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House of Bonaparte
Arms of the French Empire.svg
Country French Empires
Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Spain
Kingdom of Westphalia
Kingdom of Holland
Kingdom of Naples
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Titles Emperor of the French
King of Italy
King of Spain
King of Holland
King of Westphalia
King of Naples and Sicily
Grand Duchess of Tuscany
Founder Napoleon I of France
Final ruler Napoleon III of France
Current head Disputed:
Charles Napoléon or
Jean-Christophe Napoléon
Founding year 1804
Dissolution 1815, 1870
Ethnicity Corsican, French, originally Italian
Cadet branches Prince Canino Line (extinct)
Prince Napoleon Line

The House of Bonaparte is an imperial and royal European dynasty founded by Napoleon I of France in 1804, a Corsican military leader who rose to notability out of the French Revolution and transformed the French Republic into the First French Empire within five years of his coup d'état. Napoleon turned the Grande Armée against every major European power and dominated continental Europe through a series of military victories. He inserted members of his family on the thrones of client states, founding the dynasty.

Throughout its history, the dynasty, as well as being Emperors of the French, held various other titles and territories including; their ancestral nation the Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Spain, Kingdom of Westphalia, Kingdom of Holland and the Kingdom of Naples. The dynasty was in a position of power for around a decade until the Napoleonic Wars began to take their toll. Making very powerful enemies such as Austria, United Kingdom, Russia and Prussia, as well as royalist (particularly Bourbon) restorational movements in France, Spain, the Two Sicilies and Sardinia, the dynasty eventually collapsed under its own weight.

Between the years 1852 and 1870 there was a Second French Empire, again a member of the Bonaparte dynasty would rule; Napoleon III of France the son of Louis Bonaparte. However after tensions relating to Prussia, the dynasty was again ousted from the imperial throne. Since that time there has been a series of pretenders, supporters of the Bonaparte family's claim to the throne of France are known as Bonapartists. Current head Jean-Christophe Napoléon is ironically from a Bourbon mother.

Contents

Buonaparte family

The Buonaparte family were from minor Italian nobility who held most of their property in the hill town of San Miniato near Florence, Italy. The Buonapartes came from a Tuscan stock of Lombard origin.

After settling in Florence the family enjoyed a relationship with the then ruling Medici family. Jacopo Buonaparte was a friend and advisor to Medici Pope Clement VII. Jacopo was also a witness to and wrote an account of the sack of Rome (1527), which is one of the most important historical documents recounting that event.[1] Two of Jacopo's nephews, Pier-Antonio Buonaparte and Giovanni Buonaparte, however, took part in the 1527 Medici rebellion, after which they were banished from Florence and later were restored by Alessandro de' Medici. Jacopo's brother Benedetto Buonaparte maintained political neutrality.[2]

The family later separated into two branches: Buonaparte-Sarzana, Nobili di Sarzana had been compelled to leave Florence due to the defeat of the Ghibellines and later when Francesco Buonaparte came to Corsica in 16th century and the island was in Genoese possession.

The Buonaparte tomb lies in the Church of San Francesco in San Miniato.

Buonaparte arms

The original coat of arms of the Buonaparte family.

The arms of the Buonaparte family were: Gules two bends sinister between two mullets or. In 1804 Napoleon changed the arms to Azure an imperial eagle or. The change applied to all members of his family except for his brother Lucien, and the son of Jerome's first marriage.

Napoleon I

General Bonaparte (1801), by Jacques-Louis David.

Napoleon is the most prominent name associated with the Bonaparte family because he conquered much of the Western world during the early part of the 19th century. He was elected as first consul of France on November 10, 1799 with the help of his brother, Lucien Bonaparte, and president of the Council of Five Hundred at Saint-Cloud. He was crowned Emperor of the French and ruled from 1804–1814, 1815.

Following his conquest of most of Western Europe, the first Napoleon made his elder brother Joseph (1768–1844) king first of Naples (1806–1808) and then of Spain (1808–1813), his third brother Louis (1778–1846) king of Holland (1806–1810) (subsequently forcing his abdication after his failure to subordinate Dutch interests to those of France) and his youngest brother Jerome Bonaparte (1784–1860) king of Westphalia, the short-lived realm created from some of the states of northwestern Germany (1807–1813).

Napoleon's son Napoleon François Charles Joseph (1811–1832) was created king of Rome (1811–1814) and was later styled Napoleon II by loyalists of the dynasty, though he only ruled for two weeks after his father's abdication. Charles Louis Napoléon (1808–1873), son of Louis Napoléon, was president of France in 1848–1852 and emperor in 1852–1870, reigning as Napoléon III; his son, Eugène Bonaparte (1856–1879), styled the Prince Imperial, died fighting the Zulus in Natal, South Africa. With his death, the family lost much of its remaining political appeal, though claimants continue to assert their right to the imperial title. A political movement for Corsican independence surfaced in the 1990s which included a Bonapartist restoration in its programme.

Crowns held by the family

Imperial coat of arms
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Emperors of the French

Kings of Holland

  • Louis I (1806–1810)
  • Louis II (1810), also Grand Duke of Berg (1809–1813)

Kings of Naples

  • Joseph I (1806–1808)
  • Joachim I (1808–1815), also Grand Duke of Berg (1806–1808)

King of Westphalia

King of Spain

Grand Duchess of Tuscany

The family tree

French Monarchy -
Bonaparte Dynasty
Imperial Coat of Arms of France (1804-1815).svg

Napoleon I
Children
   Napoleon II
Siblings
   Napoleone
   Maria Anna
   Joseph, King of Spain
   Lucien, Prince of Canino
   Elisa, Grand Duchess of Tuscany
   Louis, King of Holland
   Pauline, Princess of Guastalla
   Caroline, Queen of Naples
   Jérôme, King of Westphalia
Nephews and nieces
   Princess Julie
   Princess Zénaïde
   Princess Charlotte
   Prince Charles
   Prince Louis
   Prince Pierre
   Prince Napoleon Charles
   Prince Napoleon Louis
   Napoleon III
   Prince Jérôme
   Prince Napoleon Joseph
   Princess Mathilde
Grandnephews and -nieces
   Prince Joseph
   Prince Lucien-Louis
   Prince Roland
   Princess Jeanne
   Prince Charles
   Prince Jerome
   Napoleon (V) Victor
   Maria Letizia, Duchess of Aosta
Great Grandnephews and -nieces
   Princess Marie
   Princess Marie Clotilde
   Napoleon (VI) Louis
Great Great Grandnephews and -nieces
   Napoleon (VII) Charles
   Princess Catherine
   Princess Laure
   Prince Jerome
Great Great Great Grandnephews and -nieces
   Princess Caroline
   Prince Jean-Christophe
Napoleon II
Napoleon III
Children
   Napoleon (IV), Prince Imperial

Carlo-Maria (Ajaccio 1746–Montpellier 1785) married Maria Letizia Ramolino (Ajaccio 1750 – Rome 1836) in 1764. He was a minor official in the local courts. They had eight children:

  1. Joseph Bonaparte (Corte 1768–Florence 1844), King of Naples and Spain, married Julie Clary, sister of Napoleon's childhood sweetheart, Désirée, who was to become the wife of General Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, the later Charles XIV of Sweden.
  2. Napoléon (I) Bonaparte (1769–1821) Emperor
  3. Lucien Bonaparte (1775–1840)
  4. Maria-Anna Elisa Bonaparte (1777–1820), grand-duchess of Tuscany married Félix Bacciochi Levoy
    • Marie-Laetitia Bonaparte Bacciochi Levoy
  5. Louis Bonaparte, (1778–1846) married Hortense de Beauharnais, Napoleon's stepdaughter
  6. Maria Paola or Marie Pauline Bonaparte (1780–1825), married in 1797 to French general Charles Leclerc and later married Prince Camillo Borghese.
  7. Maria Annunziata Caroline Bonaparte (1782–1839) married Joachim Murat
  8. Jérôme Bonaparte (1784–1860), King of Westphalia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Carlo Buonaparte
(1746–1785)
 
Maria Letizia Ramolino
(1750–1836)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3
 
 
1
 
 
 
 
 
2
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5
 
4
 
6
 
7
 
 
 
 
 
8
 
Lucien Bonaparte
(1775–1840)
m.(2) Alexandrine de Bleschamp
 
 
Joseph Bonaparte
(1768–1844)
m. Julie Clary
 
Marie Louise of Austria
(1791–1847)
 
Napoléon I
(1769–1821)
 
Joséphine de Beauharnais
(1763–1814)
 
Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais
(1760–1794)
 
 
 
 
 
Elisa Bonaparte
(1777–1820)
m. Félix Bacciochi
 
Pauline Bonaparte
(1780–1825)
m.(1) Charles Leclerc
m.(2) Camillo Borghese
 
Caroline Bonaparte
(1782–1839)
m. Joachim Murat
 
Betsy Patterson
(1785–1879)
 
Jérôme Bonaparte
(1784–1860)
 
Catharina of Württemberg
(1783–1835)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Napoléon II
(1811–1832)
 
 
Eugène de Beauharnais
(1781–1824)
m. Augusta of Bavaria
 
Hortense de Beauharnais
(1783–1837)
 
Louis Bonaparte
(1778–1846)
 
4 children
 
 
 
 
 
Achille Murat
(1801–1847)
m. Catherine Willis Gray
 
 
Jérôme Napoleon Bonaparte
(1805–1870)
m. Susan May Williams
 
Jérôme Napoléon Charles Bonaparte
(1814–1847)
 
Mathilde Bonaparte
(1820–1904)
m. Anatole Demidoff di San Donato
 
Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte
(1822–1891)
m. Marie Clothilde of Savoy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Charles Lucien Bonaparte
(1803–1857)
 
Zénaïde Bonaparte
(1801–1854)
 
Julie Joséphine Bonaparte
(b.&d. 1796)
 
Charlotte Bonaparte
(1802–1839)
 
Napoleon Louis Bonaparte
(1804–1831)
 
Napoleon Charles Bonaparte
(1802–1807)
 
Napoléon III
(1808–1873)
m.Eugénie de Montijo
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte II
(1830–1893)
m. Caroline Edgar
 
Charles Joseph Bonaparte
(1851–1921)
m. Ellen Channing Day
 
Napoléon V Victor
(1862–1926)
m. Clémentine of Belgium
 
Napoléon Louis Joseph Jérôme Bonaparte
(1864–1932)
 
Maria Letizia Bonaparte
(1866–1926)
m. Amadeo of Savoy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Joseph Lucien Bonaparte
(1824–1865)
 
Lucien, Cardinal Bonaparte
(1828–1895)
 
Napoléon Charles Bonaparte
(1839–1899)
 
8 others
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Napoléon IV Eugène
(1856–1879)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marie Clothilde Bonaparte
(1912–1996)
 
Napoléon VI Louis
(1914–1997)
m. Alix de Foresta
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zénaïde Bonaparte
(1860–1862)
 
Mary Bonaparte
(1870–1947)
 
Eugénie Bonaparte
(1872–1949)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Napoléon VII Charles
(b.1950)
 
Catherine Elisabeth Bonaparte
(b.1950)
 
Laure Clémentine Bonaparte
(b.1952)
 
Jérôme Xavier Bonaparte
(b.1957)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Caroline Bonaparte
(b.1980)
 
Jean-Christophe Napoléon
(b.1986)
 
Sophie Cathérine Bonaparte
(b.1992)

Current descendants

The headship of the family is in dispute between Charles Napoléon, born 1950, great-great-grandson of Jérôme Bonaparte by his second marriage; and his son Jean-Christophe (born 1986) who was appointed heir in the will of his grandfather Prince Louis Napoléon. The only other male member of the family is the brother of Charles, Prince Jérôme, (born 1957), unmarried. There are no remaining descendants in male line from any other of Napoleon's brothers. There are, however, numerous descendants of Napoleon's illegitimate, but recognized son Walewski from his union with Marie, Countess Walewski. Of these include the Wattier family and its union with the Bonaparte family. The later descendants were the Peschongs and Herrs. A descendant of Napoleon's sister Caroline Bonaparte is actor Rene Auberjonois.

See also

House of Bonaparte
Vacant
Title last held by
House of Bourbon
Ruled as King of France
Ruling House of the French Empire
1804 – 1814
Succeeded by
House of Bourbon
Ruled as King of France
Vacant
Title last held by
House of Orléans
Ruled as King of the French
Ruling House of the French Empire
1852 – 1870
Empire Abolished
Third French Republic Declared
Preceded by
House of Bourbon
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Spain
1808 – 1813
Succeeded by
House of Bourbon
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Naples
1806 – 1815
Preceded by
House of Habsburg
Ruled as Nominal King of Italy
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Italy
1808 – 1815
Succeeded by
House of Habsburg
Ruled as King of Lombardy-Venetia
Preceded by
New Creation
Succeeded the Batavian Republic
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Holland
1806 – 1810
Kingdom Abolished
Part of the French Empire
Kingdom of the Netherlands created in 1815

References

  1. ^ Jacopo Buonaparte: Sac de Rome. Écrit EN 1527 par Jacques Bonaparte. Témoin oculaire, hrsgg. by Bonaparte, Napoléon Louis, Florenz 1850
  2. ^ Joshua F. Drake, The Part-books of a Florentine Ex-Patriate: new light on Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale Ms. Magl. XIX 164–7, Early Music (OUP), Vol. 33, no. 4 (Oct. 2005), pp. 639–646. [1]

External links


Simple English

File:Arms of the French
French Monarchy - Bonaparte Dynasty

The House of Bonaparte is an imperial and royal European dynasty founded by Napoleon I of France in 1804, a Corsican military leader who rose to power and transformed the French Republic into the French Empire. The dynasty ruled from 1804 to 1815 and again from 1852 to 1870. Current head Jean-Christophe Napoléon is ironically from a Bourbon mother.

Contents

Napoleon I of France


Napoleon Bonaparte is the most significant person associated with the Bonaparte family because he created the First French Empire that conquered much of Europe in the early 19th century. He was elected as first consul of France on November 10, 1799 with the help of his brother, Lucien Bonaparte, speaker of the Council of Five Hundred. He later crowned himself Emperor of the French in December 2, 1804 and King of Italy in May 26 1805. He then made his elder brother Joseph (1768–1844) king of Naples (1806–1808) and then of Spain (1808–1813), his third brother Louis, king of Holland (1806–1810), and his youngest brother Jerome Bonaparte, king of Westphalia(1807-1813).

Napoleon's son Napoleon François Charles Joseph (1811–1832) was created king of Rome (1811–1814) and was later styled Napoleon II by loyalists of the dynasty, though he only ruled for two weeks after his father's abdication. Charles Louis Napoléon (1808–1873), son of Louis Napoléon, was president of France in 1848 and emperor in 1852 until 1870, reigning as Napoléon III. A political movement for Corsican independence surfaced in the 1990s which included a Bonapartist restoration in its programme.

Crowns held by the family

Emperors of the French

  • Napoleon I (1804–1814, 1815), also King of Italy (1805–1814)
  • Napoleon II (1815), styled King of Rome from birth, but never reigned
  • Napoleon III (1852–1870), nephew of Napoleon I and son of Louis I of Holland

Kings of Holland

  • Louis I (1806–1810)
  • Louis II (1810), also Grand Duke of Berg (1809–1813)

Kings of Naples

  • Joseph I (1806–1808)
  • Joachim I (1808–1815), also Grand Duke of Berg (1806–1808)

King of Westphalia

  • Jérôme I (1807–1813)

King of Spain

Grand Duchess of Tuscany

  • Elisa Bonaparte (1809–1814)

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