Howland Island: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Howland Island seen from space
Orthographic projection centered over Howland Island

Howland Island (pronounced /ˈhaʊlənd/) is an uninhabited coral island located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean, about 1,700 nautical miles (3,100 km) southwest of Honolulu. The island lies almost halfway between Hawaii and Australia and is an unincorporated, unorganized territory of the United States. Geographically, it is part of the Phoenix Islands. For statistical purposes, Howland is grouped as one of the United States Minor Outlying Islands.

Howland is located at 0°48′07″N 176°38′3″W / 0.80194°N 176.63417°W / 0.80194; -176.63417Coordinates: 0°48′07″N 176°38′3″W / 0.80194°N 176.63417°W / 0.80194; -176.63417.[1] It covers 450 acres (1.8 km2), with 4 miles (6.4 km) of coastline. The island has an elongated shape on a north-south axis. There is no lagoon.

Howland Island National Wildlife Refuge consists of the 455 acres (1.84 km2) island and the surrounding 32,074 acres (129.80 km2) of submerged land. The island is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as an insular area under the U.S. Department of the Interior and is part of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument.

The atoll has no economic activity, and is perhaps best known as the island Amelia Earhart never reached. Airstrips built in the late 1930s to accommodate her planned stopover were never used, subsequently damaged, not maintained and gradually disappeared. There are no harbors or docks. The reefs may pose a hazard. There is one boat landing area along the middle of the sandy beach on the west coast together with a crumbling day beacon. The island is visited every two years by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.[2]

Contents

Flora and fauna

Map of Howland Island

The climate is equatorial, with little rainfall and a burning sun. Temperatures are moderated somewhat by a constant wind from the east. The terrain is low-lying and sandy: a coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef with a slightly raised central area. The highest point is about six meters above sea level.

There are no natural fresh water resources. The landscape features scattered grasses along with prostrate vines and low-growing pisonia trees and shrubs. A 1942 eyewitness description spoke of "a low grove of dead and decaying kou trees" on a very shallow hill at the island's center, but 58 years later (2000) a visitor accompanying a scientific expedition reported seeing "a flat bulldozed plain of coral sand, without a single tree" and some traces of building ruins.[3] Howland is primarily a nesting, roosting and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds and marine wildlife.

The U.S. claims an Exclusive Economic Zone of 200 nautical miles (370 km) and a territorial sea of 12 nautical miles (22 km) around the island.

Since Howland Island is uninhabited, no time zone is specified; but it lies within a nautical time zone which is 12 hours behind UTC.

Map of the central Pacific Ocean showing Howland Island and nearby Baker Island just north of the Equator and east of Tarawa.

History

Advertisements

Prehistoric settlement

Sparse remnants of trails and other artifacts indicate a sporadic early Polynesian presence. A canoe, a blue head, pieces of bamboo, and other relics of early settlers have been found there.[4] The island's prehistoric settlement may have begun about 1000 BC when eastern Melanesians traveled north[5] and may have extended down to Rawaki, Kanton, Manra and Orona of the Phoenix Islands, 500 to 700 km southeast. K.P. Emery, an ethnologist for Honolulu's Bernice P. Bishop Museum, indicated that settlers on Manra Island were apparently of two distinct groups, one Polynesian and the other Micronesian,[6] hence the same might have been true on Howland Island, though no proof of this has been forthcoming.

The hard way of life on these isolated islands along with unreliable fresh water supplies may have led to dereliction or extinction of the settlements, in much the way other islands in the area (such as Kiritimati and Pitcairn) were abandoned.[7]

Sightings by whalers

Captain George B. Worth of the Nantucket whaler Oeno sighted Howland around 1822 and called it "Worth Island".[8] Daniel MacKenzie of the American whaler Minerva Smith was unaware of Worth's sighting when he charted the island in 1828 and named it after his ship's owners[9] on 1 December 1828. Howland Island was at last named after a lookout who sighted it from the whaleship Isabella of New Bedford on 9 September 1842.

U.S. possession and guano mining

Howland Island was uninhabited when the United States took possession of it in 1857 through claims under the Guano Islands Act of 1856. The island was known as a navigation hazard for many decades and several ships were wrecked there. Its guano deposits were mined by American companies until October, 1878. John T. Arundel and Company, a British firm using laborers from the Cook Islands and Niue, occupied the island from 1886 to 1891.[10]

In the late 19th Century there were British claims on the island, as well as attempts at setting up mining. To clarify American sovereignty, Executive Order 7358 was issued on May 13, 1936.[11]

Itascatown (1935–1942)

In 1935 a brief attempt at colonization was made, part of a larger project administered by the Department of Commerce to establish a permanent U.S. presence on the equatorial Line Islands. It began with a rotating group of four alumni and students from the Kamehameha School for Boys, a private school in Honolulu. Although the recruits had signed on as part of a scientific expedition and expected to spend their three month assignment collecting botanical and biological samples, once out to sea they were told, "Your names will go down in history" and that the islands would become "famous air bases in a route that will connect Australia with California".

The settlement was named Itascatown after the USCGC Itasca, which brought the colonists to Howland (and made regular cruises between the other Line Islands during that era). Itascatown was a line of a half-dozen small wood-framed structures and tents near the beach on the island's western side. The fledgling colonists were given large stocks of canned food, water, and other supplies including a gasoline powered refrigerator, radio equipment, complete medical kits and (characteristic for that era) vast quantities of cigarettes. Fishing provided much-needed variety for their diet. Most of the colonists' endeavors involved making hourly weather observations and gradually developing a rudimentary infrastructure on the island, including the clearing of a landing strip for airplanes. During this period the island was on Hawaii time, which was then 10.5 hours behind UTC.[12] Similar colonization projects were started on nearby Baker Island, Jarvis Island and two other islands.

Kamakaiwi Field

Ground for a rudimentary aircraft landing area was cleared during the mid-1930s, in anticipation that the island might eventually be used as a stop-over for a commercial trans-Pacific air route and also to further U.S. territorial claims in the region against rival claims from Great Britain. In keeping with its intended aviation role, Howland Island became a scheduled refueling stop for American pilot Amelia Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan on their round-the-world flight in 1937. WPA funds were used by the Bureau of Air Commerce to construct three graded, unpaved runways meant to accommodate Earhart's modern twin-engined Lockheed Model 10 Electra.

The facility was named Kamakaiwi Field after James Kamakaiwi, a young Hawaiian who had arrived with the first group of four colonists, was subsequently picked as leader and spent a total of over three years on Howland, far longer than the average recruit. It has also been referred to as WPA Howland Airport (the WPA contributed about 20% of the $12,000 cost). Earhart and Noonan took off from Lae, New Guinea and their radio transmissions were picked up on the island when their aircraft reached its vicinity but they were never seen again.

Japanese attacks during World War II

Earhart Light, pictured here showing damage it sustained during WWII, was named for Amelia Earhart during the late 1930s.

A Japanese air attack on 8 December 1941 by 14 twin-engined bombers killed two of the Kamehameha School colonists: Richard "Dicky" Kanani Whaley, and Joseph Kealoha Keliʻhananui. The raid came one day after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and damaged the three airstrips of Kamakaiwi Field. Two days later a Japanese submarine shelled what was left of the colony's few buildings into ruins.[13] A single bomber returned twice during the following weeks and dropped more bombs on the rubble of tiny Itascatown. The two survivors were finally evacuated by a U.S. Navy destroyer on 31 January 1942. Howland was occupied by a battalion of the United States Marines Corps in September 1943 and known as Howland Naval Air Station until May 1944.

All attempts at habitation were abandoned after 1944. Colonization projects on the other four islands were also disrupted by the war and ended at this time.[14]

On 10 June 1944 a U.S. Navy Martin PBM-3-D Mariner flying boat (BuNo 48199) had an engine fire and made a forced landing in the ocean offshore of Howland. The pilot beached the aircraft and although it burned, the crew escaped unharmed, was rescued by the USCG Balsam (the same ship that later took Unit 92 to Gardner Island), transferred to a sub chaser and taken to Canton Island.[15]

Kamakaiwi Field suffered additional damage during World War II and all but disappeared. Ironically, while Howland Island was colonized in 1935 as a future aviation facility and is known in popular culture mostly because of its association with the last flight of Earhart and Noonan, no airplane is known to have ever landed there.

Wildlife refuge

Building ruins near the site of Itascatown on Howland Island

By the 1970s, Howland Island was overrun by a population of feral cats, descendants of those brought by earlier colonists. The felines were gradually removed during the 1980s and the area was designated a bird and wildlife refuge. However, abandoned military debris continued to be a concern. Amateur radio enthusiasts made several authorized visits to the island during the 1990s and early 2000s. In 2006, trespassing by commercial fishing boats and their helicopters was cited as a serious problem.

Public entry to the island is by special-use permit from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service only and is generally restricted to scientists and educators. Representatives from the agency visit the island on average once every two years, often coordinating transportation with amateur radio operators or the U.S. Coast Guard to defray the high expense of logistical support required to visit this remote atoll.

Earhart Light

The Earhart Light (named after Amelia Earhart) is a day beacon or navigational landmark shaped somewhat like a short lighthouse (with no illumination), painted with wide stripes and meant to be seen from several miles out to sea during daylight hours. It is located near the boat landing at the middle of the west coast by the former site of Itascatown. It was partially destroyed during early World War II by the Japanese attacks, but was rebuilt in the early 1960s by the US Coast Guard. By 2000, the Earhart beacon was said to be crumbling and had not been painted in decades.[16]

Howland Island was overflown in 1967 by Ann Dearing Holtgren Pellegreno and in 1997 by Linda Finch during memorial circumnavigation flights to commemorate Earhart's 1937 world flight. No landings were attempted but both Pellegreno and Finch flew low enough to drop a wreath on the island.[17]

Image gallery

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Howland Island". Geographic Names Information System. U.S. Geological Survey. http://geonames.usgs.gov/pls/gnispublic/f?p=gnispq:3:::NO::P3_FID:1393033. Retrieved 2009-02-24. 
  2. ^ Howland Island National Wildlife Refuge
  3. ^ Payne, Roger. "At Howland Island, 2000." Retrieved: 6 July 2008.
  4. ^ Hague, James D. "Our Equatorial Islands with an Account of Some Personal Experiences." Century Magazine, Vol. LXIV, No. 5, September 1902, Web copy. Retrieved: 3 January 2008. Quote: "Howland's Island, although naturally uninhabitable, gave various indications of early visitors, probably natives drifting from windward islands, whose traces were still visible in the remains of a canoe, a blue head, pieces of bamboo, and other distinctly characteristic belongings."
  5. ^ Suárez 2004, p. 17.
  6. ^ Bryan, E.H. Sydney Island. Retrieved: 7 July 2008.
  7. ^ Irwin, pp. 176–179.
  8. ^ Sharp 1960, p. 210. See also Bryan 1942, pp. 38–41.
  9. ^ Maude 1968, p. 130.
  10. ^ Bryan 1942
  11. ^ [1] Memorandum of Secretary of State Cordell Hull to the president, February 18, 1936 Presidential Private File, Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, N.Y. Retrieved: March 18, 2010
  12. ^ Long 1999, p. 206. Quote: Thursday, July 1, 1937... Howland Island was using the 10+30 hour time zone — the same as Hawaii standard time..."
  13. ^ Butler 1999, p. 419.
  14. ^ Howland Island
  15. ^ Report 48199
  16. ^ Voyage to Howland Island of the USCGC Kukui Contains recent large, close-up color photos of the day beacon, and the rest of Howland Island.
  17. ^ Safford et al. 2003, pp. 76–77.

Bibliography

  • Bryan, Edwin H., Jr. American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain. Honolulu, Hawaii: Tongg Publishing Company, 1942.
  • Butler, Susan. East to the Dawn: The Life of Amelia Earhart. Cambridge, MA: Da Capa Press, 1999. ISBN 0-306-80887-0.
  • Eyewitness account of the Japanese raids on Howland Island (includes a grainy photo of Itascatown)
  • Long, Elgen M. and Marie K. Long. Amelia Earhart: The Mystery Solved. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999. ISBN 0-684-86005-8.
  • Maude, H.E..Of Islands and Men: Studies in Pacific History. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press, 1968.
  • Safford, Laurance F. with Cameron A. Warren and Robert R. Payne. Earhart's Flight into Yesterday: The Facts Without the Fiction. McLean, Virginia: Paladwr Press, 2003. ISBN 1-888962-20-8.
  • Sharp, Andrew. The Discovery of the Pacific Islands. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1960.
  • Suárez, Thomas. Early Mapping of the Pacific. Singapore: Periplus Editions, 2004. ISBN 0-79460-092-1.

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Micronesia : Howland Island
Flag
Image:us-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital administered from Washington, D.C., by the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system
Government unincorporated territory of the United States
Area 1.6 sq km
Population No inhabitants since World War II. Visited annually by US Fish and Wildlife Service (July 2002 est.)
Internet TLD .um
Time Zone UTC -12

Howland Island is an island in Micronesia region of the Pacific Ocean, about half way between Hawaii and Australia. It is most notable for what didn't happen here: the arrival of Amelia Earhart on her ill-fated around-the-world flight.

Or maybe not

In the early 2000s, a writer of "alternate histories" put up a web site which presented itself as the official site of the government of the "Republic of Baker Howland and Jarvis", portraying a bustling tourism destination (spurred in part by Earhart's celebrated stop here), including a fake CIA World Factbook article providing statistics for the island nation. The web site is no longer online, but puzzled more than a few armchair travelers.

Discovered by the US early in the 19th century, the island was officially claimed by the US in 1857. Both US and British companies mined for guano until about 1890. In 1935, a short-lived attempt at colonization was begun on this island, similar to the effort on nearby Baker Island, but was disrupted by World War II and thereafter abandoned. The island was established as a National Wildlife Refuge in 1974.

Climate

Howland is an equatorial island with scant rainfall, constant wind, and burning sun.

Landscape

Low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef, with a depressed central area. It is almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs, with a small area of trees in the center. It is primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife.

Public entry is by special-use permit from the US Fish and Wildlife Service only, and generally restricted to scientists and educators.

By plane

An airstrip was constructed in 1937 for Amelia Earhart to use as a refueling stop. It is no longer serviceable.

By boat

There is one small boat landing area along the middle of the west coast.

Buy

There is no economic activity on Howland Island.

See

Earhart Light, near the middle of the west coat. The famed American aviator Amelia Earhart and her navigator Fred Noonan disappeared en route from Lae, Papua New Guinea to Howland Island, which was to be one of the last refueling stops on Earhart's round-the-world flight in 1937 (Hawaii and California were next on the itinerary). This "day beacon" (an unlit landmark built for navigation purposes) was named after her. It was partially destroyed during World War II, but has since been rebuilt.

Sleep

There is no accommodation on Howland Island.

Stay healthy

There are no natural sources of fresh water on Howland Island.

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

<tr><th style="white-space: nowrap">Claimed under</th><td>Guano Islands Act
Howland Island <tr><td colspan="2" style="text-align: center"></td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2" style="text-align: center">Map of Howland Island</td></tr>
Owned by United States
</td></tr><tr><th style="white-space: nowrap">Island Type</th><td>Coral</td></tr><tr><th style="white-space: nowrap">Discovered</th><td>1822</td></tr><tr><th style="white-space: nowrap">Claimed for
United States</th><td>March 1857</td></tr><tr><th style="white-space: nowrap">Discovered by</th><td>Polynesians, whalers</td></tr><tr><th style="white-space: nowrap">Area</th><td>1.84 km²</td></tr><tr><th style="white-space: nowrap">Population</th><td>Uninhabited</td></tr><tr><th style="white-space: nowrap">Transportation</th><td>Small boat landing</td></tr><tr><th style="white-space: nowrap">Major Settlements</th><td>Itascatown</td></tr><tr><th style="white-space: nowrap">Island Group</th><td>Phoenix Islands (outlier)</td></tr><tr><th style="white-space: nowrap">Uses</th><td>Wildlife preserve</td></tr> <tr><th style="white-space: nowrap">FIPS territory code</th><td>hq</td></tr><tr><th style="white-space: nowrap">ccTLD</th><td>.um</td></tr>
Orthographic projection centered over Howland Island.

Howland Island is an uninhabited coral island located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean, about 3,100 km (1,670 nm) southwest of Honolulu. The island is almost half way between Hawaii and Australia and is an unincorporated, unorganized territory of the United States, and is often included as one of the Phoenix Islands. For statistical purposes, Howland is grouped as one of the United States Minor Outlying Islands. The island was named after a lookout who sighted it from the whaling ship Isabella on 9 September 1842. However, the first recorded European sighting had already been made 20 years earlier from the whaler Oeno on 1 December 1828 and it was briefly named Worth Island after that ship's captain.

Howland Island National Wildlife Refuge consists of the 455 acre (1.84 km²) island and the surrounding 32,074 acres (130 km²) of submerged land. The island is now a National Wildlife Refuge managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as an insular area under the U.S. Department of the Interior.

The atoll has no economic activity and is perhaps best known as the island Amelia Earhart never reached. Airstrips built in the late 1930s to accommodate her planned stopover were never used, subsequently damaged, not maintained and gradually disappeared. There are no harbors or docks. The reefs may pose a hazard. There is one boat landing area along the middle of the sandy beach on the west coast along with a crumbling day beacon. Defense is the responsibility of the United States and the island is visited every two years by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.[1]

Contents

Geography

Howland Island seen from space

Located in the North Pacific Ocean at 0°48.4′N 176°37.1′WCoordinates: 0°48.4′N 176°37.1′W , the island is tiny at just 1.84 km² (455 acres) and 6.4 km of coastline. The island has an elongated shape on a north-south axis. The climate is equatorial, with little rainfall and a burning sun. Temperatures are moderated somewhat by a constant wind from the east. The terrain is low-lying and sandy: a coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef with a slightly raised central area. The highest point is about six meters above sea level.

There are no natural fresh water resources. The landscape features scattered grasses along with prostrate vines and low-growing shrubs. A 1942 eyewitness description mentioned "a low grove of dead and decaying kou trees" on a very shallow hill at the island's center, but 58 years later (2000) a visitor accompanying a scientific expedition reported seeing "a flat bulldozed plain of coral sand, without a single tree" and some traces of building ruins. Howland is primarily a nesting, roosting and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds and marine wildlife. The U.S. claims an exclusive economic zone of 200 nautical miles (370 km) and a territorial sea of 12 nautical miles (22 km).

Since the island is uninhabited no time zone is specified but it lies within a nautical time zone which is 12 hours behind UTC.

Map of the central Pacific Ocean showing Howland Island and nearby Baker Island just north of the Equator and east of Tarawa Atoll.

History

Captain George B Worth of the Nantucket whaler Oeno sighted Howland around 1822 and called it "Worth Island".[2] Daniel MacKenzie of the American whaler Minerva Smith was unaware of Worth's sighting when he charted the island in 1828 and named it after his ship's owners.[3]

Sparse remnants of trails and other artifacts indicate a sporadic early Polynesian presence but Howland Island was uninhabited when the United States took possession of it in 1857 through claims under the Guano Islands Act of 1856. The island was known as a navigation hazard for many decades and several ships were wrecked there. Its guano deposits were mined and thoroughly depleted by American and British companies during the second half of the 19th century.

1935-1942 colonization project

In 1935 a brief attempt at colonization was attempted, part of a larger project administered by the Department of Commerce to establish a permanent U.S. presence on the equatorial Line Islands. It began with a rotating population of four alumni and students from Kamehameha School for Boys, a military school in Honolulu. Although the recruits had signed on as part of a scientific expedition and expected to spend a three month assignment collecting botanical and biological samples, once at sea they were told, "Your names will go down in history" and that the islands would be developed into "famous air bases in a route that will connect Australia with California." The settlement Itascatown, near the beach on the island's western side, was a line of no more than half a dozen small wood-frame structures and tents named after the U.S. Coast Guard vessel that brought them and made regular cruises between the islands during that era. The fledgling colonists were given large stocks of canned food, water, and other supplies including a gasoline powered refrigerator, radio equipment, complete medical kits and (characteristic for that time) vast quantities of cigarettes. They varied their diet by fishing. Most of their work involved making hourly weather observations and gradually developing a rudimentary infrastructure on the island, including the clearing of a landing area for airplanes. During this period the island was on Hawaii time which was then 10.5 hours behind UTC.[4] Similar colonization projects were started on nearby Baker Island, Jarvis Island, and two other islands.

Kamakaiwi Field

Ground for a rudimentary aircraft landing area was cleared during the mid-1930s in anticipation that the island might eventually be used as a stop-over for a commercial trans-Pacific air route and to further U.S. territorial claims in the region. In keeping with its potential aviation role Howland Island was a scheduled refueling stop for American pilot Amelia Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan on their round-the-world flight in 1937. WPA funds were used by the Bureau of Air Commerce to construct three graded, unpaved runways meant to accommodate Earhart's modern twin-engined Lockheed L-10E Electra. The facility was named Kamakaiwi Field after James Kamakaiwi, a young Hawaiian who arrived with the first group of four colonists, was subsequently picked as leader and spent a total of over 3 years on Howland, far longer than the average recruit. It has also been referred to as WPA Howland Airport (the WPA contributed about 20% of the $12,000 cost). Earhart and Noonan took off from Lae, New Guinea and radio transmissions from Earhart were picked up on the island when their aircraft reached its vicinity but they were never seen again.

Japanese attacks

Earhart Light, pictured here showing damage it sustained during WWII, was named for Amelia Earhart during the late 1930s.

A Japanese air attack on 8 December 1941 by fourteen twin-engined bombers killed two of the Kamehameha School colonists (Richard "Dicky" Kanani Whaley and Joseph Kealoha Keliʻhananui) at the beginning of U.S. involvement in World War II. The three airstrips of Kamakaiwi Field were targeted and damaged in the raid. Two days later, a Japanese submarine shelled what was left of the government colony's few buildings into ruins.[5] A single bomber returned twice during the following weeks and dropped more bombs on the rubble of tiny Itascatown. The two survivors were evacuated by a U.S. Navy destroyer on 31 January 1942. The island was occupied by a battalion of United States Marines in late 1943 and known as Howland Naval Air Station during this brief period but was abandoned after the war (the colonization projects on the other four islands were also disrupted by the war and ended at the same time).

Kamakaiwi Field suffered more damage during World War II and later all but disappeared. Ironically, while the atoll was colonized in 1935 as a future aviation facility and is referenced in popular culture almost exclusively because of its association with the last flight of Earhart and Noonan, no airplane is known to have ever landed on Howland Island.

Wildlife refuge

Building ruins near the site of Itascatown on Howland Island

By the 1970s Howland Island was overrun by a population of feral cats, descendants of individuals brought by earlier human colonists. The cats were gradually removed during the 1980s and the area was designated a bird and wildlife refuge. However, abandoned World War II military debris continued to be a concern. Amateur radio enthusiasts made several authorized visits to the island during the 1990s and early 2000s. In 2006, trespassing by commercial fishing boats and their helicopters was cited as a serious problem.

Public entry to the island is by special-use permit from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service only and is generally restricted to scientists and educators. Representatives from the agency visit the island on average once every two years, often coordinating transportation with amateur radio operators or the U.S. Coast Guard to defray the high expense of logistical support required to visit this remote atoll.

See also: History of the Pacific Islands

Earhart Light

Earhart Light is a day beacon or navigational landmark shaped somewhat like a short lighthouse (with no illumination), painted with wide stripes and meant to be seen from several miles out to sea during daylight hours. It is located near the boat landing at the middle of the west coast by the former site of Itascatown. It was partially destroyed during early World War II by the Japanese attacks, but was rebuilt in the early 1960s by the US Coast Guard. By 2000, the Earhart beacon was said to be crumbling and hadn't been painted in decades.

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ Howland Island National Wildlife Refuge
  2. ^ Sharp 1960, p. 210.
  3. ^ Maude 1968, p. 130.
  4. ^ Long, Elgen M. and Marie K. Amelia Earhart: The Mystery Solved. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000, p. 206. Quote: Thursday, July 1, 1937… Howland Island was using the 10+30 hour time zone — the same as Hawaii standard time…"
  5. ^ Butler 1999, p. 419.
Bibliography

External links

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Howland Island. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Facts about Howland IslandRDF feed

This article uses material from the "Howland Island" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

File:Howland Island-CIA WFB
Howland Island map

Howland Island is a small island in the north Pacific Ocean, just north of the Equator. It is owned by the United States. The island is an animal refuge (no people can live there so that animals can be safe).

Weather

Howland island is a very hot and sunny island with wind blowing almost all the time. It only rains every once in a while.

Location

Howland Island is located at 0 48 N, 176 38 W


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message