Human rights in Colombia: Wikis

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Rights in Colombia
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Animal rights
Children's rights
Civil rights
Collective rights
Fathers' rights
Gay Rights
Group rights
Human rights
Individual rights
Legal rights
Men's rights
Natural rights
Reproductive rights
Social rights
Women's rights
Workers' rights
Displacement
Youth rights


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Human rights in Colombia refers to human rights topics in Colombia. This covers "the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law"[1], in accordance with the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights stating that "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."[2]

Throughout its history Colombia has suffered numerous wars and civil wars in a struggle to define its political system. Colombia currently suffers an armed conflict involving guerrillas, drug traffickers and government corruption. During its political process, and due to local population, NGOs and international pressure, policies and laws have been gradually put into effect to guarantee Right to life, Human dignity, prevent state of sieges, improve national security, enforce the Rechtsstaat; promote freedom of the press and democratic freedoms; economic rights, rights to information, social and cultural rights. women, children's, workers and ethnic minorities rights, most notably established in the Colombian Constitution of 1991. Despite the constitution and the constant pressure of the International community, United Nations, the European Union and the United States, and numerous NGOs the political, social and economic radicalism and war continues led to many violations of these triggering mass displacements, forced migration.

Contents

Actors of the armed conflict

According to Amnesty International's Annual Report 2006, "Although the number of killings and kidnappings in some parts of the country fell, serious human rights abuses committed by all parties to the conflict remained at critical levels. Of particular concern were reports of extrajudicial executions carried out by the security forces, killings of civilians by guerrilla groups and paramilitaries, and the forced displacement of civilian communities."[3] More than 3.5 million civilians out of the country’s 40 million people have been displaced during the last two decades, according to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre.[4]

"Women comprise over 55 percent of Colombia’s internally displaced population (IDP). According to the Profamilia study, conducted from 2000 to 2001, one displaced woman in five is a victim of sexual violence; many suffer unwanted pregnancies."[5] The victims, as reported by Ms. Magazine, have sometimes resorted to illegal abortions. In 2007, abortion was decriminalized in the cases of rape, when a fetus is expected to die, and when the mother's life or health is endangered.[6]

According to Amnesty International in Colombia, "Paramilitaries who had supposedly demobilized under the terms of a controversial law ratified in July continued to commit human rights violations, while armed opposition groups continued to commit serious and widespread breaches of international humanitarian law. Individuals who may have been responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity were not brought to justice."[7] The Justice and Peace law, together with other legal mechanisms such as Decree 128, provides legal and economic benefits to demobilized paramilitaries. More than 25,000 paramilitary members are taking advantage of the demobilization process. Amnesty International believes that some have concealed their paramilitary activities by using different names or acting as civilian informers and civic guards.[8]

Human rights issues

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Security rights

Security rights are those that prohibit crimes such as murder, massacres, torture and rape. In Colombia the legislation prohibits murdering and classifies it in two intentional and unintentional. Massacres in Colombia is considered by law as the unlawful premeditated assassination of 6 or more people in a single spree and is punishable by prison. Torture in Colombia is common due to the degradation of the internal armed conflict. According to Amnesty International (AI) the country suffered between July 1996 and June 2001 over 1,200 individual cases of torture, of these over 88% were subsequently killed.[9] In case of Rape the Colombian legislation protects the rights of the victim, but most of the cases remain under impunity. Most of the cases of rape are related to the Colombian armed conflict and to family member abusing another family member. In the case of the armed conflict, Amnesty International reported in 2003 for example, that the guerrillas and paramilitaries used rape on the civilian population specially women and children to induce fear and prevent them from aiding the enemy.[10]

Liberty rights

  • liberty rights that protect freedoms in areas such as belief and religion, association, assembling and movement!

Political rights

  • political rights that protect the liberty to participate in politics by expressing themselves, protesting, participating in a republic

Due process rights

  • due process rights that protect against abuses of the legal system such as arrest and imprisonment without trial, secret trials and excessive punishments

Equality rights

  • equality rights that guarantee equal citizenship, equality before the law and nondiscrimination

women's rights

children's rights

LGBT (MGMT) rights

fair rights

  • welfare rights (also known as economic rights) that require the provision of, e.g., education, paid holidays, and protections against severe poverty and starvation

Group rights

  • group rights

people

See also

References

External links


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