Houston, TX: Wikis


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Houston
—  City  —
From top left: the Mission Control Center in the Johnson Space Center, the Houston Ship Channel, Skyline of Downtown Houston, Rice University, and Minute Maid Park

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Nickname(s): Space City (Official), more...
Location in Harris County, Texas
Houston is located in the USA
Houston
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 29°45′46″N 95°22′59″W / 29.76278°N 95.38306°W / 29.76278; -95.38306Coordinates: 29°45′46″N 95°22′59″W / 29.76278°N 95.38306°W / 29.76278; -95.38306
Country United States of America
State Texas
Counties Harris, Fort Bend, Montgomery
Incorporated June 5, 1837
Government
 - Type Mayor–council
 - Mayor Annise Parker
Area
 - City 601.7 sq mi (1,558 km2)
 - Land 579.4 sq mi (1,501 km2)
 - Water 22.3 sq mi (57.7 km2)
Elevation 43 ft (13 m)
Population (2008)[1][2]
 - City 2,242,193 (4th U.S.)
 Density 3,828/sq mi (1,471/km2)
 Urban 3,822,509
 Metro 5,728,143 (6th U.S.)
 - Demonym Houstonian
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 - Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
Area code(s) 713, 281, 832
FIPS code 48-35000[3]
GNIS feature ID 1380948[4]
Website houstontx.gov

Houston (pronounced /ˈhjuːstən/) is the fourth-largest city in the United States and the largest city in the state of Texas. As of the 2008 U.S. Census estimate, the city had a population of 2.2 million within an area of 600 square miles (1,600 km2).[1] Houston is the seat of Harris County and the economic center of the Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown metropolitan area—the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the U.S. with a population over 5.7 million.

Houston was founded on August 30, 1836, by brothers Augustus Chapman Allen and John Kirby Allen on land near the banks of Buffalo Bayou.[5] The city was incorporated on June 5, 1837, and named after then-President of the Republic of Texas—former General Sam Houston—who had commanded at the Battle of San Jacinto, which took place 25 miles (40 km) east of where the city was established. The burgeoning port and railroad industry, combined with oil discovery in 1901, has induced continual surges in the city's population. In the mid-twentieth century, Houston became the home of the Texas Medical Center—the world's largest concentration of healthcare and research institutions—and NASA's Johnson Space Center, where the Mission Control Center is located.

Rated as a beta world city, Houston's economy has a broad industrial base in the energy, manufacturing, aeronautics, transportation, and health care sectors and is a leading center for building oilfield equipment; only New York City is home to more Fortune 500 headquarters in the city limits.[6] [7] The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international waterborne tonnage handled and second in total cargo tonnage handled.[8] The city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community. It is home to many cultural institutions and exhibits—attracting more than 7 million visitors a year to the Houston Museum District. Houston has an active visual and performing arts scene in the Theater District and is one of few U.S. cities that offer year-round resident companies in all major performing arts.[9]

Contents

History

In August 1836, John Kirby Allen and Augustus Chapman Allen, two real estate entrepreneurs from New York City, purchased 6,642 acres (26.88 km2) of land along Buffalo Bayou with the intent of founding a city.[10] The Allen brothers decided to name the city after Sam Houston, the popular general at the Battle of San Jacinto,[10] who was elected President of Texas in September 1836.

Houston was granted incorporation on June 5, 1837, with James S. Holman becoming its first mayor.[11] In the same year, Houston became the county seat of Harrisburg County (now Harris County) and the temporary capital of the Republic of Texas.[12] In 1840, the community established a chamber of commerce in part to promote shipping and waterborne business at the newly created port on Buffalo Bayou.[13]

By 1860, Houston had emerged as a commercial and railroad hub for the export of cotton.[12] Railroad spurs from the Texas inland converged in Houston, where they met rail lines to the ports of Galveston and Beaumont. During the American Civil War, Houston served as a headquarters for General John Bankhead Magruder, who used the city as an organization point for the Battle of Galveston.[14] After the Civil War, Houston businessmen initiated efforts to widen the city's extensive system of bayous so the city could accept more commerce between downtown and the nearby port of Galveston. By 1890 Houston was the railroad center of Texas.

Houston, circa 1873

In 1900, after Galveston was struck by a devastating hurricane, efforts to make Houston into a viable deepwater port were accelerated.[15] The following year, oil discovered at the Spindletop oil field near Beaumont prompted the development of the Texas petroleum industry.[16] In 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt approved a $1 million improvement project for the Houston Ship Channel. By 1910 the city's population had reached 78,800, almost doubling from a decade before. An integral part of the city were African Americans, who numbered 23,929 or nearly one-third of the residents.[17] They were developing a strong professional class based then in the Fourth Ward.

President Woodrow Wilson opened the deepwater Port of Houston in 1914, seven years after digging began. By 1930, Houston had become Texas's most populous city and Harris the most populous county.[18]

When World War II started, tonnage levels at the port decreased and shipping activities were suspended; however, the war did provide economic benefits for the city. Petrochemical refineries and manufacturing plants were constructed along the ship channel because of the demand for petroleum and synthetic rubber products during the war.[19] Ellington Field, initially built during World War I, was revitalized as an advanced training center for bombardiers and navigators.[20] The M. D. Anderson Foundation formed the Texas Medical Center in 1945. After the war, Houston's economy reverted to being primarily port-driven. In 1948, several unincorporated areas were annexed into the city limits, which more than doubled the city's size, and Houston proper began to spread across the region.[11][21]

In 1950, the availability of air conditioning provided impetus for many companies to relocate to Houston resulting in an economic boom and producing a key shift in the city's economy toward the energy sector.[22][23]

The space shuttle, atop its Boeing 747 SCA, flying over Johnson Space Center

The increased production of the local shipbuilding industry during World War II spurred Houston's growth,[24] as did the establishment in 1961 of NASA's "Manned Spacecraft Center" (renamed the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in 1973), which created the city's aerospace industry. The Astrodome, nicknamed the "Eighth Wonder of the World,"[25] opened in 1965 as the world's first indoor domed sports stadium.

During the late 1970s, Houston experienced a population boom as people from Rust Belt states moved to Texas in large numbers.[26] The new residents came for the numerous employment opportunities in the petroleum industry, created as a result of the Arab Oil Embargo.

The population boom ended abruptly in the mid-1980s, as oil prices fell precipitously. The space industry also suffered in 1986 after the Space Shuttle Challenger exploded shortly after launch. The late 1980s saw a recession adversely affecting the city's economy.

Since the 1990s, as a result of the recession, Houston has made efforts to diversify its economy by focusing on aerospace and health care/biotechnology and by reducing its dependence on the petroleum industry. In 1997, Houstonians elected Lee P. Brown as the city's first African American mayor.[27]

In June 2001, Tropical Storm Allison dumped up to 37 inches (940 mm) of rain on parts of Houston, causing the worst flooding in the city's history; the storm cost billions of dollars in damage and killed 20 people in Texas.[28] By December of that same year, Houston-based energy company Enron collapsed into the second-largest ever U.S. bankruptcy during an investigation surrounding fabricated partnerships that were allegedly used to hide debt and inflate profits.

In August 2005, Houston became a shelter to more than 150,000 people from New Orleans who evacuated from Hurricane Katrina.[29] One month later, approximately 2.5 million Houston area residents evacuated when Hurricane Rita approached the Gulf Coast, leaving little damage to the Houston area. This was the largest urban evacuation in the history of the United States.[30][31]

Geography

A simulated-color image of Houston

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 601.7 square miles (1,558 km2); this comprises 579.4 square miles (1,501 km2) of land and 22.3 square miles (58 km2) of water.[32] Most of Houston is located on the gulf coastal plain, and its vegetation is classified as temperate grassland and forest. Much of the city was built on forested land, marshes, swamp, or prairie, which are all still visible in surrounding areas. Flatness of the local terrain, when combined with urban sprawl, has made flooding a recurring problem for the city.[33] Downtown stands about 50 feet (15 m) above sea level,[34] and the highest point in far northwest Houston is about 125 feet (38 m) in elevation.[35][36] The city once relied on groundwater for its needs, but land subsidence forced the city to turn to ground-level water sources such as Lake Houston and Lake Conroe.[11][37]

Houston has four major bayous passing through the city. Buffalo Bayou runs through downtown and the Houston Ship Channel, and has three tributaries: White Oak Bayou, which runs through the Heights neighborhood north of downtown and then towards downtown; Braes Bayou, which runs along the Texas Medical Center; and Sims Bayou, which runs through the south of Houston and downtown Houston. The ship channel continues past Galveston and then into the Gulf of Mexico.

Geology

Underpinning Houston's land surface are unconsolidated clays, clay shales, and poorly cemented sands up to several miles deep. The region's geology developed from river deposits formed from the erosion of the Rocky Mountains. These sediments consist of a series of sands and clays deposited on decaying organic matter, that over time, transformed into oil and natural gas. Beneath the layers of sediment is a water-deposited layer of halite, a rock salt. The porous layers were compressed over time and forced upward. As it pushed upward, the salt dragged surrounding sediments into salt dome formations, often trapping oil and gas that seeped from the surrounding porous sands. The thick, rich, sometimes black, surface soil is suitable for rice farming in suburban outskirts where the city continues to grow.[38][39]

The Houston area has over 150 active faults (estimated to be 300 active faults)[40] with an aggregate length of up to 310 miles (500 km),[41][42] including the Long Point-Eureka Heights Fault System which runs through the center of the city. There have been no significant historically recorded earthquakes in Houston, but researchers do not discount the possibility of such quakes occurring in the deeper past, nor in the future. Land in some communities southeast of Houston is sinking because water has been pumped out from the ground for many years. It may be associated with slip along faults; however, the slippage is slow and not considered an earthquake, where stationary faults must slip suddenly enough to create seismic waves.[43] These faults also tend to move at a smooth rate in what is termed "fault creep,"[37] which further reduces the risk of an earthquake.

Climate

Houston
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
4.3
 
63
45
 
 
3
 
67
48
 
 
3.2
 
74
55
 
 
3.5
 
79
61
 
 
5.1
 
86
68
 
 
6.8
 
91
74
 
 
4.4
 
94
75
 
 
4.5
 
93
75
 
 
5.6
 
89
72
 
 
5.3
 
82
62
 
 
4.5
 
73
53
 
 
3.8
 
65
47
average max. and min. temperatures in °F
precipitation totals in inches
source: Weather.com / NWS[44]

Houston's climate is classified as humid subtropical (Cfa in Köppen climate classification system). Spring supercell thunderstorms sometimes bring tornados to the area. Prevailing winds are from the south and southeast during most of the year, bringing heat across the continent from the deserts of Mexico and moisture from the Gulf of Mexico.[45]

During the summer months, it is common for the temperature to reach over 90 °F (32 °C), with an average of 99 days per year above 90 °F (32 °C).[46][47] However, the humidity results in a heat index higher than the actual temperature. Summer mornings average over 90 percent relative humidity and approximately 60 percent in the afternoon.[48][48] Winds are often light in the summer and offer little relief, except near the immediate coast.[49] To cope with the heat, people use air conditioning in nearly every vehicle and building in the city; in 1980 Houston was described as the "most air-conditioned place on earth".[50] Scattered afternoon thunderstorms are common in the summer. The hottest temperature ever recorded in Houston was 109 °F (43 °C) on September 4, 2000.[51]

Winters in Houston are fairly temperate. The average high in January, the coldest month, is 63 °F (17 °C), while the average low is 41 °F (5 °C). Snowfall is generally rare. Recent snow events in Houston include a storm on December 24, 2004 when one inch (2.5 cm) fell and more recent snowfalls on December 10, 2008. However, more recently on December 4, 2009 an inch of snow fell in the city. This was the earliest snowfall ever recorded in Houston. In addition, it set another milestone marking the first time in recorded history that snowfall has occurred on two consecutive years, and marks the third accumulating snowfall occurring in the decade of 2000-2010. The coldest temperature ever recorded in Houston was 5 °F (−15 °C) on January 23, 1940.[52] Houston receives a high amount of rainfall annually, averaging about 54 inches a year. These rains tend to cause floods over portions of the city.

Houston has excessive ozone levels and is ranked among the most ozone-polluted cities in the United States.[53] Ground-level ozone, or smog, is Houston’s predominant air pollution problem, with the American Lung Association rating the metropolitan area's ozone level as the 6th worst in the United States in 2006.[54] The industries located along the ship channel are a major cause of the city's air pollution.[55]

Cityscape

Houston was incorporated in 1837 under the ward system of representation. The ward designation is the progenitor of the nine current-day Houston City Council districts. Locations in Houston are generally classified as either being inside or outside the Interstate 610 Loop. The inside encompasses the central business district and many residential neighborhoods that predate World War II. More recently, high-density residential areas have been developed within the loop. The city's outlying areas, suburbs and enclaves are located outside of the loop. Beltway 8 encircles the city another 5 miles (8.0 km) farther out.

Uptown (foreground) and Downtown (background)

Though Houston is the largest city in the United States without formal zoning regulations, it has developed similarly to other Sun Belt cities because the city's land use regulations and legal covenants have played a similar role.[56][57] Regulations include mandatory lot size for single-family houses and requirements that parking be available to tenants and customers. Such restrictions have had mixed results. Though some[57] have blamed the city's low density, urban sprawl, and lack of pedestrian-friendliness on these policies, the city's land use has also been credited with a bounty of affordable housing, sparing Houston the worst effects of the 2008 real estate crisis.[58] The city issued 42,697 building permits in 2008 and was ranked first in the list of healthiest housing markets for 2009, according to Builder magazine.[59]

Voters rejected efforts to have separate residential and commercial land-use districts in 1948, 1962, and 1993. Consequently, rather than a single central business district as the center of the city's employment, multiple districts have grown throughout the city in addition to downtown which include Uptown, Texas Medical Center, Midtown, Greenway Plaza, Energy Corridor, Westchase, and Greenspoint.

Government and politics

The city of Houston has a strong mayoral form of municipal government.[60] Houston is a home rule city and all municipal elections in the state of Texas are nonpartisan.[60][61] The City's elected officials are the mayor, city controller and 14 members of the city council.[62] The mayor of Houston is Annise Parker—a Democrat elected on a nonpartisan ballot who is serving her first term as of January 2010.[63] Houston's mayor serves as the city's chief administrator, executive officer, and official representative, and is responsible for the general management of the city and for seeing that all laws and ordinances are enforced.[63] As the result of a 1991 referendum in Houston, a mayor is elected for a two-year term, and can be elected to as many as three consecutive terms.

The city council line-up of nine district based and five at-large positions was based on a U.S. Justice Department mandate which took effect in 1979.[64] At-large council members represent the entire city.[62] Under the current city charter, if the population in the city limits goes past 2.1 million residents, the current nine-member city council districts will be expanded with the addition of two city council districts.[65]

The city controller is elected independently of the mayor and council. The controller's duties are to certify available funds prior to committing such funds and processing disbursements. The city's fiscal year begins on July 1 and ends on June 30. Ronald Green is the city controller, serving his first term as of January 2010.

Houston is considered to be a politically divided city whose balance of power often sways between Republicans and Democrats. Much of the city's wealthier and more white areas vote Republican, while the city's impoverished, middle class, and minority areas vote Democrat. According to the 2005 Houston Area Survey, 68 percent of non-Hispanic whites in Harris County are declared or favor Republicans while 89 percent of non-Hispanic blacks in the area are declared or favor Democrats. About 62 percent Hispanics (of any race) in the area are declared or favor Democrats.[66] The city has often been known to be the most politically diverse city in Texas, a state known for being unanimously conservative.[67] As a result the city is often a contested area in state elections.[68]

Economy

Data from city-data.com[69]

Houston is recognized worldwide for its energy industry—particularly for oil and natural gas—as well as for biomedical research and aeronautics. Renewable energy sources—wind and solar—are also becoming popular economic bases in Houston.[70][71] The ship channel is also a large part of Houston's economic base. Because of these strengths, Houston is designated as a beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network.[7]

Considered to be the energy capital of the world, five of the six supermajor energy companies maintain a large base of operations in Houston (international headquarters of ConocoPhillips; US operational headquarters of Exxon-Mobil; US headquarters for international companies Shell Oil (US subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell located in The Hague, Netherlands), and BP whose international headquarters are in London, England).[72] Specifically, the headquarters of Shell Oil Company, the US affiliate of Royal Dutch Shell, is located at One Shell Plaza. While ExxonMobil maintains its small, global headquarters in Irving, Texas, its upstream and chemical divisions as well as most operational divisions, are located in Houston. Chevron has offices in Houston, having acquired a 40 story building intended to be the headquarters of Enron.[73] The company's Chevron Pipe Line Company subsidiary is headquartered in Houston, and more divisions are being consolidated and moved to Houston each year.[74] Houston is headquarters for the Marathon Oil Corporation, Apache Corporation, and Citgo and alternative energy companies such as Horizon Wind Energy.[75]

Greater Houston is a leading center for building oilfield equipment.[76] Much of Houston's success as a petrochemical complex is due to its busy man-made ship channel, the Port of Houston.[77] The port ranks first in the United States in international commerce, and is the tenth-largest port in the world.[8][78] Unlike most places, where high oil and gasoline prices are seen as harmful to the economy, they are generally seen as beneficial for Houston as many are employed in the energy industry.[79]

The Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown MSA's Gross Area Product (GAP) in 2008 was $440.4 billion,[80] slightly larger than Belgium’s, Malaysia’s, Venezuela’s or Sweden’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). When comparing Houston's economy to a national economy, only 21 countries other than the United States have a gross domestic product exceeding Houston's regional gross area product.[80] Houston's MSA Gross Area Product for 2007 is estimated to be 416.6 billion, up 13.8 percent from 2006. Mining, which in Houston is almost entirely exploration and production of oil and gas, accounts for 26.3% of Houston's GAP, up sharply in response to high energy prices and a decreased worldwide surplus of oil production capacity; followed by engineering services, health services, and manufacturing.[81]

The Houston area added 42,400 private-sector jobs between November 2007 and November 2008 and registered the nation’s largest gain in private-sector employment among the nation's cities, according to employment statistics of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.[82] The unemployment rate in the city was 3.8% in April 2008, the lowest level in eight years while the job growth rate was 2.8%.[83]

In 2006, the Houston metropolitan area ranked first in Texas and third in the U.S. within the Category of "Best Places for Business and Careers" by Forbes magazine.[84] Foreign governments have established 89 consular offices in metropolitan Houston. Forty foreign governments maintain trade and commercial offices here and 23 active foreign chambers of commerce and trade associations.[85] Twenty-five foreign banks representing 13 nations operate in Houston, providing financial assistance to the international community.[86]

In 2008, Houston received top ranking on Kiplinger's Personal Finance Best Cities of 2008 list which ranks cities on their local economy, employment opportunities, reasonable living costs and quality of life.[87] The city ranked fourth for highest increase in the local technological innovation over the preceding 15 years, according to Forbes magazine.[88] In the same year, the city ranked second on the annual Fortune 500 list of company headquarters,[6] ranked first for Forbes Best Cities for College Graduates,[89] and ranked first on Forbes list of Best Cities to Buy a Home.[90]

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1850 2,396
1860 4,845 102.2%
1870 9,332 92.6%
1880 16,513 77.0%
1890 27,557 66.9%
1900 44,633 62.0%
1910 78,800 76.6%
1920 138,276 75.5%
1930 292,352 111.4%
1940 384,514 31.5%
1950 596,163 55.0%
1960 938,219 57.4%
1970 1,232,802 31.4%
1980 1,595,138 29.4%
1990 1,630,553 2.2%
2000 1,953,631 19.8%
Est. 2008 2,242,193 14.8%
The annual Houston International Festival spotlights a different culture each year

Houston is a multicultural city, in part because of its many academic institutions and strong industries. Over 90 languages are spoken in the city.[91] Houston has among the youngest populations in the nation,[92][93][94] partly due to an influx of immigrants into Texas.[95] The city has the third-largest Hispanic and third-largest Mexican-American population in the United States. It also has more Hispanic Americans than any other city in Texas.[96] An estimated 400,000 illegal immigrants reside in the Greater Houston area.[97] Houston has some of the largest communities of Indian and Pakistani descent in the United States.[98] The Nigerian-American community of Houston, estimated to be over 2.0% of the city's population, is the largest in the United States.[99][100]

As of the 2005-2007 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, White Americans made up 54.1% of Houston's population; of which 28.0% were non-Hispanic whites. Blacks or African Americans made up 24.3% of Houston's population; of which 24.0% were non-Hispanic blacks. American Indians made up 0.3% of Houston's population; of which 0.2% were non-Hispanic. Asian Americans made up 5.3% of Houston's population while Pacific Islander Americans made up 0.1%. Individuals from some other race made up 14.7% of the city's population; of which 0.2% were non-Hispanic. Individuals from two or more races made up 1.1% of the city's population; of which 0.6% were non-Hispanic. Hispanics or Latinos made up 41.7% of Houston's population.[101][102]

As of the 2000 Census, there were 1,953,631 people and the population density was 3,371.7 people per square mile (1,301.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 49.3% White, 25.3% African American, 5.3% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 16.5% from some other race, and 3.1% from two or more races. In addition, Hispanics and Latinos made up 37.4% of Houston's population while non-Hispanic whites made up 30.8%.[103]

There were 717,945 households out of which 33.1 percent had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.2 percent were married couples living together, 15.3 percent had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.3 percent were non-families. Twenty-nine percent of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2 percent had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.39. The median house price was $115,961 in 2009.[104]

In the city, the population was spread out with 27.5 percent under the age of 18, 11.2 percent from 18 to 24, 33.8 percent from 25 to 44, 19.1 percent from 45 to 64, and 8.4 percent who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 99.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $36,616, and the median income for a family was $40,443. Males had a median income of $32,084 versus $27,371 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,101. Nineteen percent of the population and 16 percent of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 26.1 percent of those under the age of 18 and 14.3 percent of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

Houston has a large number of immigrants from Asia, including the largest Vietnamese American population in Texas and third-largest in the United States, with 30,000 people in 2007. Some parts of the city with high populations of Vietnamese and Chinese residents have Chinese and Vietnamese street signs, in addition to English ones. Houston has two Chinatowns: the original located in Downtown, and the more recent one north of Bellaire Boulevard in the southwest area of the city.[105][106] The city has a Little Saigon in Midtown and Vietnamese businesses located in the southwest area of Houston's Chinatown.[107] A "Little India" community referred to as the "Harwin District" exists along Hillcroft.[108]

Houston has a large gay community concentrated primarily in and around Neartown and Houston Heights. It is estimated that the Houston metropolitan area has the twelfth-largest number of lesbian, gay and bisexual individuals in the United States.[109] Houston's Mayor, Annise Parker, is the first openly gay elected mayor of a major U.S. city.

Culture

Houston is a diverse city with a large and growing international community.[110] The metropolitan area is home to an estimated 1.1 million (21.4 percent) residents who were born outside the United States, with nearly two-thirds of the area's foreign-born population from south of the United States–Mexico border.[111] Additionally, more than one in five foreign-born residents are from Asia.[111] The city is home to the nation’s third largest concentration of consular offices, representing 86 countries.[112]

Many annual events celebrate the diverse cultures of Houston. The largest and longest running is the annual Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo, held over 20 days from late February to early March, which happens to be the largest annual Livestock Show and Rodeo anywhere in the world.[113] Another large celebration is the annual night-time Houston Pride Parade, held at the end of June.[114] Other annual events include the Houston Greek Festival,[115] Art Car Parade, the Houston Auto Show, the Houston International Festival, the Westheimer Block Party[116] and the Bayou City Art Festival, which is considered to be one of the top five art festivals in the United States.[117][118]

Houston received the official nickname of "Space City" in 1967 because it is the location of NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. Other nicknames often used by locals include "Bayou City," "Magnolia City," "Clutch City," and "H-Town."

Arts and theatre

Wortham Center in the Theater District of Downtown

Houston has an active visual and performing arts scene. The Theater District is located downtown and is home to nine major performing arts organizations and six performance halls. It is the second-largest concentration of theater seats in a downtown area in the United States.[119][120][121] Houston is one of few United States cities with permanent, professional, resident companies in all major performing arts disciplines: opera (Houston Grand Opera), ballet (Houston Ballet), music (Houston Symphony Orchestra), and theater (The Alley Theatre).[9][122] Houston is also home to many local folk artists, art groups and various smaller progressive arts organizations.[123] Houston attracts many touring Broadway acts, concerts, shows, and exhibitions for a variety of interests.[124]

The Museum District has many popular cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year.[125][126] Notable facilities located in the district include The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston Museum of Natural Science, the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, the Station Museum of Contemporary Art, Holocaust Museum Houston, and the Houston Zoo.[127][128][129] Located outside, but within proximity of the Museum District are The Menil Collection, Rothko Chapel, and the Byzantine Fresco Chapel Museum.

Bayou Bend is a 14-acre (5.7 ha) facility of the Museum of Fine Arts that houses one of America's best collections of decorative art, paintings and furniture. Bayou Bend is the former home of Houston philanthropist Ima Hogg.[130]

Many venues scattered across Houston regularly host local and touring rock, blues, country, hip hop and Tejano musical acts. There has never been a widely renowned music scene in Houston. Artists seem to relocate to other parts of the United States once attaining some level of success.[131] A notable exception to the rule is Houston hip-hop, which celebrates the unique southern flavor and attitude of its roots. This has given rise to a strong, independent hip-hop music scene, influencing and influenced by the larger Southern hip hop and gangsta rap communities.[132] Many Houstonian hip-hop artists have attained commercial success. Houston is the home of chopped and screwed music.

Other prominent artists that have come from Houston include the pop and R&B girl group Destiny's Child, progressive rock band King's X, hard Southern rock band ZZ Top, sixties psychedelic rock band Red Krayola, folk-country singer/songwriter Lyle Lovett, pop singer and actress Hilary Duff, the actor Patrick Swayze, and indie-piano rock band Blue October. Houston also once had fledgling blues and folk scenes in the sixties and seventies with blues performers such as Lightnin' Hopkins, Clarence "Gatemouth" Brown, "Texas" Johnny Brown, Johnny "Guitar" Watson, Albert Collins, Johnny Copeland, and Joe "Guitar" Hughes many of whom recorded with the hometown music label Peacock Records. Folk artists in the city in the sixties and seventies such as Townes Van Zandt, Rodney Crowell, Steve Earle and Guy Clark also called Houston home for many years playing at long standing venues like Anderson Fair and the Old Quarter Acoustic Cafe.[133] The eighties and nineties produced punk and alternative rock such as Dirty Rotten Imbeciles, Verbal Abuse, Really Red, Culturcide, the Pain Teens and the outside musician Jandek. The new millennium has seen a continuance of Houston Noise Bands with contemporary performers such as Jana Hunter and Indian Jewelry.

Tourism and recreation

Reflection pool in Hermann Park

The Theater District is a 17-block area in the center of downtown Houston that is home to the Bayou Place entertainment complex, restaurants, movies, plazas, and parks. Bayou Place is a large multilevel building containing full-service restaurants, bars, live music, billiards, and art house films. The Houston Verizon Wireless Theater stages live concerts, stage plays, and stand-up comedy; and the Angelika Film Center presents art, foreign and independent films.[134]

Houston is home to 337 parks including Hermann Park, which houses the Houston Zoo and the Houston Museum of Natural Science, Terry Hershey Park, Lake Houston Park, Memorial Park, Tranquility Park, Sesquicentennial Park, Discovery Green and Sam Houston Park (which contains restored and reconstructed homes which were originally built between 1823 and 1905).[135] Of the 10 most populous U.S. cities, Houston has the most total area of parks and green space: 56,405 acres (228 km2).[136] The city also has over 200 additional green spaces—totaling over 19,600 acres (79 km2) that are managed by the city—including the Houston Arboretum and Nature Center. The Williams Waterwall serves as a popular tourist attraction and sits in Uptown Houston. The Houston Civic Center was replaced by the George R. Brown Convention Center—one of the nation's largest—and the Jesse H. Jones Hall for the Performing Arts, home of the Houston Symphony Orchestra and Society for the Performing Arts. The Sam Houston Coliseum and Music Hall have been replaced by the Hobby Center for the Performing Arts.

Space Center Houston is the official visitors’ center of NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. Here one will find many interactive exhibits including moon rocks, a shuttle simulator, and presentations about the history of NASA's manned space flight program.

Other tourist attractions include the Galleria (Texas's largest shopping mall located in the Uptown District), Old Market Square, the Downtown Aquarium, and Sam Houston Race Park.

Sports

Revelers at "The Main Event" held Downtown during Super Bowl XXXVIII

Houston has teams for nearly every major professional sport (only the NHL is not represented). The Houston Astros (MLB), Houston Texans (NFL), Houston Rockets (NBA), Houston Dynamo (MLS), Houston Aeros (AHL), Houston Wranglers (WTT), Houston Takers (ABA), Houston Energy (IWFL), Houston Leones (PDL), H-Town Texas Cyclones (also IWFL), Houston Power (WFA), and the Houston Lightning (SIFL) all call Houston home.

Minute Maid Park (home of the Astros) and Toyota Center (home of the Rockets, and Aeros) are located in a revived area of downtown. The city has the Reliant Astrodome, the first domed stadium in the world; it also holds the NFL's first retractable-roof stadium, Reliant Stadium. Other sports facilities in Houston include Hofheinz Pavilion, Reliant Arena (former home of the WNBA's Houston Comets, now home to the Lightning), and Robertson Stadium (both used for University of Houston collegiate sports, the latter also for the Houston Dynamo), and Rice Stadium (home of the Rice University Owls football team). The infrequently used Reliant Astrodome hosted World Wrestling Entertainment's WrestleMania X-Seven on April 1, 2001, where an attendance record of 67,925 was set.[137] The city also hosted WrestleMania XXV at Reliant Stadium on April 5, 2009.[138]

Houston has hosted major recent sporting events, including the 2004 Major League Baseball All-Star Game,[139] the 2000 IHL All-Star Game, the 2005 Big 12 Conference football championship game, the 2006 NBA All-Star Game, the U.S. Men's Clay Court Championships from 2001–2006, and the Tennis Masters Cup in 2003 and 2004, as well as the annual Shell Houston Open golf tournament. Starting in 2009, Houston will host the final official event in the LPGA golf season, the LPGA Tour Championship. The city hosts the annual NCAA College Baseball Minute Maid Classic every February and NCAA football's Texas Bowl in December. Houston has hosted the Super Bowl championship game twice. Super Bowl VIII was played at Rice Stadium in 1974 and Super Bowl XXXVIII was played at Reliant Stadium in 2004. From 1998 to 2001, the CART auto racing series held a yearly race, the Grand Prix of Houston, on downtown streets. After a five-year hiatus, CART's successor series, Champ Car, revived the race for 2006 and 2007 on the streets surrounding the Reliant Park complex. However, Champ Car merged with the rival Indy Racing League (IRL) in 2008, discontinuing the Houston race in the process. Houston Raceway Park is located outside Houston near Baytown, and hosts the NHRA and other forms of auto racing.

Media

LeRoy and Lucile Melcher Center for Public Broadcasting at the University of Houston

Houston is served by the Houston Chronicle, its only major daily newspaper with wide distribution. The Hearst Corporation, which owns and operates the Houston Chronicle, bought the assets of the Houston Post—its long-time rival and main competition—when Houston Post ceased operations in 1995. The Houston Post was owned by the family of former Lieutenant Governor Bill Hobby of Houston. The only other major publication to serve the city is the Houston Press—a free alternative weekly with a weekly readership of more than 300,000.[140]

The Houston area is served by a public television station, KUHT, and public radio station, KUHF. Both stations are licensed to and operated by the University of Houston. KUHT (Channel 8) is a PBS member station and the first public television station in the United States, and KUHF (88.7 FM) is an NPR member station. Both stations broadcast from the LeRoy and Lucile Melcher Center for Public Broadcasting at the University of Houston.

One of the leading media personalities in Houston is Dave Ward who is the longest running anchor at any station in all of Houston. Ward has led KTRK-TV for more than 40 years. Ron Stone led Channel 2 News for 20 years, 1972 to 1992. Ray Miller, host of The Eyes of Texas, a cultural anthology series broadcast for nearly three decades over KPRC-TV, the NBC affiliate, is also well known, as was Marvin Zindler. In the late 1960s, Miller hired Kay Bailey Hutchison, a Galveston native as the first newswoman in Texas. She later served in the Texas House of Representatives and the United States Senate.

Architecture

Houston has the third-tallest skyline in North America and one of the top 10 in the world.[141][142] The city has a seven-mile (11 km) system of tunnels and skywalks linking buildings in downtown which contain shops, restaurants, and convenience stores. This system enables pedestrians to avoid the summer heat and rain showers while walking from one building to another.

In the 1960s, Downtown Houston consisted of a modest collection of mid-rise office structures, but has since grown into one of the largest skylines in the United States. Downtown was on the threshold of a boom in 1970 with huge projects being launched by real estate developers with the energy industry boom. A succession of skyscrapers were built throughout the 1970s—many by real estate developer Gerald D. Hines—culminating with Houston's tallest skyscraper, the 75-floor, 1,002-foot (305 m)-tall JPMorgan Chase Tower (formerly the Texas Commerce Tower), which was completed in 1982. It is the tallest structure in Texas, 10th-tallest building in the United States and the 30th-tallest skyscraper in the world based on height to roof. In 1983, the 71-floor, 992-foot (302 m)-tall Wells Fargo Plaza (formerly Allied Bank Plaza) was completed, which became the second-tallest building in Houston and Texas. Based on height to roof, it is the 13th-tallest in the United States and the 36th-tallest in the world. As of 2007, downtown Houston had over 43 million square feet (4,000,000 m²) of office space.[143]

Centered on Post Oak Boulevard and Westheimer Road, the Uptown District boomed during the 1970s and early 1980s when a collection of mid-rise office buildings, hotels, and retail developments appeared along Interstate 610 west. Uptown became one of the most impressive instances of an edge city. The highest achievement of Uptown was the construction of the 64-floor, 901-foot (275 m)-tall, Philip Johnson and John Burgee designed landmark Williams Tower (known as the Transco Tower until 1999). At the time, it was believed to the be the world's tallest skyscraper outside of a central business district. The Uptown District is also home to other buildings designed by noted architects such as I. M. Pei, César Pelli, and Philip Johnson. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, there was a mini-boom of mid-rise and high-rise residential tower construction, with several over 30 stories tall.[144][145][146] In 2002, Uptown had more than 23 million square feet (2,100,000 m²) of office space with 16 million square feet (1,500,000 m²) of Class A office space.[147]

Crime

Police services are provided by the Houston Police Department. Houston's murder rate ranked 46th of U.S. cities with a population over 250,000 in 2005 (per capita rate of 16.3 murders per 100,000 population).[148] The city's murder rate, however, ranked 3rd among U.S. cities with a population of 1,000,000 or more. Even those statistics were believed to be higher after local TV news investigator Mark Greenblatt found the Houston Police Department under-counted 2005 homicides. Officially counting just two more of the city's murders would have bumped up the city's murder rate to second place.[149] While nonviolent crime in the city dropped by 2 percent in 2005 compared to 2004, the number of homicides rose by 23.5 percent.[150] Since 2005, Houston has been experiencing a spike in crime, which is due in part to an influx of people from New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina.[151] After Katrina, Houston's murder rate increased 70 percent in November and December 2005 compared to levels in 2004. The city recorded 336 murders in 2005,[150] compared to 272 in 2004.[152] Houston's homicide rate per 100,000 residents increased from 16.33 in 2005 to 17.24 in 2006.[153] The number of murders in the city increased to 379 in 2006.[150] Among other cities, Houston is a major hub for drug traffickers, who supply cocaine, marijuana, heroin, MDMA, and methamphetamine to distributors in other American markets.[154]

In 2007, Houston ranked first for auto-theft in the state of Texas when more than 31,000 motor vehicles were stolen in the Houston metropolitan area. [155] In 2010 WalletPop.com, a personal finance blog, partnered with NeighborhoodScout.com to determine the safest neighborhoods in the fifty largest cities in the United States; in the partnership determined that, in Houston, the area with the least amounts of crime incidents was at the intersection of Westheimer Road and Texas State Highway 6.[156]

Transportation

Interstate 10 and Interstate 45 near Downtown

The predominant form of transportation in Houston is the automobile with 71.7% of residents driving alone to work[157] This is facilitated through Houston's freeway system, comprising 739.3 miles (1,189.8 km) of freeways and expressways in a ten-county metropolitan area.[158] Its highway system uses a hub-and-spoke freeway structure serviced by multiple loops. The innermost loop is Interstate 610, which encircles downtown, the medical center, and many core neighborhoods with around a 10-mile (16 km) diameter. Beltway 8 and its freeway core, the Sam Houston Tollway, form the middle loop at a diameter of roughly 25 miles (40 km). A proposed highway project, State Highway 99 (The Grand Parkway), would form a third loop outside of Houston. Currently, only two out of eleven segments of State Highway 99 have been completed. Houston is located along the route of the proposed Interstate 69 NAFTA superhighway that would link Canada, the U.S. industrial Midwest, Texas, and Mexico. Other spoke freeways either planned or under construction include the Fort Bend Parkway, Hardy Toll Road, Crosby Freeway, and the future Alvin Freeway.

Houston's freeway system is monitored by Houston TranStar—a partnership of four government agencies that are responsible for providing transportation and emergency management services to the region. Houston TranStar was the first center in the nation to combine transportation and emergency management centers, and the first to bring four agencies (Texas Department of Transportation, Harris County, Texas, Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas and the City of Houston) together to share their resources.[159]

METRO light rail along the Main Street Corridor in Downtown

The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas, or METRO, provides public transportation in the form of buses, light rail, and lift vans. METRO's various forms of public transportation still do not connect many of the suburbs to the greater city. METRO began light rail service on January 1, 2004 with the inaugural track ("Red Line") running about 8 miles (13 km) from the University of Houston–Downtown (UHD), which traverses through the Texas Medical Center and terminates at Reliant Park. METRO is currently in the design phase of a 10-year expansion plan that will add five more lines to the existing system.[160]

Amtrak, the national rail passenger system, provides service to Houston via the Sunset Limited (Los Angeles–New Orleans), which stops at a train station on the north side of the downtown area. The station saw 14,891 boardings and alightings in fiscal year 2008.[161]

Houston is served by three airports, two of which are commercial that served 52 million passengers in 2007 and managed by the Houston Airport System.[162] The Federal Aviation Administration and the state of Texas selected the "Houston Airport System as Airport of the Year" for 2005,[163] largely because of its multi-year, $3.1 billion airport improvement program for both major airports in Houston. The primary city airport is George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH), the eighth-busiest in the United States for total passengers, and sixteenth-busiest worldwide.[164] Bush Intercontinental currently ranks third in the United States for non-stop domestic and international service with 182 destinations.[165] In 2006, the United States Department of Transportation named George Bush Intercontinental Airport the fastest-growing of the top ten airports in the United States.[166] Houston is the headquarters of Continental Airlines and Bush Intercontinental is Continental Airlines' largest hub. The airline offers more than 700 daily departures from Houston.[167] In early 2007, Bush Intercontinental Airport was named a model "port of entry" for international travelers by U.S. Customs and Border Protection.[168] The Houston Air Route Traffic Control Center stands on the George Bush Intercontinental Airport grounds. The second-largest commercial airport is William P. Hobby Airport (named Houston International Airport until 1967) which operates primarily small to medium-haul domestic flights. Houston's aviation history is showcased in the 1940 Air Terminal Museum located in the old terminal building on the west side of the airport. Hobby Airport has been recognized with two awards for being one of the top five performing airports in the world and for customer service by Airports Council International.[169] Houston's third municipal airport is Ellington Airport (a former U.S. Air Force base) used by military, government, NASA, and general aviation sectors.[170]

Healthcare and medicine

Houston is the seat of the internationally renowned Texas Medical Center, which contains the world's largest concentration of research and healthcare institutions.[171] All 47 member institutions of the Texas Medical Center are non-profit organizations. They provide patient and preventive care, research, education, and local, national, and international community well-being. Employing more than 73,600 people, institutions at the medical center include 13 hospitals and two specialty institutions, two medical schools, four nursing schools, and schools of dentistry, public health, pharmacy, and virtually all health-related careers. It is where one of the first—and still the largest—air emergency service, Life Flight, was created, and a very successful inter-institutional transplant program was developed. More heart surgeries are performed at the Texas Medical Center than anywhere else in the world.[172]

Some of the academic and research health institutions in the center include Baylor College of Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, The Methodist Hospital, Texas Children's Hospital and The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The Baylor College of Medicine has annually been considered within the top ten medical schools in the nation, and it is currently considering a merger with Rice University, a top-tier undergraduate university; likewise, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center has consistently ranked as one of the top two U.S. hospitals specializing in cancer care by U.S. News & World Report since 1990.[173][174] The Menninger Clinic, a renowned psychiatric treatment center, is affiliated with Baylor College of Medicine and The Methodist Hospital System.[175]

Education

There are 17 school districts serving the city. The Houston Independent School District (HISD) is the seventh-largest in the United States.[176] HISD has 112 campuses that serve as magnet or vanguard schools—specializing in such disciplines as health professions, visual and performing arts, and the sciences. There are also many charter schools that are run separately from school districts. In addition, some public school districts also have their own charter schools.

The Houston area is home to more than 300 private schools,[177][178][179] many of which are accredited by Texas Private School Accreditation Commission recognized agencies. The Houston Area Independent Schools offer education from a variety of different religious as well as secular viewpoints.[180] The Houston area Catholic schools are operated by the Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston.

Colleges and universities

Houston has more than sixty colleges, universities and other degree-granting institutions with a total enrollment of approximately 360,000 students.[181] There are four public universities engaged in research and development in Houston. The University of Houston (UH) is Texas's third-largest public research university with 37,000 students from 130 countries. With over 300 degree programs and 40 research centers and institutes, UH is the flagship institution of the University of Houston System (UHS) and is one of the most ethnically diverse research universities in the country.[182][183] Its law school—University of Houston Law Center—ranked No. 55 (Tier 1) of the "Top 100 Law Schools" in 2008 by U.S. News & World Report.[184] UH has the only optometry school and one of six pharmacy programs in Texas. The University of Houston–Clear Lake (UHCL) is an upper-level university with 89 degree programs and an enrollment of 7,700 located adjacent to NASA's Johnson Space Center. The University of Houston–Downtown (UHD) is an open admissions four-year university with an enrollment of 12,300 offering 46 degree programs. Texas Southern University (TSU) is a historically black four-year university with a pharmacy program and the Thurgood Marshall School of Law.

Houston is home to many private institutions of higher learning—ranging from liberal arts colleges to a nationally recognized Tier One research university. Rice University is one of the leading teaching and research universities of the United States and ranked the nation's 17th-best overall university by U.S. News & World Report.[185] Two private liberal arts colleges are Houston Baptist University (HBU) and University of St. Thomas (UST). Founded in 1923, South Texas College of Law is a private and oldest law school in Houston located in Downtown.[186]

There are three community college districts with campuses in Houston. The Houston Community College System serves most of Houston and is the fourth-largest community college system in the United States.[187] The northwestern through northeastern parts of the city are served by various campuses of the Lone Star College System while the southeastern portion of Houston is served by San Jacinto College.

Notes

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Further reading

External links








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