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In the scope of humanity, human development is an international and economic development paradigm.

Contents

Scope of human development

Human development is a development model that is about much more than the rise or fall of national incomes. It is about creating an environment in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accordance with their needs and interests, thus bringing the focus back onto people. People are the real wealth of nations. Development is thus about expanding the choices people have, to lead lives that they value and improving the human condition so that people will get the chance to lead full lives.[1] And it is thus about much more than economic growth, which is only a means —if a very important one —of enlarging people’s choices.[2]


Fundamental to enlarging these choices is building human capabilities —the range of things that people can do or be in life. Human development disperses the concentration of the distribution of goods and services that underprivileged people need and center its ideas on human decisions.[3].By investing in people, we enable growth and empower people thus developing human capabilities.[4] The most basic capabilities for human development are to lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the resources and social services, needed for a decent standard of living and to be able to participate in the life of the community. Without these, many choices are simply not available, and many opportunities in life remain inaccessible.[5]


There are four basic pillars of human development: equity, sustainability, production and empowerment. Equity is the idea of fairness for every person; we each have the right to an education and health care. Secondly, sustainability is the view that we all have the right to earn a living that can sustain us and have access to a more even distribution of goods amongst populations. In addition, production is used to show how the government needs more efficient social programs for its people. Lastly, empowerment is providing people who are powerless to be given power such as women.[6]

This way of looking at development, often forgotten in the immediate concern with accumulating commodities and financial wealth, is not new. Philosophers, economists and political leaders have long emphasized human well-being as the purpose, the end, of development. As Aristotle said in ancient Greece, “Wealth is evidently not the good we are seeking, for it is merely useful for the sake of something else.”[7]

Developed countries are seen as those who have a continuous progress in the indexes of life. The countries that have seemed to excel are viewed as having better policies than those who have remained stagnant.[8]

Human rights and human development

In seeking that something else, human development shares a common vision with human rights. The goal is human freedom. Therefore, human development is interconnected with human rights and human freedom because in well-managed prisons life expectancy and literacy as measured by the Human Development Index could be quite high.[9] And in pursuing capabilities and realizing rights, this freedom is vital. People must be free to exercise their choices and to participate in decision-making that affects their lives. Human development and human rights are mutually reinforcing, helping to secure the well-being and dignity of all people, building self-respect and the respect of others.[10]

Health and human development

Development is undermined by health concerns as it both directly and indirectly influences growth to be lower. HIV/AIDS in addition to malaria has negatively influenced development and increased poverty in places such as Africa. Creating adequate health standards are important for the success of development and the abolition of poverty.[11]

Human Development Report

The Human Development Report (HDR) is released by the United Nations and contains the Human Development Index. There is not only a global Human Development Report but there are regionla and national reports as well that specifically show certain areas. Within the report there are four main indexes: Human Development Index, Gender-related Development Index, Gender Empowerment Measure and the Human Poverty Index.[12]

The Human development Index is a way for people and nations to see the policy flaws of regions and countries. Although the releasing of this information is believed to encourage countries to alter their policies, there is no evidence demonstrating changes nor is there any motivation for countries to do so.[13]

Human Development Index

HDI trends
     OECD      Central and eastern Europe, and the CIS      Latin America and the Caribbean      East Asia      Arab States      South Asia      Sub-Saharan Africa

The Human Development Index (HDI) is the normalized measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, standard of living, and GDP per capita for countries worldwide. It is an improved standard means of measuring well-being, especially child welfare and thus human development.[14] Although this index makes an effort to simplify human development, it is much more complex than any index or set of indicators.[15]

The 2007 report showed a small increase in world HDI in comparison with last year's report. This rise was fueled by a general improvement in the developing world, especially of the least developed countries group. This marked improvement at the bottom was offset with a decrease in HDI of high income countries.

Human Poverty Index

In order to reflect the gaps in the Human Development Index, the United Nations came out with the Human Poverty Index (HPI) in 1997. The HPI measures the deficiencies in the three indexes of the human development index: long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living. The HPI is meant to provide a broader view of human development and is adapted to developed countries to reveal social exclusion.[16]

United Nations Millennium Development Goals

In September 2000, the United Nations came up with the eight millennium development goals. The eight millennium development goals are: - eradicate extreme poverty and hunger - achieve universal primary education - promote gender equality and empower women - reduce child mortality - improve maternal health - combat HIV/AIDS and other diseases - ensure environmental sustainability - develop a global partnership for development The United Nations made a commitment to accomplish these goals by 2015 and thus make an attempt to promote human development.[17]

See also

References

  1. ^ Streeten, Paul. "Human Development: Means and Ends." Human Development.84.2(May 1994): 232-237.
  2. ^ "Human Development - Human Development Reports (UNDP)." 22 October 2009 <http://hdr.undp.org/en/humandev/>.
  3. ^ Srinivasan, T.N. "Human Development: A New Paradigm or Reinvention of the Wheel?" Human Development. 84.2(May 1994): 238-243
  4. ^ "The Human Development Foundation - The Human Development Concept." 22 October 2009 <http://www.hdf.com/dotnetnuke/humandevelopment/Introduction.aspx><references/>.
  5. ^ "Human Development - Human Development Reports (UNDP)." 22 October 2009 <http://hdr.undp.org/en/humandev/>.
  6. ^ "The Human Development Foundation - The Human Development Concept." 22 October 2009 <http://www.hdf.com/dotnetnuke/humandevelopment/Introduction.aspx>.
  7. ^ "Human Development - Human Development Reports (UNDP)." 22 October 2009 <http://hdr.undp.org/en/humandev/>.
  8. ^ Srinivasan, T.N. "Human Development: A New Paradigm or Reinvention of the Wheel?" Human Development. 84.2(May 1994): 238-243.
  9. ^ Streeten, Paul. "Human Development: Means and Ends." Human Development.84.2(May 1994): 232-237.
  10. ^ "Human Development - Human Development Reports (UNDP)." 22 October 2009 <http://hdr.undp.org/en/humandev/>.
  11. ^ "World Health Organization- Poverty and Development." 22 October 2009 http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/85/10/07-045955/en/index.html.
  12. ^ "Human Development - Human Development Reports (UNDP)." 22 October 2009 <http://hdr.undp.org/en/humandev/>.
  13. ^ Srinivasan, T.N. "Human Development: A New Paradigm or Reinvention of the Wheel?" Human Development. 84.2(May 1994): 238-243.
  14. ^ "World Health Organization- Poverty and Development." 22 October 2009 http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/85/10/07-045955/en/index.html.
  15. ^ Streeten, Paul. "Human Development: Means and Ends." Human Development.84.2(May 1994): 232-237.
  16. ^ "World Health Organization- Poverty and Development." 22 October 2009 http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/85/10/07-045955/en/index.html.
  17. ^ "United Nations Millenium Development Goals." 22 October 2009 <http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/index.shtml>.
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