virginica, 5 ft., white, are distinct.
Periwinkle. Pretty rock plants, growing freely in ordinary soil. V. herbacea, of creeping habit, with purplish-blue flowers; V. minor, of trailing habit, blue; and V. major, I to 2 ft. high, also trailing, are suitable for the rock garden. The last two are evergreen, and afford varieties which differ in the colour of their flowers, while some are single and others double.
Violet. Charming dwarf plants, mostly evergreen and of tufted habit, requiring well-worked rich sandy soil. V. calcarata, 6 in., light blue; V. cornuta, 6 to 8 in., blue; V. lutea, 4 in., yellow; V. altaica, 6 in., yellow or violet with yellow eye; V. palmaensis, 6 to 8 in., lavender-blue; V. pedata, 6 in., pale blue; and V. odorata, the Sweet Violet, in its many single and double flowered varieties, are all desirable.
Noble subarborescent liliaceous plants, which should be grown in every garden. They do well in light, well-drained soils, and have a close family resemblance, the inflorescence being a panicle of white, drooping, tulip-shaped flowers, and the foliage rosulate, sword-shaped and spear-pointed. Of the more shrubbyhabited sorts Y. gloriosa, recurvifolia and Treculeana are good and distinct; and of the dwarfer and more herbaceous sorts V. filamentosa, flaccida and angustifolia are distinct and interesting kinds, the first two flowering annually.
The taste for cultivation of the class of plants, of which the foregoing list embraces some of the more prominent members, is on the increase, and gardens will benefit by its extension.
Hardy Trees And Shrubs. - Much of the beauty of the pleasure garden depends upon the proper selection and disposition of ornamental trees and shrubs. We can only afford space here for lists of some of the better and more useful and ornamental trees and shrubs, old and new.
The following list, which is not exhaustive, furnishes material from which a selection may be made to suit various soils and situations. The shrubs marked * are climbers.
Hardy Deciduous Trees. Acer - Maple. Fraxinus - Ash.
Horse-Chestnut. Ginkgo - Maidenhair Tree.
Birch. Juglans - Walnut.
Sweet Chestnut. Larix - Larch.
Judas Tree. Morus - Mulberry.
Cotoneaster (some species). Negundo - Box-Elder.
Thorn. Ostrya - Hop Hornbeam.
Diospyros. Planera. Fagus - Beech.
Plane. Salix - Willow. Populus - Poplar.
Prunus (Plums, Cherries, &c.). Taxodium - Deciduous Cypress. Sophora.
Hop Tree. Ulmus - Elm.
Pear, &c. Virgilia.
Oak. Xanthoceras. Rhus - Sumach.
Hardy Evergreen Trees. Abies - Silver Fir. Libocedrus.
Chili Pine. Magnolia grandiflora.
Strawberry Tree. Picea - Spruce Fir.
Arbor Vitae. Pinus - Pine.
Box. Quercus Ilex - Holm-Oak.
Cypress. Taxus - Yew. Sciadopitys - Umbrella Pine. Sequoia (Wellingtonia). Thuiopsis.
Arbor Vitae. Juniperus - Juniper.
Bay Laurel. Tsuga.
Hardy Deciduous Shrubs. Abelia. Genista.
Maple. Halesia - Snowdrop Tree.
Amelanchier. Hamamelis - Wych Hazel. Ampelopsis. * Amygdalopsis.
Aralia. Hibiscus - Althaea frutex, &c.
St John's Wort.
Jasmine. Aristolochia. * Kerria.
Berberry. Lonicera * - Honeysuckle.
Trumpet Flower. Lycium. * Buddleia.
Calophaca. Menispermum * - Moonseed.
Carolina Allspice. Periploca. * Caragana. Philadelphus - Mock Orange. Chimonanthus.
Cotoneaster (some species).
Bramble. Crataegus - Thorn.
Japan Quince. Spiraea.
Hardy Evergreen Shrubs. Akebia. * Griselinia.
Arbutus. Hedera * - Ivy.
Japan Laurel. Hypericum - St John's Wort.
Azara. Ilex - Holly.
Bamboo. Jasminum * - Jasmine.
Berberidopsis. * Kadsura. * Berberis - Berberry.' Lardizabala. * Buddleia. Laurus - Sweet Bay.
Bupleurum. Ligustrum - Privet.
B uxus - Box. Lonicera * - Honeysuckle.
Cherry-Laurel, &c. Pernettya.
Cistus - Sun-Rose. Phillyrea.
Crataegus Pyracantha - Fire Rhamnus Alaternus.
Thorn. Rhododendron - Rose-Bay.
Daphne. Rosa * - Rose.
Smilax. * Stauntonia. * Escallonia.
Euonymus. Viburnum - Laurustinus. Fabiana.
Adam's Needle. Garrya.
Bedding Plants. - This term is chiefly applied to those summerflowering plants, such as ivy-leaved and zonal pelargoniums, petunias, dwarf lobelias, verbenas, &c., which are employed in masses for filling the beds of a geometrical parterre. Of late years, however, more attention has been bestowed on arrangements of brilliant flowering plants with those of fine foliage, and the massing also of hardy early-blooming plants in parterre fashion has been very greatly extended. Bedding plants thrive best in a light loam, liberally manured with thoroughly rotten dung from an old hotbed or thoroughly decomposed cow droppings and leaf-mould.
Clianthus Clivia Cobaea* Coleus Coprosma Cordyline Correa Cuphea Cyclamen Cyperus Cytisus Darwinia (Genetyllis) Diosma Dracaena Eccremocarpus* Epacris Epiphyllum Erica Eriostemon Erythrina Eucalyptus Eupatorium Eurya Ficus Fuchsia Grevillea Haemanthusf Heliotropium Hibiscus Hoya* Hydrangea Impatiens Jasminum * Justicia Kalosanthes Lachenaliaf Lantana Lapageria * Liliumt Lophospermum* Mandevillea* Manettia* Mutisia* Myrsiphyllum* Maurandya * Nerinef Nerium Pelargonium Petunia Pimelia Plumbago* Polianthesf Primula Rhododendron Richardia (Calla) f Salvia Sarracenia Solanum Sparmannia Statice Strelitzia Streptocarpus Swainsonia Tacsonia* Tecoma Tradescantia Vallotaf Spring Bedding. - For this description of bedding, hardy plants only must be used; but even then the choice is tolerably extensive. For example, there are the Alyssums, of which A. saxatile and A. gemonense are in cultivation; Antennaria tomentosa; the double white Arabis albida; Aubrietias, of which the best sorts are A. Campbelliae and A. grandiflora; the double Bellis perennis or Daisy; the Wallflowers, including Cheiranthus Cheiri (the Common Wallflower), C. alpina and C. Marshallii; Hepaticas, the principal of which are the varieties of H. triloba, and the blue H. angulosa; Iberis or Candytuft; Lithospermum fruticosum; Myosotis or Forgetme-not, including M. alpestris, M. dissitiflora, M. azorica and M. sylvestris; Phloxes, like P. subulata, with its varieties setacea, Nelsoni, nivalis; the single-flowered varieties of the Primrose, Primula vulgaris; the Polyanthuses; Pyrethrum Parthenium aureum, called Golden Feather; Sempervivum calcareum; the pinkflowered Silene pendula; self-coloured varieties of the Pansy, V. tricolor, and of V. lutea and V. cornuta, as well as some recent hybrids. Besides these there are the various spring-flowering bulbs, such as the varieties of Hyacinthus, Tulipa, Narcissus, Fritillaria, Muscari or Grape Hyacinth, Crocus, Scilla, Chionodoxa and Galanthus or Snowdrop.
There is great variety amongst the plants which are used for bedding-out in the garden during the summer months, but we can note only some of the most important of them. Amongst them are the Ageratums, the old tall-growing sorts of which have been superseded by dwarfer blue and white flowered varieties; Alternantheras, the principal of which are A. amoena, amoena spectabilis, magnifica, paronychioides major aurea and amabilis; Alyssum maritimum variegatum; some of the dwarf varieties of Antirrhinum majus; Arundo Donax variegata; Begonias; Calceolarias; Cannas; Centaurea ragusina; Clematises, of which the hybrids of the Jackmanni type are best; Dahlia variabilis, and the single-flowered forms of D. coccinea; Echeverias, of which E. secunda and E. metallica are much employed; Gazanias; Heliotropes; Iresines; Lantanas; Lobelias; Mesembryanthemum cordifolium variegatum; Pelargoniums, of which the various classes of zonal or bedding varieties are unapproachable for effect and general utility; Petunias; Phloxes; Polemonium coeruleum variegatum; Pyrethrum Parthenium aureum, the well-known Golden Feather, especially useful as an edging to define the outline of beds upon grass; Tropaeolums, especially some of the varieties of T. Lobbianum; and Verbenas, the offspring of Tweedieana, chamaedrifolia and others. Few bulbs come into the summer flower gardens, but amongst those which should always be well represented are the Gladiolus, the Lilium, the Tigridia and the Montbretia.
Subtropical Bedding. - Foliage and the less common flowering plants may be used either in masses of one kind, or in groups arranged for contrast, or as the centres of groups of less imposing or of dwarfer-flowering subjects; or they may be planted as single specimens in appropriate open spaces, in recesses, or as distant striking objects terminating a vista.
Carpet Bedding consists in covering the surface of a bed, or a series of beds forming a design, with close, low-growing plants, in which certain figures are brought out by means of plants of a different habit or having different coloured leaves. Sometimes, in addition to the carpet or ground colour, individual plants of larger size and handsome appearance are dotted symmetrically over the beds, an arrangement which is very telling. Some of the best plants for carpeting the surface of the beds are: Antennaria tomentosa and Leucophytum Browni, white; Sedum acre, dasyphyllum, corsicum and glaucum, grey; and Sedum Lydium, Mentha Pulegium gibraltarica, Sagina subulata and Herniaria glabra, green. The Alternantheras, Amaranthuses, Iresines and Coleus Verschaffelti furnish high and warm colours; while Pyrethrum Parthenium aureum yields greenish-yellow; Thymus citriodorus aureus, yellowish; Mesembryanthemum cordifolium variegatum, creamy yellow; Centaureas and others, white; Lobelia Erinus, blue; and the succulent Echeverias and Sempervivums, glaucous rosettes, which last add much to the general effect. In connexion with the various designs such fine plants as Agave americana, Dracaena indivisa are often used as centre-pieces.
Greenhouse PLANTs. - These are plants requiring the shelter of a glass house, provided with a moderate degree of heat, of which 45° Fahr. may be taken as the minimum in winter. The house should be opened for ventilation in all mild weather in winter, and daily throughout the rest of the year. The following is a select list of genera of miscellaneous decorative plants (orchids, palms and ferns excluded; climbers are denoted by *; bulbous and tuberous plants by f) Stove Plants. - For the successful culture of stove plants two houses at least, wherein different temperatures can be maintained, should be devoted to their growth. The minimum temperature during winter should range at night from about 55° in the cooler to 65° in the warmer house, and from 65° to 75° by day, allowing a few degrees further rise by sun heat. In summer the temperature may range to° higher by artificial heat, night and day, and will often by sun heat run up to 90° or even 95°, beyond which it should be kept down by ventilation and frequent syringing and damping down of the pathways. During the growing period the atmosphere must be kept moist by damping the walls and pathways, and by syringing the plants according to their needs; when growth is completed less moisture will be necessary. Watering, which, except during the resting period, should generally be copious, is best done in the forenoon; while syringing should be done early in the morning before the sun becomes too powerful, and late in the afternoon to admit of the foliage drying moderately before night. The following is a select list of genera of stove plants (climbers are denoted by *, bulbous and tuberous plants by f) Acalypha Achimenest Aeschynanthus Allamanda* Alocasiat Amaryllist Anthurium Aphelandra Aralia Ardisia Arisaemaf Aristolochia * Ataccia Begonia Bertolonia Bignonia* Bromeliads Cactus Caladium f Calathea Centropogon Cissus* Clerodendron * Crinumt Codiaeum (Croton) ORcftIDs. - For the successful cultivation of a mixed collection of tropical orchids, it is necessary that two or three houses, in which different temperatures can be maintained, should be provided. The greater number of them are epiphytes or plants that grow on others without absorbing nourishment from them, and heat and moisture afford all or nearly all the nourishment they require. At one time it was thought the plants themselves were better for being associated with such objects as ferns and palms, but they are best grown by themselves.
The East Indian orchid house takes in those species which are found in the warm parts of the eastern hemisphere, as well as those from the hottest parts of the western, and its temperature should range from about 70° to 80° during the summer or growing season and from 65° to 70° during winter. The Mexican or Brazilian orchid house accommodates the plants from the warm parts of South America, and its temperature should range from about 65° to 75° during summer and from 60° to 65° in winter. A structure called the cool orchid house is set apart for the accommodation of the many lovely mountain species from South America and India, such as odontoglossums, masdevallias, &c., and in this the more uniform the temperature can be kept the better, that in summer varying between Cyanophyllum (Miconia) Cycas Dieffenbachia Dipladenia* Dracaena Eranthemum Eucharist Euphorbia Ficus Franciscea Gardenia Gesnera Gloriosa* Gloxinia f Heliconia f Hoffmannia I pomaea * Ixora Jacobinia Jasminum* Luculia Maranta Medinilla Meyenia Musa Nelumbium f Nepenthes Nymphaea f Oxera * Pancratium f Pandanus Passiflora* Pavetta Petraea * Pleroma* Poinsettia Rondeletia Sanchezia Schubertia* Scutellaria Stephanotis Tabernaemontana Terminalia Thunbergia Torenia Thyrsacanthus Tydaea Vinca Abutilon Acacia Agapanthus Agathaea Agave Alonsoa Aloysia Amaryllis Ardisia Asparagus Aspidistra Asystasia (Mackaya) Azalea Bauera Begonia Blandfordia Bomarea * Boronia Bougainvillea * Bouvardia Brugmansia Calceolaria Camellia Campanula Canna Celosia Cestrum * Chorizema* Chrysanthemum Cineraria 60° and 65°, and in winter from 45° to 60°. A genial moist atmosphere must be kept up in the hottest houses during the growing season, with a free circulation of air admitted very cautiously by well-guarded ventilators. In winter, when the plants are at rest, little water will be necessary; but in the case of those plants which have no fleshy pseudobulbs to fall back upon for sustenance, they must not be suffered to become so dry as to cause the leaves to shrivel. In the Mexican house the plants will generally be able to withstand greater drought occasionally, being greatly assisted by their thick pseudobulbs. In the cool or odontoglossum house a considerable degree of moisture must be maintained at all times, for in these the plants keep growing more or less continuously.
For potting or basketing purposes, or for plants requiring blockculture, the materials used are light fibrous peat, special leaf-mould, osmunda or polypodium fibre and living sphagnum moss, which supply free drainage for the copious supply of water required. Good turfy loam is also used for some, such as cypripediums and calanthes. Indeed the composts now used are varied considerably according to the particular group of orchids. The water should, however, be so used as not to run down into the sheathing bases of the leaves. While in flower, orchids may with advantage be removed to a drier and cooler situation, and may be utilized in the drawing-room or boudoir. Of late years not only have many fine hybrids been raised artificially between various species, but some remarkable bigeneric hybrids (between what are considered two distinct genera) have also been produced (indicated in the list below by *). To keep a valuable collection of orchids in good condition requires the services of an expert orchid grower.
The following is a select list of genera in cultivation: - Acineta Ada Aerides Angraecum Anguloa Anoectochilus Ansellia Arachnanthe Arpophyllum Barkeria Batemannia Bifrenaria Brassavola Brassia Brasso-Cattleya* Broughtonia Bulbophyllum Burlingtonia Calanthe Catasetum Cattleya Chysis Cirrhopetalum Cochlioda Coelia Coelogyne Comparettia Cycnoches Pachystoma Zygopetalum Palms. - These form charming table and drawing-room plants when quite young. When more fully developed, and long before their full growth is attained, they are among the most decorative plants known for the conservatory and for subtropical gardening. They are easily cultivated, but should not be allowed to become dry. The soil should consist of about 3 parts turfy loam, i part leaf mould, I part coarse silver sand, with enough chemical or other manure added to render the whole moderately rich. The older plants will occasionally require the roots pruned in order to keep them in as small pots as possible without being starved. This should be done early in the spring, and the plants heavily shaded until feeding roots are again produced. It is of advantage to afford stove culture while the plants are quite young. A little later most of the genera succeed well under moderately cool conditions.
The following genera are among those most commonly cultivated: Acanthophoenix Chamaerops Martinezia Acanthorhiza Cocos Oreodoxa Areca Corypha Phoenix Bactris Geonoma Pritchardia Brahea Hyophorbe Rhapis Calamus Kentia Sabal Caryota Latania Stevensonia Ceroxylon Livistonia Thrinax Chamaedorea Ferns. - These popular plants are usually increased by means of their spores, the " dust " produced on the back of their fronds. The spores should be sown in well-drained pots or seed pans on the surface of a mixture of fibrous sifted peat and small broken crocks or sandstone; this soil should be firmly pressed and well-watered, and the spores scattered over it, and at once covered with propagating glasses or pieces of sheet glass, to prevent water or dry air getting to the surface. The pots should be placed in pans full of water, which they will absorb as required. A shady place is desirable, with temperature of 50° to 55° by night and 65° to 70° by day, or they may be set on a shelf in an ordinary propagating pit. The spores may be sown as soon as ripe, and when the young plants can be handled, or rather can be lifted with the end of a pointed flat stick, they should be pricked out into well-drained pots or pans filled with similar soil and should be kept moist and shady. As they become large enough, pot them singly in 3-in. pots, and when the pots are fairly filled with roots shift on into larger ones.
The best time for a general repotting of ferns is in spring, just before growth commences. Those with creeping rhizomes can be propagated by dividing these into well-rooted portions, and, if a number of crowns is formed, they can be divided at that season. In most cases this can be performed with little risk, but the gleichenias, for example, must only be cut into large portions, as small divisions of the rhizomes are almost certain to die; in such cases, however, the points of the rhizomes can be led over and layered into small pots, several in succession, and allowed to remain unsevered from the parent plant until they become well-rooted. In potting the well-established plants, and all those of considerable size, the soil should be used in a rough turfy state, not sifted but broken, and one-sixth of broken crocks or charcoal and as much sand as will insure free percolation should be mixed with it.
The stove ferns require a day temperature of 65° to 75°, but do not thrive in an excessively high or close dry atmosphere. They require only such shade as will shut out the direct rays of the sun, and, though abundant moisture must be supplied, the atmosphere should not be overloaded with it. Ferns should not be allowed to become quite dry at the root, and the water used should always be at or near the., temperature of the house in which the plants are growing. Some ferns, as the different kinds of Gymnogramme and Cheilanthes, prefer a drier atmosphere than others, and the former do not well bear a lower winter temperature than about 60° by night. Most other stove ferns, if dormant, will bear a temperature as low as 55° by night and 60° by day from November to February. About the end of the latter month the whole collection should be turned out of the pots, and redrained or repotted into larger pots as required. This should take place before growth has commenced. Towards the end of March the night temperature may be raised to 60°, and the day temperature to 70° or 75°, the plants being shaded in bright weather. Such ferns as Gymnogrammes, which have their surface covered with golden or silver powder, and certain species of scaly-surfaced Cheilanthes and Nothochlaena, as they cannot bear to have their fronds wetted, should never be syringed; but most other ferns may have a moderate sprinkling occasionally (not necessarily daily), and as the season advances, sufficient air and light must be admitted to solidify the tissues.
Hardy British ferns belonging to such genera as Asplenium, Nephrodium, Aspidium, Scolopendrium, have become fairly popular of late years, and many charming varieties are now used in borders and rockeries. Spores may be sown as above described, but in a much lower temperature.
Acrostichum Actiniopteris Adiantum Alsophila Aspidium Asplenium Blechnum Cheilanthes Cibotium Cyathea
Davallia Dicksonia Gleichenia Gymnogramme Hymenophyllum Lastrea
Lomaria Lygodium Nephrodium Nephrolepis
Osmunda Onoclea Phlebodium Platycerium Polypodium Pteris Scolopendrium Todea
The following is a select list of genera: - VI. Fruits. Fruit-Tree Borders. - No pains should be spared, in the preparation of fruit-tree borders, to secure their thorough drainage. In case of adhesive clayey subsoil this can generally be secured by placing over the sloping bottom a good layer of coarse rubbly material, communicating with a drain in front to carry off the water, while earthenware drain tubes may be laid beneath the rubble from 8 to To ft. apart, so as to form air drains, and provided with openings both at the side of the walk and also near the base of the wall. Over this rubbly matter, rough turfy soil, grass-side downwards, should be laid, and on this the good prepared soil in which the trees are to be planted.
The borders should consist of 3 parts rich turfy loam, the top spit of a pasture, and i part light gritty earth, such as road-grit, with a small portion (one-sixth) of fine brick rubbish. They should not be less than 12 ft. in breadth, and may vary up to r5 or 18 ft., with a fall from the wall of about i in. in 3 ft. The border itself should be raised a foot or more above the general level. The bottom of the border as well as that Cymbidium Cypripedium Cyrtopodium Dendrobium Diacrium Disa Epidendrum Eulophia Eulophiella Galeandra Gongora Grammatophyllum Habenaria Houlletia lonopsis Ipsea Laelia Laelio-Cattleya* Leptotes Lissochilus Lycaste Masdevallia Miltonia Mormodes Odontoglossum Odontioda* Oncidium Peristeria Pescatorea Phaj us Phaio - calanthe* Phalaenopsis Pilumna Platyclinis Pleione Pleurothallis Polystachya Promenaea Renanthera Restrepia Rodriguezia S accolabium Schomburgkia Scuticaria Sobralia Sophro-cattleya* Sophronitis Spathoglottis Stanhopea Thunia Trichopilia Trichosma Vanda Zygo - colax* of the drain must be kept lower than the general level of the subsoil, else the soakage will gather in all the little depressions of its surface. Fruit-tree borders should not be at all cropped with culinary vegetables, or very slightly so, as the process of digging destroys the roots of the trees, and drives them from near the surface, where they ought to be.
Shallow planting, whether of wall trees or standards, is generally to be preferred, a covering of a few inches of soil being sufficient for the roots, but a surface of at least equal size to, the surface of the hole should be covered with dung or litter so as to restrain evaporation and preserve moisture. In the case of wall trees, a space of 5 or 6 in. is usually left between the stem at the insertion of the roots and the wall, to allow for increase of girth. Young standard trees should be tied to stakes so as to prevent their roots being ruptured by the windwaving of the stems and to keep them erect. The best time for planting fruit trees in the open air is from the end of September till the end of November in open weather.
In the selection and distribution of fruit trees regard must of course be had to local situation and climate. The best walls having a south or south-east aspect are devoted to the peach, nectarine, apricot, dessert pears, plums and early cherries. Cherries and the generality of plums succeed very well either on an east or a west aspect. Morello cherries, apples and stewing pears succeed well on a north wall. In Scotland the mulberry requires the protection of a wall, and several of the finer apples and pears do not arrive at perfection without this help and a tolerably good aspect. The wall-trees intended to be permanent are called dwarfs, from their branches springing from near the ground. Between these, trees with tall stems, called riders, are planted as temporary occupants of the upper part of the wall. The riders should have been trained in the nursery into good-sized trees, in order that when planted out they may come into bearing 'as speedily as possible.
Standard Fruit Trees should not be planted, if it can be avoided, in the borders of the kitchen garden, but in the outer slips, where they either may be allowed to attain their full size or may be kept dwarfed. Each sort of fruit should be planted by itself, for the sake of orderly arrangement, and in order to facilitate protection when necessary by a covering of nets. Their produce is often superior in flavour to that of the same kind of fruit grown on walls.
Orchard-house Trees. - Peaches, nectarines, apricots, figs and dessert plums, cherries, apples and pears are commonly cultivated in the orchard-house. Peaches and nectarines are generally planted out, while the rest are more commonly cultivated in pots. This allows of the hardier pot plants being removed out of doors while those planted out are in need of the room. The pot plants are overhauled in the autumn, the roots pruned, a layer being cut off to allow new soil to be introduced. Surface dressing and feeding by liquid manure should also be afforded these plants while the fruit is swelling. Every effort should be made to complete the growth of peaches and nectarines while the sun is sufficiently strong to ripen them. Tomatoes are frequently employed to fill gaps in the orchard-house. Should it be provided with a central path, requiring shade, Hambro and Sweet-water grapes serve the purpose well, and in favourable seasons afford excellent crops of fruit.
VII. Vegetables. Under this head are included those esculents which are largely eaten as " vegetables " or as " salads." The more important are treated under their individual headings (see Artichoke, Asparagus, Bean, &c. &c.). The culinary herbs used for flavouring and garnishing are for the most part dwarf perennial plants requiring to be grown on a rich soil in an open sunny aspect, or annuals for which a warm sheltered border is the most suitable place; and they may therefore be conveniently grown together in the same compartment - a herb garden. The perennials should be transplanted either every year or every second year. For winter use the tops of the most useful kinds of herbs should be cut when in flower or full leaf and quite dry, and spread out in an airy but shady place so as to part slowly with the moisture they contain and at the same time retain their aromatic properties. When quite dry they should be put into dry wide-mouthed bottles and kept closely corked. In this way such herbs as basil, marjoram, mint, sage, savory, thyme, balm, chamomile, horehound, hyssop and rue, as well as parsley, may be had throughout the season with almost the full flavour of the fresh herb.
This name has been applied to the method of forcing early vegetables and salads during the winter and spring months in the market gardens in the neighbourhood of Paris. The system is now popularly known in England as " French gardening." Although a few assert that it is an old English one that has been discarded in favour of superior methods, there seems to be little or no evidence in support of this contention. The system itself has been practised for about 300 years in the " marais " gardens round Paris. At one time these gardens were in the centre of the city itself, but owing to modern improvements they have been gradually pushed out beyond the city boundaries farther and farther. Most of these gardens are small - not more than a couple of acres in extent, and the rent paid by the maraicher, or market gardener, is very high - as much as £30 to £40 per acre.
The French maraicher does not use hot-water apparatus for forcing his plants into early growth. He relies mainly upon the best stable manure, a few shallow frames about 4z ft. wide covered with lights, and a number of large bell glasses or " cloches." The work is carried on from October till the end of March and April, after which, with the exception of melons, the cultures are carried on in the open air.
The chief crops grown for early supplies, or " primeurs " as they are called, are special varieties of cos and cabbage lettuces, short carrots, radishes, turnips, cauliflowers, endives, spinach, onions, corn salad and celery. To these is added a very important crop of melons, a special large-fruited variety known as the Prescott Canteloup being the most favoured.
It is astonishing how much produce is taken off one of these small intensive gardens during the year, and especially during the worst months when prices usually run fairly high. The fact that rents are so heavy around Paris is in itself an indication of the money that is realized by the growers not only in the Paris markets, but also in Covent Garden.
During the winter season narrow beds are made up of manure, either quite fresh or mixed with old manure, according to the amount of heat required. These beds are covered with a few inches of the fine old mould obtained from the decayed manure of previous years. In the early stages seeds of carrots and radishes are sown simultaneously on the same beds, and over them young lettuces that have been raised in advance are planted. In this way three crops are actually on the same beds at the same time. Owing, however, to the difference in their vegetative growth, they mature one after the other instead of simultaneously. Thus with the genial warmth and moisture of the hotbeds, all crops grow rapidly, but the radishes mature first, then the lettuces are taken off in due course, thus leaving the beds to finish up with the carrots by themselves. Later on in the season, perhaps small cauliflowers will be planted along the margins of the beds where the carrots are growing, and will be developing into larger plants requiring more space by the time all the carrots have been picked and marketed. So on throughout the year with other crops, this system of intercropping or overlapping of one crop with another is carried out in a most ingenious manner, not only under glass lights, but also in the open air. Spinach, corn salad, radishes and carrots are the favourite crops for sowing between others such as lettuces and cauliflowers.
Although enormous quantities of water are required during the summer season, great care must be exercised in applying water to the winter crops. When severe frost prevails the lights or cloches are rarely taken off except to gather mature specimens; and no water is given directly overhead to the plants for fear of chilling them and checking growth. They must secure their Calendar (Great Britain)] supply of moisture from the rain that falls on the glass, and flows into the narrow pathways from 9 in. to 12 in. wide between each range of frames. As the beds are only about 4z ft. wide, the water from the pathways is soaked up on each side by capillary attraction, and in this way the roots secure a sufficient supply.
Besides an abundance of water in summer there must also be an enormous quantity of good stable manure available during the winter months. This is necessary not only to make up the required hotbeds in the first place, but also to fill in the pathways between the frames, wherever it is considered advisable to maintain the heat within the frames at a certain point. As it is impossible to use an ordinary wheelbarrow in these narrow pathways, the workman carries a specially made wicker basket called a " hotte " on his shoulders by means of two straps. In this way large quantities of manure are easily transported to any required spot, and although the work looks hard to an English gardener, the Frenchman says he can carry more manure with less fatigue in half a day than an Englishman can transport in a day with a wheelbarrow.
This is merely an outline of the system, which is now being taken up in various parts of the United Kingdom, but not too rapidly. The initial expenses for frames, lights, cloches, mats and water-supply are in many cases prohibitive to men with the necessary gardening experience, while on the other hand those who have the capital lack the practical knowledge so essential to success.
For full details of this system see French Market-Gardening, with details of Intensive Cultivation, by John Weathers (London, 1909).
Calendar of Garden Operations (A) for Great Britain. January Kitchen Garden. - Wheel out manure and composts during frosty weather; trench vacant ground not turned up roughly in autumn. Sow early peas in a cold frame for transplanting. Sow also first-crop peas, early in the month, and William I. towards the end; Early Seville and Early Longpod beans; and short-topped radish in two or three sowings, at a week's interval, all on a warm border; also Hardy Green and Brown cos lettuce in a frame or on south border. Plant shallots and Ashleaf potatoes on a warm border. Protect broccoli as it becomes fit for use, or remove to a dry shed or cellar; lettuces and endive, which are best planted in frames; and parsley in frames so as to be accessible.
Fruit Garden. - Plant fruit trees in open weather, if not done in autumn, which is the proper season, mulching over the roots to protect them from frost, and from drought which may occur in spring. Prune fruit trees in mild weather or in moderate frosts, nailing only in fine weather. Wash trees infested with insects with one of the many insecticides now obtainable. Take off grafts, and lay them aside in moist earth in a shady place.
Prepare manure for making up hotbeds for early cucumbers and melons, where pits heated with hot water are not in use; also for Ashleaf potatoes. Sow also in heat mustard and cress for salads, onions for salads; tomatoes, celery to be pricked out for an early crop; and Early Horn carrot and kidney-beans on slight hotbeds. Force asparagus, sea-kale and rhubarb, in hotbeds, in pits, in the mushroom-house or in the open garden by the use of covers surrounded with warm litter; for cucumbers a top heat of 70 0; for vines in leaf and flower a temperature ranging from 65° to 70°. Keep forced strawberries with swelling fruit well watered. Plant vine eyes for propagation in a brisk heat.
Give abundance of air to the greenhouse, conservatory and alpine frame in mild weather, but use little water. A supply of roses, kalmias, rhododendrons, &c., and of hardy flowers and bulbs, as lily of the valley, hyacinths, tulips, daffodils, &c., should be kept up by forcing.
Flower Garden. - Plant out tubers and bulbs of border flowers, where neglected in autumn, deferring the finer florists' flowers till next month. Transplant herbaceous plants in light soils, if not done in autumn; also deciduous trees, shrubs and hedges. Lay edgings in fine weather. Sow mignonette, stocks, &c., in pots; sow sweet peas and a few hardy annuals on a warm border. Give auriculas and carnations abundance of air, but keep the roots rather dry to prevent damping off.
February Kitchen Garden. - Sow successional crops of Early Seville beans, and William I., American Wonder or other peas in the beginning and end of the month; early cabbages to follow the last sowing in August; red cabbages and savoys towards the end. Sow also Early Horn carrot; Early Purple-top Munich turnip; onions for a full crop in light soils, with a few leeks and some parsley. Sow lettuce for succession, with radishes and Round-leaved spinach, twice in the course of the month; and small salads every fortnight. Plant Jerusalem artichokes, shallots, garlic, horse-radish and early potatoes. Transplant to the bottom of a south wall a portion of the peas sown in pots in frames in November and January for the first crop. Sow Brussels sprouts in gentle heat for an early crop.
Fruit Garden. - Prune apricots, peaches, nectarines and plums, before the buds are much swelled; finish pruning apples, pears, cherries, gooseberries, currants and raspberries, before the end of the month; also the dressing of vines. Keep the fruit-room free from spoiled fruit, and shut it close. Cut down the double-bearing raspberries to secure strong autumn-fruiting shoots. Head back stocks preparatory to grafting.
Sow melons and cucumbers on hotbeds and in pits. Sow carrots, turnips, early celery, also aubergines or egg-plants, capsicums, tomatoes and successional crops of kidney-beans; cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, in gentle heat, to be afterwards planted out. Plant early potatoes on slight hotbeds. Continue the forcing of asparagus, rhubarb and sea-kale. Commence or continue the forcing of the various choice fruits, as vines, peaches, figs, cherries, strawberries, &c: Pot roots of mint and place in heat to produce sprigs for mint sauce. Be careful to protect the stems of vines that are outside the forcing-houses.
Let the greenhouse and conservatory have plenty of air in mild weather. Pot and start tuberous-rooted begonias and gloxinias. Pot young plants of Hippeastrum, and; lstart the established ones. Propagate chrysanthemums in cool-house or vinery under hand lights or frames. Put plants of fuchsias, petunias, verbenas, heliotropes, salvias and other soft-wooded subjects, into a propagating house to obtain cuttings, &c., for the flower garden. Sow stocks, dahlias and a few tender and half-hardy annuals, on a slight hotbed, or tin pots. Propagate old roots of dahlias by cuttings of the young shoots in a hotbed. Sow petunias in heat, and prick out and harden for bedding out; also gloxinias to be grown on in heat till the flowering season.
In dry open weather plant dried roots, including most of the finer florists' flowers; continue the transplanting of hardy biennial flowers and herbaceous plants. Sow in the last week mignonette, and hardy annuals, in a warm border, for subsequent transplanting.
March Kitchen Garden. - Sow main crops of wrinkled marrow peas; Longpod and Windsor beans; cabbage, onions, leeks, Early Horn carrots, parsnips, salsafy, scorzonera, Brussels sprouts, borecoles, lettuces and spinach. In the beginning and also at the end of the month sow Early Strap-leaf and Early Snowball turnips and savoys. In the last fortnight sow asparagus, cauliflower and the various sweet and savoury herbs; also sea-kale, radishes, celery, celeriac and parsley. Small salads should be sown every ten days. Make up beds for mushrooms with well-prepared dung towards the end of the month. Plant early potatoes in the first week, and a main crop during the last fortnight. Sea-kale, asparagus and peas raised in frames may now be planted; also garlic and shallots. Full crops of cabbages should be planted out; also cauliflowers under handglasses. Propagate by slips, or by earthing up the old stems, the various pot-herbs.
Finish the pruning of fruit trees before the middle of the month. Protect those coming into blossom. Begin grafting in the third week; dig and dress between the rows of gooseberries, currants and other fruit trees, if not already done. Kill wasps assiduously as soon as they appear.
Continue the forcing of melons, cucumbers, tomatoes and the various fruits. In the vinery and peach-house, attend to the keeping down of insects by syringing; and promote the growth of the young shoots, by damping the walls and paths morning and evening. Sow capsicum and tomato; also in slight heat such tender herbs as basil and marjoram.
More water may be given than formerly. Sow seeds of greenhouse and hothouse plants; also the different sorts of tender annuals; pot off those sown last month; sow cineraria for the earliest bloom; also Chinese primulas. Shift heaths and other hard-wooded subjects and stove-plants; plant tuberoses in pots for forcing. Begin to propagate greenhouse plants by cuttings; also coleuses by cuttings in heat, potting them off as soon as rooted.
In the last week, sow hardy annuals in the borders, with biennials that flower the first season, as also perennials. Plant anemone and ranunculus roots and the corms of gladiolus. Transplant from the nursery to their final sites annuals sown in autumn, with biennials and herbaceous plants. Propagate perennials from root-slips and offsets. Continue to propagate the finer sorts of dahlias, both by cuttings and by division of the roots. Finish the pruning of all deciduous trees and hedges as soon as possible. Attend to the dressing of shrubberies; lay turf-edgings, and regulate the surface of gravel walks.
April Kitchen Garden. - Sow asparagus, sea-kale, Turnip-rooted beet, salsafy, scorzonera, skirret, carrots and onions on heavy soils; also marrow peas, Longpod and Windsor beans, turnips, spinach, celery, RIII. 25 a [[[Calendar (Great Britain]]) cabbage, savoys and Brussels sprouts for succession. Sow broccoli and kidney-beans both in the second and in the last week, and lettuces and small salads twice or thrice during the month; sow all herbs, if not done last month. Sow vegetable marrow. Plant cauliflower, cabbages, sea-kale, lettuce; and finish the planting of the main crops of potatoes; divide and replant globe-artichokes. Propagate all sorts of pot-herbs, and attend to the hoeing and thinning of spinach, onions, turnips, carrots, beet, &c. Earth up cabbages, cauliflower, peas, beans and early potatoes. Stake up peas; blanch sea-kale and rhubarb in the open air by covering with straw or leaves.
If vines have been neglected to be pruned, rub off the buds that are not wanted; this is safer than pruning now. Protect the finer sorts of fruit trees on the walls. The hardier orchard-house fruits should now be moved outdoors under temporary awnings, to give the choicer fruits more space, - the roots being protected by plunging the pots. Mulch all newly-planted fruit trees, watering abundantly in dry weather.
Continue the preparation of succession beds and pits for cucumbers and melons. Sow; pot tomatoes and capsicums for succession. Pollinate tomatoes by hand to ensure early fruit on plants intended for outdoor culture. In the forcing-houses, from the variable state of the weather, considerable vigilance is required in giving air. Keep down red spider (Acarus) in the more advanced houses by frequent syringings and a well-moistened atmosphere. Continue the usual operations of disbudding and thinning of fruit, and take care to keep up the proper temperatures.
Still sow tender annuals if required; also cinerarias and primulas. Proceed with all necessary shif tings. Propagate rare and fine plants by cuttings or grafting; increase bouvardias by cuttings, and grow on for winter flowering. Pot off tender annuals, and cuttings of half-hardy greenhouse plants put in during February to get them well established for use in the flower garden. Transfer chrysanthemums to sheltered positions out of doors, and provide means of protecting them from frost and cutting winds.
Sow main or successional crops of annuals of all sorts - half-hardy annuals in warm borders, or on slight hotbeds. Biennials and perennials should be sown before the middle of the month. Plant out gladioli, if not done, tigridias and fine stocks. Finish the transplanting of herbaceous plants by the end of the first week. Cuttings of border chrysanthemums may now be dibbled in a warm spot out of doors. Protect stage auriculas and hyacinths from extremes of every description of weather; and tulips from hoar-frosts and heavy rains. Plant out tender deciduous trees and shrubs raised in pots; plant out tea-roses, mulching the roots. Remove part of the coverings of all tender shrubs and plants in the first week, and the remainder at the end of the month. Form and repair lawns and grass walks by laying turf and sowing perennial grass-seeds; mow the lawns frequently; plant evergreens.
MAY Kitchen Garden. - Sow main crop of beet in the first week, small salads every week, radishes and lettuces thrice, spinach once a fortnight, carrots and onions for late drawing, kidney-beans in the first week and together with scarlet runners in the last fortnight; endive for an early crop; also peas and Longpod and Windsor beans, cauliflowers, Early York or Little Pixie cabbages, Brussels sprouts, borecole, broccoli, savoys and kale for late crops. Sow vegetable marrows and hardy cucumbers on a warm border in the last week; sow cardoons in trenches, or (in the north) in pots under glass shelter; sow chicory for salading. Continue hoeing and earthing up the several crops.
Fruit Garden. - Disbud peaches, nectarines and other early trees against the walls; also attend to the thinning of fruit. Give occasional washings with the engine to keep down insects. Pick caterpillars from gooseberries and wall trees on their first appearance. Remove from raspberries and strawberries all suckers and runners that are not wanted.
Plant melons and cucumbers on the hotbeds prepared for vegetables in February, and now free. Plant out vegetable marrows and pumpkins on dung-ridges, under hand-glasses. Sow late crops of cucumbers and melons.
Turn out hardy plants about the middle, and the more tender at the latter end of the month. Sow tender annuals for succession, potting and shifting those sown at an earlier period; sow cinerarias for succession; and a few hardy annuals and tenweek stock, &c., for late crops. Pot off all rooted cuttings. Put in cuttings of the different desirable species which are now fit for that purpose. Plant out in rich soil Richardias, to be potted up in autumn for flowering. Bedding plants should be placed to harden in sheltered positions out of doors towards end of month. Towards the end of the month many of the main stock of chrysanthemums will be ready for the final potting.
Sow annuals for succession in the last week, also biennials and perennials in the nursery compartment, for planting out next year. Propagate plants of which more stock is required either by cuttings or by dividing the roots. Plant out, during the last week, dahlias, hardy pelargoniums, stocks and calceolarias, protecting the dahlias from slight frosts. By the end of the month, masses of the following plants may be formed with safety in warm localities: - pelargonium, heliotropium, fuchsia, petunia, nierembergia, salvia, verbena, bouvardia and lobelia. Protect tulips, ranunculuses and anemones from the mid-day sun, and from rains and winds. Remove the coverings from all tender plants in the open air.
Transplant all kinds of evergreens, this month and September being the proper seasons. The rarer conifers should be planted now and in June, after they have commenced to grow. Proceed with the laying down of lawns and gravel-walks, and keep the former regularly mown.
June Kitchen Garden. - Sow kidney-beans for succession; also the wrinkled marrow peas and Seville Longpod and Windsor beans for late crops. Sow salading every ten days; also carrots, onions and radishes for drawing young; and chicory for salads; sow endive for a full crop. In the first week sow Early Munich and Golden Ball turnips for succession, and in the third week for a full autumn crop. Sow scarlet and white runner beans for a late crop, and cabbages for coleworts. Make up successional mushroom beds early in the month. Plant full crops of broccoli, Brussels sprouts, savoys, kales, leeks and early celery, with successional crops of cabbage and cauliflower. In the first fortnight of the month, plant hardy cucumbers for pickling, in a warm border, placing handglasses over them towards the end of the month. Plant out capsicums and tomatoes in sunny positions, and stake and tie securely. Pull and store winter onions, if ripe.
Train and prune the summer shoots of wall and trellis and other trained trees. Mulch and water fruit trees and strawberries in dry weather, desisting when the fruit begins to ripen. Net over cherry-trees. Destroy aphides and other insects by syringing with tobacco water, or by fumigating, or by dusting with tobacco powder.
Proceed with planting melons, cucumbers and tomatoes. Keep up the necessary temperatures for the ripening of the various fruits. Ventilation will still require constant care. Tomatoes will now be fruiting freely; thin out judiciously, avoiding excessive pruning at one time. Attend to the gathering of fruit as it ripens.
These will now be occupied with tender greenhouse plants and annuals, and the more hardy plants from the stove. Shift, repot and propagate all plants that are desirable. Sow fragrant or showy annuals to flower in pots during winter; and grow on a set of decorative plants for the same object. Continue the final potting of chrysanthemums as the plants become ready.
Plant out dahlias and other tender subjects, if risk of frost is past. Take up bulbs and tuberous roots and dry them in the shade before removing them to the store-room. Fill up with annuals and greenhouse plants those beds from which the bulbs and roots have been raised. After this season, keep always a reserve of annuals in pots, or planted on beds of thin layers of fibrous matter, so as to be readily transplanted. Layer carnations and pipe pinks in the end of the month. Keep the lawns closely mown.
July Kitchen Garden. - Watering will be necessary in each department, if the weather is hot and dry. In the first week, sow peas for the last crop of the season; also Longpod beans and French beans. In the last week, sow red globe or Chirk Castle turnip for a full winter crop, spinach for an early winter supply and Enfield Market cabbage for early summer use. Sow endive, for autumn and winter use, in the beginning and end of the month; also successional crops of lettuce and small salads. Make up successional mushroom beds. Plant full crops of celery, celeriac, endive about the middle and end of the month; late crops of broccoli, cauliflower and coleworts in the last week. Gather and dry herbs; also propagate these by slips and cuttings.
Fruit Garden. - Continue the pruning and training of wall and espalier trees, and the destruction of noxious insects. Pot strawberries for forcing next winter, and make new beds out of doors as soon as well-rooted runners can be obtained. Propagate the different sorts of stone fruit trees by budding on other trees or on prepared stocks. Gather fruits of all kinds as they ripen.
Prune melons and cucumbers, giving air and water and maintaining heat, &c. Continue the routine treatment in the tomatohouses. Feed the plants artificially as soon as good crops are set; do not wait for signs of distress. The forcing-houses ought to have abundance of fresh air and moisture where required, along with the necessary heat.
Plant Houses. - Ventilation will be necessary to keep down excessive heat; and attention must be paid to potting, shifting and putting in cuttings, and giving abundance of water to the potted plants, both indoors and out. Sow seed of herbaceous calceolarias; shift heaths, if they require it; cut down pelargoniums past flowering, and plant the cuttings.
Take up the remaining tuberous roots, such as anemones, ranunculuses, &c., by the end of the first week; fill up their places, and any vacancies that may have occurred, with annuals or bedding plants from the reserve ground.
Calendar (Great Britain)] Repot auriculas, and sow auricula seed in boxes under glass. Propagate herbaceous and other plants that have gone out of flower, by means of cuttings and slips, especially those required for spring bedding; propagate also the various summer bedding plants increased by cuttings. Increase roses and American shrubs, by layering, budding or cuttings, and go on with the layering of carnations and picotees. Stake and tie up dahlias and strong herbaceous plants.
August Kitchen Garden. - Sow winter and spring spinach in the beginning and about the end of the month; parsley and winter onions, for a full crop, in the first week; cabbages about the middle of the month, for planting out in spring; cauliflower in the first half (Scotland) and in the second half (England) of the month; Hardy Hammersmith and Brown Cos lettuce in the first and last week; small salads occasionally; and Black Spanish radish, for winter crops. Plant out kales and broccoli for late crops; plant celery (earthing up the advancing crops as required), endive for succession, and a few coleworts. Take up shallots, garlic, &c.
Fruit Garden. - Proceed in training and regulating the summer shoots of all fruit trees as directed for the last three months. Net up, in dry weather, gooseberry and currant bushes, to preserve the fruit till late in the autumn. Make new strawberry beds if required. Preserve the ripening fruits on the wall and other trees from insects, and destroy wasp nests. Gather fruits as they ripen.
The routine of cultivation in hotbeds and pits may be continued. Sow tomatoes and cucumbers for a winter crop. Make up mushroom beds. In the forcing-houses, where the crops are past, part of the sashes may be removed, so as to permit thorough ventilation.
Plant Houses. - Attend to the propagation of all sorts of greenhouse plants by cuttings, and to the replacing in the greenhouse and stoves the more tender species, by the end of the month in ordinary seasons, but in wet weather in the second week. Sow half-hardy annuals, as Nemophila, Collinsia, Schizanthus, Rhodanthe, &c., to flower during winter.
Sow in the second and the last week, on a warm border of a light sandy soil, with an east aspect, any free-flowering hardy annuals as Silene pendula, Nemophila, &c., for planting in spring; and auricula and primula seeds in pots and boxes. Propagate all sorts of herbaceous plants by rooted slips or suckers; take off layers of carnations, picotees and pansies. Plant cuttings of bedding plants, and of bedding pelargoniums in boxes for convenience of removal. Layer the tops of chrysanthemums, to obtain dwarf flowering plants. Transplant evergreens in moist weather, about the end of the month; and propagate them by layers and cuttings. Pot Neapolitan violets for forcing; or plant out on a mild hotbed. Clip box edgings.
September Kitchen Garden. - Sow small salading for late crops; and lettuce and spinach, if not done last month, for spring crops. Plant endive and lettuce at the foot of a south wall to stand the winter; plant out cabbages from the chief autumn sowing. Plant cauliflowers on a warm border in spaces such as can be protected by hand-lights. Thin the winter spinach, when large enough, that it may have space to grow. If broccoli be too rank or tall to withstand the winter, lift and lay nearly up to the neck in the earth, the heads sloping towards the north. Lift onions, and lay them out to ripen on a dry border or gravel-walk. Lift potatoes and store them.
Finish the summer pruning and training. Where the walls are heated, assist the maturing of peaches and nectarines, and the ripening of the young wood for next year, by fires during the day. Gather and lay up in the fruit-room with care the autumnal sorts of apples and pears. Prepare borders and stations for fruit trees during dry weather. Plant strawberries for a main crop. Repot orchard-house trees, disrooting if necessary.
Take care that late melons, cucumbers and tomatoes be not injured by getting too much water and too little air. Sow a few kidney beans for an early forced crop. Expel damp, and assist the ripening of late grapes and peaches with fires during the day. Prune early vines and peaches.
The various pot plants should now be put in their winter quarters. Keep up moderate temperatures in the stove, and merely repel frosts in the greenhouse, guarding against damp, by ventilation and by the cautious use of water. Pot hyacinths, tulips and other bulbs for forcing; and propagate half-hardy plants by cuttings. Begin the housing of the main stock of chrysanthemums.
Flower Garden, &c. - Sow in the beginning of this month all halfhardy annuals required for early flowering; also mignonette in pots, thinning the plants at an early stage; the different species of primula; and the seeds of such plants as, if sown in spring, seldom come up the same season, but if sown in September and October, vegetate readily the succeeding spring. Put in cuttings of bedding pelargoniums in boxes, which may stand outdoors exposed to the sun, but should be sheltered from excessive rains. Continue the propagation of herbaceous plants, taking off the layers of carnations, picotees, pansies and chrysanthemums, by the end of the month; choice carnations and picotees may be potted and wintered in cold frames if the season is wet and ungenial. Plant evergreens; lay and put in cuttings of most of the hard-wooded sorts of shrubby plants October Kitchen Garden. - Sow small salading and radishes in the first week, and lettuces in frames on a shallow hotbed for planting out in spring. If the winter prove mild they will be somewhat earlier than those sown next month or in January. Plant parsley in pots or boxes to protect under glass in case very severe weather occurs. Plant cabbages in beds or close rows till wanted in spring; and cauliflowers in the last week, to receive the protection of frames, or a sheltered situation. Store potatoes, beet, salsafy, scorzonera, skirret, carrots and parsnips, by the end of the month. Band and earth up cardoons.
Such fruit trees as have dropped their leaves may be transplanted; this is the best season for transplanting (though with care it may be done earlier), whether the leaves have fallen or not. Protect fig-trees, if the weather proves frosty, as soon as they have cast their leaves. Plant out raspberries. The orchard-house trees should be got under glass before the end of the month. Gather and store all sorts of apples and pears, the longest-keeping sorts not before the end of the month, if the weather be mild.
Maintain the heat in hotbeds and pits by means of fresh dung linings. Give abundance of air in mild bright weather. Dress vines and peaches. Clean and repair the forcing-houses, and overhaul the heating apparatus to see it is in good working condition. Plant chicory in boxes or on hotbeds for blanching. Sow kidney beans. Make up successional winter mushroom beds.
Replace all sorts of greenhouse plants. Fill the pits with pots of stocks, mignonette and hardy annuals for planting out in spring, along with many of the hardy sorts of greenhouse plants; the whole ought to be thoroughly ventilated, except in frosty weather. From this time till spring keep succulent plants almost without water. Begin to force roses, hyacinths and a few other bulbs, for winter and early spring decoration. Plant hyacinths in glasses for windows. The last of the pot chrysanthemums should be housed by the end of the first week.
Sow a few pots of hardy annuals in a frame, or on a sheltered border, for successional spring use if required. Plant the greater part of the common border bulbs, as hyacinths, narcissi, crocuses and early tulips, about the end of the month, with a few anemones for early flowering. Transplant strong plants of biennials and perennials to their final situations; also the select plants used for spring bedding. Protect alpine plants, stage auriculas, and choice carnations and picotees with glass frames; and tea roses and other tender plants with bracken or other protective material. Take up, dry and store dahlias and all tender tubers at the end of the month; pot lobelias and similar half-hardy plants from the open borders. Transplant all sorts of hardy evergreens and shrubs, especially in dry soils, giving abundance of water. Put in cuttings of all sorts of evergreens, &c. Plant out the hardier sorts of roses.
November Kitchen Garden. - Trench up all vacant ground as soon as cleared of its crops, leaving the surface as rough as possible. Sow early peas and Early Dwarf Prolific beans in the second week, for an early crop; also in frames for transplanting. Protect endive, celery, artichoke and sea-kale with stable-litter or fern, or by planting the former in frames; take up late cauliflower, early broccoli and lettuces, and place them in sheltered pits or lay them in an open shed; earth up celery; manure and dress up asparagus beds.
Fruit Garden. - Plant all sorts of fruit trees in fine weather - the earlier in the month the better. Protect fig-trees. Commence pruning and nailing. Gather and store the latest apples and pears. Examine the fruit-room and remove all decayed fruit.
Keep up the requisite degree of heat in hotbeds and pits. Cucumbers and tomatoes will require more than ordinary attention. Force asparagus, rhubarb and sea-kale, in the mushroomhouse, in pits, or in the open border under boxes or cases surrounded and covered by well-fermented stable dung and leaves. Sow Early Horn carrot; also kidney beans and radishes, on hotbeds. In the forcing-houses prune and train the trees; fork over and dress the borders of such houses as have not been already done. Plant Houses. - The directions for the greenhouse ana conservatory in January apply also to this month generally. Continue the forcing of roses, hyacinths, &c. Houses containing large-flowered Japanese chrysanthemums will require to be kept dry, airy and moderately warm to prevent " damping-off " of petals.
Flower Garden, &c. - Plant dried tubers of border flowers, but the finer sorts had better be deferred till spring. Plant tulips in the early part of the month. Put in cuttings of bedding calceolarias, choosing the shoots that will not run up to flower. Protect such. half-hardy plants as are not already sheltered. Plant deciduous; trees and shrubs so long as the weather continues favourable, ands before the soil has parted with the solar heat absorbed during summer.. Dig and dress such flower borders and shrubberies as may now be cleared of annuals and the stems of herbaceous plants.
Kitchen Garden. - Collect and smother-burn all vegetable refuse, and apply it as a dressing to the ground. Sow a few peas and beans, in case of accident to those sown in November, drawing up the soil towards the stems of those which are above ground as a protection; earth up celery; blanch endive with flower-pots; sow radishes in a very sheltered place. Attend to trenching and digging in dry weather.
Plant all sorts of fruit trees in mild weather. Proceed with pruning and nailing wall-trees. Examine the fruitroom every week, removing promptly all decaying fruit.
The same degree of attention to hotbeds and pits will be necessary as in the last month. Continue the forcing of asparagus, rhubarb and sea-kale, in pits and in the mushroom-house. Proceed with the usual routine of culture commenced last month. Make 'the necessary preparations to begin forcing early or succession crops by the last week of this or the first of next month.
Plant Houses, Frames, &c. - Carnations and picotees in pots must be kept rather dry to prevent damping off. Heaths and Australian plants must be very sparingly watered, and kept with only fire heat enough to repel frost. Cut down plants of chrysanthemums, which should be placed in a cool pit, near the glass, in order to afford hard sturdy cuttings in February. Shy plants should be given gentle bottom heat to induce growth, which should be gently hardened by exposure under cooler conditions.
Flower Garden, £&c. - Plant shrubs in open weather. Prune shrubs. Sweep and roll the lawns, and put in repair the gravel-walks, keeping the surface frequently rolled. (J. WS.; W. R. W.) (B) For the United States (chiefly for the latitude of New York). January Flower Garden and Greenhouse. - Little is to be done in either. En the greenhouse care must be used to protect against frost. Ventilate but little, and with care; raise the ventilating sash only high enough to let the heated air from the greenhouse drive back the outer air so as not to chill the plants. To destroy the red spider, syringe the plants copiously at night, and splash the paths with water. The aphis, or " green fly," must also be destroyed; tobacco may be used. Various new preparations are coming on the market for the destruction of greenhouse pests. Several new effective preparations of tobacco have been brought into use. The white-fly is now a common pest in greenhouses, the nymphs being greenish scale-like objects on the under sides of the leaves, and adults very small white flies. The remedy is to spray with kerosene emulsion or whale-oil soap; or if on cucumbers or tomatoes, it is best to fumigate with hydrocyanic acid gas, using one ounce of potassium cyanide to each woo cubic ft. of space. (This material is very poisonous.) Many greenhouse insects can be kept more or less in check by careful and effective hosing of the plants at proper times. At this season roses, grape vines and other plants are often affected by mildew; an effectual remedy is to paint the hot-water pipes with a mixture of sulphur and lime, put on as thick as ordinary whitewash, once each week until it is checked; but care must be taken not to apply it on any surface at a higher temperature than 212°. Hyacinths and other bulbs that have been kept in a cellar or other dark cool place may now be brought into the light of the greenhouse or sitting-room, provided they have filled the pots with roots. If they are not well rooted, leave them until they are, or select such of them as are best, leaving the others. In the outside flower garden little can be done except that shrubs may be pruned, or new work, such as making walks or grading, performed, if weather permits. See that the ornamental plants and trees are not injured by heavy weights of ice or snow.
Fruit Garden. - Pruning, staking up or mulching can be done if the weather is such that the workmen can stand out. In all warm or comfortable days the fruit trees may be pruned.
Graperies used for the forcing of foreign grapes may be started, beginning at a temperature of 50° at night, with 10° or 15° higher during the day. The borders must be covered sufficiently deep with leaves or manure to prevent the soil from freezing, as it would be destruction to the vines to start the shoots if the roots were frozen; hence, when forcing is begun in January, the covering should be put on in November, before severe frosts begin.
But little can be done in the northern states except to prepare manure, and get sashes, tools, &c., in working order; but in sections of the country where there is little or no frost the hardier kinds of seeds and plants may be sown and planted, such as asparagus, cabbage, cauliflower, carrot, leek, lettuce, onion, parsnip, peas, spinach, turnip, &c. In any section where these seeds can be sown in open ground, it is an indication that hotbeds may be started for the sowing of such tender vegetables as tomatoes, egg and pepper plants, &c.; though, unless in the extreme southern states, hotbeds should not be started before the beginning or middle of February. Make orders for the spring seeds.
February Flower Garden and Greenhouse. - The directions for January will in the main apply to this month, except that now some of the hardier annuals may be sown in hotbed or greenhouse, and also the propagation of plants by cuttings may be done rather better now than in January, as the greater amount of light gives more vitality to the cutting.
But little can be done in most of the northern states as yet, and in sections where there is no frost in the ground it is likely to be too wet to work; but in many southern states this will be the best month for planting fruit trees and plants of all kinds, particularly strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, pear and apple trees, while grape vines will do, though they will also do well quite a month later. Continue the pruning. Fruit trees for spring planting should be ordered, if not already done.
The graperies started last month at 50° at night may now be increased to 60°, with a correspondingly higher day temperature. Great care must be taken to syringe the leaves thoroughly at least once a day, and to deluge the paths with water, so as to produce a moist atmosphere. Paint the hot-water pipes with sulphur mixture, as recommended in January.
Vegetable Garden. - Leaves from the woods, house manure or refuse hops from breweries may be got together towards the latter part of this month, and mixed and turned to get " sweetened " preparatory to forming hotbeds. Cabbage, lettuce and cauliflower seeds, if sown early this month in hotbed or greenhouse, will make fine plants if transplanted into hotbed in March. This is preferable to the use of fall-sown plants. Manure that is to be used for the crop should be broken up as fine as possible, for the more completely manure of any kind can be mixed with the soil the better the crop will be, and, of course, if it is dug or ploughed in in large unbroken lumps it cannot be properly commingled.
March Flower Garden and Greenhouse. - The long days and bright sunshine will now begin to tell on the plants under glass. Examine all plants that are vigorous and healthy; if the roots have matted the " ball " of earth they must be shifted into a larger-sized pot. Plants from cuttings struck last month may now be shifted, and the propagation of all plants that are likely to be wanted should be continued. Hardier kinds of annuals may be sown; it is best done in shallow boxes, say 2 in. deep.
Lawns can be raked off and mulched with short manure, or rich garden earth where manure cannot be obtained. Flower-beds on light soils may be dug up so as to forward the work of the coming busy spring season. Lawns may be benefited by a good dressing, in addition to the manure, of some reliable commercial fertilizer. If the lawn is thin in spots, these places may be raked over heavily and new grass seed sown.
In many sections, planting may now be done with safety, provided the soil is light and dry, but not otherwise. Although a tree or plant will receive no injury when its roots are undisturbed in the soil should a frost come after planting, the same amount of freezing will, and very often does, greatly injure the plant if the roots are exposed.
The grapery started in January will have set its fruit, which should be thinned by one-third. The temperature may now be further advanced to 70° at night, with 15° higher in the daytime. The same precautions must be used against mildew and insects as given in January. Graperies wanted for succession may be started in February or this month.
This is a busy month. In localities where the frost is out of the ground, if it is not wet, seeds of the hardier vegetables can be sown. The list of seeds given for the southern states in January may now be used at the north, while for most of the southern states tender vegetables, such as egg plant, okra, sweet potatoes, melon, squash, potatoes, tomatoes, &c., may be sown and planted. Hotbeds must now be all started. In March flower seeds and vegetable seeds may be sown in boxes or flats in the greenhouse, or in residence windows, or near the kitchen stove. Unless one has space under glass, or in hotbeds, in which the plants may be transplanted before they are set in the open ground, it is well not to start the seeds too early, inasmuch as the plants are likely to become too large or to be pot-bound, or to become drawn.
April Flower Garden and Greenhouse. - Window and greenhouse plants require more water and ventilation. Due attention must be paid to shifting well-rooted plants into larger pots; and, if space is desired, many kinds of hardier plants can be safely put out in cold frames. Towards the end of the month it may be necessary slightly to shade the glass of the greenhouse. All herbaceous plants and hardy shrubs may be planted in the garden. The covering of leaves or litter should be taken off bulbs and tender plants that were covered up for winter, so that the beds can be lightly forked and raked. Sow tender annual flower seeds in boxes inside.
CALENDAR (UNITED STATES)]
Fruit Garden. - Strawberries that have been covered up with straw or leaves should be relieved around the plants, leaving the covering between them. Special care must be exercised that the mulch be not left on too long; the plants should not become whitened or " drawn." Raspberries, grape vines, &c., that have been laid down may now be uncovered and tied up to stakes or trellises, and all new plantations of these and other fruits may now be made. Fruit trees may be grafted.
Vegetable Garden. - Asparagus, rhubarb, spinach, &c., should be uncovered, and the beds hoed or dug lightly. Hardier sorts of vegetable seeds and plants, such as beets, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, lettuce, onions, parsley, parsnips, peas, potatoes, radishes, spinach, turnip, &c., should all be sown or planted by the middle of the month if the soil is dry and warm, and in all cases, where practicable, before the end of the month. It is essential, in sowing seeds now, that they be well firmed in the soil. Any who expect to get early cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce or radishes, while planting or sowing is delayed until the time of sowing tomato and egg plant in May, are sure to be disappointed of a full crop. Frequent rotation of crops should be practised in the vegetable garden, in order to head off insects and diseases; and also to make the best use of the land. Every three or four years the vegetable garden should be laid out in some new place; but if this cannot be done, the crops should be rotated on different parts of the old garden.
MAY Flower Garden and Greenhouse. - Window and greenhouse plants should be in their finest bloom. Firing may be entirely dispensed with, though care must still be exercised in ventilating. If weather is cold and backward, however, and in very northern regions, care must be taken not to stop firing too soon, or the plants will mildew and become stunted. Every precaution must be used to keep the air moist. " Moss culture " may be tried, the common sphagnum or moss of the swamps, mixed with one-twentieth of its bulk of bonedust, being laid as a mulch on the top of the earth of the flower-pots; its effect is to shield the pots from the sun, and at the same time stimulate the roots to come to the surface. By the end of the month all of the plants that are wanted for the summer decoration of the flower border may be planted out, first loosening a little the ball of earth at the roots. If the weather is dry, water freely after planting. When the greenhouse is not to be used during the summer months, camellias, azaleas and plants of that character should be set out of doors under partial shade; but most of the other plants usually grown in the conservatory or window garden in winter may be set in the open border. Flower-beds should be kept well hoed and raked, to prevent the growth of weeds next month.
Pelargoniums, pinks, monthly roses and all the half-hardy kinds of flowering plants should be planted early, but coleus, heliotrope and the more tender plants should be delayed until the end of the month. Annuals that have been sown in the greenhouse or hotbed may be planted out, and seeds of such sorts as mignonette, sweet alyssum, Phlox Drummondii, portulaca, &c., may be sown in the beds or borders. The china aster is now one of the most popular of summer and fall plants. The seed may be sown in the north as late as the middle of May, or even the first of June, with good results for fall blooming. If the plants are started early in the greenhouse, they are likely to spend themselves before fall, and therefore a later sowing should be provided.
Lawns should be mown, and the edgings trimmed.
The hay or leaf mulching on the strawberry beds should be removed and the ground deeply hoed (if not removed in April in the more forward places), after which it may be placed on again to keep the fruit clean and the ground from drying. Where it has not been convenient before, most of the smaller fruits may yet be planted during the first part of the month. Tobacco dust will dislodge most of the numerous kinds of slugs, caterpillars or worms that make their appearance on the young shoots of vines or trees. Fruit trees may be planted this month, if they were not planted in March or April. If they have been kept fresh and dormant, they should still be in good condition. The broken roots should be cut back to fresh wood, and the tops should be headed back in proportion.
Vegetable Garden. - Attention should be given to new sowings and plantings for succession. Crops sown last month will have to be thinned out if large enough. Hoe deeply all transplanted crops, such as cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, &c. Tender vegetables, such as tomatoes, egg and pepper plants, sweet potatoes, &c., can be planted out. Seeds of Lima beans, sweet corn, melon, okra, cucumbers, &c., should be sown; and sow for succession peas, spinach, lettuce, beans, radishes, &c., every ten days.
June Flower Garden and Greenhouse. - Tropical plants can now be used to fill up the greenhouse during the summer months. It should be well shaded, and fine specimens of fancy caladiums, dracaenas, coleus, crotons, palms, ferns and such plants as are grown for the beauty of their foliage, will make a very attractive show. If these cannot be had, common geraniums may be used. The " moss culture " will be found particularly valuable for these plants. Hyacinths, tulips and other spring bulbs may be dug up, dried and placed away for next fall's planting, and their places filled with bedding plants, such as coleus, achyranthes, pelargoniums, and the various white and coloured leaf plants. It will be necessary to mow the lawn once a week, and sometimes oftener.
The small fruits should be mulched about the roots, if this has not yet been done. If the fruit garden is large enough to admit of horse culture, it is best to keep the bush-fruits well cultivated during the season; this tillage conserves the moisture and helps to make a full and plump crop of berries. In small areas the mulching system is sometimes preferable.
Vegetable Garden. - Beets, beans, carrots, corn, cucumbers, lettuce, peas and radishes may be sown for succession. This is usually a busy month, as many crops have to be gathered, and, if hoeing is not promptly seen to, weeds are certain to give great trouble. Tomatoes should be tied up to trellises or stakes if fine-flavoured and handsome fruit is desired, for if left to ripen on the ground they are apt to have a gross earthy flavour.
July Flower Garden and Greenhouse. - Watering, ventilating and fumigating (or the use of tobacco in other forms for destruction of aphides) must be attended to. The atmosphere of the greenhouse must be kept moist. Watch the plants that have been plunged out of doors, and see if any require repotting. All plants that require staking, such as dahlias, roses, gladioli and many herbaceous plants, should now be looked to. Carnations and other plants that are throwing up flower stems, if wanted to flower in winter, should be cut back, that is, the flower stems should be cut off to say 5 in. from the ground.
If grape vines show any signs of mildew, dust them over with dry sulphur, selecting a still warm day. The fruit having now been gathered from strawberry plants, if new beds are to be formed, the system of layering the plants in small pots is the best. In general, field strawberries are not grown from potted layers, but from good strong layers that strike naturally in the field. In the north, spring planting of strawberries is generally advised for market conditions; although planting in early fall or late summer is successful when the ground is well prepared and when it does not suffer from drought. Where apples, pears, peaches, grapes, &c., have set fruit thickly, thin out at least one-half to two-thirds of the young fruit.
The first ten days of this month will yet be time enough to sow sweet corn, beets, lettuce, beans, cucumbers and ruta-baga turnips. Such vegetables as cabbage, cauliflower, celery, &c., wanted for fall or winter use, are best planted this month, though in some sections they will do later. Keep sweet potatoes hoed to prevent the vines rooting at the joints.
August Flower Garden and Greenhouse. - But little deviation is required in these departments from the instructions for July. See that sufficient water is applied; the walks may be wet in the houses.
Fruit Garden. - Strawberries that have fruited will now be making " runners," or young plants. These should be kept cut off close to the old plant, so that the full force of the root is expended in making the " crowns " or fruit buds for next season's crop. If plants are required for new beds, only the required number should be allowed to grow, and these may be layered in pots as recommended in July. The old stems of raspberries and blackberries that have borne fruit should be cut away, and the young shoots thinned to three or four canes to each hill or plant. If tied to stakes and topped when 4 or 5 ft. high, they will form three or four branches on a cane, and will make stronger fruiting plants for next year.
Hoe deeply such crops as cabbage, cauliflower and celery. The earthing up of celery this month is not to be recommended, unless a little very early supply is wanted. Onions in many sections can be harvested. The proper condition is when the tops are turning yellow and falling down. They are dried best by placing them in a dry shed in thin layers. Sow spinach for fall use, but not yet for the winter crop. Red top, white globe, and yellow Aberdeen turnips should now be sown; ruta-baga turnips sown last month will need thinning, and in extreme southern states they may yet be sown.
September Flower Garden and Greenhouse. - The flower-beds in the lawn should be at their best. If planted in " ribbon lines " or " massing," strict attention must be given to pinching off the tops, so that the lines or masses will present an even surface. Tender plants will require to be put in the greenhouse or housed in some way towards the end of this month; but be careful to keep them as cool as possible during the day. Cuttings of bedding plants may now be made freely if wanted for next season, as young cuttings rooted in the fall make better plants for next spring's use than old plants, in the case of such soft-wooded plants as pelargoniums, fuchsias, verbenas, heliotropes, &c.; with roses and plants of a woody nature, however, the old plants usually do best. Dutch bulbs, such as hyacinths, tulips, crocus, &c., and most of the varieties of lilies, may be planted. Violets that are wanted for winter flowering will now be growing freely, and the runners should be trimmed off. Sow seeds of sweet alyssum, candytuft, daisies, mignonette, pansies, &c. Visit the roadsides and woods for interesting plants to put in the hardy borders.
[CALENDAR (UNITED STATES)
Fruit Garden. - Strawberry plants that have been layered in pots may yet be planted, or in southern districts the ordinary ground layers may be planted. The sooner in the month both are planted the better crop they will give next season; and, as these plants soon make runners, it will be necessary to trim them off. Attend to raspberries and blackberries as advised for last month, if they have not already been attended to. All fruit trees should be gone over for borers before cold weather sets in; they also should have been gone over for the same purpose in May and June.
If cabbage, cauliflower and lettuce are wanted to plant in cold frames, the seed should be sown from about the 10th to the 20th of this month; but judgment should be exercised, for, if sown too early, cabbage and cauliflower are apt to run to seed. The best date for latitude of New York is September 15th. The main crop of spinach or sprouts that is wanted for winter or spring use should be sown about the same date. The earth should be drawn up to celery with a hoe preparatory to earthing up with a spade. Onions that were not harvested and dried last month must now be attended to. Turnips of the early or flat sorts may yet be sown the first week of this month in the northern states, and in the south from two to four weeks later.
October Flower Garden and Greenhouse. - In northern sections of the United States, tender plants that are still outside should be got under cover as early as possible. Delay using fire heat as long as possible, unless the nights become so cold as to chill the plants inside the house. Roses, carnations, camellias, azaleas, pelargoniums and the hardier sorts of plants will do better if placed in a cold frame or pit until the middle of November than they would in an ordinary greenhouse. Look out for insects. Fall bulbs of all kinds may be planted. Take up summer-flowering bulbs and tubers, such as dahlias, tuberoses, gladioli, cannas, caladiums, tigridias, and dry them off thoroughly, stowing them away afterwards in some place free from frost and moisture during the winter. Before winter sets in see that the lawn is freely top-dressed. Be careful not to mow the grass too short in fall.
Fruit Garden. - Strawberries that have been grown from pot-grown layers may yet be planted in southern states; keep the runners trimmed off. Fruit trees and shrubs may be set out; but, if planting is deferred to the last of the month, the ground around the roots should be mulched to the thickness of 3 or 4 in. with straw, leaves or rough manure, as a protection against frost. The fruit garden must be protected from the ravages of mice in winter. Mice will nest about the plants if there is straw or other litter around them. Before winter, all tall grass and loose litter should be taken away; if this is not done, then the first snow should be tramped heavily around the plants, in order to destroy any nesting-places.
Vegetable Garden. - Celery will now be in full growth, and will require close attention to earthing up, and during the last part of the month the first lot may be stored away in trenches for winter. All vegetable roots not designed to be left in the ground during the winter should be dug up, such as beets, carrots, parsnips, sweet potatoes, &c. The cabbage, cauliflower and lettuce plants grown from seed sown last month should be pricked out in cold frames. If lettuce is wanted for winter use, it may now be planted in the greenhouse or cold frame, and will be ready for use about Christmas. If asparagus or rhubarb is wanted for winter use, it should be taken up and stowed away in pit, frame, shed or cellar for a month or two. It may then be taken into the greenhouse and packed closely together under the stage, and will be fit for use from January to March, according to the temperature of the house. Vegetable gardens often become infested with diseases that are carried over from year to year in the old plants and litter; this is specially true of water-melons and of some diseases of tomatoes. It is well, therefore, to burn the tops of the plants in the fall, rather than to plough them under or to throw them on the compost heap.
November Flower Garden and Greenhouse. - Plants intended to be grown inside should now all be indoors. Keep a sharp look-out for cold snaps, as they come very unexpectedly in November, and many plants are lost thereby. In cases where it is not convenient to use fire heat, 5° to to° of cold can be resisted by covering the plants over with paper, and by using this before frost has struck the plants valuable collections may be saved. When fire heat is freely used, be careful to keep up the proper amount of moisture by sprinkling the paths with water. Little can be done in the flower garden, except to clean off all dead stalks, and straw up tender roses, vines, &c., and, wherever there is time, to dig up and rake the borders, as it will greatly facilitate spring work. Cover up all beds in which there are hyacinths, tulips and other bulbs with a litter of leaves or straw to the depth of 2 or 3 in. If short, thoroughly-decayed manure can be spared, a good sprinkling spread over the lawn will help it to a finer growth next spring.
Fruit Garden. - Strawberry beds should be covered (in cold sections) with hay, straw or leaf mulching, to a depth not exceeding 2 in. Fruit trees and grape vines generally should be pruned; and, if the wood of the vine is wanted for cuttings, or scions of fruit trees for grafts, they should be tied in small bundles and buried in the ground until spring. They may be taken in December or January if preferred.
Vegetable Garden. - Celery that is to be stored for winter use should be put away before the end of the month in all sections north of Virginia; south of that it may be left in most places where grown throughout the winter if well covered up. The stalks of the asparagus bed should be cut off, and burned if there are berries on them, as the seeds scattered in the soil sometimes produce troublesome weeds. Mulch the beds with 2 or 3 in. of rough manure. All vegetable roots that are yet in the ground, and not designed to be left there over winter, must be dug up in this latitude before the middle of the month or they may be frozen in. Cover up onions, spinach, sprouts, cabbage or lettuce plants with a covering of 2 or 3 in of leaves, hay,. or straw, to protect them during the winter. Cabbages that have headed may usually be preserved against injury by frost until the middle of next month, by simply pulling them up and packing them closely in a dry spot in the open field with the heads down and roots up. On approach of cold weather in December they should be covered up with leaves as high as the tops of the roots, or, if the soil is light, it may be thrown over them, if leaves are not convenient. Cabbages will keep this way until March if the covering has not been put on too early. Plough all empty ground if practicable, and, whenever time will permit, do trenching and subsoiling. Cabbage, cauliflower and lettuce plants that are in frames should be regularly ventilated by lifting the sash on warm days, and on the approach of very cold weather they should be covered with straw mats or shutters. In the colder latitudes, and even in the middle states, it is absolutely necessary to protect cauliflower in this way, as it is much more tender than cabbage and lettuce plants.
December Flower Garden and Greenhouse. - Close attention must be paid to protecting all tender plants, for it is not uncommon to have the care of a whole year spoiled by one night's neglect. Vigilance and extra hot fires will have to be kept up when the thermometer falls to 34° or 35° in the parlour or conservatory. It is well to set the plants under the benches or on the walks of the greenhouses; if they are in the parlour move them away from the cold point and protect them with paper; this will usually save them even if the thermometer falls to 24° or 26 °. Another plan in the greenhouse is to dash water on the pipes or flues, which causes steam to rise to the glass and freeze there, stopping up all the crevices. With plants outside that require strawing up or to be mulched, this will have now to be finished.
In sections where it is an advantage to protect grape vines, raspberries, &c., from severe frost, these should be laid down as close to the ground as possible, and covered with leaves, straw or hay, or with a few inches of soil. Grapes may be pruned. Fruit trees may be pruned from now till March in the north.
Celery in trenches should receive the final covering for the winter, which is best done by leaves or light stable litter; in the latitude of New York it should not be less than 12 in. thick. Potatoes, beets, turnips or other roots in pits, the spinach crop in the ground, or any other article in need of protection, should be attended to before the end of the month; manure and compost heaps should be forwarded as rapidly as possible, and turned and mixed so as to be in proper condition for spring. Remove the snow that accumulates on cold frames or other glass structures, particularly if the soil which the glass covers was not frozen before the snow fell; it may remain on the sashes longer if the plants are frozen in, since they are dormant, and would not be injured if deprived of light for eight or ten days. If roots have been placed in cellars, attention must be given to ventilation, which can be done by making a wooden box, say 6 by 8 in., to run from the ceiling of the cellar to the eaves of the building above. (L. H. B.; P. H.) BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MODERN WORKS ON HORTICULTURE.-W. Robinson, Alpine Flowers; Lord Redesdale (A. B. Freeman Nlitford), The Bamboo Garden; J. Weathers, Bulbous Plants (33 col. plates); H. H. Cousins, Chemistry of the Garden; W. Watson, Cactus Culture for Amateurs; R. P. Brotherston and M. R. Smith, Book of the Carnation; J. Weathers, Cottage and Allotment Gardening; J. Veitch and Sons, Manual of Coniferae; W. Wells, Culture of the Chrysanthemum; Rev. S. E. Bourne, Book of the Daffodil; Geo. Nicholson, Dictionary of Gardening (5 vols.); W. Robinson, The English Flower Garden; Geo. Schneider, Book of Choice Ferns (3 vols.); W. Robinson, Flora and Sylva (3 vols.; col. plates by the late H. G. Moon); J. Weathers, Flowering Trees and Shrubs (33 col. plates); J. Weathers, French Market-Gardening and Intensive Cultivation; T. Smith, French Gardening; Geo. Bunyard and O. Thomas, The Fruit Garden; Josh. Brace, Fruit Trees in Pots; Dr R. Hogg, The Fruit Manual; M. C. Cooke, Fungoid Pests of Cultivated Plants; Thos. H. Mawson, The Art and Craft of Garden-Making; J. Weathers, A Practical Guide to Garden Plants; W. Watson, The Gardeners' Assistant; C. H. Wright and D. Dewar, The Gardeners' Dictionary; J. Weathers, Garden Flowers for Town and Country (33 col. plates); Chas. Baltet, The Art of Grafting and Budding; W. Thomson, The Grape Vine; Thos. Baines, Greenhouse and Stove Plants; R. Irwin Lynch, The Book of the Iris; G. Jekyll, Lilies for English Gardens; E. A. Ormerod, Manual of Injurious Insects; Dr A. B. Griffiths, Manures for Fruit and other Trees; F. W. Burbridge and J. G. Baker, The Narcissus (48 col. plates); H. A. Burberry, The Orchid Cultivator's Handbook; B. S. Williams, The Orchid Grower's Manual; J. Veitch & Sons, Manual of Orchidaceous Plants; Dr Paul Sorauer and F. E. Weiss, Physiology of Plants; W. Watson, Orchids, their Culture and Management; G. Massee, Plant Diseases; Rev. A. Foster-Melliar, Book of the Rose; Wm. Paul, The Rose Garden (20 col. plates); G. Jekyll and E. Mawley, Roses for English Gardens; Weathers, Roses for Garden and Greenhouse (33 col. plates); Nat. Rose Society, Handbook on Pruning Roses; Rev. J. H. Pemberton, Roses, their History, Development and Culture; Very Rev. Dean Hole, A Book about Roses; J. Hoffmann, The Amateur Gardener's Rose Book (20 col. plates; translated from the German); A. Gaut, Seaside Planting of Trees and Shrubs; E. Beckett, Book of the Strawberry; W. Iggulden, The Tomato; J. Weathers, Trees and Shrubs for English and Irish Gardens (33 col. plates); Vilmorin et Cie., The Vegetable Garden (Eng. ed. by W. Robinson); A. F. Barron, Vines and Vine Culture; G. Jekyll, Wall and Water Gardens; W. Robinson, The Wild Garden; L. H. Bailey, Practical Garden Book (New York, 1908). (J. Ws.; W. R. W.)
Horticulture is an effort to create a coherent and wide-ranging guide to the practice of gardening. The text is intended for use by horticulture students, horticultural workers, and home gardeners.
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That department of the science of agriculture which relates to the cultivation of gardens. The garden is called "gan" or "gannah" in the later Biblical books, and in the Mishnah "ginnah." Originally the word "gan" was probably applied to all kinds of gardens; but in later Biblical times an orchard came to be denoted by the Persian word "pardes," which, as connoting the religious idea of paradise, was introduced into the vocabularies of all civilized nations ("Z. D. M. G." xxxii. 761; S. Fränkel, "Die Aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen," p. 149), and gained a wider recognition than the Biblical expression "Eden." The words "gannah" and "pardes" are both used in Ecclesiastes (see "pare" in Rashi to Psalm 1. 9; Ibn Ezra to Eccl 2:5; Song 4:13; Bacher, Ibn Ezra, p. 170). In ancient Israel the garden was probably an orchard, vineyard, or kitchen-garden, although the royal gardens had doubtless more the nature of a park. The references to the nut-orchard in Song 6:11—a passage often interpreted symbolically—and to the "orchard of pomegranates" ("pardes rimmonim") in the same book (ib. iv. 13) indicate the late origin of the Song of Solomon and the strong foreign influence under which it was composed. The description of the garden in Song 4:13-14 is not that of an existing Palestinian garden, but of a purely imaginary one. The Biblical words "kerem," doubtless at first applied only to a vineyard, and "karmel," denoting cultivated land in contrast to the fallow field, were also used later to designate a garden.
The garden, which was divided into beds ("'arugot"), was naturally laid out near water, or was provided with cisterns and channels for irrigation (compare the stories of Bath sheba and Susanna). The place-name "'En Gannim" (lit. "garden spring") occurs twice in Palestine (Baedeker-Socin, "Palästina," 5th ed., p. 255). There are direct Biblical references to gardens near Jerusalem; and another is found in the name "Gate of Gennath" (i.e., "garden gate"), which is mentioned by Josephus (Baedeker-Socin, l.c. p. 28). The gardener has often been confounded with the farmer (in the Mishnah "aris," which in the Midrash, however, probably does mean also "gardener"). An overseer of the royal forests, "shomer ha-pardes," is mentioned in Neh 2:8; otherwise "noẓer" and "noṭer," the equivalents of the Aramaic "naṭora" and the Arabic "naṭura," are used. In post-Biblical times there are many references to gardens and gardeners; and the number of terms used to denote them increases correspondingly. Side by side with the Biblical "gannot u-pardesim" (gardens and parks)—a favorite phrase in Mishnaic times—the Persian words "baga" and "bustana," found also in Syriac and other related languages, appear in the Talmud, indicating the prevalence of Persian horticulture (comp. "Sha'are Ẓedeḳ," p. 87d). In tannaiticworks, side by side with "gan," is used the form "ginnah"; the older form "gannah," found in the Mishnah, being due apparently to incorrect tradition. The plural "gannim" seems to have become obsolete by that time.
The Halakah gave occasion for many references to gardens in the Mishnah, some of which references may be noted here. It is declared that the garden should always be fenced in, though this custom is not uniformly observed (B. B. i. 4a; Yer. B. B. i. 12d). The garden generally lay near the house (B. M. x. 5; Yer. B. B. iii. 14b). As a person had to pass through the courtyard into the garden, the two are often contrasted (Ma'as. iii. 10; Ter. viii. 3; Yer. B. B. i. 12d; Yer. Giṭ. viii. 49b); domestic fowls could easily go from the yard into the kitchen-garden and do damage there (Tosef., B. Ḳ. ii. 347; Ḥul. xii. 1; Tosef., Ḥul. x. 511; Tosef., Beẓah, i. 201). Swarming bees frequently settled in neighboring gardens (Tosef., B. Ḳ. x. 369).
Legal ordinances refer to: the right of the poor to enter gardens (Sheb. ix. 7); the right of a merchant to pass through a garden belonging to one person into that of another whose fruit he desires to buy (B. B. vi. 6; comp. Mek., Beshallaḥ, 30b); the damages to be paid for cattle entering a garden (B. Ḳ. vi. 2); and the right of planting gardens and parks upon the site of a city destroyed for idolatry (Sanh. x. 6; Tosef., Sanh. xiv. 437).
The Biblical command not to cut down fruit-trees is treated in detail by Talmudic and rabbinical authorities, including the latest casuists; for example, in connection with the questions whether a nut-tree standing among vines may be cut down ("Ẓemaḥ Ẓedeḳ," No. 41), and whether worthless grape-vines may be uprooted to make room for something else (Steinach, "Yoreh De'ah," No. 63; on the cutting down of fruit-trees in general see "Simlat Binyamin," p. 169c). The existence of parks around synagogues is not sanctioned, in view of their resemblance to "asherim" ("Ben Chananja," vi. 688, viii. 589), although, according to Philo, many synagogues in Alexandria were surrounded by trees, as is the Elijah synagogue in that city to-day. As irrigation was necessary in post-Biblical times, there are many halakic and midrashic references to it (Gen. R. xv. 3; Lev. R. xv. 3).
Manure was applied both in Biblical and in Talmudic times, dung, the blood of animals, fine sand, ashes, leaves, straw, chaff, the scum of oil, and the residue of the fruits of the field being used. Blood was used exclusively for gardens; ashes and oilscum, only for orchards; sand, for orchards and vegetable gardens; dung, chiefly for gardens. Gardens were often laid out in terraces on mountainsides (B. M. x. 4-6). The owner is called "ba'al haginnah," the term being also used haggadically of God (Yer. B. M. iii. 50d). A garden may be so small that the vintner may just enter within the enclosure with his basket ('Eduy. ii. 4), though the minimum size is fixed by some at 130 square meters; by R. Akiba at 32.7 square meters (B. B. i. 6, vii. 2). Plants were sometimes raised in pots.
Traces of Greek influence upon Palestinian horticulture are few; indeed, this science was brought to Europe from the Aramean countries. The grape-pole (δίκρανον) was of Greek origin, as were the following plants: the laurel (δάπνη), iris (ἴρις), ivy (κισσός), mint (μίνθα), narcissus (νάρκισσος), rue (πήγανον), box, and the oleander (ῥοδοδάφνη).
A famous garden of Mishnaic time was the rose-garden at Jerusalem, said to date from the time of the Prophets (Ma'as. ii. 5), but this, it is declared, was the only garden or park permitted in that city (Tosef., Neg. vi. 625; B. Ḳ. 82b). The parks of Sebaste must be mentioned, as well as those of Jericho, and the gardens of Ashkelon ('Ar. iii. 2; Tosef., 'Ar. ii. 544; Sifra, Beḥuḳḳotai, ed. Weiss, p. 114a). Of the Middle Ages the garden of the community of Worms should be mentioned ("Liḳ-ḳuṭe Maharil," p. 109b; "Monatsschrift," xlv. 62).
The gardener is called "gannan" (Talmudic, "ginna'a" or "gannana"). The guardians are called "shomere gannot u-fardesim." The planter is called "shattala" (B. M. 93a; Yer. B. M. viii. 11c). Babli mentions a gardener in the service of Rabina. In the Haggadah, aside from God Himself, Noah is designated as the first gardener; he planted also cedar-trees (Gen. R. xxx.). He said to his children after the Flood, "You will go and build cities for yourselves, and will plant in them all the plants that are on the earth, and all the trees that bear fruit" (Book of Jubilees, vii. 35). Abraham is also considered as a planter, as is Solomon, the appurtenances of the latter's kingship being, among other things, vineyards, gardens, and parks (Kallah, ed. Coronel, p. 16a). Because the Egyptians forced the children of Israel to lay out gardens and parks, in order to prevent them from multiplying (Seder Eliyahu R. vii. 42, ed. Friedmann), the plague of hail was sent upon their land, in order to fulfil the words of Ps 7847.
The Haggadah often refers to gardens and parks, especially the gardens of the emperor. The passages in which such references occur have been collected by Ziegler, "Die Königsgleichnisse des Midrasch," pp. 286 et seq. Similes and metaphors in which reference is made to imperial gardens are found as early as the tannaitic period; e.g., in Tosef., Ḥag. ii. 234, and in the Mekilta; also in Exodus Rabbah, Tanḥuma, and Pesiḳta—hence within the domain of the Roman empire—while the Babylonian sources contain hardly any such figures. These figures show a deeper and more intimate observation of nature than is found in later rabbinic times. The Haggadah in general confines itself to the Biblical figures that have suggested the comparison. Canticles especially has stimulated the imagination of the haggadists.
In Biblical times the garden was perhaps also used as a burial-ground (2Kg 21:18, 26; comp. Jn 19:41), though later on the Jewish cemeteries did not present the appearance of gardens. R. Hananeel cites an old Babylonian tradition, according to which Abba Arika planted trees upon graves, but only a small part of them took root and blossomed, and such as did were all on the graves of those that had not died before their time ("'Aruk," vi. 157). The following proverbs referring to gardens may be mentioned: "As the garden, so the gardener";"Whoever rents one garden may eat birds; whoever rents more than one at the same time will be eaten by the birds" (Dukes, "Rabbinische Blumenlese," Nos. 202, 456; Weissberg, "'Mishle Ḳadmonim," p. 6).
The Jews of the Middle Ages did not possess a highly developed sense of natural beauty, nor were they much given to horticulture. Poets writing in Hebrew were restricted, for the names of flowers, to the Biblical vocabulary. Foreign influence is shown in the predilection for horticultural names as book-titles, and in the division of books into "flower-beds"; for example, "Gan Elohim" ("R. E. J." xli. 304); "Gan 'Eden," the numerical value of which corresponds to the number of chapters in Maimonides' "Moreh" (Steinschneider, "Hebr. Uebers." p. 429); "Pardes," in which the methods of Scriptural exegesis were summed up (Bacher, in Stade's "Zeitschrift," 1893, p. 294, Jew. Encyc. iii. 171); "Ginnat Weradim" (rose-garden), occurring twice as a book-title; "Ginnat Egoz" (nut-garden), "Ginnat ha-Bitan" (palace garden), occurring once each; "Kaftor wa-Feraḥ" (if the original meaning of the words, which in the Bible are descriptive of the golden candlestick, may be taken to assign the title to this class), used as a book-title three times; and "Kerem," occurring sixteen times in different combinations, six of these being "Kerem Shelomoh." "Maskit ha-Orot ke-Pardes ha-Niẓẓanim" is the title of Ghazali's work in Isaac b. Joseph Alfasi's translation (Steinschneider, l.c. p.346). "Neṭa'" (plantation) is found twelve times in titles, three of these being "Niṭ'e Na'amanim," and five "Neṭa' Sha'ashu'im." "Sefer ha-Peraḥ" = "Flores" of Abu Ma'asher; "Shoshan ha-Refu'ah" = Lilium medicinœ; "Peraḥ ha-Refu'ah"=Flosmedicinœ (Steinschneider, l.c. pp. 531, 785, 800); there is also a Karaite "Sefer ha-Niẓẓanim" (Steinschneider, l.c. p. 450). Joseph al-Ḳirḳisani's commentary on the passages of the Pentateuch referring to the Law is "Al-Riyaḍ wal-Ḥada'iḳ" (beds and gardens; see Steinschneider, "Arabische Literatur der Juden," p.79). Better known is Rashi's "Sefer ha-Pardes." Under "'Arugat ha-Bosem" (Steinschneider, "Hebr. Uebers." pp. 411, 753) Benjacob records ten titles of books; under "Pardes," eighteen; and in combination with "Peraḥ," eighteen. Aside from "Sefer ha-Gan," occurring twice, sixteen titles are combinations of "gan," while "shoshannah" (lily) enters into twenty-three titles; comp. also the titles "'Arugat Bosem ha-Mezimmah," "Pardes Rimmone ha-Ḥokmah," "Pardes ha-Ḥokmah," "Gan Te'udot" ("Z. D. M. G." xxvii. 555, 557, 559; Steinschneider, l.c. pp. 389, 392, 394). See Botany; Flowers in the Home; Plants.