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Pneumonia
Streptococcus pneumoniae-263.jpg
Infectious pneumonias
Pneumonias caused by infectious or noninfectious agents
Noninfectious pneumonia

Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or Nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted after at least 48-72 hours of being admitted to a hospital. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection.[1][2]

Following urinary tract infections, this is the second common cause of nosocomial infections, and its prevalence is 15-20% of the total number.[1][2][3] It is the most common cause of death among nosocomial infections, while in the intensive care unit it is the primary cause of death.[1][3]

Hospital stay is generally 1 to 2 weeks longer than for other patients.[1][3]

Contents

Pathogenesis

Most nosocomial respiratory infections are caused by so-called skorvatch microaspiration of upper airway secretions, through inapparent aspiration, into the lower respiratory tract. Also, "macroaspirations" of esophageal or gastric material is known to result in HAP. Since it results from aspiration either type is called aspiration pneumonia.[1][2][3]

Although gram-negative bacilli are a common cause they are rarely found in the respiratory tract of people without pneumonia, which has led to speculation of the mouth and throat as origin of the infection.[1][2]

Aetiology

Risk factors

Among the factors contributing to contracting HAP are mechanical ventilation (ventilator-associated pneumonia), old age, decreased filtration of inspired air, intrinsic respiratory, neurologic, or other disease states that result in respiratory tract obstruction, trauma, (abdominal) surgery, medications, diminished lung volumes, or decreased clearance of secretions may diminish the defenses of the lung. Also, poor hand-washing and inaqeuate disinfection of respiratory devices cause cross-infection and are important factors.[1][3]

Clinical Features

Pneumonia as seen on chest x-ray. A: Normal chest x-ray. B: Abnormal chest x-ray with shadowing from pneumonia in the right lung (left side of image).

New or progressive infiltrate on the chest X-Ray with one of the following:[3]

Diagnosis

In hospitalised patients who develop respiratory symptoms and fever one should consider the diagnosis. The likelihood increases when upon investigation symptoms are found of respiratory insufficiency, purulent secretions, newly developed infiltrate on the chest X-Ray, and increasing leucocyte count. If pneumonia is suspected material from sputum or tracheal aspirates are sent to the microbiology department for cultures. In case of pleural effusion thoracentesis is performed for examination of pleural fluid. In suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia it has been suggested that bronchoscopy(BAL) is necessary because of the known risks surrounding clinical diagnoses.[1][3]

Differential diagnosis

Treatment

Usually initial therapy is empirical.[3] If sufficient reason to suspect influenza, one might consider oseltamivir. In case of legionellosis, erythromycin or fluoroquinolone.[1]

A third generation cephalosporin (ceftazidime) + carbapenems (imipenem) + beta lactam & beta lactamase inhibitors (piperacillin/tazobactam)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Mandell's Principles and Practices of Infection Diseases 6th Edition (2004) by Gerald L. Mandell MD, MACP, John E. Bennett MD, Raphael Dolin MD, ISBN 0-443-06643-4 · Hardback · 4016 Pages Churchill Livingstone
  2. ^ a b c d e The Oxford Textbook of Medicine Edited by David A. Warrell, Timothy M. Cox and John D. Firth with Edward J. Benz, Fourth Edition (2003), Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-262922-0
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 16th Edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, ISBN 0-07-140235-7
  4. ^ Table 13-7 in: Mitchell, Richard Sheppard; Kumar, Vinay; Abbas, Abul K.; Fausto, Nelson. Robbins Basic Pathology: With STUDENT CONSULT Online Access. Philadelphia: Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2973-7.   8th edition.

External links

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