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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hospodar or gospodar is a term of Slavonic origin, meaning "lord" or "master".

The rulers of Wallachia and Moldavia were styled hospodars in Slavic writings from the 15th century to 1866. Hospodar was used in addition to the title voivod. When writing in Romanian, the term Domn (from the Latin dominus) was used.

At the end of this period, as the title had been held by many vassals of the Ottoman Sultan, its retention was considered inconsistent with the independence of the Danubian Principalities' (formalized from Romania only in 1878 — replacing the tributary status). Hospodar was therefore discarded in favour of domnitor or, in short, domn, which continued to be the official princely title up to the proclamation of a Kingdom of Romania in 1881 (which did not include Transylvania until 1918).

Contents

Etymology and Slavic usage

Gospodar (Bulgarian: господар, Serbian: господар) is a derivative of gospod, lord, (spelled with capital G, Gospod, it means Lord, God).

The pronunciation as hospodar of a word written gospodar in most of the Slavonic languages which retain the Cyrillic alphabet is not, as is sometimes alleged, due to the influence of Ukrainian, but to that of Church Slavonic — in both of these, g is frequently pronounced h.

In Ukrainian, hospodar is usually applied to the master/owner of a house or other properties and also the head of a family. The hospodar's house is called as hospoda. There also an alternative form for the head of the household - gazda which also common in Hungary. Hospod is used exclusively when referring to the Lord and has only has a slight relation to hospodar.

The title was used briefly towards the end of the Second Bulgarian Empire. In 1394-95, Ivan Shishman of Bulgaria referred to himself not as a Tsar (as traditionally), but as a gospodin of Tarnovo, and in foreign sources was styled herzog or merely called an "infidel bey". This was possibly to indicate vassalage to Bayezid I or the yielding of the imperial title to Ivan Sratsimir.[1].

Ruthenian population of Grand Duchy of Lithuania used the term to style Grand Duke of Lithuania; in that sense it is also used in official documents (for example, Statutes of Lithuania), given that Old Belarusian was an official language in Grand Duchy.

In Serbian, Croatian and Bulgarian, gospodar (господар) means a "master", "lord", or "sovereign lord". Other derivatives of the word include the Bulgarian, Russian, Macedonian, Serbian and Croatian gospodin (господин, "Mister"), Russian gospod` (господь, "the Lord"[2]), the Polish hospodar ("lord", "master"), the Czech hospodar. All forms stem from the Proto-Slavic word gospodü (господъ). Russian word gosudar, which means "sovereign".

Non-Slavic usage

Hungarian word gazda = "potentate", "rich landowner" is borrowed from the language of Southern Slavs who inhabited today's Hungary before the arrival of Hungarians, aka Magyars, to Europe.

In Romanian gospodar means good manager of a household or property.

See also

References


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

HOSPODAR, a term of Slavonic origin, meaning "lord" (Russ. gospodar). It is a derivative of gospod, " lord," and is akin to gosudar, which primarily means "sovereign," and is now also used in Russia as a polite form of address, equivalent to "sir." The pronunciation as hospodar of a word written gospodar in all but one of the Slavonic languages which retain the Cyrillic alphabet is not, as is sometimes alleged, due to the influence of Little Russian, but to that of Church Slavonic. In both of these g is frequently pronounced h. In Little Russian the title hospodar is specially applied to the master of a house or the head of a family. The rulers of Walachia and Moldavia were styled hospodars from the 15th century to 1866. At the end of this period, as the title had been held by many vassals of Turkey, its retention was considered inconsistent with the growth of Rumanian independence. It was therefore discarded in favour of domn (dominus, " lord"), which continued to be the official princely title up to the proclamation of a Rumanian kingdom in 1881.

Host. (I) (Through the O. Fr. oste or hoste, modern kite, from Lat. hospes, a guest or host; hospes being probably from an original hostipes, one who feeds a stranger or enemy, from hostis and the root of pascere), one who receives another into his house and provides him with lodging and entertainment, especially one who does this in return for payment. The word is thus transferred, in biology, to an animal or plant upon which a parasite lives. (2) (From Lat. hostis, a stranger or enemy; in Med. Latin a military expedition), a very large gathering of men, armed for war, an army, and so used generally of any multitude. In biblical use the word is applied to the company of angels in heaven; or to the sun, moon and stars, the "hosts of heaven," and also to translate "Jehovah Sabaoth," the Lord God of hosts, the lord of the armies of Israel or of the hosts of heaven. (3) (From Lat. hostia, a victim or sacrifice), the sacrifice of Christ's body and blood in the Eucharist, more particularly the consecrated wafer used in the service of the mass in the Roman Church (see. Eucharist).


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