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.Human height is the measurement of the length of the human body, from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head, when standing erect.^ Humans average 6 feet in height and weigh about 180 pounds, with men noticeably taller and heavier than women.
  • Human - WoWWiki - Your guide to the World of Warcraft 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.wowwiki.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Human engineering concepts have revealed that the stimulation of the pituitary gland can be effected by the use of a special, computer designed height stimulator at the feet.
  • Grow Taller & Increase Height By 2-3 Inches Secret 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gettingtall.com [Source type: General]

^ Average human height as a measure of wellness of individuals and as a measure of the degree of threat to the planet .
  • Challenge of Nonviolent Population Decimation: Reducing effects of overpopulation on resources and climate change by major reduction in the height of people 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.laetusinpraesens.org [Source type: Academic]

.When populations share genetic background and environmental factors, average height is frequently characteristic within the group.^ Average height is increasingly used as a measure of the health and wellness (standard of living and quality of life) of populations.
  • Challenge of Nonviolent Population Decimation: Reducing effects of overpopulation on resources and climate change by major reduction in the height of people 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.laetusinpraesens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Do they enable understanding of the lower ecological footprint of populations of lower average height?
  • Challenge of Nonviolent Population Decimation: Reducing effects of overpopulation on resources and climate change by major reduction in the height of people 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.laetusinpraesens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Average height increase is therefore a measure of the damage of populations to the environment.
  • Challenge of Nonviolent Population Decimation: Reducing effects of overpopulation on resources and climate change by major reduction in the height of people 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.laetusinpraesens.org [Source type: Academic]

.Exceptional height variation (around 20% deviation from average) within such a population is usually due to gigantism or dwarfism; which are medical conditions due to specific genes or to endocrine abnormalities[citation needed].^ I was one of the tallest in my school and out of my year the vast majority of the pupils were around your height, so your average.
  • Am I average height and weight for a 16 year old? - relationship advice 11 September 2009 4:35 UTC www.dearcupid.org [Source type: General]

^ Observed association signals in intergenic regions may be due to regulatory variants of nearby genes.
  • PLoS Genetics: Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Scans for Human Adult Stature Identifies Novel Loci and Associations with Measures of Skeletal Frame Size 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Average height is increasingly used as a measure of the health and wellness (standard of living and quality of life) of populations.
  • Challenge of Nonviolent Population Decimation: Reducing effects of overpopulation on resources and climate change by major reduction in the height of people 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.laetusinpraesens.org [Source type: Academic]

.In regions of extreme poverty or prolonged warfare, environmental factors like malnutrition during childhood or adolescence may account for marked reductions in adult stature even without the presence of any of these medical conditions.^ The increase in body height in these people appears to have reached a plateau, suggesting the ubiquitous presence of an optimal environment in which genetic factors may have exerted a particularly strong influence on human growth.
  • A genome-wide association study of northwestern Europeans involves the C-type natriuretic peptide signaling pathway in the etiology of human height variation 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In these people, adult height has potentially stabilized at a biologically determined maximum, suggesting environmental conditions that are more homogenous than in populations with an ongoing secular trend in height, such as the southern Europeans ( 13 , 14 ).
  • A genome-wide association study of northwestern Europeans involves the C-type natriuretic peptide signaling pathway in the etiology of human height variation 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "Growth plates may be like springs that, during standing and walking, experience compression and tension," said Dr Wilsman .
  • Height Increase Questions & Answers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC easyheight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is one reason that immigrant populations from regions of extreme poverty to regions of plenty may show an increase in stature, despite sharing the same gene pool.^ Is a "developing country" in effect assumed to be one in which the body mass of individuals is expected to increase, whether or not the total body mass of the population increases?
  • Challenge of Nonviolent Population Decimation: Reducing effects of overpopulation on resources and climate change by major reduction in the height of people 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.laetusinpraesens.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Contents

Average height around the world

.The average height for each sex within a population is significantly different, with adult males being (on average) taller than adult females.^ Over the last 50 years, however, average human body height has increased much less in northern than in southern Europe ( 13 , 14 ).
  • A genome-wide association study of northwestern Europeans involves the C-type natriuretic peptide signaling pathway in the etiology of human height variation 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Since Olympic gymnasts do a lot of hanging, shouldn’t they be taller than average?
  • Height Increase Questions & Answers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC easyheight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Interactions between GH and sex steroids (especially androgens) express an anabolic effect on muscle mass, bone mineralization and body proportion which constitutes the male and the female adult body composition.
  • Height Increase Questions & Answers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC easyheight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Women ordinarily reach their greatest height at a younger age than men, as puberty generally occurs earlier in women than men.^ Recent studies have shown that as many as 49% of all men and women are unhappy with their height.
  • Grow Taller & Increase Height By 2-3 Inches Secret 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gettingtall.com [Source type: General]

^ The Chingford study includes 1,003 women derived from the age/sex register of a large general practice in North London, who are representative of the general UK population in terms of weight, height and smoking characteristics [44] .
  • PLoS Genetics: Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Scans for Human Adult Stature Identifies Novel Loci and Associations with Measures of Skeletal Frame Size 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I am normally taller than most of my friends my age though so i don't know how 'average' it is but you are an ideal height and weight in my opinion.
  • Am I average height and weight for a 16 year old? - relationship advice 11 September 2009 4:35 UTC www.dearcupid.org [Source type: General]

.Vertical growth stops when the long bones stop lengthening, which occurs with the closure of epiphyseal plates.^ They put sensors into the leg bones of baby lambs and confirmed that most growth spurts occurred when the animals were at rest or sleeping.
  • Height Increase Questions & Answers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC easyheight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Speaking of growth spurt, we’re NOT talking about shin bones which CANNOT be lengthened (when growth plates have closed).
  • Height Increase Questions & Answers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC easyheight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The researchers believe that when the animal is at rest, pressure on the bones involved with growth - the growth plates - is eased, allowing them to elongate.
  • Height Increase Questions & Answers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC easyheight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These plates are bone growth centers that disappear ("close") under the hormonal surges brought about by the completion of puberty.^ Human growth hormone supplement given to children who suffer with abnormally slow bone growth to enable them to grow taller.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are some bad HGH facts and also some true facts about the human growth hormone.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is there any CONCRETE evidence about the possibility of growing taller by thickening the spine even though growth plates have closed?
  • Height Increase Questions & Answers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC easyheight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Adult height for one sex in a particular ethnic group follows more or less a normal distribution.^ Adult height for one sex in a particular ethnic group follows more or less a Gaussian distribution (bell curve) but with some individuals lying several standard deviation s away from the mean.

^ (ISS), which means that they are shorter than 98.8% of other children of the same age and sex; they are growing at a rate that is not likely to allow them to reach normal adult height; and their growth plates have not closed.
  • GENOTROPIN ® Official Site – Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.genotropin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calculations for the height/weight ratio for teenagers can be based on everything from the sex of a particular teenager to individual body types and lifestyles.
  • Average Height Weight for Teenagers|Parenting Advice World 11 September 2009 4:35 UTC parentingadviceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Adult height between populations often differs significantly, as presented in detail in the chart below.^ The height difference between him and Kurt Russell isn't as radical as I first thought.
  • Mel Gibson Height - how tall 15 September 2009 3:39 UTC www.celebheights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vertebral column length (spine) was calculated as the difference between suprasternal height and lower limb length, thus excluding the cervical region.
  • PLoS Genetics: Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Scans for Human Adult Stature Identifies Novel Loci and Associations with Measures of Skeletal Frame Size 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Femoral length was calculated as the difference between the lower limb length and tibial height.
  • PLoS Genetics: Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Scans for Human Adult Stature Identifies Novel Loci and Associations with Measures of Skeletal Frame Size 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

.For example, the average height of women from the Czech Republic is currently greater than that of men from Malawi.^ Over the last 50 years, however, average human body height has increased much less in northern than in southern Europe ( 13 , 14 ).
  • A genome-wide association study of northwestern Europeans involves the C-type natriuretic peptide signaling pathway in the etiology of human height variation 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent studies have shown that as many as 49% of all men and women are unhappy with their height.
  • Grow Taller & Increase Height By 2-3 Inches Secret 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gettingtall.com [Source type: General]

^ I am normally taller than most of my friends my age though so i don't know how 'average' it is but you are an ideal height and weight in my opinion.
  • Am I average height and weight for a 16 year old? - relationship advice 11 September 2009 4:35 UTC www.dearcupid.org [Source type: General]

This may be due to genetic differences, to childhood lifestyle differences (nutrition, sleep patterns, physical labor) or to both.
.At 2.57 m (8 ft 5 in), Leonid Stadnyk, of Zhytomyr Oblast, Ukraine, is believed to be the world's tallest living man, although his height is disputed because of his refusal to be measured.^ It’s difficult to measure precise attendance because admission to the festival was free, Erlich said, although boarding and sailing tickets were sold.
  • Tall Ships Tacoma 2008 - TacomaScene.com 15 September 2009 3:39 UTC www.tacomascene.com [Source type: News]

^ Average height is increasingly used as a measure of the health and wellness (standard of living and quality of life) of populations.
  • Challenge of Nonviolent Population Decimation: Reducing effects of overpopulation on resources and climate change by major reduction in the height of people 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.laetusinpraesens.org [Source type: Academic]

.The current proven tallest man is Sultan Kösen of Turkey who stands at 2.47 m (8 ft 1 in), overtaking previous world record holder Bao Xishun of Inner Mongolia, China at 2.36 m (7 ft 9 in) (interestingly, He Pingping, the former shortest man in the world, is also from Inner Mongolia).^ Jon Henley asks the question Who is the Shortest World Leader ( The Guardian , 4th March 2008).
  • Challenge of Nonviolent Population Decimation: Reducing effects of overpopulation on resources and climate change by major reduction in the height of people 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.laetusinpraesens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The shortest adult noted in the Who's Who of Short People is Gul Mohammed (1957-1997): 1.87 ft / 57 cms.
  • Challenge of Nonviolent Population Decimation: Reducing effects of overpopulation on resources and climate change by major reduction in the height of people 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.laetusinpraesens.org [Source type: Academic]

.The tallest man in modern history was Robert Pershing Wadlow from Illinois in the United States, who was born in 1918 and stood 2.72 m (8 ft 11 in) at the time of his death in 1940. Until her death in 2008, Sandy Allen was the tallest woman in the world at 2.32 m (7 ft 7+12 in).^ The first tall fescue variety developed in the United States was Alta, selected in 1918 in Oregon.
  • Tall Fescue - PNW Extension Publication 15 September 2009 3:39 UTC extension.oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was built in Germany in 1936 and taken by the United States as a war prize after World War II. .
  • Tall Ships Tacoma 2008 - TacomaScene.com 15 September 2009 3:39 UTC www.tacomascene.com [Source type: News]

^ Delivery time: United States (7-19 Days).
  • Grow Taller & Increase Height By 2-3 Inches Secret 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gettingtall.com [Source type: General]

.Currently Yao Defen of China is claimed to be the tallest woman in the world at 2.33 m (7 ft 7+12 in), but this is not confirmed by the Guinness Book of World Records.^ Do you think China's human rights record is taken seriously on the world stage?
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Human rights as Australian foreign policy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

.The maximal height that an individual attains in adulthood is not maintained throughout a long life.^ Body height is determined by several biological processes that occur throughout the life of an individual and involve both normal and pathological growth.
  • PLoS Genetics: Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Scans for Human Adult Stature Identifies Novel Loci and Associations with Measures of Skeletal Frame Size 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

.November 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Depending on sex, genetic, and environmental factors, shrinkage of stature may begin in middle age in some individuals but is universal in the extremely aged.^ Genome-wide linkage screen for stature and body mass index in 3.032 families: evidence for sex- and population-specific genetic effects.
  • A genome-wide association study of northwestern Europeans involves the C-type natriuretic peptide signaling pathway in the etiology of human height variation 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The GOOD study was initiated to determine both environmental and genetic factors involved in the regulation of bone and fat mass.
  • A genome-wide association study of northwestern Europeans involves the C-type natriuretic peptide signaling pathway in the etiology of human height variation 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Silventoinen K., Kaprio J., Lahelma E., Koskenvuo M. Relative effect of genetic and environmental factors on body height: differences across birth cohorts among Finnish men and women.
  • A genome-wide association study of northwestern Europeans involves the C-type natriuretic peptide signaling pathway in the etiology of human height variation 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This decrease in height is due to such factors as decreased height of inter-vertebral discs because of desiccation, atrophy of soft tissues, and postural changes secondary to degenerative disease.^ Subsequent decreases in peak body height throughout life are mainly the consequence of vertebral bone deformities such as crush fractures (osteoporosis) and cartilage degeneration (osteoarthritis).
  • PLoS Genetics: Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Scans for Human Adult Stature Identifies Novel Loci and Associations with Measures of Skeletal Frame Size 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

.Below are average adult heights by country/geographical region.^ In summary, this study extended by four the list of loci with confirmed association to adult height, which now comprises 47 independent regions.
  • PLoS Genetics: Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Scans for Human Adult Stature Identifies Novel Loci and Associations with Measures of Skeletal Frame Size 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

.(The original studies and sources should be consulted for details on methodology and the exact populations measured, surveyed, or considered.^ On the other hand, the inheritance of quantitative traits could not be used to predict outcomes, only average estimates measured in large population studies.
  • Human Genetics - Multifactorial Inheritance 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both the sources and the experimental methodology followed in this study open new doors to the study of a little-known period of the Spanish Anthropometric History (1750-1850).
  • Study shows the factors which have most influenced human height throughout history 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC prensa.ugr.es [Source type: Academic]

^ For the study to be scientific, the results should be compared with the size and height variations amongst isolated populations of animals - NOT the species as a whole.
  • Human Size Consistency Baffles Scientists | Wired Science | Wired.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)
Country/Region Average male height Average female height Sample population /
age range
Methodology Year Source
Argentina 1.745 m (5 ft 8+12 in) 1.610 m (5 ft 3+12 in) 19 Measured 1998–2001 [1]
Australia 1.748 m (5 ft 9 in) 1.634 m (5 ft 4+12 in) 18+ Measured 1995 [2]
Australia 1.784 m (5 ft 10 in) 1.645 m (5 ft 5 in) 18–24 Measured 1995 [2]
Austria 1.796 m (5 ft 10+12 in) 1.671 m (5 ft 6 in) 21-25 Self Reported 1997–2002 [3]
Azerbaijan 1.718 m (5 ft 7+12 in) 1.654 m (5 ft 5 in) 16+ Measured 2005 [4]
Bahrain 1.651 m (5 ft 5 in) 1.542 m (5 ft +12 in) 19+ Measured 2002 [5]
Belgium 1.795 m (5 ft 10+12 in) 1.678 m (5 ft 6 in) 21-25 Self Reported 1997–2002 [3]
Brazil 1.690 m (5 ft 6+12 in) 1.580 m (5 ft 2 in) 21–65 Measured 2003 [6][7]
Cameroon 1.706 m (5 ft 7 in) 1.613 m (5 ft 3+12 in) Urban adults Measured 2003 [8]
Canada 1.736 m (5 ft 8+12 in) 1.595 m (5 ft 3 in) 25+ Measured 2005 [9]
Canada 1.760 m (5 ft 9+12 in) 1.633 m (5 ft 4+12 in) 25-44 Measured 2005 [9]
Chile 1.690 m (5 ft 6+12 in) 1.550 m (5 ft 1 in) 17+ Measured 2008 [10][11]
China (PRC) 1.702 m (5 ft 7 in) 1.586 m (5 ft 2+12 in) Urban, 17 Measured 2002 [12]
China (PRC) 1.663 m (5 ft 5+12 in) 1.570 m (5 ft 2 in) Rural, 17 Measured 2002 [12]
Colombia 1.706 m (5 ft 7 in) 1.587 m (5 ft 2+12 in) 18–22 Measured 2002 [13]
Côte d’Ivoire 1.701 m (5 ft 7 in) 1.591 m (5 ft 2+12 in) 25–29 Measured 1985–1987 [14]
Denmark 1.830 m (6 ft 0 in) 1.665 m (5 ft 5+12 in) Conscripts, 18-19 Measured 2006 [15][16]
Estonia 1.791 m (5 ft 10+12 in) 17 2003 [17]
Finland 1.800 m (5 ft 11 in) 1.660 m (5 ft 5+12 in) 25–34 Self-reported 2004 [18]
France 1.741 m (5 ft 8+12 in) 1.619 m (5 ft 3+12 in) 20+ Measured 2001 [19]
France 1.770 m (5 ft 9+12 in) 1.646 m (5 ft 5 in) 20–29 Measured 2001 [19]
Ghana 1.695 m (5 ft 6+12 in) 1.585 m (5 ft 2+12 in) 25–29 Measured 1987–1989 [14]
Gambia 1.680 m (5 ft 6 in) 1.578 m (5 ft 2 in) Rural, 21–49 Measured 1950–1974 [20]
Germany 1.780 m (5 ft 10 in) 1.650 m (5 ft 5 in) Adults Self-reported 2005 [21]
Germany 1.810 m (5 ft 11+12 in) 1.670 m (5 ft 5+12 in) 18–19 Self-reported 2005 [21]
Greece 1.781 m (5 ft 10 in) 18-26 Measured 2006 [22]
Hungary 1.760 m (5 ft 9+12 in) 1.640 m (5 ft 4+12 in) Adults Measured 2000s [23]
India 1.645 m (5 ft 5 in) 1.520 m (4 ft 12 in) 20 Measured 2005–2006 [24][25]
India 1.612 m (5 ft 3+12 in) 1.521 m (4 ft 12 in) Rural, 17+ Measured 2007 [26]
Indonesia 1.580 m (5 ft 2 in) 1.470 m (4 ft 10 in) 50+ Self-reported 1997 [27]
IndonesiaEast Java 1.624 m (5 ft 4 in) 1.513 m (4 ft 11+12 in) Urban, 19–23 Measured 1995 [28]
Iran 1.703 m (5 ft 7 in) 1.572 m (5 ft 2 in) 21+ Measured 2005 [29]
Iran 1.734 m (5 ft 8+12 in) 1.598 m (5 ft 3 in) 21-25 Measured 2005 [29]
Iraq - Baghdad 1.654 m (5 ft 5 in) 1.558 m (5 ft 1+12 in) 18–44 Measured 1999–2000 [30]
Ireland 1.774 m (5 ft 10 in) 1.644 m (5 ft 4+12 in) 21-25 Self Reported 1997–2002 [3]
Israel 1.756 m (5 ft 9 in) 1.628 m (5 ft 4 in) 21 Measured 1980–2000 [31]
Italy 1.760 m (5 ft 9+12 in) 1.650 m (5 ft 5 in) 18-40 Measured 2005 [32]
Jamaica 1.718 m (5 ft 7+12 in) 1.608 m (5 ft 3+12 in) 25–74 Measured 1994–1996
Japan 1.715 m (5 ft 7+12 in) 1.580 m (5 ft 2 in) 19 Measured 2006 [34]
Lithuania 1.763 m (5 ft 9+12 in) Conscripts, 19–25 Measured 2006 [35]
Malaysia 1.647 m (5 ft 5 in) 1.533 m (5 ft +12 in) 20+ Measured 1996 [36]
Malta 1.699 m (5 ft 7 in) 1.599 m (5 ft 3 in) Adults Self-reported 2003 [37]
Malta 1.752 m (5 ft 9 in) 1.638 m (5 ft 4+12 in) 25–34 Self-reported 2003 [37]
Malawi 1.660 m (5 ft 5+12 in) 1.550 m (5 ft 1 in) Urban, 16–60 Measured 2000 [38]
Mali 1.713 m (5 ft 7+12 in) 1.604 m (5 ft 3 in) Rural adults Measured 1992 [39]
MexicoMorelos 1.670 m (5 ft 5+12 in) 1.550 m (5 ft 1 in) Adults Self-reported 1998 [40]
Mexico 1.630 m (5 ft 4 in) 1.510 m (4 ft 11+12 in) 50+ Measured 2001 [41]
Mongolia 1.684 m (5 ft 6+12 in) 1.577 m (5 ft 2 in) 25–34 Measured 2006 [42]
Netherlands 1.808 m (5 ft 11 in) 1.678 m (5 ft 6 in) 20+ Self-reported 2008 [43]
Netherlands 1.843 m (6 ft +12 in) 1.702 m (5 ft 7 in) 25–34 Self-reported 2008 [43]
New Zealand 1.770 m (5 ft 9+12 in) 1.650 m (5 ft 5 in) 19–45 Estimates 1993–2007 [44]
New Zealand 1.745 m (5 ft 8+12 in) 1.630 m (5 ft 4 in) 45–65 Estimates 1993–2007 [44]
Nigeria 1.638 m (5 ft 4+12 in) 1.578 m (5 ft 2 in) 18–74 Measured 1994–1996
Norway 1.797 m (5 ft 10+12 in) 1.672 m (5 ft 6 in) Conscripts, 18–19 Measured 2008 [45]
Peru 1.640 m (5 ft 4+12 in) 1.510 m (4 ft 11+12 in) 20+ Measured 2005 [46]
Philippines 1.619 m (5 ft 3+12 in) 1.502 m (4 ft 11 in) 20+ Measured 2003 [47]
Philippines 1.634 m (5 ft 4+12 in) 1.517 m (4 ft 11+12 in) 20-39 Measured 2003 [47]
Portugal 1.728 m (5 ft 8 in) Conscripts, 21 Measured 1998–99 [48]
Singapore 1.706 m (5 ft 7 in) 1.600 m (5 ft 3 in) 17–25 2003 [49]
South Africa 1.690 m (5 ft 6+12 in) 1.590 m (5 ft 2+12 in) 25–34 Measured 1998 [50]
South Korea 1.739 m (5 ft 8+12 in) 1.611 m (5 ft 3+12 in) 19 Measured 2006 [51]
Spain 1.761 m (5 ft 9+12 in) 1.655 m (5 ft 5 in) 21-25 Self Reported 1997–2002 [3]
Spain 1.780 m (5 ft 10 in) 1.650 m (5 ft 5 in) 21 Measured 1998–2000 [52]
Sweden 1.779 m (5 ft 10 in) 1.646 m (5 ft 5 in) 20–74 [53]
Sweden 1.815 m (5 ft 11+12 in) 1.668 m (5 ft 5+12 in) 20–29 Measured 2008 [54]
Switzerland 1.754 m (5 ft 9 in) 1.640 m (5 ft 4+12 in) 20–74 [53]
Switzerland 1.781 m (5 ft 10 in) Conscripts, 18–21 Measured 2005 [55]
Thailand 1.675 m (5 ft 6 in) 1.573 m (5 ft 2 in) STOU university student Self-reported 1991–1995 [56]
TurkeyAnkara 1.740 m (5 ft 8+12 in) 1.589 m (5 ft 2+12 in) 18-59 Measured 2004–2006 [57]
TurkeyAnkara 1.761 m (5 ft 9+12 in) 1.620 m (5 ft 4 in) 18-29 Measured 2004–2006 [57]
TurkeyEdirne 1.737 m (5 ft 8+12 in) 1.614 m (5 ft 3+12 in) 17 Measured 2001 [58]
United Kingdom 1.772 m (5 ft 10 in) 1.634 m (5 ft 4+12 in) 25-34 Measured 2007 [59]Health Survey for England 2007
United Kingdom 1.753 m (5 ft 9 in) 1.616 m (5 ft 3+12 in) Adults Measured 2007 [59]Health Survey for England 2007
U.S. 1.763 m (5 ft 9+12 in) 1.622 m (5 ft 4 in) All Americans, 20+ Measured 2003–2006 [60]
U.S. 1.776 m (5 ft 10 in) 1.632 m (5 ft 4+12 in) All Americans, 20–29 Measured 2003–2006 [60]
U.S. 1.789 m (5 ft 10+12 in) 1.638 m (5 ft 4+12 in) White Americans, 20–39 Measured 2003–2006 [60]
U.S. 1.780 m (5 ft 10 in) 1.632 m (5 ft 4+12 in) Black Americans, 20–39 Measured 2003–2006 [60]
U.S. 1.706 m (5 ft 7 in) 1.587 m (5 ft 2+12 in) Mexican-Americans, 20–39 Measured 2003–2006 [60]
Vietnam 1.65 m (5 ft 5 in) 1.53 m (5 ft 0 in) Adolescents Measured 2004 [61]
Vietnam 1.621 m (5 ft 4 in) 1.522 m (4 ft 12 in) 25–29 Measured 1992–1993 [14]

Determinants of growth and height

An example of humans' growth velocity under optimal conditions (Courtesy: Richard Steckel)
The study of height is known as auxology. .Growth has long been recognized as a measure of the health of individuals, hence part of the reasoning for the use of growth charts.^ How long should I use MF3 supplement to see noticeable growth?
  • Height Increase Questions & Answers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC easyheight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For individuals, as indicators of health problems, growth trends are tracked for significant deviations and growth is also monitored for significant deficiency from genetic expectations.^ For individuals, as indicators of health problems, growth trends are tracked for significant deviations and growth is also monitored for significant deficiency from genetic expectations.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Human height 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Growth and height have long been recognized as a measure of the health and wellness of individuals, hence part of the reasoning for the use of growth charts.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Human height 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The deficiency in health caused by the dropping or absence of human growth hormone can be aided by artificial growth hormones.
  • HGH and HGH side effects 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hgh247.com [Source type: General]

.Genetics is a major factor in determining the height of individuals, though it is far less influential in regard to populations.^ Genetics is a major factor in determining the height of individuals, though it is far less influential in regard to populations.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Human height 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This suggests that height has approached a biologically determined maximum in the north, and that this leveling off has occurred against an optimal and comparatively homogeneous environmental background as regards growth-relevant factors ( 13 , 14 ).
  • A genome-wide association study of northwestern Europeans involves the C-type natriuretic peptide signaling pathway in the etiology of human height variation 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Like many human traits, an individual’s height is determined by a mix of genes and environment.
  • Increase Height | MY LIFT KITS 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.myliftkits.com [Source type: General]

.Average height is increasingly used as a measure of the health and wellness (standard of living and quality of life) of populations.^ Height measurements: Height and weight were measured using standard anthropometric techniques.
  • PLoS Genetics: Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Scans for Human Adult Stature Identifies Novel Loci and Associations with Measures of Skeletal Frame Size 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Average height is increasingly used as a measure of the health and wellness (standard of living and quality of life) of populations.
  • Challenge of Nonviolent Population Decimation: Reducing effects of overpopulation on resources and climate change by major reduction in the height of people 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.laetusinpraesens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Average height increase is therefore a measure of the damage of populations to the environment.
  • Challenge of Nonviolent Population Decimation: Reducing effects of overpopulation on resources and climate change by major reduction in the height of people 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.laetusinpraesens.org [Source type: Academic]

.Attributed as a significant reason for the trend of increasing height in parts of Europe is the egalitarian populations where proper medical care and adequate nutrition are relatively equally distributed.^ You're telling me that 2 cm increase in height ain't significant..
  • Height Increase Questions & Answers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC easyheight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Changes in diet (nutrition) and a general rise in quality of health care and standard of living are the cited factors in the Asian populations.^ We can manually control their living conditions and eliminate the negative factors for their health.
  • Height Increase Questions & Answers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC easyheight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Average height in the United States has remained essentially stagnant since the 1950s even as the racial and ethnic background of residents has shifted. .Severe malnutrition is known to cause stunted growth in North Korean, portions of African, certain historical European, and other populations.^ Severe malnutrition is known to cause stunted growth in North Korean, portions of African, certain historical European, and other populations.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Human height 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ European population, which is well known for its different genetic makeup compared with the general population because of a long history of genetic isolation.
  • Epistasis between Loci on Chromosomes 2 and 6 Influences Human Height -- Liu et al. 91 (10): 3821 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To the Caucasian type belong: European (except the Lapps and Finns), Western Asiatics, and North Africans.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Human Race 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diet (in addition to needed nutrients; such things as junk food and attendant health problems such as obesity), exercise, fitness, pollution exposure, sleep patterns, climate (see Allen's rule and Bergmann's Rule for example), and even happiness (psychological well-being) are other factors that can affect growth and final height.^ Medical Animals can be controlled such as the raising environment, food and health control.
  • Height Increase Questions & Answers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC easyheight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indirect effects are mediated primarily by a insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a hormone that is secreted from the liver and other tissues in response to growth hormone.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms of human growth hormone (HGH) reduction include increased body fat, increased anxiety, social isolation, poor general health, and lack of positive well being.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
Sir Francis Galton's (1889) data showing the relationship between offspring height (928 individuals) as a function of mean parent height (205 sets of parents). The correlation was 0.57.
.Height is, like other phenotypic traits, determined by a combination of genetics and environmental factors.^ Indirect effects are mediated primarily by a insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a hormone that is secreted from the liver and other tissues in response to growth hormone.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Genetic potential plus nutrition minus stressors is a basic formula.^ Genetic potential plus nutrition minus stressors is a basic formula.

.Genetically speaking, the heights of mother and son and of father and daughter correlate, suggesting that a short mother will more likely bear a shorter son, and tall fathers will have tall daughters.^ Figure 12 shows the correlation between the father's height and the height of the son.
  • Human Genetics - Multifactorial Inheritance 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genetically speaking, the heights of mother and son and of father and daughter correlate, suggesting that a short mother will more likely bear a shorter son, and tall fathers will have tall daughters.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ On average, the son will have more "tall" genes than his father.
  • Human Genetics - Multifactorial Inheritance 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62] .Humans grow fastest (other than in the womb) as infants and toddlers (birth to roughly age 2) and then during the pubertal growth spurt.^ Human growth hormone supplement given to children who suffer with abnormally slow bone growth to enable them to grow taller.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A slower steady growth velocity occurs throughout childhood between these periods; and some slow, steady, declining growth after the pubertal growth spurt levels off is common.^ Some of this growth occurs after the growth spurt of the long bones has ceased or slowed.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Human height 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Human height - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Academic]

^ A slower steady growth velocity occurs throughout childhood between these periods; and some slow, steady, declining growth after the pubertal growth spurt levels off is common.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Human height 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Human height - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Academic]

^ The pregnant mother's health is important as gestation is itself a critical period for an embryo / fetus , though some problems affecting height during this period are resolved by catch-up growth assuming childhood conditions are good.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Human height 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Academic]

.These are also critical periods where stressors such as malnutrition (or even severe child neglect) have the greatest effect.^ These are also critical periods where stressors such as malnutrition (or even severe child neglect) have the greatest effect.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Human height 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Human height - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Academic]

.Conversely, if conditions are optimal then growth potential is maximized; and also there is catch-up growth – which can be significant – for those experiencing poor conditions when those conditions improve.^ ModelCo Lash + Brow Growth Stimulator $42 “Wake up to wow lashes and brows with ModelCo Lash + Brow Growth Stimulator to condition and restore existing hair while enhancing new hair growth.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.Moreover, the health of a mother throughout her life, especially during her critical periods, and of course during pregnancy, has a role.^ Moreover, the health of a mother throughout her life, especially during her critical periods, and of course during pregnancy , has a role.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Human height 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Human height - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Academic]

^ The pregnant mother's health is important as gestation is itself a critical period for an embryo / fetus , though some problems affecting height during this period are resolved by catch-up growth assuming childhood conditions are good.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Human height 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The pregnant mother's health is important as gestation is itself is a critical period for an embryo / fetus , though some problems affecting height during this period are resolved by catch-up growth assuming childhood conditions are good.
  • Human height - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Academic]

.A healthier child and adult develops a body that is better able to provide optimal prenatal conditions.^ A healthier child and adult develops a body that is better able to provide optimal prenatal conditions.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Human height 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, with a good diet, you can provide your body with the energy it needs to keep you healthy and replenish depleted sources.
  • Grow Taller tips and Height Increase Tricks 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC omgblog.org [Source type: General]

.The pregnant mother's health is important as gestation is itself a critical period for an embryo/fetus, though some problems affecting height during this period are resolved by catch-up growth assuming childhood conditions are good.^ During the 8-12 month period with the lumbar routine, you may expect 1 to 1.5 cm in cartilage growth plus an additional maybe 0.5 to 1 cm in muscle growth..
  • Height Increase Questions & Answers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC easyheight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ModelCo Lash + Brow Growth Stimulator $42 “Wake up to wow lashes and brows with ModelCo Lash + Brow Growth Stimulator to condition and restore existing hair while enhancing new hair growth.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, there is an accumulative generation effect such that nutrition and health over generations influences the height of descendants to varying degrees.^ While factors such as nutrition influence height differences, much of that variation depends on genes.
  • The Genetic Dimension Of Height And Health - Science News 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.sciencenews.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, there is an accumulative generation effect such that nutrition and health over generations influences the height of descendants to varying degrees.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Human height - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Academic]

^ The reasons for this association appear to include that height serves as a biomarker of nutritional status or general mental and physical health during development, that common genetic factors may influence both height and intelligence, and that both height and intelligence are affected by adverse early environmental exposures.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

The age of the mother also has some influence on the her child's height. .Studies in modern times have observed a gradual increase in height with maternal age.^ We've said it many times on the website that even the manufacturer & inventor of MFiii has never claimed that this supplement will help with height increase.
  • Height Increase Questions & Answers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC easyheight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63][64][65]
The precise relationship between genetics and environment is complex and uncertain. .Human height is 60%-80% heritable, according to several twin studies[66] and has been considered polygenic since the Mendelian-biometrician debate a hundred years ago.^ The treatment of human growth hormone (HGH) deficiency usually is carried out over several years, until the child achieves an acceptable adult height or maximum growth potential is reached.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67] .The only gene so far attributed with normal height variation is HMGA2.^ The only gene so far attributed with normal height variation is HMGA2 .
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Many genes work together to create normal variations in height.
  • The Genetic Dimension Of Height And Health - Science News 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.sciencenews.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Both these functions do not have an obvious association with height, which may be mediated by variants in nearby genes.
  • PLoS Genetics: Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Scans for Human Adult Stature Identifies Novel Loci and Associations with Measures of Skeletal Frame Size 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

This is only one of many, as each copy of the allele concerned confers an additional 0.4 cm (0.16 in) accounting for just 0.3% of population variance.[66]
The Nilotic peoples of Sudan such as the Dinka have been described as the tallest in the world, with the males in some communities having average heights of 1.9 m (6 ft 3 in) and females at 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in).[68] The Dinka are characterized as having long legs, narrow bodies and short trunks, an adaptation to hot weather.[69] .However, a 1995 study casts doubt on the claim of extraordinary height in Dinka, which after studying the average height of Dinka males in one location, listed the actual number as 1.76 m (5 ft 9+12 in).^ Everyone knows about the Dutch love of milk (a study in Bavaria found a direct correlation between height and the number of cows per capita).
  • Height Increase Questions & Answers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC easyheight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[70] Males in the Dinaric Alps have an average height of 1.85 m (6 ft 1 in).[71]

Process of growth

Main pathways in endocrine regulation of growth.
.Growth in stature, determined by its various factors, results from the lengthening of bones via cellular divisions chiefly regulated by somatotropin (human growth hormone (hGH)) secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.^ Human growth hormone (HGH)is a protein that is produced by the pituitary gland and is vital for normal growth.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Human growth hormone (HGH) deficiency is treated with injections of growth hormone.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HGH Human Growth HHG for body building HGH human growth hormone .
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Somatotropin also stimulates the release of another growth inducing hormone insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mainly by the liver.^ Indirect effects are mediated primarily by a insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a hormone that is secreted from the liver and other tissues in response to growth hormone.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ VesPro GHS is a growth hormone secretagogue, (a substance that stimulates healthy secretion) made from protein, amino acids, and herbs.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alpha Dopa effectively combines Alpha-GPC with L-Dopa to achieve the goal of supporting the body’s ability to release growth factor fractions.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both hormones operate on most tissues of the body, have many other functions, and continue to be secreted throughout life; with peak levels coinciding with peak growth velocity, and gradually subsiding with age after adolescence.^ Both hormones operate on most tissues of the body, have many other functions, and continue to be secreted throughout life; with peak levels coinciding with peak growth velocity, and gradually subsiding with age after adolescence .
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Growth continues throughout childhood via mitotic division of the cartilage at the distal surface of the epiphysis and the epiphyseal plate, accelerates during the adolescence growth spurt and slows down in the early twenties, when the epiphyseal plate completely ossifies and peak body height is achieved.
  • PLoS Genetics: Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Scans for Human Adult Stature Identifies Novel Loci and Associations with Measures of Skeletal Frame Size 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Deurenberg P., Kalpana Bhaskaran, Petrina Lim Kim Lian: Singaporean Chinese adolescents have more subcutaneous adipose tissue than Dutch Caucasians of the same age and body mass index.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

.The bulk of secretion occurs in bursts (especially for adolescents) with the largest during sleep.^ The bulk of secretion occurs in bursts (especially for adolescents) with the largest during sleep.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

The majority of linear growth occurs as growth of cartilage at the epiphysis (ends) of the long bones which gradually ossify to form hard bone. .The legs compose approximately half of adult human height, and leg length is a somewhat sexually dimorphic trait.^ The legs compose approximately half of adult human height, and leg length is a somewhat sexually dimorphic trait.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Like many human traits, an individual’s height is determined by a mix of genes and environment.
  • Increase Height | MY LIFT KITS 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.myliftkits.com [Source type: General]

^ Leg length is also largely responsible for the secular increase in height in some populations [5] .
  • PLoS Genetics: Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Scans for Human Adult Stature Identifies Novel Loci and Associations with Measures of Skeletal Frame Size 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some of this growth occurs after the growth spurt of the long bones has ceased or slowed.^ Some of this growth occurs after the growth spurt of the long bones has ceased or slowed.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The majority of growth during growth spurts is of the long bones.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The majority of linear growth occurs as growth of cartilage at the epiphysis (ends) of the long bones which gradually ossify to form hard bone.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

.The majority of growth during growth spurts is of the long bones.^ During your puberty (age 12 - 14), your pituitary gland is Very Active and produces a sufficient amount of growth hormone to stimulate Rapid bone Growth .

^ They put sensors into the leg bones of baby lambs and confirmed that most growth spurts occurred when the animals were at rest or sleeping.
  • Height Increase Questions & Answers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC easyheight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is during deep sleep that growth hormone does its job to thickening and lengthening your bones.
  • Growing Taller & Height Increase Secrets 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gainheight.com [Source type: General]

.Additionally, the variation in height between populations and across time is largely due to changes in leg length.^ Leg length is also largely responsible for the secular increase in height in some populations [5] .
  • PLoS Genetics: Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Scans for Human Adult Stature Identifies Novel Loci and Associations with Measures of Skeletal Frame Size 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Due to a manufacturer packaging change, item received may vary from photograph.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think its a mistake to assume that because organisms within a population are of different heights, a large genetic deviation in genes for height exists in that population.
  • Human Size Consistency Baffles Scientists | Wired Science | Wired.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The remainder of height consists of the cranium. Height is sexually dimorphic and statistically it is more or less normally distributed, but with heavy tails.

Height abnormalities

.Most intra-population variance of height is genetic.^ In normal populations, the variation of height is characterized by high inheritance.
  • Epistasis between Loci on Chromosomes 2 and 6 Influences Human Height -- Liu et al. 91 (10): 3821 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Collectively, the teams identified 54 SNP variants that were strongly associated with height variation in the general population (Visscher, 2008).
  • Polygenic Inheritance and Gene Mapping | Learn Science at Scitable 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Research teams from multiple labs have conducted GWAS to identify genetic variation associated with human height (Weedon et al.
  • Polygenic Inheritance and Gene Mapping | Learn Science at Scitable 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

Short stature and tall stature are usually not a health concern. .If the degree of deviation from normal is significant, hereditary short stature is known as familial short stature and tall stature is known as familial tall stature.^ If the degree of deviation from normal is significant, hereditary short stature is known as familial short stature and tall stature is known as familial tall stature.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Confirmation that exceptional height is normal for a respective person can be ascertained from comparing stature of family members and analyzing growth trends for abrupt changes, among others.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Try being this short and being around my family that are all pretty tall.
  • Am I average height and weight for a 16 year old? - relationship advice 11 September 2009 4:35 UTC www.dearcupid.org [Source type: General]

.Confirmation that exceptional height is normal for a respective person can be ascertained from comparing stature of family members and analyzing growth trends for abrupt changes, among others.^ Confirmation that exceptional height is normal for a respective person can be ascertained from comparing stature of family members and analyzing growth trends for abrupt changes, among others.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The tables intended use is for parents to assist them in determining whether their infant's weight and height are following a "normal" growth pattern using the infant's own birth weight and length as a baseline.
  • Infants & Toddlers Under 2 Years - Ask the Dietitian® 11 September 2009 4:35 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

^ Non-Syndrome Causes of Short Stature Non-syndrome causes of short stature consist of constitutional delay of growth, familial short stature and idiopathic short stature.

.There are, however, various diseases and disorders that cause growth abnormalities.^ Cytogenetic Methods in Diagnosing Genetic Disorders Since genes are packed into chromosomes, abnormal chromosomes can actually cause genetic diseases.
  • Polygenic Inheritance and Gene Mapping | Learn Science at Scitable 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Genetic Variation and Disease: GWAS Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) help scientists understand the inheritance patterns of disorders on a global scale.
  • Polygenic Inheritance and Gene Mapping | Learn Science at Scitable 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Genetic Causes of Adult-Onset Disorders As you age, your chances of getting heart disease, cancer, and diabetes increase.
  • Polygenic Inheritance and Gene Mapping | Learn Science at Scitable 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

Most notably, extreme height may be pathological, such as gigantism (very rare) resulting from childhood hyperpituitarism, and dwarfism which has various causes. .Rarely, no cause can be found for extreme height; very short persons may be termed as having idiopathic short stature.^ Also, there is no short term effect.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes no cause for hypopituitarism can be identified, or if a cause is suspected, it may be difficult to prove.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2003 approved hGH treatment for those 2.25 standard deviations below the population mean (approximately the lowest 1.2% of the population).^ The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2003 approved hGH treatment for those 2.25 standard deviations below the population mean (approximately the lowest 1.2% of the population).
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ FDA Recommends More Arginine (Health and Wellness) * The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved arginine to diagnose pituitary gland problems.
  • Grow Taller Height 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC super-pill.com [Source type: General]

^ They can be used with out any risk as they are produced by the Food and Drugs Administration center.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An even rarer occurrence, or at least less used term and recognized "problem", is idiopathic tall stature.^ The only time being so tall has been a problem was when I was showjumping – my feet used to hang down and knock down all the fences.” .
  • Increase Height | MY LIFT KITS 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.myliftkits.com [Source type: General]

.If not enough growth hormone is produced and/or secreted by the pituitary gland, then a patient with growth hormone deficiency can undergo treatment.^ Human growth hormone (HGH)is a protein that is produced by the pituitary gland and is vital for normal growth.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This stimulation of the pituitary gland leads to increased production of growth hormones.
  • Growing Taller & Height Increase Secrets 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gainheight.com [Source type: General]

^ DHEA is a human hormone naturally produced in the body by the adrenal glands.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This treatment involves the injection of pure growth hormone into thick tissue to promote growth.^ Contains Pyrethrins, Permethrin, and an IGR (Insect Growth Regulator) which is an insect juvenile hormone that prevents the pre-adult flea from turning into an adult biting flea.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indirect effects are mediated primarily by a insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a hormone that is secreted from the liver and other tissues in response to growth hormone.
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Share and Enjoy: Tags: buy hgh human growth hormone , growth , health , hgh , hgh human growth hormone , hgh human growth hormone for sale , hgh human growth hormone injections , hgh human growth hormone side effects , hormone , human , injectable hgh human growth hormone Posted in Human Growth Hormone .
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Role of an individual's height

Certain studies have shown that height is a factor in overall health while some suggest tallness is associated with better cardio-vascular health and shortness with overall better-than-average health and longevity.[72] Being excessively tall can cause various medical problems, including cardiovascular issues, due to the increased load on the heart to supply the body with blood, and issues resulting from the increased time it takes the brain to communicate with the extremities. For example, Robert Wadlow, the tallest man known to verifiable history, developed walking difficulties as his height continued to increase throughout his life. .In many of the pictures of the later portion of his life, Wadlow can be seen gripping something for support.^ In many of the pictures of the later portion of his life, Wadlow can be seen gripping something for support.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

Late in his life he was forced to wear braces on his legs and to walk with a cane, and he died after developing an infection in his legs because he was unable to feel the irritation and cutting caused by his leg braces (it is important to note that he died in 1940, before the widespread use of modern antibiotics). .Height extremes of either excessive tallness or shortness can cause social exclusion and discrimination for both men and women (heightism).^ The women always chose the tall men.

^ Height extremes of either excessive tallness or shortness can cause social exclusion and discrimination for both men and women ( heightism ).
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Men love women, women love beauty and height, so you think men love beautiful, tall women!
  • Ziyi Zhang Height - how tall 11 September 2009 4:35 UTC www.celebheights.com [Source type: Original source]

.Epidemiological studies have also demonstrated a positive correlation between height and intelligence.^ Everyone knows about the Dutch love of milk (a study in Bavaria found a direct correlation between height and the number of cows per capita).
  • Height Increase Questions & Answers 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC easyheight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In our longitudinal study, the mean height gain in the high-consumption group was higher than that in the low-consumption group, and the difference in height gain between the 2 groups was 2.5 cm/3 y.
  • Milk for strong bones 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC easyheight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the most part, the earlier studies demonstrated a need for larger populations in order to establish strong genetic ties to human height.
  • Polygenic Inheritance and Gene Mapping | Learn Science at Scitable 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

The reasons for this association appear to include that height serves as a biomarker of nutritional status or general mental and physical health during development, that common genetic factors may influence both height and intelligence, and that both height and intelligence are affected by adverse early environmental exposures.
A study done in Sweden has shown that there is a strong correlation between subnormal stature and suicide among Swedish men.[73]
.This can also sometimes be translated over into the corporate world.^ This can also sometimes be translated over into the corporate world.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
Historically this assumption has not always reflected reality; for instance Napoleon was not much taller than 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) according to sources (though Napoleon's height is subject to great debate, and he may have been as tall as 1.67 m (5 ft 5+12 in), see Napoleon's height for further information). Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuit order was 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in). Several world leaders of the early twentieth century, Lenin, Mussolini, and Stalin were of below average height. A modern example would be Deng Xiaoping of China who undertook massive reforms to the Chinese economy in the 1980s and was reported to have only been 1.55 m (5 ft 1 in).[citation needed]

Sports

Height helps basketball players get closer to the hoop and pass over opponents.
Height can play a significant role in contributing to success in some sports by offering certain natural advantages. .For those sports where this could be a contributing factor, height can be useful (although certainly not in all cases, and is not the only factor) since in general it affects the leverage between muscle volume and bones towards greater speed of movement and power, depending on overall build, fitness and individual ability.^ Muscle buildings, anti aging, cell formation, bone strengthening are secondary functions of the HGH. .
  • Human Growth Hormone 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hghhuman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed] However, there can also be significant disadvantages posed by size and resultant mass which could prove to be a hindrance to success (not to mention there also being numerous sports were size is irrelevant). .For example, some sports such as auto racing, horse racing, figure skating, diving and martial arts, a shorter frame (again depending on build, fitness and overall ability) can be equally advantageous, or more so depending on the sport and the individual.^ But when he has them by the short and curlies, he adds, "But some are more equal than others".
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Human rights as Australian foreign policy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Col: Arrakis is correct, the point of Human Rights legislation is to ensure that all individuals (regardless of sex, race, religion, sexual orientation, abilities, etc) are treated equally.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Human rights as Australian foreign policy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

Basketball

In college and professional basketball the shortest players are usually well above average in height compared to the general population. In men's professional basketball, the guards, the smallest players, are usually around 6 ft 0 in (1.83 m) 6 ft 3 in (1.91 m), the average height for basketball players is about 6 ft 6 in (1.98 m) and the centers, the tallest players, are generally from 6 ft 10 in (2.08 m) to 7 ft 2 in (2.18 m).[citation needed]

Weightlifting

In weightlifting shorter levers are advantageous and taller than average competitors usually compete in the 105 kg + group.

Australian football

Under Australian rules, taller footballers can take more contested marks, spoils and hitouts to advantage.
As possession of the ball is usually gained from marking kicks, height combined with a vertical leap ability, is an advantageous asset.
Each team has at least one ruckman, a specialist position requiring height and leap. In the AFL, the average height of ruckmen is over 2.00 m (6 ft 6+12 in) tall.[citation needed] Aaron Sandilands and Peter Street are both 2.11 m (6 ft 11 in) tall, the tallest in the history of the game.[citation needed]
Brownlow medal winners over the last decade have ranged from 174 cm (Shane Crawford) to 194 cm (Adam Goodes).

Football (Association Football)

In present-day football, goalkeepers tend to be taller than average because their greater armspans and total reach when jumping enable them to cover more of the goal. Examples of particularly tall keepers include Vanja Iveša, Nikola Drkusič, Željko Kalac, Goran Blažević, Andreas Isaksson, Edwin van der Sar, Petr Čech, Vladimir Stojković and Doni.
In wide and attacking positions height is not always important, with some of the best players in the world (e.g. Garrincha, Lionel Messi, Carlos Tévez and Romário, all 1.69 m (5 ft 6+12 in), and Maradona at 1.65 m (5 ft 5 in)) being shorter than average and in many cases gaining an advantage with their low center of gravity. However, height is generally considered advantageous for some forwards who usually aim to score with their heads, such as Jan Koller and Nikola Žigić (2.02 m (6 ft 7+12 in)), Peter Crouch (2.01 m (6 ft 7 in)), Žarko Marković (2.04 m (6 ft 8+12 in)) and Yang Changpeng (2.05 m (6 ft 8+12 in)). Likewise, height is often an advantage for central defenders who are assigned to stop forwards from scoring through the air, as exemplified by players like Matej Bagarić (2.01 m (6 ft 7 in)), Per Mertesacker (1.98 m (6 ft 6 in)), Brede Hangeland (1.95 m (6 ft 5 in)) and Christoph Metzelder (1.94 m (6 ft 4+12 in)).[citation needed]

Cricket

In cricket, some great batsmen like Donald Bradman 5 ft 7 in (1.70 m), Sachin Tendulkar 5 ft 5 in (1.65 m) and Sunil Gavaskar 5 ft 4 in (1.63 m) are/were below average height. One explanation for this is that a smaller body makes for an advantage in footwork and balance. Similarly, the most graceful wicket-keepers have tended to be average height or below, Aravinda De Silva 5 ft 2 in (1.57 m), for example. Although there are fewer tall batsmen, the stand-outs are often noted for their heavy hitting and an ability to get a long stride forward to reach a full length delivery. England's Kevin Pietersen 6 ft 4 in (1.93 m) is a modern example of powerful, tall batsman. Past greats like Clive Lloyd and Graeme Pollock were above 6 ft (1.83 m).
On the other hand, many of the most successful fast bowlers have been well above average height; for example past greats Joel Garner, Courtney Walsh, and Curtly Ambrose were all 6 ft 6 in (1.98 m) or taller. Similarly,Glenn McGrath who is regarded as one of the finest bowlers to play the game was also much above the average height measuring in at around 6'5" (195 cm). Taller bowlers have access to a higher point of release, making it easier for them to make the ball bounce uncomfortably for a batsman. For extreme pace however, bowlers tend to be closer to average height. The fastest modern bowlers have ranged from Lasith Malinga 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) through to Steve Harmison or Shaun Tait at 6 ft 4 in (1.93 m).
Height does not appear to be an advantage to spin bowling and few international spinners are ever taller than six feet. .Spin bowlers like Sulieman Benn (2.01 m (6 ft 7 in)) use extra pace and bounce, whereas spin is traditionally about using a looping, plunging trajectory at slow (40-55 mph (70-90 kph)) speeds.^ It would be like mandating all speed limits be raised or lowered by 5 kph.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Human rights as Australian foreign policy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

The most successful bowlers ever in Test cricket, Muttiah Muralitharan and Shane Warne are 5 ft 7 in (1.70 m) and 6 ft 0 in (1.83 m) respectively.

Rowing

In rowing, tallness is advantageous, because the taller a rower is, the longer his or her stroke can potentially be, thus moving the boat more effectively. The average male Olympic rower is 1.92 m (6 ft 3+12 in), and the average female Olympic rower is 1.73 m (5 ft 8 in),[74] well over the average height. Coxswains, on the other hand, tend to be considerably shorter and lighter than rowers.[citation needed]

Rugby union

Locks are tall and typically the target of a rugby lineout.
In rugby union, lineout jumpers, generally locks, are usually the tallest players, as this increases their chance of winning the ball, whereas scrum-halves are usually relatively short. As examples, current world-class locks Victor Matfield, Chris Jack, and Paul O'Connell are all at least 1.98 m (6 ft 6 in), while the sport's all-time leader in international appearances, scrum-half George Gregan, is 1.73 m (5 ft 8 in).[75]

Rugby league

Unlike rugby union, height is not generally seen as important, often extreme height being a hindrance rather than a useful attribute.[76] Second-row forwards are generally not as tall as their rugby union counterparts due to the absence of line-outs. However, recent tactics of cross-field kicking have resulted in the success of taller outside backs.Cody Cunningham (2.05 m (6 ft 8+12 in)), Israel Folau (1.96 m (6 ft 5 in)), Greg Inglis (1.95 m (6 ft 5 in)), Shaun Kenny-Dowall (1.95 m (6 ft 5 in)), Mark Gasnier (1.94 m (6 ft 4+12 in)), Colin Best (1.89 m (6 ft 2+12 in)), Manu Vatuvei (1.89 m (6 ft 2+12 in)), Jarryd Hayne (1.88 m (6 ft 2 in)), Krisnan Inu (1.85 m (6 ft 1 in)) and Jason Nightingale (1.85 m (6 ft 1 in)) are examples of the trend in taller wingers and centres, and are both known for their remarkable jumping skills in defense or attack.[citation needed]

American football (gridiron)

In American Football, a tall quarterback is at an advantage because it is easier for him to see over the heads of large offensive and defensive linemen while he is in the pocket in a passing situation. At 1.75 m (5 ft 9 in), Doug Flutie was initially considered to be too short to become a NFL quarterback despite his Heisman Trophy-winning success at the college level. .Shorter quarterbacks often compensate for their lack of height by "rolling out" or using other means to get out from behind the much taller linemen.^ Though not universal by any means, there still remains too much angst, fear & distrust of 'the others' for a human rights concept to be meaningful in our fair land.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Human rights as Australian foreign policy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed] In addition, shorter quarterbacks have an advantage with their lower center of gravity and balance, which means they are better able to duck under a tackle and avoid a sack. According the former Washington Redskins quarterback Eddie LeBaron, being shorter means you can throw the ball higher instead of a sidearm release, meaning it is harder for the defense to knock it down. Shorter quarterbacks also generally have a quicker release time than taller quarterbacks.
Tall wide receivers have an advantage of being able to jump considerably higher than shorter defensive backs to catch highly thrown passes. Of course, this advantage has limits because exceedingly tall receivers are normally not as agile or lack overall speed or strength. Tight ends are usually over 1.93 m (6 ft 4 in) because they need greater body mass to be effective blockers and greater height is an advantage for them as receivers, since they run shorter routes based less on speed. .By contrast, shorter defensive backs are utilized because of their typically greater agility, as the ability to change directions instantly is a prerequisite for the position.^ By contrast, shorter defensive backs are utilized because of their typically greater agility, as the ability to change directions instantly is a prerequisite for the position.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Short running backs are at an advantage because their shorter stature and lower center of gravity generally makes them harder to tackle effectively.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Tall wide receivers have an advantage of being able to outjump shorter defensive backs to catch highly thrown passes.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

Offensive and defensive linemen tend to be at least 1.85 m (6 ft 1 in) and are frequently as tall as 2.03 m (6 ft 8 in) in order to be massive enough to effectively play their positions. Height is especially an advantage for defensive linemen, giving them the ability to knock down passes with their outstretched arms. .Linebackers have perhaps the greatest range in height in American football with players at that position standing anywhere from 1.78 m (5 ft 10 in) to 1.98 m (6 ft 6 in), mainly because strength and quickness, combined with mass, is more important than height, in and of itself.^ Those positions are no more than individual wet dreams.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Human rights as Australian foreign policy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Indonesia has not signed up to the refugee convention and China could probably not adopt the Human Rights Charta because stability in the country is more important.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Human rights as Australian foreign policy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
Short running backs are at an advantage because their shorter stature and lower center of gravity generally makes them harder to tackle effectively. .In addition, they can easily "hide" behind large offensive linemen, making it harder for defenders to react at the beginning of a play.^ In addition, they can easily "hide" behind large offensive linemen, making it harder for defenders to react at the beginning of a play.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In American football , a tall quarterback is at an advantage because it is easier for him to see over the heads of large offensive and defensive linemen while he is in the pocket in a passing situation.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

Thus, in the NFL and in NCAA Division I football, running backs under 1.83 m (6 ft 0 in) are more common than running backs over 1.91 m (6 ft 3 in). Former Heisman Trophy winner and Pro Football Hall of Famer Barry Sanders, thought by some to be the greatest running back in history, is a classic example of a running back with an extraordinarily low center of gravity, as he stood only 1.71 m (5 ft 7+12 in). However, Jim Brown, another player often considered the greatest running back of all time, was more than 1.88 m (6 ft 2 in) tall, demonstrating benefits conferred by the greater power and leverage which height provides.[citation needed]
.Punters are generally very tall because of longer legs achieving greater leg swing and this translates into more power on the ball.^ For more information, see Tall Fescue/Endophyte/Animal Relationships (Ball, et al.
  • Tall Fescue - PNW Extension Publication 15 September 2009 3:39 UTC extension.oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Height Increase Update: August 24, 2004 – New & advanced Shinbone Routine to grow longer legs – Click here to read more.
  • Height Increase & Grow Taller Experimenters United 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC easyheight.com [Source type: General]

^ The reason is Tall People are Naturally more Confident and Assertive therefore, Powerful .

[citation needed]

Baseball

In baseball, pitchers tend to be taller than position players.[citation needed] Being taller usually means longer legs, which power pitchers use to generate velocity and a release point closer to the plate, which means the ball reaches the batter more quickly. The ball also comes from a higher release angle opposed to a shorter pitcher. While taller position players have a larger strike zone, most position players are at least of average height because the larger frame allows them to generate more power. One exception to this generalization would be Dustin Pedroia with a height of 1.70 m (5 ft 7 in). Most successful modern pitchers are safely over 1.83 m (6 ft 0 in), some to extremes (e.g., the 2.08 m (6 ft 10 in) Randy Johnson), with the 1.80 m (5 ft 11 in) Pedro Martínez a notable exception.[citation needed]

Tennis

Height can be advantageous to a tennis player as it allows players to create more power when serving, and it gives tall players a greater arm span, allowing them to get to sharp-angled shots more easily. However, being tall can have some disadvantages, like the difficulty of bending down to reach low volleys.
Examples of tall players are 2.08 m (6'10") Ivo Karlović, 2.06 m (6'9") John Isner, 198 cm (6'6") Juan Martín del Potro, 198 cm (6'6") Marin Čilić, and 196 cm (6'5") Mario Ančić, all known for their powerful serves. However, Roger Federer (1.85 m, 6'1"), Rafael Nadal (1.85 m, 6'1"), Novak Djoković (1.87 m, 6'2), and Andy Murray (1.90 m, 6'3"), the four top-ranked players in the world at the end of 2008, are all between 1.84-1.90 m (6'1"-6'3") in height. Venus Williams, Lindsay Davenport, Dinara Safina and Maria Sharapova are successful tall players on the women's side, all measuring 1.85 m (6'1") or taller. There have also have been some successful players that were of average size, like Rod Laver and Justine Henin, or shorter than average, such as Pancho Segura and Dominika Cibulkova.

Ice hockey

While the history of the NHL is filled with diminutive players who achieved greatness (Theo Fleury, Martin St. Louis), and the highest scorer in NHL history, Wayne Gretzky, is 1.83 m (6 feet) tall and played at 185 pounds (84 kg), the game's increasingly physical style has put a premium on imposing players, particularly over 1.8 m (6 feet) tall and over 100 kg (220 pounds) (Mario Lemieux, Eric Lindros, Chris Pronger). Taller, bigger players have a longer reach, are more able to give out and sustain body checks, and have greater leverage on their shooting such as a slap shot (examples include Joel Prpic at 6'8", and Eric Staal, Rick Nash, Ryan Getzlaf, and Joe Thornton, all at 6'4"). The average height of an NHLer is just over 1.8 m (6 feet) tall. Zdeno Chára, at 6 ft 9 in (2.06 m), is the tallest player ever to play in the NHL.

Amateur Wrestling

Height can be both helpful and detrimental in wrestling. .Since taller people have more bone mass, they will generally be slightly weaker than shorter people in the same weight class.^ I guess that explains why more boat-people head for Syria and Zimbabwe than Australia?
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Human rights as Australian foreign policy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In the current atmosphere of paranoia and heightened security I worry that they'll take away more rights than they promote.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Human rights as Australian foreign policy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

This difference is made up in part by their longer arms, which allow them a longer reach and cradle easier. Long legs are detrimental in that they can easily be attacked by a lolly (shot). They do, however, assist in performing some actions and positions such as throwing, sprawling to counter a takedown or riding legs. The heights of amateur wrestlers vary greatly with successful athletes being as short as Alireza Dabir at 171 cm (5" 7') and as tall as Alexander Karelin at roughly 193 cm (6" 4').

Sumo

Professional sumo wrestlers are required to be at least 173 cm (5' 8") tall. Some aspiring sumo athletes have silicone implants added to the tops of their heads to reach the necessary height.[77] The average height for a sumo wrestler is 180 cm, far above the national average in Japan.

Swimming

Height is generally considered advantageous in swimming. Taller swimmers with longer arms are able to achieve better leverage, hence more acceleration, in the water. This is especially true for freestyle. An example of a tall swimmer is Michael Phelps, at 6'4" (193 cm) who won eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympic Games. The average height of the 8 finalists in the 100 meter Freestyle final at the US Olympic Trials was 6'5" (196 cm). Another exceptionally tall swimmer is Michael Gross, a German great of the 1980s who is 6'7" (201 cm) with an arm span of 7'0" (213 cm).

Artistic Gymnastics

In artistic gymnastics, it is advantageous to be shorter. A lower center of gravity can give an athlete better balance. A smaller athlete may also have an easier time manipulating their body in the air.

Fencing

In Olympic fencing, it is generally advantageous to be taller because a longer arm span allows one's weapon to reach one's opponent's body from a further distance. .This is more applicable in épée, where points depend only on hitting your opponent first; it is less applicable in sabre or foil because those weapons have rules that make hitting first not necessarily give any points.^ Granted, they don't give minorities the power to rule, but they do give them the same rights as others even though the laws may not be written in those terms ie as rights.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Human rights as Australian foreign policy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

History of human height

Average height of troops born in the mid-nineteenth century, by country or place.
Country Height
Australia 1.72 m (5 ft 7+34 in)[78]
U.S. 1.71 m (5 ft 7+14 in)
Norway 1.69 m (5 ft 6+12 in)
Ireland 1.68 m (5 ft 6 in)
Scotland 1.68 m (5 ft 6 in)
Sweden 1.68 m (5 ft 6 in)
Bohemia 1.67 m (5 ft 5+34 in)
Lower Austria 1.67 m (5 ft 5+34 in)
Moravia 1.66 m (5 ft 5+12 in)
England 1.66 m (5 ft 5+12 in)
France 1.65 m (5 ft 5 in)
Wales 1.65 m (5 ft 5 in)
Russia 1.65 m (5 ft 5 in)
Germany 1.64 m (5 ft 4+12 in)
Netherlands 1.64 m (5 ft 4+12 in)
Spain 1.62 m (5 ft 3+34 in)
Italy 1.61 m (5 ft 3+12 in)
Japan 1.55 m (5 ft 1 in)
Source
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Europeans in North America were far taller than those in Europe and were the tallest in the world.[79] The original indigenous population of Plains Native Americans was also among the tallest populations of the world at the time.[80] .Several nations, including many nations in Europe, have now surpassed the US, particularly the Netherlands, and the Scandinavian nations.^ Several nations, including many nations in Europe, have now surpassed the US, particularly the Netherlands , and the Scandinavian nations.
  • What is Human Height? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Excerpt ………..But that doesn't explain why similar campaigns elsewhere in Europe and the US have not attracted the level of success seen in the Netherlands .
  • Milk for strong bones 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC easyheight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Australian companies, particularly mining companies, can have a severe impact on the human rights of people in many parts of the world, particularly the rights to food, water and health.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Human rights as Australian foreign policy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

.In the late nineteenth century, the Netherlands was a land renowned for its short population, but today it has the tallest average in the world, with young men averaging 183 cm (6'0 ft) tall and in Europe are only shorter than the peoples of the Dinaric Alps (a section largely within the former Yugoslavia), where males average 185.6 cm (6 ft 1.1 in) tall.^ Despite the threat to the population in general from Islamic nutters and 5 people on average in London being stabbed on daily basis.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Human rights as Australian foreign policy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

The Dinarians and the Dutch are now well known in Europe for extreme tallness. In Africa, the Maasai, Dinka and Tutsi populations are known for their tallness, with some reports indicating an average male height of up to 190 cm (almost 6 ft 3).
Colonial populations present an interesting case in the evolution of human height. .Though the European population in South Africa is principally descended from Dutch and British settlers of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries (at a period when both England and Holland reported average male heights of under 5 foot 6), the present European descended population has shown a similar increase in height as have the nations from which they are descended.^ If one studies the Constitution of the United Nations, and its declaration, they will see many similarities with the Constitution of the Soviet Union.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Human rights as Australian foreign policy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

A 1998 survey recorded an average height of 177 cm for European descended South African males, and 164 cm for European descended South African females [50]. Australians likewise are taller than their ancestors, averaging over 178 cm, and women 163.9 cm in a survey conducted in 1995 [2]. By comparison, a British survey from a similar period averages the male population height at 174.4 cm, and the female population at 161 cm [59]. .This means that despite many Australians and European descended South Africans having descended from British people, their current average height is over an inch greater than the present UK average (approximately 0.4 Standard Deviations).^ Graeme, I think you mean currently rather than presently.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Human rights as Australian foreign policy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Australian companies, particularly mining companies, can have a severe impact on the human rights of people in many parts of the world, particularly the rights to food, water and health.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Human rights as Australian foreign policy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ AEST = Australian Eastern Standard Time which is 10 hours ahead of UTC (Greenwich Mean Time) .
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Human rights as Australian foreign policy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

Average male height in impoverished Vietnam and North Korea[81] remains comparatively small at 163 cm (5 ft 4 in) and 165 cm (5 ft 5 in), respectively. Currently, young adult North Korean males are actually significantly shorter. This contrasts greatly with the extreme growth occurring in surrounding Asian populations with correlated increasing standards of living. Young South Koreans are about 12 cm (4.7 inches) taller than their North Korean counterparts, on average. There is also an extreme difference between older North Koreans and young North Koreans who grew up during the famines of the 1990s-2000s. North Korean and South Korean adults older than 40, who were raised when the North and South's economies were about equal, are generally of the same average height.
In the early 1970s, when anthropologist Barry Bogin first visited Guatemala, he observed that Mayan Indian men averaged only 157.5 cm (5 ft 2 in) in height and the women averaged 142.2 cm (4 ft 8 in). Bogin took another series of measurements after the Guatemalan Civil War had erupted, during which up to a million Guatemalans had fled to the United States. He discovered that Mayan refugees, who ranged from six to twelve years old, were significantly taller than their Guatemalan counterparts. By 2000, the American Maya were 10.24 cm (4 in) taller than the Guatemalan Maya of the same age, largely due to better nutrition and access to health care. Bogin also noted that American Maya children had a significantly lower sitting height ratio, (i.e. relatively longer legs, averaging 7.02 cm longer) than the Guatemalan Maya.[82][83]

See also

Bibliography

.

References

  1. ^ del Pino, Mariana; Bay, Luisa; Lejarraga, Horacio; Kovalskys, Irina; Berner, Enrique; Herscovici, Cecile Rausch (2005). "Peso y estatura de una muestra nacional de 1.971 adolescentes de 10 a 19 años: las referencias argentinas continúan vigentes" (in Spanish). Archivos argentinos de pediatría 103 (4): 323–30. http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?pid=S0325-00752005000400007&script=sci_arttext. 
  2. ^ a b c ABS How Australians Measure Up 1995 data
  3. ^ a b c d http://www.econ.upf.edu/docs/papers/downloads/1002.pdf The Evolution of Adult Height in Europe
  4. ^ Azerbaijan State Statistics Committee, 2005
  5. ^ NATIONAL NUTRITION SURVEY
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External links


Human height is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body standing erect.

When populations share genetic background and environmental factors, average height is frequently characteristic within the group. Exceptional height variation (around 20% deviation from average) within such a population is usually due to gigantism or dwarfism; which are medical conditions due to specific genes or to endocrine abnormalities[citation needed].

In regions of extreme poverty or prolonged warfare, environmental factors like malnutrition during childhood or adolescence may account for marked reductions in adult stature even without the presence of any of these medical conditions.

Contents

Average height around the world

The average height for each sex within a population is significantly different, with men being (on average) taller than women. Women ordinarily reach their greatest height at a younger age than men, because puberty generally occurs earlier in women than in men. Vertical growth stops when the long bones stop lengthening, which occurs with the closure of epiphyseal plates. These plates are bone growth centers that disappear ("close") under the hormonal surges brought about by the completion of puberty. Adult height for one sex in a particular ethnic group follows more or less a normal distribution.

Adult height between populations often differs significantly, as presented in detail in the chart below. For example, the average height of women from the Czech Republic is greater than that of men from Malawi. This may be caused by genetic differences, childhood lifestyle differences (nutrition, sleep patterns, physical labor), or both.

At 2.57 m (8 ft 5 in), Leonid Stadnyk, of Zhytomyr Oblast, Ukraine, is believed to be the world's tallest living man, although his height is disputed because of his refusal to be measured. The current proven tallest man is Sultan Kösen, of Turkey, who stands at 2.47 m (8 ft 1 in), overtaking previous world-record holder Bao Xishun, of Inner Mongolia, China, who is 2.36 m (7 ft 9 in) (He Pingping, the former shortest man in the world, was also from Inner Mongolia). The tallest man in modern history was Robert Pershing Wadlow (1918–1940), from Illinois, in the United States, who was 2.72 m (8 ft 11 in) at the time of his death. Until her death in 2008, Sandy Allen was the tallest woman in the world, at 2.32 m (7 ft 7 12 in). Yao Defen of China is claimed to be the tallest living woman in the world at 2.33 m (7 ft 7 12 in), but this is not confirmed by the Guinness Book of World Records.

Depending on sex, genetic and environmental factors, shrinkage of stature may begin in middle age in some individuals but is universal in the extremely aged. This decrease in height is due to such factors as decreased height of inter-vertebral discs because of desiccation, atrophy of soft tissues and postural changes secondary to degenerative disease.

Below are average adult heights by country/geographical region. (The original studies and sources should be consulted for details on methodology and the exact populations measured, surveyed, or considered.)

Country/Region Average male height Average female height Sample population /
age range
Methodology Year Source
Argentina1.745 m (5 ft 8 12 in)1.610 m (5 ft 3 12 in) 19 Measured 1998–2001[1]
Australia1.748 m (5 ft 9 in)1.634 m (5 ft 4 12 in) 18+ Measured 1995 [2]
Australia1.784 m (5 ft 10 in)1.645 m (5 ft 5 in) 18–24 Measured 1995 [2]
Austria1.796 m (5 ft 10 12 in)1.671 m (5 ft 6 in)21-25Self Reported1997–2002 [3]
Azerbaijan1.718 m (5 ft 7 12 in)1.654 m (5 ft 5 in) 16+ Measured 2005 [4]
Bahrain1.651 m (5 ft 5 in)1.542 m (5 ft  12 in)19+ Measured 2002 [5]
Belgium1.795 m (5 ft 10 12 in)1.678 m (5 ft 6 in)21-25Self Reported1997–2002 [3]
Bolivia - Aymara1.600 m (5 ft 3 in)1.422 m (4 ft 8 in)20-29 Measured 1970[6]
Brazil1.707 m (5 ft 7 in)1.588 m (5 ft 2 12 in)18+ Measured 2008–2009[7]
Brazil1.731 m (5 ft 8 in)1.611 m (5 ft 3 12 in)20-24 Measured 2008–2009[7]
Bulgaria1.752 m (5 ft 9 in) 1.632 m (5 ft 4 12 in) Measured 2010

[8]

Cameroon1.706 m (5 ft 7 in)1.613 m (5 ft 3 12 in) Urban adults Measured 2003 [9]
Canada1.736 m (5 ft 8 12 in)1.595 m (5 ft 3 in)25+ Measured 2005 [10]
Canada1.760 m (5 ft 9 12 in)1.633 m (5 ft 4 12 in)25-44 Measured 2005 [10]
Chile 1.692 m (5 ft 6 12 in) 1.566 m (5 ft 1 12 in) 17+ Measured 2003 [11]
China (PRC)1.702 m (5 ft 7 in)1.586 m (5 ft 2 12 in) Urban, 17 Measured 2002 [12]
China (PRC)1.663 m (5 ft 5 12 in)1.570 m (5 ft 2 in) Rural, 17 Measured 2002[12]
Colombia1.706 m (5 ft 7 in)1.587 m (5 ft 2 12 in) 18–22 Measured 2002 [13]
Côte d’Ivoire1.701 m (5 ft 7 in)1.591 m (5 ft 2 12 in) 25–29 Measured 1985–1987[14]
Denmark1.803 m (5 ft 11 in) Conscripts, 18-19 Measured 2006 [15]
Dinaric Alps1.856 m (6 ft 1 in)1.710 m (5 ft 7 12 in) 17 Measured2005[16]
Estonia1.791 m (5 ft 10 12 in) 17 2003[17]
Finland1.800 m (5 ft 11 in)1.660 m (5 ft 5 12 in) 25–34 Self-reported2004[18]
France1.741 m (5 ft 8 12 in)1.619 m (5 ft 3 12 in) 20+ Measured 2001[19]
France1.770 m (5 ft 9 12 in)1.646 m (5 ft 5 in) 20–29 Measured 2001[19]
Ghana1.695 m (5 ft 6 12 in)1.585 m (5 ft 2 12 in) 25–29 Measured 1987–1989[14]
Gambia1.680 m (5 ft 6 in)1.578 m (5 ft 2 in) Rural, 21–49 Measured1950–1974 [20]
Germany1.780 m (5 ft 10 in)1.650 m (5 ft 5 in) Adults Self-reported 2005[21]
Germany1.810 m (5 ft 11 12 in)1.670 m (5 ft 5 12 in) 18–19 Self-reported 2005 [21]
Greece1.781 m (5 ft 10 in) Conscripts, 18-26 Measured 2006–2007[22]
Greece1.759 m (5 ft 9 12 in)1.629 m (5 ft 4 in) Adults Measured 2009 [23]
Hong Kong1.717 m (5 ft 7 12 in)1.587 m (5 ft 2 12 in) 18 Measured 2006 [24]
Hungary1.760 m (5 ft 9 12 in)1.640 m (5 ft 4 12 in) Adults Measured 2000s [25]
India1.645 m (5 ft 5 in)1.520 m (5 ft 0 in) 20 Measured 2005–2006 [26][27]
India1.612 m (5 ft 3 12 in)1.521 m (5 ft 0 in)Rural, 17+ Measured 2007 [28]
Indonesia1.580 m (5 ft 2 in)1.470 m (4 ft 10 in) 50+ Self-reported 1997 [29]
IndonesiaEast Java1.624 m (5 ft 4 in)1.513 m (4 ft 11 12 in)Urban, 19–23Measured1995 [30]
Iran1.703 m (5 ft 7 in)1.572 m (5 ft 2 in)21+Measured2005[31]
Iran1.734 m (5 ft 8 12 in)1.598 m (5 ft 3 in)21-25Measured2005[31]
Iraq - Baghdad1.654 m (5 ft 5 in)1.558 m (5 ft 1 12 in) 18–44 Measured1999–2000 [32]
Ireland1.774 m (5 ft 10 in)1.644 m (5 ft 4 12 in)21-25Self Reported1997–2002 [3]
Israel1.756 m (5 ft 9 in)1.628 m (5 ft 4 in) 21 Measured1980–2000[33]
Italy1.760 m (5 ft 9 12 in)1.650 m (5 ft 5 in) 18-40 Measured2005[34]
Jamaica1.718 m (5 ft 7 12 in)1.608 m (5 ft 3 12 in) 25–74Measured1994–1996

[35]

Japan 1.715 m (5 ft 7 12 in)1.580 m (5 ft 2 in) 19 Measured 2006[36]
Lithuania1.763 m (5 ft 9 12 in) Conscripts, 19–25 Measured 2006 [37]
Malaysia1.647 m (5 ft 5 in)1.533 m (5 ft  12 in) 20+ Measured 1996 [38]
Malta1.699 m (5 ft 7 in)1.599 m (5 ft 3 in) Adults Self-reported 2003 [39]
Malta1.752 m (5 ft 9 in)1.638 m (5 ft 4 12 in) 25–34 Self-reported2003[39]
Malawi1.660 m (5 ft 5 12 in)1.550 m (5 ft 1 in)Urban, 16–60 Measured 2000[40]
Mali1.713 m (5 ft 7 12 in)1.604 m (5 ft 3 in) Rural adults Measured1992 [41]
MexicoMorelos1.670 m (5 ft 5 12 in)1.550 m (5 ft 1 in)AdultsSelf-reported1998 [42]
Mexico1.630 m (5 ft 4 in)1.510 m (4 ft 11 12 in)50+Measured2001 [43]
Mongolia1.684 m (5 ft 6 12 in)1.577 m (5 ft 2 in) 25–34 Measured 2006 [44]
Netherlands1.808 m (5 ft 11 in)1.678 m (5 ft 6 in) 20+ Self-reported 2008[45]
Netherlands1.843 m (6 ft  12 in)1.702 m (5 ft 7 in) 25–34 Self-reported 2008 [45]
New Zealand1.770 m (5 ft 9 12 in)1.650 m (5 ft 5 in) 19–45 Estimates 1993–2007 [46]
New Zealand1.745 m (5 ft 8 12 in) 1.630 m (5 ft 4 in) 45–65 Estimates 1993–2007 [46]
Nigeria1.638 m (5 ft 4 12 in)1.578 m (5 ft 2 in) 18–74Measured1994–1996

[35]

Norway1.797 m (5 ft 10 12 in)1.672 m (5 ft 6 in)Conscripts, 18–19Measured2008[47]
Peru1.640 m (5 ft 4 12 in)1.510 m (4 ft 11 12 in)20+ Measured 2005[48]
Philippines1.619 m (5 ft 3 12 in)1.502 m (4 ft 11 in) 20+ Measured 2003[49]
Philippines1.634 m (5 ft 4 12 in)1.517 m (4 ft 11 12 in) 20-39 Measured 2003[49]
Portugal1.728 m (5 ft 8 in) Conscripts, 21 Measured 1998–99[50]
Singapore1.706 m (5 ft 7 in)1.600 m (5 ft 3 in) 17–25 2003 [51]
South Africa1.690 m (5 ft 6 12 in)1.590 m (5 ft 2 12 in) 25–34 Measured 1998 [52]
South Korea1.739 m (5 ft 8 12 in)1.611 m (5 ft 3 12 in) 19 Measured 2006[53]
Spain1.761 m (5 ft 9 12 in)1.655 m (5 ft 5 in)21-25Self Reported1997–2002 [3]
Spain1.780 m (5 ft 10 in)1.650 m (5 ft 5 in)21Measured1998–2000[54]
Sweden 1.779 m (5 ft 10 in) 1.646 m (5 ft 5 in) 20–74 [55]
Sweden1.815 m (5 ft 11 12 in)1.668 m (5 ft 5 12 in) 20–29 Measured 2008 [56]
Switzerland1.754 m (5 ft 9 in)1.640 m (5 ft 4 12 in)20–74 [55]
Switzerland1.781 m (5 ft 10 in)Conscripts, 18–21Measured2005 [57]
Thailand1.675 m (5 ft 6 in)1.573 m (5 ft 2 in) STOU university student Self-reported1991–1995 [58]
TurkeyAnkara1.740 m (5 ft 8 12 in)1.589 m (5 ft 2 12 in)18-59Measured2004–2006 [59]
TurkeyAnkara1.761 m (5 ft 9 12 in)1.620 m (5 ft 4 in)18-29Measured2004–2006 [59]
TurkeyEdirne1.737 m (5 ft 8 12 in)1.614 m (5 ft 3 12 in)17Measured2001 [60]
U.K. - England1.776 m (5 ft 10 in)1.637 m (5 ft 4 12 in) 25-34 Measured 2008 [61]
U.K. - England1.753 m (5 ft 9 in)1.616 m (5 ft 3 12 in) Adults Measured 2008 [61]
U.K. - Scotland1.782 m (5 ft 10 in)1.635 m (5 ft 4 12 in) 25-34 Measured 2008 [62]
U.K. - Scotland1.750 m (5 ft 9 in)1.613 m (5 ft 3 12 in) Adults Measured 2008 [62]
U.S.1.763 m (5 ft 9 12 in)1.622 m (5 ft 4 in) All Americans, 20+ Measured 2003–2006 [63]
U.S.1.776 m (5 ft 10 in)1.632 m (5 ft 4 12 in) All Americans, 20–29 Measured 2003–2006 [63]
U.S.1.789 m (5 ft 10 12 in)1.648 m (5 ft 5 in) White Americans, 20–39 Measured 2003–2006 [63]
U.S. 1.780 m (5 ft 10 in)1.632 m (5 ft 4 12 in)Black Americans, 20–39 Measured 2003–2006 [63]
U.S.1.706 m (5 ft 7 in)1.587 m (5 ft 2 12 in)Mexican-Americans, 20–39 Measured 2003–2006 [63]
Vietnam1.621 m (5 ft 4 in)1.522 m (5 ft 0 in) 25–29 Measured 1992–1993[14]

Determinants of growth and height

The study of height is known as auxology. Growth has long been recognized as a measure of the health of individuals, hence part of the reasoning for the use of growth charts. For individuals, as indicators of health problems, growth trends are tracked for significant deviations and growth is also monitored for significant deficiency from genetic expectations. Genetics is a major factor in determining the height of individuals, though it is far less influential in regard to populations. Average height is increasingly used as a measure of the health and wellness (standard of living and quality of life) of populations. Attributed as a significant reason for the trend of increasing height in parts of Europe is the egalitarian populations where proper medical care and adequate nutrition are relatively equally distributed. Changes in diet (nutrition) and a general rise in quality of health care and standard of living are the cited factors in the Asian populations. Average height in the United States has remained essentially stagnant since the 1950s even as the racial and ethnic background of residents has shifted. Severe malnutrition is known to cause stunted growth in North Korean, portions of African, certain historical European, and other populations.

's (1889) data showing the relationship between offspring height (928 individuals) as a function of mean parent height (205 sets of parents). The correlation was 0.57.]] Height, like other phenotypic traits, is determined by a combination of genetics and environmental factors. A child's height based on parental heights is subject to regression toward the mean, therefore extremely tall or short parents will likely have correspondingly taller or shorter offspring, but their offspring will also likely be closer to average height than the parents themselves. Genetic potential plus nutrition minus stressors is a basic formula. Humans grow fastest (other than in the womb) as infants and toddlers, rapidly declining from a maximum at birth to roughly age 2, tapering to a slowly declining rate, and then during the pubertal growth spurt, a rapid rise to a second maxima (at around 11-12yrs for female, and 13-14yrs for male), followed by a steady decline to zero. On average, female growth velocity trails off to zero at about 15 years, whereas the male curve continues for approximately 3 more years, going to zero at about 18. These are also critical periods where stressors such as malnutrition (or even severe child neglect) have the greatest effect.

Moreover, the health of a mother throughout her life, especially during her critical periods, and of course during pregnancy, has a role. A healthier child and adult develops a body that is better able to provide optimal prenatal conditions. The pregnant mother's health is important as gestation is itself a critical period for an embryo/fetus, though some problems affecting height during this period are resolved by catch-up growth assuming childhood conditions are good. Thus, there is an accumulative generation effect such that nutrition and health over generations influences the height of descendants to varying degrees.

The age of the mother also has some influence on the her child's height. Studies in modern times have observed a gradual increase in height with maternal age.[64][65][66]

The precise relationship between genetics and environment is complex and uncertain. Human height is 60%-80% heritable, according to several twin studies[67] and has been considered polygenic since the Mendelian-biometrician debate a hundred years ago.[68] The only gene so far attributed with normal height variation is HMGA2. This is only one of many, as each copy of the allele concerned confers an additional 0.4 cm (0.16 in) accounting for just 0.3% of population variance.[67]

The Nilotic peoples of Sudan such as the Dinka have been described as the tallest in the world, with the males in some communities having average heights of 1.9 m (6 ft 3 in) and females at 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in).[69] The Dinka are characterized as having long legs, narrow bodies and short trunks, an adaptation to hot weather.[70] However, a 1995 study casts doubt on the claim of extraordinary height in Dinka, which after studying the average height of Dinka males in one location, listed the actual number as 1.76 m (5 ft 9 12 in).[71] Males in the Dinaric Alps have an average height of 1.85 m (6 ft 1 in).[16] Nonetheless, In the case of some Sudanese tribes, males can have an average height of 1.9 m (6 ft, 4in), while women of 1.8 m (6 ft)[citation needed] .

Process of growth

File:Endocrine growth
Main pathways in endocrine regulation of growth.

Growth in stature, determined by its various factors, results from the lengthening of bones via cellular divisions chiefly regulated by somatotropin (human growth hormone (hGH)) secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Somatotropin also stimulates the release of another growth inducing hormone Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mainly by the liver. Both hormones operate on most tissues of the body, have many other functions, and continue to be secreted throughout life; with peak levels coinciding with peak growth velocity, and gradually subsiding with age after adolescence. The bulk of secretion occurs in bursts (especially for adolescents) with the largest during sleep.

The majority of linear growth occurs as growth of cartilage at the epiphysis (ends) of the long bones which gradually ossify to form hard bone. The legs compose approximately half of adult human height, and leg length is a somewhat sexually dimorphic trait. Some of this growth occurs after the growth spurt of the long bones has ceased or slowed. The majority of growth during growth spurts is of the long bones. Additionally, the variation in height between populations and across time is largely due to changes in leg length. The remainder of height consists of the cranium. Height is sexually dimorphic and statistically it is more or less normally distributed, but with heavy tails.

Height abnormalities

Most intra-population variance of height is genetic. Short stature and tall stature are usually not a health concern. If the degree of deviation from normal is significant, hereditary short stature is known as familial short stature and tall stature is known as familial tall stature. Confirmation that exceptional height is normal for a respective person can be ascertained from comparing stature of family members and analyzing growth trends for abrupt changes, among others. There are, however, various diseases and disorders that cause growth abnormalities. Most notably, extreme height may be pathological, such as gigantism (very rare) resulting from childhood hyperpituitarism, and dwarfism which has various causes. Rarely, no cause can be found for extreme height; very short persons may be termed as having idiopathic short stature. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2003 approved hGH treatment for those 2.25 standard deviations below the population mean (approximately the lowest 1.2% of the population). An even rarer occurrence, or at least less used term and recognized "problem", is idiopathic tall stature.

If not enough growth hormone is produced and/or secreted by the pituitary gland, then a patient with growth hormone deficiency can undergo treatment. This treatment involves the injection of pure growth hormone into thick tissue to promote growth.

Role of an individual's height

Height and (physiological and psychological) health

Certain studies have shown that height is a factor in overall health while some suggest tallness is associated with better cardio-vascular health and shortness with overall better-than-average health and longevity.[72] Being excessively tall can cause various medical problems, including cardiovascular problems, because of the increased load on the heart to supply the body with blood, and problems resulting from the increased time it takes the brain to communicate with the extremities. For example, Robert Wadlow, the tallest man known to verifiable history, developed trouble walking as his height increased throughout his life. In many of the pictures of the later portion of his life, Wadlow can be seen gripping something for support. Late in his life, he had to wear braces on his legs and to walk with a cane; and he died after developing an infection in his legs because he was unable to feel the irritation and cutting caused by his leg braces. Excessive tallness and excessive shortness each can cause social exclusion and discrimination for both men and women (heightism).

Women whose height is under 1.5 meters (5 feet) may have a small pelvis, resulting in such complications during childbirth as shoulder dystocia.[73]

A study done in Sweden has shown that there is a strong inverse correlation between height and suicide among Swedish men.[74]

Height and occupational success

There is a large corpus of research in psychology, economics, and human biology that has assessed the relationship between several seemingly innocuous physical features (e.g., body height) and occupational success[75]. The correlation between height and success was discovered decades ago[76][77]. There are only a few occupations that need taller people. They include most professional sports (see section "Sports"), fashion modelling, etc. Apart from these notable exeptions where height might reflect differences in actual performance, in most other occupational fields, body height would not seem to influence how well people are able to perform. Nevertheless, a correlation has been found between body height and occupational success in several studies across different occupations[78][79][80][81].

A very impressive demonstration of the height-success association can be found in the realm of politics. In the United States presidential elections, the taller candidate won 22 out of 25 times in the 20th century[82]. Historically this assumption has not always reflected reality; for instance Napoleon Bonaparte was not much taller than 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) according to sources (though Napoleon's height is subject to great debate, and he may have been as tall as 1.67 m (5 ft 5 12 in); see Napoleon's height for further information). Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuits, was 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in). The height of Alexander the Great is estimated at between 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and 5 ft 8 in (1.73 m). Several world leaders of the early twentieth century, Vladimir Lenin, Benito Mussolini, and Joseph Stalin were of below-average height .

Sports

Height can play a significant role in contributing to success in some sports by offering certain natural advantages. For those sports where this could be a contributing factor, height can be useful (although certainly not in all cases, and is not the only factor) since in general it affects the leverage between muscle volume and bones towards greater speed of movement and power, depending on overall build, fitness and individual ability.[citation needed] However, there can also be significant disadvantages posed by size and resultant mass that could prove to be a hindrance to success. Finally, there are numerous sports where size is irrelevant.

Amateur wrestling

Height can be both helpful and detrimental in wrestling. Since taller people have more bone mass, they will generally be slightly weaker than shorter people in the same weight class. This difference is made up in part by their longer arms, which allow them a longer reach and cradle easier. Long legs are detrimental in that they can easily be attacked by a lolly (shot). They do, however, assist in performing some actions and positions such as throwing, sprawling to counter a takedown or riding legs.[citation needed] The heights of amateur wrestlers vary greatly with successful athletes being as short as Alireza Dabir at 171 cm (5'7") and as tall as Alexander Karelin at roughly 193 cm (6'4").

Gridiron football

In American and Canadian Football, a tall quarterback is at an advantage because it is easier for him to see over the heads of large offensive and defensive linemen while he is in the pocket in a passing situation. At 1.75 m (5 ft 9 in), Doug Flutie was initially considered to be too short to become a NFL quarterback despite his Heisman Trophy-winning success at the college level. In addition, shorter quarterbacks have an advantage with their lower center of gravity and balance, which means they are better able to duck under a tackle and avoid a sack. According the former Washington Redskins quarterback Eddie LeBaron, being shorter means you can throw the ball higher instead of a sidearm release, meaning it is harder for the defense to knock it down. Shorter quarterbacks also generally have a quicker release time than taller quarterbacks.

Tall wide receivers have an advantage of being able to jump considerably higher than shorter defensive backs to catch highly thrown passes. Of course, this advantage has limits because exceedingly tall receivers are normally not as agile or lack overall speed or strength. Tight ends are usually over 1.93 m (6 ft 4 in) because they need greater body mass to be effective blockers and greater height is an advantage for them as receivers, since they run shorter routes based less on speed. By contrast, shorter defensive backs are utilized because of their typically greater agility, as the ability to change directions instantly is a prerequisite for the position.

Offensive and defensive linemen tend to be at least 1.85 m (6 ft 1 in) and are frequently as tall as 2.03 m (6 ft 8 in) to be massive enough to effectively play their positions. Height is especially an advantage for defensive linemen, giving them the ability to knock down passes with their outstretched arms.

Short running backs are at an advantage because their shorter stature and lower center of gravity generally makes them harder to tackle effectively. In addition, they can easily "hide" behind large offensive linemen, making it harder for defenders to react at the beginning of a play. Thus, in the National Football League and in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football, running backs under 1.83 m (6 ft 0 in) are more common than running backs over 1.91 m (6 ft 3 in). Former Heisman Trophy winner and Pro Football Hall of Famer Barry Sanders, thought by some to be the greatest running back in history, is a classic example of a running back with an extraordinarily low center of gravity, as he stood only 1.71 m (5 ft 7 12 in).

Artistic gymnastics

In artistic gymnastics, it is advantageous to be shorter. A lower center of gravity can give an athlete better balance. A smaller athlete may also have an easier time manipulating their body in the air.[citation needed]

Baseball

In baseball, being taller usually means longer legs, which power pitchers use to generate velocity and a release point closer to the plate, which means the ball reaches the batter more quickly. The ball also comes from a higher release angle opposed to a shorter pitcher. While taller position players have a larger strike zone, most position players are at least of average height because the larger frame allows them to generate more power. One exception to this generalization would be Dustin Pedroia with a height of 1.70 m (5 ft 7 in).

Basketball

In college and professional basketball the shortest players are usually well above average in height compared to the general population. In men's professional basketball, the guards, the smallest players, are usually around 6 ft 0 in (1.83 m) to 6 ft 3 in (1.91 m), the average height for basketball players is about 6 ft 7 in (2.01 m) and the centers, the tallest players, are generally from 6 ft 10 in (2.08 m) to 7 ft 2 in (2.18 m).[citation needed]

Cricket

In cricket, some of the great batsmen like Donald Bradman 1.70 m (5 ft 7 in), Sachin Tendulkar 1.65 m (5 ft 5 in) and Sunil Gavaskar 1.63 m (5 ft 4 in) are or were below average height. This may be because a smaller body makes for an advantage in footwork and balance. Similarly, the most graceful wicket-keepers have tended to be average height or below. Although there are fewer tall batsmen, the stand-outs are often noted for their heavy hitting and an ability to get a long stride forward to reach a full length delivery. England's Kevin Pietersen at 1.93 m (6 ft 4 in) is a modern example of a powerful, tall batsman. Past greats like Clive Lloyd and Graeme Pollock were above 1.80 m (5 ft 11 in).

On the other hand, many of the most successful fast bowlers have been well above average height; for example past greats Joel Garner, Courtney Walsh, and Curtly Ambrose were all approximately 2.00 m (6 ft 7 in) tall. Similarly, Glenn McGrath, also regarded as one of the finest bowlers to play the game, was 1.95 m (6 ft 5 in) tall, well above average height. Taller bowlers have access to a higher point of release, making it easier for them to make the ball bounce uncomfortably for a batsman. For extreme pace however, bowlers tend to be closer to average height. The fastest modern bowlers have ranged from Lasith Malinga 1.68 m (5 ft 6 in) through to Dilhara Fernando at 1.90 m (6 ft 3 in), and Steve Harmison and Shaun Tait at 1.93 m (6 ft 4 in).

Height does not appear to be an advantage to spin bowling and few international spinners are ever much taller than 1.80 m (5 ft 11 in). Tall spin bowlers like Sulieman Benn (2.01 m or 6 ft 7 in) use extra pace and bounce, whereas spin is traditionally about using a looping, plunging trajectory at slow (70–90 km/h or 40–60 mph) speeds. The most successful bowlers ever in Test cricket, Muttiah Muralitharan and Shane Warne are 1.70 m (5 ft 7 in) and 1.83 m (6 ft 0 in) respectively.

Fencing

In fencing, it is generally advantageous to be taller because a longer arm span allows one's weapon to reach one's opponent's body from a further distance - although, differences in height can be mitigated in sabre or foil, because those weapons have rules such that hitting first does not necessarily result in points. In épée, height poses a debatable advantage as the entire body is a target, and the closest point of the body (the hand) is always a sword's distance away.[citation needed]

Football (Soccer)

Football is a non-discriminatory sport when it comes to body type. A player's height may somewhat determine the position that they play, however, people of all heights have an equal opportunity to excel professionally at the sport. Goalkeepers, centre backs and "target" heading forwards tend to be taller, while players in wide, central and attacking positions tend to be shorter. A study of the greatest male players in history showed that the distribution of heights approximated the "average man" and, when also looking at the typical weight distribution, an estimated 95% of the world's population would fall into the body type distribution of great footballers. A sample of reasonably select players from ages 11–18 in the USA tended to approximate the height distribution of the population.[83][84]

For wide, central and attacking positions the players are generally relatively shorter. Many of the best players in history have been shorter than average and in many cases gained an advantage from their low center of gravity, e.g., Maradona 1.65 m (5 ft 5 in)); Roberto Carlos, Nobby Stiles 1.68 m (5 ft 6 in); Garrincha, Lionel Messi, Romário 1.69 m (5 ft 6 12 in); Puskás, Makélélé, Iniesta, Xavi 1.70 m (5 ft 7 in). However, height is generally considered advantageous for some forwards who usually aim to score with their heads, such as Jan Koller, Stefan Maierhofer and Nikola Žigić (2.02 m (6 ft 7 12 in)) as well as Peter Crouch (2.01 m (6 ft 7 in)).

Height is often an advantage for central defenders who are assigned to stop forwards from scoring through the air, as exemplified by players like Matej Bagarić (2.01 m (6 ft 7 in)), Per Mertesacker (1.98 m (6 ft 6 in)), Brede Hangeland (1.95 m (6 ft 5 in)), Christoph Metzelder (1.94 m (6 ft 4 12 in)) and Christopher Samba (1.93 m (6 ft 4 in)).[85] There are, however, central defenders who aren't above average height, such as winners of the last two world cups Franco Baresi (1.76 m (5 ft 9 12 in)), Fabio Cannavaro (1.75 m (5 ft 9 in)) Carles Puyol (1.78 m (5 ft 10 in)), and Iván Córdoba (1.73 m (5 ft 8 in)).

Goalkeepers tend to be taller than average because their greater armspans and total reach when jumping enable them to cover more of the goal. Examples of particularly tall keepers include Gianluigi Buffon (1.91 m (6 ft 3 in)), Vanja Iveša, Željko Kalac, Goran Blažević, Andreas Isaksson, Edwin van der Sar (1.97 m (6 ft 5 12 in)), Petr Čech (1.96 m (6 ft 5 in)), Vladimir Stojković and Doni. In addition, there are examples of successful goalkeepers who aren't significantly taller than average, such as Jorge Campos (1.68 m (5 ft 6 in)), Óscar Pérez (1.72 m (5 ft 7 12 in)), René Higuita (1.75 m (5 ft 9 in)) Fabien Barthez (1.81 m (5 ft 11 12 in)) and Iker Casillas (1.82 m (5 ft 11 12 in)).

Ice hockey

While the history of the National Hockey League (NHL) is filled with diminutive players who achieved greatness (Theo Fleury, Martin St. Louis), and the highest scorer in NHL history, Wayne Gretzky, is 1.83 m (6 feet) tall and played at 185 pounds (84 kg), the game's increasingly physical style has put a premium on imposing players, particularly over 1.80 m (6 feet) tall and over 100 kg (220 pounds) (Mario Lemieux, Eric Lindros, Chris Pronger). Taller, bigger players have a longer reach, are more able to give out and sustain body checks, and have greater leverage on their shooting such as a slap shot[citation needed] (examples include Tyler Myers at 6'8", and Eric Staal, Rick Nash, Ryan Getzlaf, and Joe Thornton, all at 6 ft 4 in (1.93 m). The average height of an NHLer is just over 6 ft 1 in (1.85 m) tall. Zdeno Chára, at 6 ft 9 in (2.06 m), is the tallest player ever to play in the NHL.

Mixed martial arts

In mixed martial arts, taller men have a distinct advantage in striking, because of their increased range. Shorter men on the other hand, tend to be stronger than taller opponents of equal weight, and often have the advantage while grappling. While height is still regarded as an overall advantage, there have been many great fighters who are shorter than average.[citation needed] Fedor Emilianenko, widely regarded as the best heavy-weight fighter in the world, stands less than 6', and has defeated opponents almost exclusively taller than him. Mike Tyson and David Tua are two heavy-weight boxers who stand only 5'10", yet have been extremely successful.

Rowing

In rowing, tallness is advantageous, because the taller a rower is, the longer his or her stroke can potentially be, thus moving the boat more effectively. The average male Olympic rower is 1.92 m (6 ft 3 12 in), and the average female Olympic rower is 1.73 m (5 ft 8 in),[86] well over the average height.

Rugby league

Unlike rugby union, height is not generally seen as important, often extreme height being a hindrance rather than a useful attribute.[87] Second-row forwards are generally not as tall as their rugby union counterparts due to the absence of line-outs. However, recent tactics of cross-field kicking have resulted in the success of taller outside backs.Cody Cunningham (2.05 m (6 ft 8 12 in)), Israel Folau (1.96 m (6 ft 5 in)), Greg Inglis (1.95 m (6 ft 5 in)), Shaun Kenny-Dowall (1.95 m (6 ft 5 in)), Mark Gasnier (1.94 m (6 ft 4 12 in)), Colin Best (1.89 m (6 ft 2 12 in)), Manu Vatuvei (1.89 m (6 ft 2 12 in)), Jarryd Hayne (1.88 m (6 ft 2 in)), Krisnan Inu (1.85 m (6 ft 1 in)) and Jason Nightingale (1.85 m (6 ft 1 in)) are examples of the trend in taller wingers and centres.[citation needed]

Rugby union

In rugby union, lineout jumpers, generally [[Rugby_union_positions#4._.26_5._Lock|Template:Safesubst:]]s, are usually the tallest players, as this increases their chance of winning the ball, whereas [[Rugby_union_positions#9._Scrum-half|Template:Safesubst:]] are usually relatively short.[citation needed] As examples, current world-class locks Victor Matfield, Chris Jack, and Paul O'Connell are all at least 1.98 m (6 ft 6 in), while the sport's all-time leader in international appearances, scrum-half George Gregan, is 1.73 m (5 ft 8 in).[88]

Sumo

Professional sumo wrestlers are required to be at least 173 cm (5' 8") tall.[citation needed] Some aspiring sumo athletes have silicone implants added to the tops of their heads to reach the necessary height.[89] The average height for a sumo wrestler is 180 cm, far above the national average in Japan.

Swimming

Height is generally considered advantageous in swimming. Taller swimmers with longer arms are able to achieve better leverage, hence more acceleration, in the water.[citation needed] And also, water resistance goes down with increasing height (see Froude number).

This is especially true for freestyle. An example of a tall swimmer is Michael Phelps, at 6'4" (193 cm) who won eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympic Games. The average height of the eight finalists in the 100 meter Freestyle final at the US Olympic Trials was 6'5" (196 cm). Another exceptionally tall swimmer is Michael Gross, a German great of the 1980s who is 6'7" (201 cm) with an arm span of 7'0" (213 cm). One notable exception for a shorter swimmer, is Japanese Kosuke Kitajima, who at 1.78 m (5 ft 10 in) is much shorter, and with a more slender build, then a typical Olympic champion swimmer, has achieved astounding results in breaststroke.

Taekwondo

In taekwondo, a taller height gives more advantage because the longer legs increase striking range.[citation needed] Tall fighters include Steven López at 6'2" (188 cm).

Tennis

Height can be advantageous to a tennis player as it allows players to create more power when serving[citation needed], and it gives tall players a greater arm span, allowing them to get to sharp-angled shots more easily. However, being tall can have some disadvantages, like the difficulty of bending down to reach low volleys.[citation needed]

Examples of tall players are 2.08 m (6'10") Ivo Karlović, 2.06 m (6'9") John Isner, 206 cm (6'9") Juan Martín del Potro, 198 cm (6'6") Marin Čilić, and 196 cm (6'5") Mario Ančić, all known for their powerful serves. However, Roger Federer (1.85 m, 6'1"), Rafael Nadal (1.85 m, 6'1"), Novak Djoković (1.87 m, 6'2), and Andy Murray (1.90 m, 6'3"), the four top-ranked players in the world at the end of 2008, are all between 1.84-1.90 m (6'1"-6'3") in height. Venus Williams, Lindsay Davenport, Dinara Safina and Maria Sharapova are successful tall players on the women's side, all measuring 1.85 m (6'1") or taller. There have also have been some successful players that were of average size, like Rod Laver and Justine Henin, or shorter than average, such as Pancho Segura and Dominika Cibulková.

Weightlifting

In weightlifting shorter levers are advantageous and taller than average competitors usually compete in the 105 kg + group.[citation needed]

History of human height

Average height of troops born in the mid-nineteenth century, by country or place.

Country Height
Australia 1.72 m (5 ft 7 34 in)[90]
U.S. 1.71 m (5 ft 7 14 in)
Norway 1.69 m (5 ft 6 12 in)
Ireland 1.68 m (5 ft 6 14 in)
Scotland 1.68 m (5 ft 6 14 in)
Sweden 1.68 m (5 ft 6 14 in)
Bohemia 1.67 m (5 ft 5 34 in)
Lower Austria 1.67 m (5 ft 5 34 in)
Moravia 1.66 m (5 ft 5 14 in)
England 1.66 m (5 ft 5 14 in)
France 1.65 m (5 ft 5 in)
Wales 1.65 m (5 ft 5 in)
Russia 1.65 m (5 ft 5 in)
Germany 1.64 m (5 ft 4 12 in)
Netherlands 1.64 m (5 ft 4 12 in)
Spain 1.62 m (5 ft 3 34 in)
Italy 1.61 m (5 ft 3 12 in)
Japan 1.65 m (5 ft 5 in)

Source

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Europeans in North America were far taller than those in Europe and were the tallest in the world.[91] The original indigenous population of Plains Native Americans was also among the tallest populations of the world at the time.[92] Several nations, including many nations in Europe, have now surpassed the US, particularly the Netherlands, and the Scandinavian nations.

In the late nineteenth century, the Netherlands was a land renowned for its short population, but today it has the second tallest average in the world, with young men averaging 183 cm (6'0 ft) tall and in Europe are only shorter than the peoples of the Dinaric Alps (a section largely within the former Yugoslavia), where males average 185.6 cm (6 ft 1.1 in) tall. The Dinarians and the Dutch are now well known in Europe for extreme tallness. In Africa, the Maasai, Dinka and Tutsi populations have been noted for their height. However, the popular belief that Dinka "often" reach more than seven feet finds no support in scientific literature. An anthropometric survey of Dinka men published in 1995 found a mean height of 176.4 cm, or roughly 5 ft 9.45 in the Ethiopian Medical Journal. [1]

Colonial populations present an interesting case in the evolution of human height. Though the European population in South Africa is principally descended from Dutch and British settlers of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries (at a period when both England and Holland reported average male heights of under 5 foot 6), the present European descended population has shown a similar increase in height as have the nations from which they are descended. A 1998 survey recorded an average height of 177 cm for European descended South African males, and 164 cm for European descended South African females.[52] Australians likewise are taller than their ancestors, averaging over 178 cm, and women 163.9 cm in a survey conducted in 1995.[2] By comparison, a British survey from a similar period averages the male population height at 174.4 cm, and the female population at 161 cm.[61] This means that despite many Australians and European descended South Africans having descended from British people, their current average height is over an inch greater than the present UK average (approximately 0.4 Standard Deviations).

Average male height in impoverished Vietnam and North Korea[93] remains comparatively small at 163 cm (5 ft 4 in) and 165 cm (5 ft 5 in), respectively. Currently, young adult North Korean males are actually significantly shorter. This contrasts greatly with the extreme growth occurring in surrounding Asian populations with correlated increasing standards of living. Young South Koreans are about 12 cm (4.7 inches) taller than their North Korean counterparts, on average. There is also an extreme difference between older North Koreans and young North Koreans who grew up during the famines of the 1990s-2000s. North Korean and South Korean adults older than 40, who were raised when the North and South's economies were about equal, are generally of the same average height.

In the early 1970s, when anthropologist Barry Bogin first visited Guatemala, he observed that Mayan Indian men averaged only 157.5 cm (5 ft 2 in) in height and the women averaged 142.2 cm (4 ft 8 in). Bogin took another series of measurements after the Guatemalan Civil War had erupted, during which up to a million Guatemalans had fled to the United States. He discovered that Mayan refugees, who ranged from six to twelve years old, were significantly taller than their Guatemalan counterparts. By 2000, the American Maya were 10.24 cm (4 in) taller than the Guatemalan Maya of the same age, largely due to better nutrition and access to health care. Bogin also noted that American Maya children had a significantly lower sitting height ratio, (i.e., relatively longer legs, averaging 7.02 cm longer) than the Guatemalan Maya.[94][95]

See also

Bibliography

References

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  2. ^ a b c ABS How Australians Measure Up 1995 data
  3. ^ a b c d http://www.econ.upf.edu/docs/papers/downloads/1002.pdf The Evolution of Adult Height in Europe
  4. ^ Azerbaijan State Statistics Committee, 2005
  5. ^ NATIONAL NUTRITION SURVEY
  6. ^ Google Books: "Patterns of Human Growth;" Barry Bogin; 1999
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  93. ^ Demick, Barbara. Effects of famine: Short staure evident in North Korean generation. Los Angeles Times. The Seattle Times. 2004-02-14.
  94. ^ P.O.V. - Big Enough . The Height Gap | PBS
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