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French Monarchy
Capetian Dynasty
(House of Valois)
France Ancient.svg

Philip VI
Children
   John II
John II
Children
   Charles V
   Louis I of Anjou
   John, Duke of Berry
   Philip the Bold
Charles V
Children
   Charles VI
   Louis, Duke of Orléans
Charles VI
Children
   Isabella of Valois
   Michelle of Valois
   Catherine of Valois
   Charles VII
Charles VII
Children
   Louis XI
   Charles, Duke of Berry
Louis XI
Children
   Charles VIII
Charles VIII
French Monarchy-
Capetian Dynasty, House of Valois
(Valois-Orléans branch)
Blason France moderne.svg

Louis XII
Children
   Claude of France         
   Renée of France         
French Monarchy-
Capetian Dynasty, House of Valois
(Valois-Angoulême branch)
Blason France moderne.svg

Francis I
Children
   Francis, Dauphin of Viennois
   Henry II
   Magdalene, Queen of Scots
   Charles of Valois
   Margaret, Duchess of Savoy
Henry II
Children
   Francis II
   Elizabeth, Queen of Spain
   Claude, Duchess of Lorraine
   Charles IX
   Henry III
   Margaret, Queen of Navarre
   François, Duke of Anjou
   Joan of Valois
   Victoria of Valois
Francis II
Charles IX
Henry III

The House of Valois[1] (French pronunciation: [valwa]) was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, succeeding the House of Capet (or "Direct Capetians") as kings of France from 1328 to 1589. A cadet branch of the family reigned as dukes of Burgundy from 1363 to 1482.

They were descendants of Charles of Valois, the fourth son of King Philip III and based their claim to be ahead of Edward III of England and Joan II of Navarre according to the Salic law.

Contents

Unexpected inheritance

Family tree relating the French and English royal houses at the beginning of the war.

The Capetian dynasty seemed secure both during and after the reign of Philip IV. Philip had left three surviving sons (Louis, Philip and Charles) and a daughter (Isabella). Each son became king in turn, but died young and without male heirs (all had daughters though). When Charles IV died in 1328, the French Succession was thrown wide open.

In 1328 there were 3 reasonable candidates to the throne;

  • Joan, daughter of Louis X who was then 16 years old. She would become Joan II of Navarre in later years.
  • Isabella of France, daughter and only surviving child of Philip IV. She was the sister to the previous three Kings of France. She had been married to the late King Edward II of England and was the mother of the new King of England Edward III.
  • Philip, son of Charles of Valois, who was the closest male heir and grandson of Philip III. Because his father was the brother of the late Philip IV, he was therefore a nephew of Philip IV and the cousin of Louis X, Philip V and Charles IV. Ironically he would be known as 'the fortunate' for his previous slim chance of becoming King.

Under Salic law, which only recognised the male line, the throne would be passed through the male descendants of Charles of Valois. In England, King Edward III heard the news and made his own bid for the crown. His mother was Isabella, the sister of the three previous Kings of France, and as such his claim was very strong (were it not for Salic law). As expected, Edward’s protests fell on deaf ears. It was obvious that no Frenchman would accept an English king as his ruler.

Because diplomacy and negotiation had failed, Edward III would have to back his ideas with force if he was to claim the throne. These events were a key reason for the Hundred Years War between England and France.

List of Valois kings of France

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Valois (direct)

Valois-Orléans

  • Louis XII, the Father of His People 1498-1515, great-grandson of Charles V of France

Valois-Angoulême

The application of the Salic Law meant that with the extinction of the Valois line on the male side, the Bourbon Dynasty followed as descendants of Louis IX.

Valois king of Poland

Other significant titles held by the House of Valois

Counts and Dukes of Anjou (House of Valois-Anjou)

  • Louis I, duke (1360–1383) (also king of Jerusalem and Naples as Louis I), second son of John II of France
  • Louis II (1377–1417), son of (also king of Naples as Louis II)
  • Louis III (1403–1434), son of (also king of Naples as Louis III)
  • René I (1409–1480), brother of (also king of Jerusalem and Naples as René I)
  • Charles IV (1436–1481), nephew of

Dukes of Burgundy (House of Valois-Burgundy)

Dukes of Brabant (House of Valois-Burgundy-Brabant)

Counts of Nevers (House of Valois-Burgundy-Nevers)

Counts and Dukes of Alençon (House of Valois-Alençon)

Illegitimate family branches

Forms of address

Forms of address for Valois kings included "Most Christian Majesty".

See also

References

  1. ^ Valois meaning, literally, "of the valley" or "from the valley"

External links

House of Valois
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Preceded by
House of Capet
Ruling House of France
1328–1589
Succeeded by
House of Bourbon
Preceded by
Capetian House of Burgundy
Ruling House of the Duchy of Burgundy
1363–1482
Succeeded by
House of Habsburg

Simple English

The House of Valois was a younger branch of the Capetian dynasty that ruled France in the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance from 1328 to 1529. The kings of the House of Valois were descended from Charles of Valois who was the third son of Philip III of France. They claimed the Salic law put them ahead of Edward III of England to rule France. Edward III of England thought he had gotten the right to the French crown through his mother. The two countries fought the Hundred Years' War because of that disagreement.



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