Human rights in Honduras: Wikis

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pre-twentieth century

pre-1979

During much of the twentieth century, Honduras did not have civilian governments. Military leaders frequently became presidents, either through elections or by coups d'état. General Tiburcio Carías Andino was elected in 1932, he later on called a constituent assembly that allowed him to be reelected, and his rule became more authoritarian until an election in 1948. During the following decades, coups d'état occurred in October 1955 by a group of military officers, in October 1963 and December 1972 by General Oswaldo López Arellano, in 1975 by Juan Alberto Melgar Castro and in 1978 by Policarpo Paz García.

1980s

Following the return to civilian government with a new constitution in 1982, the military unit Intelligence Battalion 3-16 carried out a systematic program of political assassinations and torture of suspected political opponents of the government. Battalion members received training and support from the United States Central Intelligence Agency both in Honduras and at United States military bases [1] and in Chile during the presidency of the dictator Augusto Pinochet.[2] Amnesty International estimated that at least 184 people were "disappeared" from 1980 to 1992 in Honduras, most likely by the Honduran military.[3] At least 19 members of Battalion 3-16 were graduates of the School of the Americas at Fort Benning in the USA.

In 1982, in response to these human rights violations, 12 families of disappeared Hondurans, including Bertha Oliva de Nativí, whose husband Professor Tomás Nativí was disappeared in 1981, created the human rights NGO Committee of Relatives of the Disappeared in Honduras (Comité de Familiares de Detenidos Desaparecidos en Honduras, COFADEH).[4][5]

Other human rights NGOs, including the Center for the Investigation and Defense of Human Rights in Honduras (CIPRODEH) for the western region of Honduras, the Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras (CODEH), and the Civic Council of Grassroots and Indigenous Organizations of Honduras (COPINH), were also created.

Zelaya presidency (2006-2009)

Seven former members of Battalion 3-16 (Billy Joya, Alvaro Romero, Erick Sánchez, Onofre Oyuela Oyuela, Napoleón Nassar Herrera, Vicente Rafael Canales Nuñez, Salomón Escoto Salinas and René Maradianga Panchamé) occupied important positions in the administration of President Manuel Zelaya as of mid-2006, according to the human rights organisation CODEH.[6] Napoleón Nassar was high Commissioner of Police for the north-west region under Zelaya[7].

On May 8, 2006, Marcelo Chimirri, Manuel Zelaya's nephew, attacked journalist Octavio Carvajal because of embarrassing questions and criticism Carvajal had made about Chimirri. Chimirri reportedly grabbed Carvajal by the throat and said "I am not intimidating you because I am not someone who makes threats - I act and I execute... the president’s office is irritated by all the questions you have been asking."[8]

A journalist who often criticized Zelaya was assassinated in 2007.[9] Inter-American Press Association (IAPA) and the United Nations criticized the threat to journalists in Honduras.[10] Other critical journalists, such as Dagoberto Rodriguez and Hector Geovanny Garcia, fled into exile because of constant murder threats.[11]

In 2008, The Organization of American States (OAS) accused Zelaya of imposing "subtle censorship" in Honduras.[12]

Interim government

In the 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis the Supreme Court issued an arrest warrant on Manuel Zelaya, who was sent in exile. Employees in both in Zelaya's government and in the new government included Billy Joya,[13] former Battalion 3-16 member Nelson Willy Mejía Mejía became Director of Immigration, and former Battalion 3-16 member Napoleón Nassar Herrera, who had already become a high Commissioner of Police, also became a spokesperson "for dialogue" for the Secretary of Security.[14][15][16][17] Zelaya claimed that Billy Joya had reactivated the death squad.[13]

A state of emergency was operational for most of July and continued into August. This suspended civil liberties including freedom of transit and due process, as well as permitting search and seizure without a warrant.[18] A curfew law was introduced, without having been published in La Gazeta, nor being approved by Congress.[19] Curfew times are announced on radio stations, differ daily and between regions of Honduras. Amnesty International described the curfew implementation as "arbitrary".[19]

The ambassadors of Cuba, Venezuela, and Nicaragua said that on the 29th they were detained and beaten by Honduran troops before being released.[20 ] Several government officials were taken into custody by the military.[20 ] A dozen former ministers from the Zelaya government went into in hiding, some in foreign embassies, fearing arrest.[21] Local media reported that at least eight ministers besides Patricia Rodas had been detained.[22]

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Alleged hate campaigns by Zelaya and his supporters

In August 2009, Unión Cívica Democrática filed a complaint to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights concerning Zelaya's and his followers' violence and hate campaigns in Honduras.[23]

The hate speech by Zelaya and his followers made worldwide headlines when Pro-Zelaya Radio Globo head David Romero Ellner accused Jews of being a problem in Honduras and said to his radio listeners that "I believe it should have been fair and valid to let Hitler finish his historic vision".[24][25] The Association of Descendants of Sephardic Jews in Honduras issued a public statement against Romero Ellner.[26]

Alleged violations of Zelaya critics' rights

Violations of rights and murder of Zelaya supporters'

During the first few weeks of pro-Zelaya protests, hundreds of arrests were allegedly made. COFADEH reported that 609 people, of whom at least 61 minors, were detained for "political scandal" (participation in political demonstrations), and 158 were detained for violating curfew, between 28 June and 12 July.[27] Amnesty International (AI) stated that during the Micheletti period, "increasingly disproportionate and excessive use of force [was] being used by the police and military to repress legitimate and peaceful protests across the country". Amnesty also said that "some women and girls taking part in the demonstrations are reportedly suffering gender based violence and abuse at the hands of police officers" and that at the same time that "protests increase and spread throughout the country, violent methods of repressing dissent intensify and Honduran citizens are increasingly exposed to violations of their fundamental rights."[19]

On 31 July interview with Democracy Now, Zelaya claimed that Battalion 3-16 was again operating, with a different name, and being led by Billy Joya. Zelaya stated (translation), "With a different name, [Battalion 3-16 is] already operating. The crimes being committed is torture to create fear among the population, and that's being directed by Mr. Joya."[13]

The death of Vicky Hernández Castillo (born Sonny Emelson Hernández), a member of the LGBT community who was killed by a bullet in the eye during the curfew of the night of 29 to 30 June and displayed signs of strangulation, [28] was attributed to the interim government by COFADEH.[29]

On 3 July in Tegucigalpa, Alexis Fernando Amador, 25 yrs old, was found dead in a blue plastic barrel with mortal wounds in his head, wearing a T-shirt referring to the "cuarta urna" (Fourth ballot box) that might have been voted on in the poll relating to organising a constituent assembly in Honduras.[29][30] His parents said he had disappeared the day before, and insisted that the shirt he was found in was not his, and that he had left for work in a red shirt.[30] COFADEH attributes his death to the interim government.[29]

Also on 3 July, journalist Gabriel Fino Noriega who had expressed opinions in favour of the project to hold a constituent assembly in Honduras and against the interim government, [28] was killed by 7 bullets when he left his workplace. [28][29] COFADEH attributes his assassination to the interim government,[29], while an international human rights mission considered Noriega's political points of view to offer a line of research for understanding the death, but insufficient proof that the reason for the killing was political. [28]

On 5 July, when soldiers prevented a plane carrying Zelaya from landing at Toncontin Airport, Isis Obed Murillo Mencias, the 19 year-old son of a social and environmental activist, Jose David Murillo Sanchez, 57 years old, was shot in the back of the head, while participating in a protest that attempted to tear down a fence. According to the Miami Herald, Isis Obed Murillo was shot by soldiers who tried to prevent people passing through the fence.[27][31] Isis Obed Murillo was taken to Escuela Hospital and his body taken to the Francisco Morazan Judicial Morgue. On 9 July at 11:30 in the morning, Jose David Murillo was detained by Direccion Nacional de Investigacion Criminal (DNIC) agents when he left the offices of COFADEH. Since then he has been held at the Juticalpa Penal Centre in an isolation cell three metres by three metres in size, without a bed.[27] Images of Isis Obed Murillo's bloodstained body were widely circulated and became a focal point for people opposed to the interim government.[31][32][33]

Roger Ivan Bados Gonzales (40), a leader of the Popular Bloc and member of the Democratic Unification Party was shot dead on the 11th July.[34] The death of 40 year-old campesino leader Ramón García, also a member of the Democratic Unification Party, on 12 July, after he was forced by unknown people to get off a bus,[27] is also attributed to the interim government by Luther Castillo.

On 24 July, near the border town El Paraíso, conflict occurred between hundreds of protestors against the interim government and security forces.[35] Many people saw protestor Pedro Magdiel Muñoz Salvador, 23 years old, being detained by police[36] and driven to a police station in El Paraíso.[37] The following morning, his body was found in a deserted field at 6:30 in the morning, with 42 wounds from stabbing. Demonstrators and the National Front Against the Coup d'État stated that the murder had all the characteristics of 1980s actions of Battalion 3-16, as a method of "terrorising the masses of people participating in the struggle against the coup regime."[36]

On 31 July, during a protest that blocked a highway on the first day of a public service national strike against the interim government, high school teacher Roger Abraham Vallejo Soriano, 38 years old, was shot in the head allegedly by security forces.[38][39 ] He died the following day.[40]

Another alleged assassination in the region near the Nicaraguan border near El Paraíso took place on 2 August when a soldier at a military roadblock allegedly fatally shot Pedro Pablo Hernández in the head.[29][41] COFADEH attributes his assassination to the interim government.[29] The Office of the Public Prosecutor stated to IACHR during the latter's 17-21 August visit that the case was being investigated.[41]

On 8 August in Choloma,[29] He was found dead, shot in the head, the following day, 9 August.[29] COFADEH attributes his alleged assassination to the interim government.[29]

On December 11 The decapitated body of Santos Corrales Garcia was found. The chairman of the Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras (CODEH), Andres Pavon, denounced on Saturday that police killed a supporter of ousted President Manuel Zelaya.Pavon said he was arrested on the afternoon of December 5 by five people dressed in uniforms of the National Directorate of Criminal Investigation (DNIC) with Galil rifles and 9mm pistols and transported Tacoma in a blue vehicle.[42]

On December 13 Walter Trochez, an activist in the National Resistance Front, was shot as he walked in downtown Tegucigalpa. Friends rushed him to a hospital, where he died.[43]

Zelaya in the Brazilian Embassy (since 21 September 2009)

Zelaya returned to Honduras on 21 September 2009, and stayed in the Brazilian Embassy, while Micheletti remained the de facto president.[44] Security forces under the responsibility of de facto president Micheletti carried out systematic human rights violations, including a "sharp rise in police beatings," hundreds of arrests of political demonstrators and intimidation of human rights defenders throughout Honduras.[45] On 22 September, 15 police fired tear gas canisters at the building of the human rights NGO Committee of Relatives of the Disappeared in Honduras (COFADEH), at a moment when about 100 people were in the COFADEH office.[45] Dozens of protestors were detained in unauthorised detention sites in Tegucigalpa on 22 September.[45]

On 16 October 2009, Human Rights Watch stated that "the small human rights unit of the Office of the Attorney General has begun investigations into numerous cases of killings, alleged excessive use of force by security officials, and illegal and arbitrary detentions" but that the unit's superiors in the Attorney General's office and armed forces members were obstructing the investigations.[46]

The interim government issued Decree PCM-M-016-2009 which officially signed on 22 September 2009[47] and rescinded on 19 October 2009.[48 ] The decree suspended five constitutional rights: personal liberty (Article 69), freedom of expression (Article 72), freedom of movement (Article 81), habeas corpus (Article 84) and freedom of association.[49] On 28 September, the decree was used to shut down the television stations Channel 36 and Radio Globo, which were "consistently critical of the de facto government" and removed the stations' broadcasting equipment.[47] Government security forces physically assaulted international journalists covering the raid on Radio Globo.[47] On 29 September, the Office of the Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression of the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights (IAHCR) "expressed its most energetic rejection" of the decree and asked for the immediate suspension of its enforcement, because it "flagrantly [contradicted] the international standards for freedom of expression".[47]

Amnesty International protested to the Honduran de facto government about the alleged violation of habeas corpus on 28 and 29 November.[50] One of the people who were allegedly disappeared was Jensys Mario Umanzor Gutierrez, last seen in police detention early on the morning of 30 November. Amnesty International (AI) stated that no courts, including the Supreme Court, were available to receive a petition for habeas corpus. AI also referred to two men arrested under terrorism charges and beaten, and 14 minors detained under decree PCM-M-016-2009[47][48 ] for having been gathered in groups of more than four persons, and later freed without charges.[50] AI also said that human rights organizations in Honduras "suffered attacks and acts of intimidation".[50]

References

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