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Illustration of the human brain and skull
.The human brain is the center of the human nervous system and is a highly complex organ.^ Functions of the human nervous system - Receptors .
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This paper discusses the human brain as a complex self-regulating system.
  • Human Brain & Psyche 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.schuelers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The human brain is the most amazing organ.
  • Human Brain on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Enclosed in the cranium, it has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals, but is over three times as large as the brain of a typical mammal with an equivalent body size.^ We cant calculate mathematics and stuff as fast conciously cus most of are brain power is being used on controlling every other part of our body.
  • HD4870X2 vs Human Brain - techPowerUp! Forums 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Introduction The brain is the portion of the vertebrate central nervous system that is enclosed within the cranium, continuous with the spinal cord, and composed of both gray matter and white matter.
  • Human Brain & Psyche 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.schuelers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Its connections are imperfectly known, but it consists largely of ascending and descending intersegmental or association fibers, which connect the nuclei of the hind-brain and mid-brain to each other.
  • IX. Neurology. 4b. The Mid-brain or Mesencephalon. Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Reference]

[1] .Most of the expansion comes from the cerebral cortex, a convoluted layer of neural tissue that covers the surface of the forebrain.^ Language (7 Feb) - For more than 60 years, scientists have known that a strip of neural tissue that runs ear-to-ear along the brain's surface orchestrates most voluntary movement, from raising a fork to kicking a ball.
  • The Human Nature Daily Review edited by Ian Pitchford - News,Research, Book reviews, Articles, Essays, Commentary, Audio and Video,Book store 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Below the cerebral hemispheres, but still referred to as part of the forebrain, is the cingulate cortex , which deals with directing behaviour and pain .
  • Instant Expert: The Human Brain - life - 04 September 2006 - New Scientist 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (These are arranged in the characteristic six layers of the cerebral cortex described in Chapter 2 .
  • Discovering the Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Especially expanded are the frontal lobes, which are involved in executive functions such as self-control, planning, reasoning, and abstract thought.^ But several studies, using Magnetic Resonance Imaging, found that it continues to mature throughout adolescence into adulthood, especially in the frontal lobes.
  • The Human Nature Daily Review edited by Ian Pitchford - News,Research, Book reviews, Articles, Essays, Commentary, Audio and Video,Book store 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brain self-control Scientists had long believed that brain activity such as brain waves and secretion of brain chemicals were beyond conscious control.

^ A subset of lesions in frontal cortex and in the anterior cingulate had disproportionately strong effects on functional connections involving the default mode network.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

.The portion of the brain devoted to vision is also greatly enlarged in human beings.^ As we have said, brain weights among human beings vary enormously.
  • Chapter 2: The Human Brain: Its Size and Its Complexity 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC custance.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As in human neurosurgery, the accuracy of brain surgery in nonhuman primates can be greatly aided by noninvasive imaging with magnetic resonance (MR) and ventriculography.

^ Having lost a portion of their brain’s visual cortex to surgery or stroke, people may be consciously blind in part of their field of vision.
  • Human Intuition: The Brain Behind the Scenes - Dana Foundation 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.dana.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Brain evolution, from the earliest shrewlike mammals through primates to hominids, is marked by a steady increase in encephalization, or the ratio of brain to body size.^ Meditation found to increase brain size .

^ Throughout mammalian and primate evolution, there has been a gradual increase in brain size, superimposed with “spikes” of fast growth such as the tripling in human brain size that occurred about 1.5 million years ago, 4 million years after the human lineage diverged from that of the great apes.
  • PLoS Biology: Molecular Insights into Human Brain Evolution 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But a better diet had to come before we could grow a bigger brain.” Dunbar believes instead that brain evolution in primates and more generally in mammals “has been driven by the need to manage social relationships, and in primates, in particular, to coordinate coherence in social groups through time and space”.
  • PLoS Biology: Molecular Insights into Human Brain Evolution 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The human brain has been estimated to contain 50–100 billion (1011) neurons, of which about 10 billion (1010) are cortical pyramidal cells.^ There are approximately 100 billion nerve cells in the brain.
  • The Human Brain | epilepsy.com 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.epilepsy.com [Source type: General]
  • The Human Brain | epilepsy.com 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.epilepsy.com [Source type: General]

^ This jelly-like mass of tissue, weighing in at around 1.4 kilograms, contains a staggering one hundred billion nerve cells, or neurons .
  • Instant Expert: The Human Brain - life - 04 September 2006 - New Scientist 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number of neurons has increased by so much that the brain has actually outgrown the space in the human skull.
  • TEDGlobal: To build a human brain | Media | guardian.co.uk 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]
  • TEDGlobal: To build a human brain | Media | guardian.co.uk 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC cl.exct.net [Source type: News]

.These cells pass signals to each other via as many as 1000 trillion (1015) synaptic connections.^ And each cell is linked via synapses to as many as 100,000 others.
  • The Myth of Mind Control: Will Anyone Ever Decode the Human Brain? - John Horgan 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.johnhorgan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each synapse is a point of contiguity (but not continuity) between two neural elements The most usual elements which form synaptic connections are axon terminals with either dendrites or cell bodies although other combinations are possible.
  • Embryological Development of the Human Brain by Arnold Scheibel 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.newhorizons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These serve as temporary targets for the incoming fibers which enthusiastically establish synaptic connections with them.
  • Embryological Development of the Human Brain by Arnold Scheibel 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.newhorizons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.The brain monitors and regulates the body's actions and reactions.^ Various clumps of cells in the brain stem determine the brains general level of alertness and regulate the vegetative processes of the body such as breathing and heartbeat.

^ Actions like breathing, blinking, coordination of all the body parts are controlled subconsciously by the brain all the time.
  • Computer vs. The Human Brain - Page 2 - FrostCloud Forums 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.frostcloud.com [Source type: General]

.It continuously receives sensory information, and rapidly analyzes this data and then responds, controlling bodily actions and functions.^ VIDEO The central nervous system receives sensory information from the peripheral nervous system and …[Credits : Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Another way to classify the regions is as sensory cortex and motor cortex , controlling incoming information, and outgoing behaviour respectively.
  • Instant Expert: The Human Brain - life - 04 September 2006 - New Scientist 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each cerebral hemisphere supplies motor function to the opposite, or contralateral, side of the body from which it receives sensory input.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The brainstem controls breathing, heart rate, and other autonomic processes.^ Movement and exercise increase breathing and heart rate so that more blood flows to the brain, enhancing energy production and waste removal.
  • The Human Brain - Exercise 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.fi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lower part of the brain contains the brainstem, which controls sleep-wake cycles, breathing, and heartbeat.
  • The Human Brain | epilepsy.com 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.epilepsy.com [Source type: General]
  • The Human Brain | epilepsy.com 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.epilepsy.com [Source type: General]

^ Its preverbal, but controls life functions such as autonomic brain, breathing, heart rate and the fight or flight mechanism.

.The neocortex is the center of higher-order thinking, learning, and memory.^ Learning and memory abilities of high-fluoride exposed groups were significantly lower than that of the control group , while the brain ChE activities of high-fluoride exposed groups were significantly higher.

.The cerebellum is responsible for the body's balance, posture, and the coordination of movement.^ Memory troubles (hippocampus), movement coordination/balance (basal ganglia and cerebellum), altered emotional and cognitive processing (amygdala and cortex).
  • Instant Expert: The Human Brain - life - 04 September 2006 - New Scientist 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The coordination of the eye with body movement takes much longer.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In spite of the fact that it is protected by the thick bones of the skull, suspended in cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood-brain barrier, the delicate nature of the human brain makes it susceptible to many types of damage and disease.^ Openings in the fourth ventricle permit cerebrospinal fluid to enter subarachnoid spaces surrounding both the brain and the spinal cord .
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ But it is not the volume of growth alone that makes the production of a human brain staggering to consider.
  • Discovering the Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In spite of a brain's amazingly complex structure, many of the early findings in neuroscience came from simple visual observation through the lens of the microscope.
  • Neuroscience: UNRAVELING AND REPAIRING THE HUMAN BRAIN 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.sciencemag.org [Source type: Academic]

.The most common forms of physical damage are closed head injuries such as a blow to the head, a stroke, or poisoning by a wide variety of chemicals that can act as neurotoxins.^ Cataloging the functional effects of brain trauma: Brain damage from automobile accidents and strokes is quite common.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Author Summary Every year, millions of people suffer the consequences of brain damage, as a result of stroke, traumatic brain injury, cancer or degenerative brain disease.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Animal studies show that intellectual enrichment can even compensate for some forms of physical brain damage.
  • The Human Brain - Exercise 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.fi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Infection of the brain is rare because of the barriers that protect it, but is very serious when it occurs.^ The potential of brain-stimulation has not been fully developed, he says, because the neural code remains very difficult to untangle.
  • The Myth of Mind Control: Will Anyone Ever Decode the Human Brain? - John Horgan 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.johnhorgan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The human brain is also susceptible to degenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease.^ Running's brain-boosting effects were in the hippocampus, a region of the brain linked to learning and memory and known to be affected by Alzheimer's disease, Barlow said.
  • The Human Brain - Exercise 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.fi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We hypothesize that at least some forms of degenerative brain disease may involve the “targeted” removal of network components.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The effects of developmental variations or abnormalities, traumatic brain injury, or neurodegenerative disease can all be captured as specific structural variants of the human connectome.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

.A number of psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia and depression, are widely thought to be caused at least partially by brain dysfunctions, although the nature of such brain anomalies is not well understood.^ It may be suggested, therefore, that such CBF differences could manifest themselves in the MRS studies as well, causing the large variations as observed in the present study.
  • Human brain : biochemical lateralization in normal subjects. Jayasundar R Neurol India 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.neurologyindia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although not an explicit comparison across regions of brain, such a finding suggests that normalization of the hemodynamic lag within regions can allow small temporal offsets to be appreciated.
  • (NAS Colloquium) Neuroimaging of Human Brain Function 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Find this article online Bartzokis G (2002) Schizophrenia: breakdown in the well-regulated lifelong process of brain development and maturation.
  • PLoS ONE: Mapping Human Whole-Brain Structural Networks with Diffusion MRI 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Structure

Bisection of the head of an adult man, showing the cerebral cortex and underlying white matter
.The adult human brain weighs on average about 3 lb (1.5 kg)[3] with a size of around 1130 cubic centimetres (cm3) in women and 1260 cm3 in men, although there is substantial individual variation.^ The size of the modern human adult brain is about 1350 cc.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The weight of the human brain is about 3 lbs.
  • 100 Fascinating Facts You Never Knew About the Human Brain | Nursing Assistant Central 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nursingassistantcentral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although a great amount of important work on brain modeling has been done, there is to date no comprehensive or universally accepted model of exactly how the human brain operates, or how consciousness is produced.
  • Human Brain & Psyche 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.schuelers.com [Source type: Academic]

[4] .Men's brains are on average 100g heavier than women's, even when corrected for body size differences.^ Researchers from the University of Westminster found that people allowed women to turn the clamp much further than men.
  • The Human Nature Daily Review edited by Ian Pitchford - News,Research, Book reviews, Articles, Essays, Commentary, Audio and Video,Book store 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The brain weight of Gambetta, the famous French statesman, was only 1294 gm., or less than the average European.
  • Chapter 2: The Human Brain: Its Size and Its Complexity 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC custance.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While neither men nor women may be the more intelligent sex, their brains may take different paths to reach the same intellectual level, according to one team of researchers.
  • The Human Nature Daily Review edited by Ian Pitchford - News,Research, Book reviews, Articles, Essays, Commentary, Audio and Video,Book store 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Neanderthals had larger brains at adulthood than present-day humans.^ It evolved hundreds of millions of years ago and is more like the entire brain of present-day reptiles .

^ Belief and faith , argue believers, are larger than the sum of their brain parts: .

^ Those who are left-handed or ambidextrous have a corpus collosum (the part of the brain that bridges the two halves) that is about 11% larger than those who are right-handed.
  • 100 Fascinating Facts You Never Knew About the Human Brain | Nursing Assistant Central 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nursingassistantcentral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] The brain is very soft, having a consistency similar to soft gelatin or firm tofu. .Despite being referred to as "grey matter", the live cortex is pinkish-beige in color and slightly off-white in the interior.^ Find this article online Zhang K, Sejnowski TJ (2000) A universal scaling law between gray matter and white matter of cerebral cortex.
  • PLoS ONE: Mapping Human Whole-Brain Structural Networks with Diffusion MRI 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The grey matter is the cell bodies of the neurons, while the white matter is the branching network of thread-like tendrils - called dendrites and axons - that spread out from the cell bodies to connect to other neurons.
  • Instant Expert: The Human Brain - life - 04 September 2006 - New Scientist 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dissociations of cerebral cortex, subcortical and cerebral white matter volumes in autistic boys Brain, May 1, 2003; 126(5): 1182 - 1192.
  • Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Human Brain Development: Ages 4-18 -- Giedd et al. 6 (4): 551 -- Cerebral Cortex 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC cercor.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The photo on the right shows a horizontal slice of the head of an adult man, from the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project.^ The Human Brain Project is a broadly based Federal research initiative that is sponsored by fifteen Federal organizations from four Federal agencies and coordinated by the National Institute of Mental Health.
  • PAR-99-138: THE HUMAN BRAIN PROJECT (NEUROINFORMATICS): PHASE I & PHASE II 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC grants.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ R.L.B. was supported by National Institutes of Health Grant DC03245–01, the Charles A.Dana Foundation, and the Human Frontiers Science Project.
  • (NAS Colloquium) Neuroimaging of Human Brain Function 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Francis Collins: The Scientist As Believer Q&A with Francis Collins, Director of the Human Genome Project, National Geographic, February 2007.
  • The Myth of Mind Control: Will Anyone Ever Decode the Human Brain? - John Horgan 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.johnhorgan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this project, two human cadavers (from a man and a woman) were frozen and then sliced into thin sections, which were individually photographed and digitized.^ For two human subjects we find that their individual brain networks have an exponential node degree distribution and that their global organization is in the form of a small world.
  • PLoS ONE: Mapping Human Whole-Brain Structural Networks with Diffusion MRI 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Upper surface of the brain, showing division of the cerebrum into two hemispheres by the …[Credits : From N. Gluhbegovic and T.H. Williams, The Human Brain: A Photographic Guide (1980), J.B. Lippincott Co./Harper & Row] Left lateral surface of the brain, showing various lobes of the hemisphere.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In this paper-thin slice of mentality, a computer seems to have not only outperformed the best human, but to have transcended its machinehood.
  • When will computer hardware match the human brain? by Hans Moravec 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.transhumanist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The slice here is taken from a small distance below the top of the brain, and shows the cerebral cortex (the convoluted cellular layer on the outside) and the underlying white matter, which consists of myelinated fiber tracts traveling to and from the cerebral cortex.^ Introduction The brain is the portion of the vertebrate central nervous system that is enclosed within the cranium, continuous with the spinal cord, and composed of both gray matter and white matter.
  • Human Brain & Psyche 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.schuelers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Below the cerebral hemispheres, but still referred to as part of the forebrain, is the cingulate cortex , which deals with directing behaviour and pain .
  • Instant Expert: The Human Brain - life - 04 September 2006 - New Scientist 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ J. A. B. Bates) showed that even though such connections do seem to exist, precisely the same responses are obtained by stimulation of the white fibers of the cortico-spinal column as by stimulation of the gray matter itself.
  • Chapter 2: The Human Brain: Its Size and Its Complexity 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC custance.org [Source type: Original source]

.At the age of 20, a man has around 176,000 km and a woman, about 149,000 km of myelinated axons in their brains.^ If 100 million MIPS could do the job of the human brain's 100 billion neurons, then one neuron is worth about 1/1,000 MIPS, i.e., 1,000 instructions per second.
  • When will computer hardware match the human brain? by Hans Moravec 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.transhumanist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The human genome is composed of approximately 3 × 10 9 base pairs, containing around 20,000–30,000 genes [ 15 ].
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Each time we blink, our brain kicks in and keeps things illuminated so the whole world doesn’t go dark each time we blink (about 20,000 times a day).
  • 100 Fascinating Facts You Never Knew About the Human Brain | Nursing Assistant Central 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nursingassistantcentral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]
Drawing of the human brain, showing several important structures
.The cerebral hemispheres form the largest part of the human brain and are situated above most other brain structures.^ The human brain is the most amazing organ.
  • Human Brain on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It comprises by far the largest portion of the human brain—about three-quarters, in the adult—and is arguably the single anatomical structure that most sets us apart from other animals, even from other hominoids such as the chimpanzee (with whom we share well over 95 percent of our genetic makeup).
  • Discovering the Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The human brain, then, is a cooperative composed of perhaps thousands of individual reactive decision mechanisms, each with its own memory, interconnection with all others, and judgement.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They are covered with a cortical layer with a convoluted topography.[8] Underneath the cerebrum lies the brainstem, resembling a stalk on which the cerebrum is attached. .At the rear of the brain, beneath the cerebrum and behind the brainstem, is the cerebellum, a structure with a horizontally furrowed surface that makes it look different from any other brain area.^ Although the brain areas differ in the two tasks, it is shown that the principle that some areas are active early in practice and then drop away while other areas increase is general to these very different situations.
  • (NAS Colloquium) Neuroimaging of Human Brain Function 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The brain is made up of three major sections: the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brain stem.
  • The Human Brain | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ These are known as “edges.” Other systems look at the exact colors or luminances of different parts of the image.
  • AOI systems simulate human brain - 2007-02-01 07:00:00 | Test & Measurement World 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.tmworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The same structures are present in other mammals, although the cerebellum is not so large relative to the rest of the brain.^ Although reports on the chemical asymmetries from postmortem brains do not deal with NAA and Cr, there is strong evidence for asymmetrical distribution of ChAT in the temporal lobes and other cortical structures.
  • Human brain : biochemical lateralization in normal subjects. Jayasundar R Neurol India 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.neurologyindia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The elimination of great numbers of synapses, along with some neurons themselves, is a process widely observed among mammals (and among some other vertebrates as well); thus it appears that the large quantity of synapses present in the brain at birth does not represent the optimum number for a lifetime but rather serves the purpose of providing some room for selection.
  • Discovering the Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Proliferation takes place largely under the control of regulatory genes, which act primarily to affect the operation of other, structure-building genes.
  • Discovering the Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

As a rule, the smaller the cerebrum, the less convoluted the cortex. The cortex of a rat or mouse is almost completely smooth. .The cortex of a dolphin or whale, on the other hand, is more convoluted than the cortex of a human.^ So, is human intelligence more than logic?
  • Human Intuition: The Brain Behind the Scenes - Dana Foundation 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.dana.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A process which continually keeps available memory components which relate to those of current interest, and memory components which are more frequently used than others.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Continually associating new information with older information, and older information with other older information, is much more than random cross-referencing.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The dominant feature of the human brain is corticalization.^ This following study of the brain is confined to those features of the brain which determine or contribute to human behavior.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cerebral cortex in humans is so large that it overshadows every other part of the brain.^ We cant calculate mathematics and stuff as fast conciously cus most of are brain power is being used on controlling every other part of our body.
  • HD4870X2 vs Human Brain - techPowerUp! Forums 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the neurons are all different, the neurons fit together in a similar pattern in every human brain.
  • TEDGlobal: To build a human brain | Media | guardian.co.uk 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]
  • TEDGlobal: To build a human brain | Media | guardian.co.uk 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC cl.exct.net [Source type: News]

^ Current supercomputers are estimated to match the human visual cortex and will reach human brain’s computational ability within the next twenty years.
  • Blogging the Singularity » Blog Archive » Larry Smarr - Supercomputing and the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.bloggingthesingularity.com [Source type: General]

A few subcortical structures show alterations reflecting this trend. .The cerebellum, for example, has a medial zone connected mainly to subcortical motor areas, and a lateral zone connected primarily to the cortex.^ Cells in all layers of the lateral geniculate body project via optic radiation to the visual areas of the cerebral cortex.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The idea that patterns of connectivity can be used to identify areal boundaries has also been tested in a combination of functional imaging and DTI/tractography in the human medial frontal cortex [ 53 ].
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ More specifically we investigate the well-studied connections between areas V1, V2, V3, V5 and the lateral geniculate body [53] – [55] .
  • PLoS ONE: Mapping Human Whole-Brain Structural Networks with Diffusion MRI 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.In humans the lateral zone takes up a much larger fraction of the cerebellum than in most other mammalian species.^ It is the most used thought process in man by far, most humans rarely use any other process.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The base for most of EP literature is the belief that significant parts of human mental abilities are directly coded in the genome, in other words innate.
  • Evolutionary Psychology: innateness vs. learning 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-brain.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The interpretation I heard was a lot different than most folks here are taking it.
  • Brain on the Sistine Chapel? Boing Boing 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Corticalization is reflected in function as well as structure.^ In some lower vertebrates the Epiphysis Cerebri - Pineal Gland - has a well-developed eye-like structure; in others though not organized as an eye, if functions as a light receptor.

.In a rat, surgical removal of the entire cerebral cortex leaves an animal that is still capable of walking around and interacting with the environment.^ In contrast, the neurogenesis and neuronal migration are still in progress in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum.
  • CRC Press Online - Book: The Human Brain During the Second Trimester 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.crcpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .In a human, comparable cerebral cortex damage produces a permanent state of coma.^ In contrast, the approach presented in this article provides, for the first time, evidence for the presence of small-world topology in the structural connectivity of the human cerebral cortex.
  • PLoS ONE: Mapping Human Whole-Brain Structural Networks with Diffusion MRI 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The representation of the ipsilateral visual field in human cerebral cortex (56-62) .
  • (NAS Colloquium) Neuroimaging of Human Brain Function 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Functional and structural mapping of human cerebral cortex: Solutions are in the surfaces (26-33) .
  • (NAS Colloquium) Neuroimaging of Human Brain Function 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

The four lobes of the cerebral cortex
The bones of the human skull
.The cerebral cortex is nearly symmetric in outward form, with left and right hemispheres.^ The upper brain, or cerebrum, is divided into left and right halves, called cerebral hemispheres.
  • The Human Brain | epilepsy.com 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.epilepsy.com [Source type: General]
  • The Human Brain | epilepsy.com 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.epilepsy.com [Source type: General]

^ The outer layer of the duplicate cerebral hemispheres is composed of a convoluted (wrinkled) outer layer of gray matter, called the cerebral cortex.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As can be seen, most of the brain is split into two hemispheres, the left and right, by a deep fissure.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Anatomists conventionally divide each hemisphere into four "lobes", the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, and occipital lobe.^ Parietal, occipital, temporal, frontal, thalamus and cerebellum regions were studied.
  • Human brain : biochemical lateralization in normal subjects. Jayasundar R Neurol India 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.neurologyindia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ But several studies, using Magnetic Resonance Imaging, found that it continues to mature throughout adolescence into adulthood, especially in the frontal lobes.
  • The Human Nature Daily Review edited by Ian Pitchford - News,Research, Book reviews, Articles, Essays, Commentary, Audio and Video,Book store 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sulci and gyri form a more or less constant pattern, on the basis of which the surface of each cerebral hemisphere is commonly divided into four lobes: (1) frontal, (2) parietal, (3) temporal, and (4) occipital.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.It is important to realize that this categorization does not actually arise from the structure of the cortex itself: the lobes are named after the bones of the skull that overlie them.^ One important structure in the frontal lobe is the precentral gyrus, which constitutes the primary motor region of the brain.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the conclusion of this paper, Baillargeon seems to want to claim that the infants have symbolic representation, but realizes that her data does not actually support it.
  • Evolutionary Psychology: innateness vs. learning 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-brain.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At six months, the cerebral cortex overshadows most of the other structures and has begun to separate into lobes.
  • Discovering the Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.There is one exception: the border between the frontal and parietal lobes is shifted backward to the central sulcus, a deep fold that marks the line where the primary somatosensory cortex and primary motor cortex come together.^ The putamen lies deep within the cortex of the insular lobe, while the caudate nucleus has a C-shaped configuration that parallels the lateral ventricle.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The intact pattern shows positive coupling between frontal and parietal cortex, as well as between homologous structures in the two hemispheres.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The parietal lobe, posterior to the central sulcus, is divided into three parts: (1) the postcentral gyrus, (2) the superior parietal lobule, and (3) the inferior parietal lobule.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Researchers who study the functions of the cortex divide it into three functional categories of regions, or areas.^ Find this article online Hasnain MK, Fox PT, Woldorff MG (1998) Intersubject variability of functional areas in the human visual cortex.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Changes in connectivity profiles define functionally distinct regions in human medial frontal cortex.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In general, brain models can be divided into four main areas or types: .
  • Human Brain & Psyche 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.schuelers.com [Source type: Academic]

.One consists of the primary sensory areas, which receive signals from the sensory nerves and tracts by way of relay nuclei in the thalamus.^ The medial lemniscus projects upon the sensory relay nuclei of the thalamus .
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The primary sensory area receives input only from the thalamus , while the secondary sensory area receives input from the thalamus, the primary sensory area, or both.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The relay nuclei in turn supply the primary and secondary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Primary sensory areas include the visual area of the occipital lobe, the auditory area in the temporal lobe, and the somatosensory area in the parietal lobe.^ After losing the pertinent temporal lobe area, patients may have complete sensation but incomplete perception.
  • Human Intuition: The Brain Behind the Scenes - Dana Foundation 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.dana.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While reading-aloud, the Broca's area (speech function) and the occipital lobe in both hemispheres (seeing function) will show activity.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This inversion idea also extends to sight, where the image processing area on the surface of the occipital lobes is both inverted and reversed.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A second category is the primary motor area, which sends axons down to motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord.^ The brainstem and spinal cord .
  • The Human Brain | epilepsy.com 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.epilepsy.com [Source type: General]
  • The Human Brain | epilepsy.com 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.epilepsy.com [Source type: General]

^ The thalamic relay nuclei in turn provide input to the primary motor area of the frontal lobe.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The system functions by receiving signals from all parts of the body, relaying them to the brain and spinal cord, and then sending appropriate return signals to muscles and body organs."
  • Human Brain & Psyche 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.schuelers.com [Source type: Academic]

.This area occupies the rear portion of the frontal lobe, directly in front of the somatosensory area.^ Composed of adjacent portions of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes that surround the corpus callosum, the limbic lobe is involved with autonomic and related somatic behavioral activities.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The thalamic relay nuclei in turn provide input to the primary motor area of the frontal lobe.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is located primarily in man on the lower portion of the left frontal lobe, whereas in woman it is located in roughly equal parts on each side of the brain in the same location on both frontal lobes.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The third category consists of the remaining parts of the cortex, which are called the association areas.^ The pulvinar is a posterior nuclear complex that, along with the mediodorsal nucleus, has projections to association areas of the cortex.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Perhaps this part of Brodmann area 47 is the urogenital part of the prefrontal cortex, which plays a role in deciding whether or not micturition or ejaculation occurs at a particular time and place.
  • Brain Activation during Human Male Ejaculation -- Holstege et al. 23 (27): 9185 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CBF was seen in the inferior frontal gyrus [Brodmann area (BA) 47], in parts of the parietal cortex (BA 7 and 40), and in the inferior temporal cortex (BA 20 and 21).
  • Brain Activation during Human Male Ejaculation -- Holstege et al. 23 (27): 9185 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

.These areas receive input from the sensory areas and lower parts of the brain and are involved in the complex process that we call perception, thought, and decision making.^ These sensory experiences are decoded in the various sensory control areas.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As life became more complex, more terms (things to be considered in decision making) were added to this decision matrix.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As discussed in section [3.2.5] above, for these there is a single criterion, and that this is the ability to match internal `predictions' about the behaviour of the world with the real behaviour of the world (more accurately, matching predictions of the sensory input with the real sensory input).
  • Evolutionary Psychology: innateness vs. learning 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-brain.org [Source type: Original source]

.The amount of association cortex, relative to the other two categories, increase dramatically as one goes from simpler mammals, such as the rat and the cat, to more complex ones, such as the chimpanzee and the human.^ Other relevant current and associated reports by Manfred Davidmann on human behaviour and on how the mind works.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pulvinar is a posterior nuclear complex that, along with the mediodorsal nucleus, has projections to association areas of the cortex.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is because of the meaningful way in which we associate over such large volumes of stored information, that the process of associating amounts also to the seeking of meaningful associations.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
Major gyri and sulci on the lateral surface of the cortex
.The cerebral cortex is essentially a sheet of neural tissue, folded in a way that allows a large surface area to fit within the confines of the skull.^ The cortex is folded to get more surface area.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cells in all layers of the lateral geniculate body project via optic radiation to the visual areas of the cerebral cortex.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ (For example, the large pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex that transmit impulses to other regions tend to align themselves with their axons extended toward the underlying white matter and their dendrites pointing toward the surface.
  • Discovering the Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

Each cerebral hemisphere, in fact, has a total surface area of about 1.3 square feet.[11] .Anatomists call each cortical fold a sulcus, and the smooth area between folds a gyrus.^ Prayer power The complex interaction between different areas of the brain also resembles the pattern of activity that occurs during other so-called spiritual or mystical experiences .

^ The cerebral cortex is highly convoluted; the crest of a single convolution is known as a gyrus, and the fissure between two gyri is known as a sulcus.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Most human brains show a similar pattern of folding, but there are enough variations in the shape and placement of folds to make every brain unique.^ The human brain is the most amazing organ.
  • Human Brain on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the neurons are all different, the neurons fit together in a similar pattern in every human brain.
  • TEDGlobal: To build a human brain | Media | guardian.co.uk 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]
  • TEDGlobal: To build a human brain | Media | guardian.co.uk 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC cl.exct.net [Source type: News]

^ We cant calculate mathematics and stuff as fast conciously cus most of are brain power is being used on controlling every other part of our body.
  • HD4870X2 vs Human Brain - techPowerUp! Forums 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless, the pattern is consistent enough for each major fold to have a name, for example, the "superior frontal gyrus", "postcentral sulcus", or "trans-occipital sulcus". Deep folding features in brain such as the inter-hemispheric and lateral fissure, and the insular cortex are present in almost all normal subjects.^ It consists of two paired lateral lobes, or hemispheres, and a midline portion known as the vermis.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Ultimately, the connectome will likely describe connectivity patterns at multiple levels of scale, for example, by incorporating linkages between the macroscale of brain regions and pathways in more elementary mesoscale functional units such as minicolumns and their patterns of interconnectivity.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cells in all layers of the lateral geniculate body project via optic radiation to the visual areas of the cerebral cortex.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Brodmann's classification of areas of the cortex
.Different parts of the cerebral cortex are involved in different cognitive and behavioral functions.^ GABAergic cells in the medial pallidal segment and the substantia nigra project to different nuclei in the thalamus ; these in turn influence distinct regions of the cerebral cortex involved with motor function.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A subset of lesions in frontal cortex and in the anterior cingulate had disproportionately strong effects on functional connections involving the default mode network.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The results of a new study provide evidence that individual differences in some cognitive functions may have a genetic basis.
  • The Human Nature Daily Review edited by Ian Pitchford - News,Research, Book reviews, Articles, Essays, Commentary, Audio and Video,Book store 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The differences show up in a number of ways: the effects of localized brain damage, regional activity patterns exposed when the brain is examined using functional imaging techniques, connectivity with subcortical areas, and regional differences in the cellular architecture of the cortex.^ Connections between different visual areas.
  • PLoS ONE: Mapping Human Whole-Brain Structural Networks with Diffusion MRI 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We find that lesions in different regions of the cerebral cortex have specific effects on the pattern of endogenous functional connectivity of the remaining brain that differ in both extent and spatial pattern.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The minicolumn description provides a functionally heterogeneous architecture that is unique to each parcellated brain region, with specific (probabilistic) patterns of intra-areal and interareal minicolumn connections.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

.Anatomists describe most of the cortex—the part they call isocortex—as having six layers, but not all layers are apparent in all areas, and even when a layer is present, its thickness and cellular organization may vary.^ Cells in all layers of the lateral geniculate body project via optic radiation to the visual areas of the cerebral cortex.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Although in the present paper we only describe two of the four conditions, all four were used to estimate the variance.
  • Brain Activation during Human Male Ejaculation -- Holstege et al. 23 (27): 9185 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most importantly, they attribute to it the assumption that all mental abilities are based on general-purpose mechanisms.
  • Evolutionary Psychology: innateness vs. learning 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-brain.org [Source type: Original source]

Several anatomists have constructed maps of cortical areas on the basis of variations in the appearance of the layers as seen with a microscope. .One of the most widely used schemes came from Brodmann, who split the cortex into 51 different areas and assigned each a number (anatomists have since subdivided many of the Brodmann areas[citation needed]).^ But most areas are multifunctional; we merely discover one function that compels our attention and name the area after it!
  • William H. Calvin and Derek Bickerton, Lingua ex Machina (MIT Press, 2000) 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC williamcalvin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As can be seen, most of the brain is split into two hemispheres, the left and right, by a deep fissure.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You could probably argue that the brain is a multi-core system using different areas to control different parts of the body but the logic section only counts as one "cpu."
  • Is the Human Brain the Fastest Cpu - CPUs - CPU-Components 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.tomshardware.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, Brodmann area 1 is the primary somatosensory cortex, Brodmann area 17 is the primary visual cortex, and Brodmann area 25 is the anterior cingulate cortex.^ Find this article online Hasnain MK, Fox PT, Woldorff MG (1998) Intersubject variability of functional areas in the human visual cortex.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cells in all layers of the lateral geniculate body project via optic radiation to the visual areas of the cerebral cortex.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A subset of lesions in frontal cortex and in the anterior cingulate had disproportionately strong effects on functional connections involving the default mode network.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

Topography

Topography of the primary motor cortex, showing which body part is controlled by each zone
.Many of the brain areas Brodmann defined have their own complex internal structures.^ First, the human brain is a highly complex organ with a great number of structurally distinct, heterogeneous, yet interconnected components.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Prayer power The complex interaction between different areas of the brain also resembles the pattern of activity that occurs during other so-called spiritual or mystical experiences .

^ Bullmore ET, Sporns O (2009) Complex brain networks: graph-theoretical analysis of structural and functional systems.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

.In a number of cases, brain areas are organized into "topographic maps", where adjoining bits of the cortex correspond to adjoining parts of the body, or of some more abstract entity.^ We cant calculate mathematics and stuff as fast conciously cus most of are brain power is being used on controlling every other part of our body.
  • HD4870X2 vs Human Brain - techPowerUp! Forums 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This observation is in agreement with the results of other complementary studies on the organization of the brain that suggest that brain favors, with some intriguing exceptions, locally dense communication and minimizes the number of long distance connections [34] .
  • PLoS ONE: Mapping Human Whole-Brain Structural Networks with Diffusion MRI 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In general, brain models can be divided into four main areas or types: .
  • Human Brain & Psyche 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.schuelers.com [Source type: Academic]

.A simple example of this type of correspondence is the primary motor cortex, a strip of tissue running along the anterior edge of the central sulcus, shown in the image to the right.^ Language (7 Feb) - For more than 60 years, scientists have known that a strip of neural tissue that runs ear-to-ear along the brain's surface orchestrates most voluntary movement, from raising a fork to kicking a ball.
  • The Human Nature Daily Review edited by Ian Pitchford - News,Research, Book reviews, Articles, Essays, Commentary, Audio and Video,Book store 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posterior and anterior lesions along the cortical midline, as well as a subset of lesions in frontal, parietal and temporal cortex, had extensive effects.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other lesions altered functional connectivity less, for example lesions in primary sensory and motor regions ( Figure S1 ).
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

.Motor areas innervating each part of the body arise from a distinct zone, with neighboring body parts represented by neighboring zones.^ The sensation of hearing is represented here in a tonotopic fashion—that is, with different frequencies represented on different parts of the area.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Such clusters were taken to represent anatomically segregated areas corresponding to human supplementary motor area and pre- supplementary motor area, respectively.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This lobule is regarded as an association cortex, an area that is not involved in either sensory or motor processing, although part of the superior parietal lobule may be concerned with motor function.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Electrical stimulation of the cortex at any point causes a muscle-contraction in the represented body part.^ The system functions by receiving signals from all parts of the body, relaying them to the brain and spinal cord, and then sending appropriate return signals to muscles and body organs."
  • Human Brain & Psyche 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.schuelers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When parts of the gyrus are electrically stimulated in concious patients (under local anesthesia), they produce localized movements on the opposite side of the body that are interpreted by the patients as voluntary.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The division of brain cell bodies and their connections causes the cortex to be either white matter (connections) or gray matter (active neural cells on the outer surface).
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This "somatotopic" representation is not evenly distributed, however. The head, for example, is represented by a region about three times as large as the zone for the entire back and trunk. The size of a zone correlates to the precision of motor control and sensory discrimination possible[citation needed]. .The areas for the lips, fingers, and tongue are particularly large, considering the proportional size of their represented body parts.^ The sensation of hearing is represented here in a tonotopic fashion—that is, with different frequencies represented on different parts of the area.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The sequential representation is the same as in the primary motor area, with sensations from the head being represented in inferior parts of the gyrus and impulses from the lower extremities being represented in superior portions.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Only the ventral nucleus of the medial geniculate body is laminated and tonotopically organized; this part projects to the primary auditory area and is finely tuned.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.In visual areas, the maps are retinotopic—that is, they reflect the topography of the retina, the layer of light-activated neurons lining the back of the eye.^ FMRI data are mapped onto a reference brain (single subject), where areas differing significantly in activation are coloured red to yellow and correspond to values with (uncorrected).
  • PLoS ONE: Mathematical Logic in the Human Brain: Syntax 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cells in all layers of the lateral geniculate body project via optic radiation to the visual areas of the cerebral cortex.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As the prayer has a verbal element other parts of the brain are used but Dr Newberg also found that they, "activated the attention area of the brain, and diminished activity in the orientation area."

.In this case too the representation is uneven: the fovea—the area at the center of the visual field—is greatly overrepresented compared to the periphery.^ The representation of the ipsilateral visual field in human cerebral cortex (56-62) .
  • (NAS Colloquium) Neuroimaging of Human Brain Function 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Cortex on both banks of the calcarine sulcus constitutes the primary visual area, which receives input from the contralateral visual field via the optic radiation.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The visual circuitry in the human cerebral cortex contains several dozen distinct retinotopic maps, each devoted to analyzing the visual input stream in a particular way[citation needed].^ In contrast, the approach presented in this article provides, for the first time, evidence for the presence of small-world topology in the structural connectivity of the human cerebral cortex.
  • PLoS ONE: Mapping Human Whole-Brain Structural Networks with Diffusion MRI 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Find this article online Hasnain MK, Fox PT, Woldorff MG (1998) Intersubject variability of functional areas in the human visual cortex.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cells in all layers of the lateral geniculate body project via optic radiation to the visual areas of the cerebral cortex.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The primary visual cortex (Brodmann area 17), which is the main recipient of direct input from the visual part of the thalamus, contains many neurons that are most easily activated by edges with a particular orientation moving across a particular point in the visual field.^ At first glance, the activation of the secondary visual cortex (BA 18) seems surprising, because the volunteers had their eyes closed.
  • Brain Activation during Human Male Ejaculation -- Holstege et al. 23 (27): 9185 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The most intense area of activation was at the mesodiencephalic transition zone (see Figs.
  • Brain Activation during Human Male Ejaculation -- Holstege et al. 23 (27): 9185 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Find this article online Hasnain MK, Fox PT, Woldorff MG (1998) Intersubject variability of functional areas in the human visual cortex.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

Visual areas farther downstream extract features such as color, motion, and shape.
.In auditory areas, the primary map is tonotopic.^ Only the ventral nucleus of the medial geniculate body is laminated and tonotopically organized; this part projects to the primary auditory area and is finely tuned.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Other subdivisions of the medial geniculate body project to the belt of secondary auditory cortex surrounding the primary area.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Near the margin of the lateral sulcus, two transverse temporal gyri constitute the primary auditory area of the brain.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Sounds are parsed according to frequency (i.e., high pitch vs. low pitch) by subcortical auditory areas, and this parsing is reflected by the primary auditory zone of the cortex. As with the visual system, there are a number of tonotopic cortical maps, each devoted to analyzing sound in a particular way.
Within a topographic map there can sometimes be finer levels of spatial structure. .In the primary visual cortex, for example, where the main organization is retinotopic and the main responses are to moving edges, cells that respond to different edge-orientations are spatially segregated from one another[citation needed].^ Cells in all layers of the lateral geniculate body project via optic radiation to the visual areas of the cerebral cortex.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A potential theoretical framework for conceptualizing cognition as a network phenomenon is based on two main organizational principles found in the cerebral cortex, functional segregation, and functional integration [ 6 , 7 ].
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the middle is a network model showing how ganglion cells could be connected together in the visual cortex.
  • Human Brain & Psyche 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.schuelers.com [Source type: Academic]

Lateralization

Routing of neural signals from the two eyes to the brain
.Each hemisphere of the brain interacts primarily with one half of the body, but for reasons that are unclear, the connections are crossed: the left side of the brain interacts with the right side of the body, and vice versa.^ The brain is divided into two hemispheres, the left one is shown.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The left hemisphere is in charge of the right side of the body and conversely for the right hemisphere.
  • The Human Brain | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ The left side of a human brain is shown.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.February 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Motor connections from the brain to the spinal cord, and sensory connections from the spinal cord to the brain, both cross the midline at brainstem levels.^ Introduction The brain is the portion of the vertebrate central nervous system that is enclosed within the cranium, continuous with the spinal cord, and composed of both gray matter and white matter.
  • Human Brain & Psyche 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.schuelers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Long ascending and descending tracts that connect the brain to the spinal cord are located on the periphery of the pons.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, a suitable phase space for both the brain and consciousness needs to be defined.
  • Human Brain & Psyche 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.schuelers.com [Source type: Academic]

.Visual input follows a more complex rule: the optic nerves from the two eyes come together at a point called the optic chiasm, and half of the fibers from each nerve split off to join the other.^ Light-sensitive cells feed wide spanning horizontal cells and narrower bipolar cells, which are interconnected by whose outgoing fibers bundle to form the optic nerve.
  • When will computer hardware match the human brain? by Hans Moravec 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.transhumanist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other two characteristics (hyperacuity and critical range) are also a plausible a result of the characteristics of the visual system as a whole, rather some "core knowledge", and since there isn't any anatomical evidence for "core knowledge" of stereopsis, this former is the more plausible explanation.
  • Evolutionary Psychology: innateness vs. learning 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-brain.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is connected by the optic nerve, a million-fiber cable, to regions deep in the brain.
  • When will computer hardware match the human brain? by Hans Moravec 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.transhumanist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The result is that connections from the left half of the retina, in both eyes, go to the left side of the brain, whereas connections from the right half of the retina go to the right side of the brain.^ The left side of a human brain is shown.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Left brain and right brain working together .

^ In general, the left half of the brain is associated with things on the right side of the body and the right half is associated with things on the left side of the body.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because each half of the retina receives light coming from the opposite half of the visual field, the functional consequence is that visual input from the left side of the world goes to the right side of the brain, and vice versa.^ The left side of a human brain is shown.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, the left half of the brain is associated with things on the right side of the body and the right half is associated with things on the left side of the body.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The left ear picks up the verbal symbols (phonemes), then the right side of the brain knows how to verbalize it also.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, the right side of the brain receives somatosensory input from the left side of the body, and visual input from the left side of the visual field—an arrangement that presumably is helpful for visuomotor coordination.^ The left hemisphere is in charge of the right side of the body and conversely for the right hemisphere.
  • The Human Brain | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ The left side of a human brain is shown.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Left brain and right brain working together .

The corpus callosum, a nerve bundle connecting the two cerebral hemispheres, with the lateral ventricles directly below
.The two cerebral hemispheres are connected by a very large nerve bundle called the corpus callosum, which crosses the midline above the level of the thalamus.^ Contrasting this observation, residual functional connectivity between the two cerebral hemispheres observed in a patient several decades after a complete commissurotomy [44] may be due to inter-hemispheric coupling via subcortical pathways.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We concluded that for simulations of lesions the occurrence of a large number of functional connections with |z|> 3.3 reflected specific lesion effects with very high probability.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Loss of resting interhemispheric functional connectivity after complete section of the corpus callosum.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

.There are also two much smaller connections, the anterior commisure and hippocampal commisure, as well as many subcortical connections that cross the midline.^ Chips would soon generate too much heat to remove, and require too many external connections to fit.
  • When will computer hardware match the human brain? by Hans Moravec 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.transhumanist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two fundamental problems in predicting evolution: The number of possible mutation is large, and the number of possible combinations of mutations is much much larger.
  • Evolutionary Psychology: innateness vs. learning 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-brain.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But is there a real connection between the two disciplines or are philosophers with an interest in psychoanalysis just trawling for ideas, critical openings, or catchy titles?
  • The Human Nature Daily Review edited by Ian Pitchford - News,Research, Book reviews, Articles, Essays, Commentary, Audio and Video,Book store 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The corpus callosum is the main avenue of communication between the two hemispheres, though.^ The corpus callosum provides a communication link between corresponding regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Then evolved the third part of the brain, the neocortex, the grey matter, the bulk of the brain in two symmetrical hemispheres, separate but communicating.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between these two halves and hidden from view, there is a massive communication link, the corpus callosum, which connects the two, allowing information to pass between.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It connects each point on the cortex to the mirror-image point in the opposite hemisphere, and also connects to functionally related points in different cortical areas.^ Connections between different visual areas.
  • PLoS ONE: Mapping Human Whole-Brain Structural Networks with Diffusion MRI 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The idea that patterns of connectivity can be used to identify areal boundaries has also been tested in a combination of functional imaging and DTI/tractography in the human medial frontal cortex [ 53 ].
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These functional differences are presumably due to variations in underlying structural (cytoarchitectonic and connectional) substrates.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

.In most respects, the left and right sides of the brain are symmetrical in terms of function.^ The left side of a human brain is shown.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Left brain and right brain working together .

^ The left ear picks up the verbal symbols (phonemes), then the right side of the brain knows how to verbalize it also.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, the counterpart of the left-hemisphere motor area controlling the right hand is the right-hemisphere area controlling the left hand.^ As can be seen, most of the brain is split into two hemispheres, the left and right, by a deep fissure.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Things seen only with the left eye (right hemisphere) become difficult, if not impossible, to verbalize (the left hemisphere contains the speaking vocabulary).
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note that activation in the cerebellar hemisphere is more pronounced on the left than on the right side.
  • Brain Activation during Human Male Ejaculation -- Holstege et al. 23 (27): 9185 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

There are, however, several very important exceptions, involving language and spatial cognition. .In most people, the left hemisphere is "dominant" for language: a stroke that damages a key language area in the left hemisphere can leave the victim unable to speak or understand, whereas equivalent damage to the right hemisphere would cause only minor impairment to language skills.^ Impairment after right hemisphere stroke.
  • Brain Activation during Human Male Ejaculation -- Holstege et al. 23 (27): 9185 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ People suffering from neurological defects, brain damage or strokes were usually written-off as hopeless cases.
  • The Human Brain | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Of all of the cerebellar regions, the left cerebellar hemisphere was most heavily involved ( Fig.
  • Brain Activation during Human Male Ejaculation -- Holstege et al. 23 (27): 9185 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

.A substantial part of our current understanding of the interactions between the two hemispheres has come from the study of "split-brain patients"—people who underwent surgical transection of the corpus callosum in an attempt to reduce the severity of epileptic seizures.^ Can our brains understand themselves?
  • The Human Brain | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Before the corpus callosum was severed, the two sides of the brain functioned as an entity.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our current understanding of the brain is based on the following study methods: .
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These patients do not show unusual behavior that is immediately obvious, but in some cases can behave almost like two different people in the same body, with the right hand taking an action and then the left hand undoing it.^ A subgroup of 12 participants, however, showed no significant difference in performance with respect to the two types of problems.
  • PLoS ONE: Mathematical Logic in the Human Brain: Syntax 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In most the cases, pairs are of different age, with the male almost always older.
  • Evolutionary Psychology: innateness vs. learning 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-brain.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But identical same-sex twins brought up as individuals have different personalities, are different people.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most such patients, when briefly shown a picture on the right side of the point of visual fixation, are able to describe it verbally, but when the picture is shown on the left, are unable to describe it, but may be able to give an indication with the left hand of the nature of the object shown.^ The left side of a human brain is shown.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The left ear picks up the verbal symbols (phonemes), then the right side of the brain knows how to verbalize it also.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Images may be described, or transformed into a narrative, by the left hemisphere.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It should be noted that the differences between left and right hemispheres are greatly overblown in much of the popular literature on this topic.^ As can be seen, most of the brain is split into two hemispheres, the left and right, by a deep fissure.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Things seen only with the left eye (right hemisphere) become difficult, if not impossible, to verbalize (the left hemisphere contains the speaking vocabulary).
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note that activation in the cerebellar hemisphere is more pronounced on the left than on the right side.
  • Brain Activation during Human Male Ejaculation -- Holstege et al. 23 (27): 9185 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

.The existence of differences has been solidly established, but many popular books go far beyond the evidence in attributing features of personality or intelligence to the left or right hemisphere dominance.^ As can be seen, most of the brain is split into two hemispheres, the left and right, by a deep fissure.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Things seen only with the left eye (right hemisphere) become difficult, if not impossible, to verbalize (the left hemisphere contains the speaking vocabulary).
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note that activation in the cerebellar hemisphere is more pronounced on the left than on the right side.
  • Brain Activation during Human Male Ejaculation -- Holstege et al. 23 (27): 9185 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Sources of information

.Information about the structure and function of the human brain comes from a variety of sources.^ Human behavior comes from the human brain.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Human brain function, 2nd ed.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Kötter R (2001) Neuroscience databases: Tools for exploring brain structure function relationships.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

.Most information about the cellular components of the brain and how they work comes from studies of animal subjects, using techniques described in the brain article.^ We do not know how the brain works as yet.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How the brain evolved and functions is explored and described in the immediately following chapters which cover how the brain evolved, sleep and sleeping, dreaming and dreams, and how we learn, memorise and remember.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Penrose (1989) suggests that modern physics is still too immature to describe how the brain functions.
  • Human Brain & Psyche 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.schuelers.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some techniques, however, are used mainly in humans, and therefore are described here.^ However, the spatial resolution in these neuroimaging techniques is much lower than most techniques used in animals.
  • Brain Activation during Human Male Ejaculation -- Holstege et al. 23 (27): 9185 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Crick and Jones stated that “Clearly what is needed for a modern human brain anatomy is the introduction of some radically new techniques” [9] .
  • PLoS ONE: Mapping Human Whole-Brain Structural Networks with Diffusion MRI 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The techniques to investigate the brain structures involved in mating behavior, used in rats, gerbils, cats, and other animals, are not applicable to humans.
  • Brain Activation during Human Male Ejaculation -- Holstege et al. 23 (27): 9185 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

Computed tomography of human brain, from base of the skull to top, taken with intravenous contrast medium

EEG

.By placing electrodes on the scalp it is possible to record the summed electrical activity of the cortex, in a technique known as electroencephalography (EEG).^ The EEG measures electrical activity of the brain using pairs of electrodes placed at different (internationally specified) points on the scalp.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We simulate the dynamic effects of lesions placed in different regions of the cerebral cortex by recording changes in the pattern of endogenous (“resting-state”) neural activity.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

[12] .EEG measures mass changes in population synaptic activity from the cerebral cortex, but can only detect changes over large areas of the brain, with very little sensitivity for sub-cortical activity.^ Changes in the cerebral cortex - Perception .
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Referred pain - - - Changes in the cerebral cortex .
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ An EEG study showed no remarkable changes in brain activity (Graber et al., 1985 ), whereas a single positron emission computed tomography study (Tiihonen et al., 1994 ) indicated a decrease in blood flow in all cortical areas, except for a significant increase in the right prefrontal cortex.
  • Brain Activation during Human Male Ejaculation -- Holstege et al. 23 (27): 9185 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

.EEG recordings can detect events lasting only a few thousandths of a second.^ Furthermore, because robust hemodynamic alterations are detectable after neuronal stimuli lasting only a few tens of milliseconds, a new class of task paradigms designed to measure regional responses to single sensory or cognitive events can now be studied.
  • (NAS Colloquium) Neuroimaging of Human Brain Function 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As can be seen, the rise time of the signal (indicated with arrows) is very rapid and has occurred after just a few seconds of stimulation, indicating that shorter stimulus events should be detectable.
  • (NAS Colloquium) Neuroimaging of Human Brain Function 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.EEG recordings have good temporal resolution, but poor spatial resolution.^ To overcome this limitation, techniques recently have been developed for combining the temporal resolution of EEG and MEG with the spatial resolution of fMRI (52, 53).
  • (NAS Colloquium) Neuroimaging of Human Brain Function 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This linkage could provide a wholly new “camera” capable of millimeter spatial and millisecond temporal resolution across the entire human brain.
  • (NAS Colloquium) Neuroimaging of Human Brain Function 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

MEG

Apart from measuring the electric field around the skull it is possible to measure the magnetic field directly in a technique known as magnetoencephalography (MEG).[13] .This technique has the same temporal resolution as EEG but much better spatial resolution, although not as good as MRI. The greatest disadvantage of MEG is that, because the magnetic fields generated by neural activity are very weak, the method is only capable of picking up signals from near the surface of the cortex, and even then, only neurons located in the depths of cortical folds (sulci) have dendrites oriented in a way that gives rise to detectable magnetic fields outside the skull.^ The cortex is folded to get more surface area.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We believe that this result applies generally to the type of network and neural dynamics investigated here, and will hold even as the human connectome [39] continues to be refined.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The division of brain cell bodies and their connections causes the cortex to be either white matter (connections) or gray matter (active neural cells on the outer surface).
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Structural and functional imaging

A scan of the brain using fMRI
.There are several methods for detecting brain activity changes by three-dimensional imaging of local changes in blood flow.^ [Web of Science] [Medline] Silbersweig DA, Stern E, Frith CD, Cahill C, Schnorr L, Grootoonk S, Spinks T, Clark J, Frackowiak R, Jones T (1993) Detection of thirty-second cognitive activations in single subjects with positron emission tomography: a new low-dose H 2 15 O regional cerebral blood flow three-dimensional imaging technique.
  • Brain Activation during Human Male Ejaculation -- Holstege et al. 23 (27): 9185 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A variety of methods, such as Xray, CAT, MRI, and PET, for imaging the body and the brain are now available.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next sentence involves an additional erroneous assumption: If perceptual mechanisms are trying to construct a three dimensional model of the local world from a visual array, there is an infinite number of different ways to do it that are all consistent with the array.
  • Evolutionary Psychology: innateness vs. learning 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-brain.org [Source type: Original source]

The older methods are SPECT and PET, which depend on injection of radioactive tracers into the bloodstream. .The newest method, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has considerably better spatial resolution and involves no radioactivity.^ But several studies, using Magnetic Resonance Imaging, found that it continues to mature throughout adolescence into adulthood, especially in the frontal lobes.
  • The Human Nature Daily Review edited by Ian Pitchford - News,Research, Book reviews, Articles, Essays, Commentary, Audio and Video,Book store 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Applying structural magnetic resonance imaging to map the boundaries of the planum temporale has demonstrated significant variations in its size and position across 50 individuals [ 70 ].
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, we designed an experiment using functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) to investigate the syntactic processing of abstract mathematical formulae and termini, written in a standard first-order language.
  • PLoS ONE: Mathematical Logic in the Human Brain: Syntax 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

[14] .Using the most powerful magnets currently available, fMRI can localize brain activity changes to regions as small as one cubic millimeter.^ We cant calculate mathematics and stuff as fast conciously cus most of are brain power is being used on controlling every other part of our body.
  • HD4870X2 vs Human Brain - techPowerUp! Forums 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A process which continually keeps available memory components which relate to those of current interest, and memory components which are more frequently used than others.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are commonly known as 'Stage 1' and 'Stage 3' sleep periods are brief periods of intermediate transition sleep during which brain and body adjust from one activity to the next.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The downside is that the temporal resolution is poor: when brain activity increases, the blood flow response is delayed by 1–5 seconds and lasts for at least 10 seconds.^ For each ejaculation, two 10 sec frames were selected, summed, and used for subsequent analysis: the time frame in which seminal expulsion, corrected for a 5 sec delay between neuronal activity and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) response (Jueptner and Weiler, 1995 ), took place, together with the preceding time frame ( Table 1 , Fig.
  • Brain Activation during Human Male Ejaculation -- Holstege et al. 23 (27): 9185 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Future Developments The ultimate limits of temporal resolution achievable from hemodynamic-based brain mapping techniques is not yet de FIG. 6.
  • (NAS Colloquium) Neuroimaging of Human Brain Function 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This linkage could provide a wholly new “camera” capable of millimeter spatial and millisecond temporal resolution across the entire human brain.
  • (NAS Colloquium) Neuroimaging of Human Brain Function 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Thus, fMRI is a very useful tool for learning which brain regions are involved in a given behavior, but gives little information about the temporal dynamics of their responses.^ However, this approach is limited in that it does not take advantage of the transition information in the hemodynamic response and makes limited fixed assumptions about the shape of the hemodynamic response.
  • (NAS Colloquium) Neuroimaging of Human Brain Function 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Computers use algorithms to sort through and process information, which happens to be a very efficient way to crunch nubers.
  • Is the Human Brain the Fastest Cpu - CPUs - CPU-Components 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.tomshardware.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Initially, analyses based on assigning fMRI images occurring with a certain delay after a trial to the “on” task state and temporally separate images to the “off” state were used (28, 33).
  • (NAS Colloquium) Neuroimaging of Human Brain Function 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A major advantage for fMRI is that, because it is non-invasive, it can readily be used on human subjects.^ Schacter and colleagues (42) explored the false memory effect by using fMRI and sorted individual trial responses based on subject performance.
  • (NAS Colloquium) Neuroimaging of Human Brain Function 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Non-invasive mapping of connections between human thalamus and cortex using diffusion imaging.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These data originally were used to demonstrate the application of BOLD contrast fMRI in normal human subjects.
  • (NAS Colloquium) Neuroimaging of Human Brain Function 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

Effects of brain damage

.A key source of information about the function of brain regions is the effects of damage to them.^ Cataloging the functional effects of brain trauma: Brain damage from automobile accidents and strokes is quite common.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dominant rats have more new nerve cells in a key brain region than their subordinates, a study reveals.
  • The Human Nature Daily Review edited by Ian Pitchford - News,Research, Book reviews, Articles, Essays, Commentary, Audio and Video,Book store 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first thing to realize about the brain is that, unlike an organ such as the heart or liver, it is not a single organ with a single function.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .In humans, strokes have long provided a "natural laboratory" for studying the effects of brain damage.^ [The effect of fluorine on the developing human brain].

^ People suffering from neurological defects, brain damage or strokes were usually written-off as hopeless cases.
  • The Human Brain | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Cataloging the functional effects of brain trauma: Brain damage from automobile accidents and strokes is quite common.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most strokes result from a blood clot lodging in the brain and blocking the local blood supply, causing damage or destruction of nearby brain tissue: the range of possible blockages is very wide, leading to a great diversity of stroke symptoms.^ People suffering from neurological defects, brain damage or strokes were usually written-off as hopeless cases.
  • The Human Brain | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Cataloging the functional effects of brain trauma: Brain damage from automobile accidents and strokes is quite common.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The results suggest that the accumulation of fluoride in the brain tissue can disrupt the synthesis of certain neurotransmitters and receptors in nerve cells, leading to neural dysplasia or other damage."

.Analysis of strokes is limited by the fact that damage often crosses into multiple regions of the brain, not along clear-cut borders, making it difficult to draw firm conclusions.^ People suffering from neurological defects, brain damage or strokes were usually written-off as hopeless cases.
  • The Human Brain | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Cataloging the functional effects of brain trauma: Brain damage from automobile accidents and strokes is quite common.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Would you change the way you work, play or live … if you looked into cutting edge brain rules illustrated by John Medina?
  • The Human Brain | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

Language

Location of two brain areas that play a critical role in language, Broca's area and Wernicke's area
.In human beings, it is the left hemisphere that usually contains the specialized language areas.^ Things seen only with the left eye (right hemisphere) become difficult, if not impossible, to verbalize (the left hemisphere contains the speaking vocabulary).
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While moving the right foot, a particular area in the parietal area of the left hemisphere will show activity.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For humans it was subsequently shown [3] that the processing of PSG involved the Broca's area (a fundamental region of human language processing) in the left hemisphere in addition to a phylogenetically older brain region able to deal with the FSG. This led to the conclusion that processing hierarchical structures, as arising in grammars, draws on a particular circumscribed brain area in humans.
  • PLoS ONE: Mathematical Logic in the Human Brain: Syntax 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.While this holds true for 97% of right-handed people, about 19% of left-handed people have their language areas in the right hemisphere and as many as 68% of them have some language abilities in both the left and the right hemisphere.^ Right Hemisphere Communicates using images (pictures), has highly developed spatial abilities, is intuitive and imaginative, concerned with emotions and feelings.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Appreciating spatial perceptions depends more on the right hemisphere, although there is a left hemisphere contribution.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The color-coding adds some more clarity, with blue codes for the cranio-caudal, red for left-right and green for antero-posterior direction.
  • PLoS ONE: Mapping Human Whole-Brain Structural Networks with Diffusion MRI 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.The two hemispheres are thought to contribute to the processing and understanding of language: the left hemisphere processes the linguistic meaning of prosody (or, the rhythm, stress, and intonation of connected speech), while the right hemisphere processes the emotions conveyed by prosody.^ The right hemisphere apparently determines the emotional content of speech.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Right Hemisphere Communicates using images (pictures), has highly developed spatial abilities, is intuitive and imaginative, concerned with emotions and feelings.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So the human brain includes the processing and memorising of images and of their components, and the development of language and corresponding mental processing connected with memory and memorising.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .Studies of children have shown that if a child has damage to the left hemisphere, the child may develop language in the right hemisphere instead.^ Images may be described, or transformed into a narrative, by the left hemisphere.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Right Hemisphere Communicates using images (pictures), has highly developed spatial abilities, is intuitive and imaginative, concerned with emotions and feelings.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These studies have shown that cortical columns may contain segregated subnetworks, corresponding to minicolumns, which promote greater intracolumnar functional independence and informational heterogeneity.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

The younger the child, the better the recovery. .So, although the "natural" tendency is for language to develop on the left, human brains are capable of adapting to difficult circumstances, if the damage occurs early enough.^ The left side of a human brain is shown.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [The effect of fluorine on the developing human brain].

^ So the human brain includes the processing and memorising of images and of their components, and the development of language and corresponding mental processing connected with memory and memorising.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first language area within the left hemisphere to be discovered is Broca's area, named after Paul Broca, who discovered the area while studying patients with aphasia, a language disorder.^ While reading-aloud, the Broca's area (speech function) and the occipital lobe in both hemispheres (seeing function) will show activity.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An anatomical study of Broca's area in ten postmortem human brains revealed significant variations in size as well as in the area's relation to sulcal landmarks [ 69 ].
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ While moving the right foot, a particular area in the parietal area of the left hemisphere will show activity.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Broca's area doesn't just handle getting language out in a motor sense, though.^ If the Broca's area gets damaged, you are through talking.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Observation of other motor areas bear this theory out.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Broca's area is a neural mechanism which provides the function of motor processor for the human voice mechanism.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It seems to be more generally involved in the ability to process grammar itself, at least the more complex aspects of grammar.^ This gap seems to show that two kinds of memory are involved, a short-term working memory and a more permanent long-term memory, and that it may take a week or so before at least some of the information which reached the working memory is processed and stored in the long-term memory.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the sensors became more complex (capable) the signals they generated also became much more complex, becoming increasingly more difficult to feed into a decision matrix directly.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Learning and cultural changes are far faster processes than genetic evolution, so they are much more efficient in generating useful adaptations.
  • Evolutionary Psychology: innateness vs. learning 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-brain.org [Source type: Original source]

.For example, it handles distinguishing a sentence in passive form from a simpler subject-verb-object sentence — the difference between "The boy was hit by the girl" and "The girl hit the boy."^ There were significant differences in the neonatal behavioral neurological assessment score and neonatal behavioral score between the subjects in endemic areas and the control group.

.The second language area to be discovered is called Wernicke's area, after Carl Wernicke, a German neurologist who discovered the area while studying patients who had similar symptoms to Broca's area patients but damage to a different part of their brain.^ If the Broca's area gets damaged, you are through talking.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The conclusive evidence against innate mental abilities comes from brain damage studies, and from neurobiology of the brain.
  • Evolutionary Psychology: innateness vs. learning 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-brain.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Parts of the inferior frontal lobe (close to the lateral sulcus) constitute the Broca area , a region involved with speech ( see below Functions of the human nervous system: Language ).
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Wernicke's aphasia is the term for the disorder occurring upon damage to a patient's Wernicke's area.^ Bipolar disorder (1 Feb) - Severe childhood trauma appears to have occurred in about half of patients with bipolar disorder, and may lead to more complex psychopathological manifestations.
  • The Human Nature Daily Review edited by Ian Pitchford - News,Research, Book reviews, Articles, Essays, Commentary, Audio and Video,Book store 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Wernicke's aphasia does not only affect speech comprehension. .People with Wernicke's aphasia also have difficulty recalling the names of objects, often responding with words that sound similar, or the names of related things, as if they are having a hard time recalling word associations[citation needed].^ In fact they must have learned these attributes: even if they have the proper internal structure, the only way they could associate the names of the colours (which are arbitrary) with these structures is by learning the attributes associated with the colour names and matching them with the internal attributes.
  • Evolutionary Psychology: innateness vs. learning 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-brain.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They are associated with each other, cross-indexed if you like, so that a memory can be recalled from remembering just one of its components.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A new brain-imaging study has revealed that parts of this so-called motor cortex also respond vigorously as people do nothing more than silently read words.
  • The Human Nature Daily Review edited by Ian Pitchford - News,Research, Book reviews, Articles, Essays, Commentary, Audio and Video,Book store 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pathology

A human brain showing frontotemporal lobar degeneration causing frontotemporal dementia
.Clinically, death is defined as an absence of brain activity as measured by EEG.^ This activity can be measured and displayed as a wave form called brain wave or brain rhythm.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The EEG measures electrical activity of the brain using pairs of electrodes placed at different (internationally specified) points on the scalp.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Injuries to the brain tend to affect large areas of the organ, sometimes causing major deficits in intelligence, memory, personality, and movement.^ The development of intelligence appeared to be adversely affected by fluoride in the areas with a medium or severe prevalence of fluorosis.

.Head trauma caused, for example, by vehicle or industrial accidents, is a leading cause of death in youth and middle age.^ Healthcare (9 Feb) - medical-related debt is the second leading cause of personal bankruptcies and the middle class is suffering the most.
  • The Human Nature Daily Review edited by Ian Pitchford - News,Research, Book reviews, Articles, Essays, Commentary, Audio and Video,Book store 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many cases, more damage is caused by resultant edema than by the impact itself.^ In this case, there will be many mutations which cause variability in the trait, and strong selection is likely to change the trait in a specific, predictable direction.
  • Evolutionary Psychology: innateness vs. learning 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-brain.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rivalry (22 Feb) - Changes in hormone levels cause many women to be more critical of other women, according to a recent study, believed to be the first of its kind.
  • The Human Nature Daily Review edited by Ian Pitchford - News,Research, Book reviews, Articles, Essays, Commentary, Audio and Video,Book store 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "An excess of fluoride and a lack of iodine in the same environment has been shown to have a marked effect on child intellectual development, causing a more significant intellectual deficit than lack of iodine alone.

.Stroke, caused by the blockage or rupturing of blood vessels in the brain, is another major cause of death from brain damage.^ Cataloging the functional effects of brain trauma: Brain damage from automobile accidents and strokes is quite common.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Toxin-induced blood vessel inclusions caused by the chronic administration of aluminum and sodium fluoride and their implications for dementia.

^ Author Summary Every year, millions of people suffer the consequences of brain damage, as a result of stroke, traumatic brain injury, cancer or degenerative brain disease.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

.Other problems in the brain can be more accurately classified as diseases than as injuries.^ A process which continually keeps available memory components which relate to those of current interest, and memory components which are more frequently used than others.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The effects of developmental variations or abnormalities, traumatic brain injury, or neurodegenerative disease can all be captured as specific structural variants of the human connectome.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dominant rats have more new nerve cells in a key brain region than their subordinates, a study reveals.
  • The Human Nature Daily Review edited by Ian Pitchford - News,Research, Book reviews, Articles, Essays, Commentary, Audio and Video,Book store 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, motor neurone disease, and Huntington's disease are caused by the gradual death of individual neurons, leading to diminution in movement control, memory, and cognition.^ Parkinson disease and Huntington disease are among the more prevalent syndromes; each appears related to deficiencies in the synthesis of particular neurotransmitters.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Patients suffering from brain diseases such as cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) or Parkinson's disease also experience sexual dysfunction (Monga et al., 1986 ; Sakakibara et al., 2001 ).
  • Brain Activation during Human Male Ejaculation -- Holstege et al. 23 (27): 9185 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Brain disease - pollution (15 Aug) - The numbers of sufferers of brain diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and motor neurone disease, have soared across the West in less than 20 years, scientists have discovered.
  • The Human Nature Daily Review edited by Ian Pitchford - News,Research, Book reviews, Articles, Essays, Commentary, Audio and Video,Book store 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mental disorders, such as clinical depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder may involve particular patterns of neuropsychological functioning related to various aspects of mental and somatic function.^ Genetics - affective disorders (7 Feb) - 5-HTTLPR may represent a classic susceptibility factor for affective disorders by biasing the functional reactivity of the human amygdala in the context of stressful life experiences and/or deficient cortical regulatory input.
  • The Human Nature Daily Review edited by Ian Pitchford - News,Research, Book reviews, Articles, Essays, Commentary, Audio and Video,Book store 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This lobule is regarded as an association cortex, an area that is not involved in either sensory or motor processing, although part of the superior parietal lobule may be concerned with motor function.
  • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Our model suggests that the pattern of endogenous neural activity, in particular within the default mode network, may serve as a marker of the degree of functional disturbance.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

.These disorders may be treated by psychotherapy, psychiatric medication or social intervention and personal recovery work; the underlying issues and associated prognosis vary significantly between individuals.^ Examination of individual case reports showed the evidence for aetiological relationships between symptoms and fluoride exposure to be of variable quality.

^ Clearly, more experiments and studies are needed to be able to address the issue of between-subject variability with a high level of confidence.
  • PLoS ONE: Mapping Human Whole-Brain Structural Networks with Diffusion MRI 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Our sleep-wakefulness rhythm (circadian rhythm) has a duration which varies from individual to individual (usually between 25 and 28 hours) but is always longer than 24 hours.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some infectious diseases affecting the brain are caused by viruses and bacteria.^ We hypothesize that at least some forms of degenerative brain disease may involve the “targeted” removal of network components.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Understanding the basic network causes of brain diseases may also open new avenues for therapy and prevention by harnessing inherent network mechanisms that ensure robustness and compensation.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Yet car crashes kill more of them than any other cause -- a problem, some researchers believe, that is rooted in the adolescent brain.
  • The Human Nature Daily Review edited by Ian Pitchford - News,Research, Book reviews, Articles, Essays, Commentary, Audio and Video,Book store 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Infection of the meninges, the membrane that covers the brain, can lead to meningitis.^ Also covered is the author's leading work on what takes place in the brain when learning, memorising or recalling information.
  • How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also known as "mad cow disease") is deadly in cattle and humans and is linked to prions. .Kuru is a similar prion-borne degenerative brain disease affecting humans.^ We hypothesize that at least some forms of degenerative brain disease may involve the “targeted” removal of network components.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The effects of developmental variations or abnormalities, traumatic brain injury, or neurodegenerative disease can all be captured as specific structural variants of the human connectome.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Author Summary Every year, millions of people suffer the consequences of brain damage, as a result of stroke, traumatic brain injury, cancer or degenerative brain disease.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

.Both are linked to the ingestion of neural tissue, and may explain the tendency in human and some non-human species to avoid cannibalism.^ As astounding as that process was and its product is, both are as nothing compared to the evolution of the human neural system and its product.
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The human has been provided by evolution with instincts (genetically specified neural mechanisms) which causes him to seek both training and education (he is a competitive social animal).
  • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is some neural structure in the brain (probably most of it), which allows humans to learn new understanding and skills.
  • Evolutionary Psychology: innateness vs. learning 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC human-brain.org [Source type: Original source]

Viral or bacterial causes have been reported in multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, and are established causes of encephalopathy, and encephalomyelitis.
Many brain disorders are congenital, occurring during development. Tay-Sachs disease, fragile X syndrome, and Down syndrome are all linked to genetic and chromosomal errors. Many other syndromes, such as the intrinsic circadian rhythm disorders, are suspected to be congenital as well. .Normal development of the brain can be altered by genetic factors, drug use, nutritional deficiencies, and infectious diseases during pregnancy.^ "The effects of excessive fluoride intake during pregnancy on neonatal neurobehavioural development and the neurodevelopment toxicity of fluoride were evaluated.

^ Excessive fluoride intake during pregnancy can cause adverse effects on neonatal neurobehavioural development.

^ Shannon's mathematical theories of communication were used by Ulric Neisser (1967) and others to develop cognitive psychology which views the brain as a computer.
  • Human Brain & Psyche 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.schuelers.com [Source type: Academic]

.Certain brain disorders are treated by neurosurgeons, while others are treated by neurologists and psychiatrists.^ The results suggest that the accumulation of fluoride in the brain tissue can disrupt the synthesis of certain neurotransmitters and receptors in nerve cells, leading to neural dysplasia or other damage."

.
Visualization of a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurement of a human brain.
^ Abbreviation: DTI, diffusion tensor imaging .
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent noninvasive imaging methods (diffusion tensor imaging [DTI] in its several variants, commonly followed by computational tractography) have been shown to produce results that are consistent with known pathways formed by major fiber tracts in the human brain [ 43 – 45 ], although there continues to be some limitations in data acquisition and processing algorithms [ 46 ].
  • PLoS Computational Biology: The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Find this article online Mori S, Zhang J (2006) Principles of diffusion tensor imaging and its applications to basic neuroscience research.
  • PLoS ONE: Mapping Human Whole-Brain Structural Networks with Diffusion MRI 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

Depicted are reconstructed axon tracts that run through the mid-sagittal plane. Especially prominent are the U-shaped fibers that connect the two hemispheres through the corpus callosum (the fibers come out of the image plane and consequently bend towards the top) and the fiber tracts that descend toward the spine (blue, within the image plane).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Johanson, D. C. (1996). From Lucy to language. New York: Simon and Schuster, p. 80.
  2. ^ Murre, JM; Sturdy, DP (1995). "The connectivity of the brain: multi-level quantitative analysis". Biological cybernetics 73 (6): 529–45. doi:10.1007/BF00199545. PMID 8527499.  edit
  3. ^ Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, Ch. 1
  4. ^ Cosgrove et al., 2007
  5. ^ Lynn, Richard (August 1994). "Sex differences in intelligence and brain size: A paradox resolved.". Personality and Individual Differences Vol 17 (2): 257–271. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(94)90030-2. http://psycnet.apa.org/?fa=main.doiLanding&uid=1995-13422-001. 
  6. ^ Neanderthal Brain Size at Birth Sheds Light on Human Evolution. National Geographic, 2008-09-09. Retrieved 2010-03-05.
  7. ^ Marner L, Nyengaard JR, Tang Y, Pakkenberg B. (2003). Marked loss of myelinated nerve fibers in the human brain with age. J Comp Neurol. 462(2):144-52. PubMed
  8. ^ Principles of Neural Science, p 324
  9. ^ Vanderwolf et al., 1978
  10. ^ Gray Psychology 2002
  11. ^ Toro et al., 2008
  12. ^ Fisch and Spehlmann's EEG primer
  13. ^ Preissl, Magnetoencephalography
  14. ^ Buxton, Introduction to Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  15. ^ Andrews, Neuropsychology
  16. ^ Manlove, George (February 2005). "Deleted Words". UMaine Today Magazine. http://umainetoday.umaine.edu/issues/v5i1/stroke.html. Retrieved 2007-02-09. 

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    • PLoS ONE: Mapping Human Whole-Brain Structural Networks with Diffusion MRI 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Find this article online Le Bihan D (1995) Diffusion and Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Applications to Functional MRI:.
    • PLoS ONE: Mapping Human Whole-Brain Structural Networks with Diffusion MRI 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human brain.
    • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

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    • Human Brain & Psyche 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.schuelers.com [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 9780521581134. http://books.google.com/books?id=FordF5AN9vwC.
     
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  • Simon, Seymour (1999). The Brain. HarperTrophy. ISBN 0-688-17060-9
  • Thompson, Richard F. (2000). The Brain: An Introduction to Neuroscience. Worth Publishers. ISBN 0-7167-3226-2
  • Toro, R; Perron M, Pike B, Richer L. Veillette S, Pausova Z, Paus T (2008). ."Brain size and folding of the human cerebral cortex.".^ In contrast, the approach presented in this article provides, for the first time, evidence for the presence of small-world topology in the structural connectivity of the human cerebral cortex.
    • PLoS ONE: Mapping Human Whole-Brain Structural Networks with Diffusion MRI 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The size of the modern human adult brain is about 1350 cc.
    • The Function of the Human Brain 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sagittal section of the human brain, showing structures of the cerebellum, brainstem, and cerebral …[Credits : Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
    • human nervous system (anatomy) :: The brain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    .Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 18 (10): 2352–7. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhm261.^ Find this article online Felleman DJ, Van Essen DC (1991) Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex.
    • PLoS ONE: Mapping Human Whole-Brain Structural Networks with Diffusion MRI 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    PMID 18267953. http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/18/10/2352.
     
  • Vanderwolf, CH; Kolb; Cooley (Feb 1978). ."Behavior of the rat after removal of the neocortex and hippocampal formation". Journal of comparative and physiological psychology 92 (1): 156–75. ISSN 0021-9940.^ Experience with other developmental neurotoxicants prompts expectations that changes in behavioral function will be comparable across species, especially humans and rats...

    PMID 564358.
      edit

External links


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Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Human brain.png
Wikipedia-logo.png .Run a search on Human brain at Wikipedia.^ Human brain illustrations available to search from over 15 royalty free EPS vector clip art graphics image publishers.
  • Human brain Stock Illustration Images. 91 Human brain illustrations available to search from over 15 royalty free EPS vector clip art graphics image publishers. 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ The human brain seems to be running hot in all sorts of ways.” .
  • PLoS Biology: Molecular Insights into Human Brain Evolution 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crick (1995) conducted a literature search of the modern scientific findings on the human brain and consciousness.
  • Human Brain & Psyche 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.schuelers.com [Source type: Academic]

.Did you know?^ Most of us know that physical exercise is good for our general health, but did you know that physical exercise is also good for your brain?
  • The Human Brain - Exercise 10 January 2010 13:12 UTC www.fi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  1. It weights about 1.5kg - of wet tissue - like a cabbage

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