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Humboldt County, California
Seal of Humboldt County, California
Map of California highlighting Humboldt County
Location in the state of California
Map of the U.S. highlighting California
California's location in the U.S.
Seat Eureka
Largest city Eureka
Area
 - Total
 - Land
 - Water

4,052 sq mi (10,495 km²)
3,572 sq mi (9,251 km²)
480 sq mi (1,243 km²), 11.84%
PopulationEst.
 - (2008)
 - Density

129,000
36.11/sq mi (14/km²)
Founded May 12, 1853[1]
Time zone Pacific: UTC-8/-7
Website www.co.humboldt.ca.us

Humboldt County is a county in the U.S. state of California, located on the far North Coast 200 miles north of San Francisco. The estimated 2008 population was 129,000,[2] reflecting less than a 2% increase from the 2000 census population of 126,518. The two largest population centers are Eureka, the county seat, and the smaller college town of Arcata, home to Humboldt State University. Both cities are located adjacent to Humboldt Bay, California's second largest natural bay.[3] Area cities and towns are known for hundreds of ornate examples of Victorian architecture.

Humboldt is a densely forested, mountainous, and rural county situated along the Pacific coast in Northern California's rugged Coast (Mountain) Ranges. With nearly 1,500,000 acres (6,100 km2) of combined public and private forest in production, Humboldt County accounts for twenty percent of the total forest production for all of California.[4] The county contains over forty percent of all remaining old growth Coast Redwood forests,[5] the vast majority of which is protected or strictly conserved within dozens of national, state, and local forests and parks, totaling approximately 680,000 acres (over 1,000 square miles).[6]

A 6.5 magnitude earthquake struck offshore, 33 mi. (53km) west of Eureka, California (see: 2010 Eureka earthquake), with only minor injuries and some structural damage to houses and utilities, but no deaths reported.[7]

Contents

History

The original inhabitants of the area now known as Humboldt County include the Wiyot, Yurok, Hupa, Karuk, Chilula, Whilkut, and the southern Athabascans, including the Mattole and Nongatl.[8] Andrés de Urdaneta hit the coast near Cape Mendocino, California, then followed the coast south to Acapulco in 1565. Spanish traders made unintended visits to California with the Manila Galleons on their return trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565. Humboldt County was formed in 1853 from parts of Trinity County. The first recorded entry by people of European origin was a landing by the Spanish in 1775.[8]

The county derived its name from Humboldt Bay. The first recorded entry of Humboldt Bay by non-natives was an 1806 visit from a sea otter hunting party from Sitka employed by the Russian American Company.[8] The hunting party included Captain Jonathan Winship, an American, and some Aleut hunters.[8][9] The bay was not visited again by people of European origin until 1849 when Josiah Gregg's party visited.[9] In 1850, Douglas Ottinger and Hans Buhne entered the bay, naming it Humboldt in honor of the great naturalist and world explorer, Baron Alexander von Humboldt.

The area around Humboldt Bay was once solely inhabited by the Wiyot Indian tribe. One of the largest Wiyot villages, Tolowot, was located on Gunther Island (AKA Indian Island and AKA Bloody Island) in Humboldt Bay. Founded circa 900, it contains a shell midden 6 acres (24,000 m²) in size and 14 feet (4 m) deep. It was the site of the February 26, 1860 massacre of the Wiyot people that was recorded by Bret Harte, then living in Union, now called Arcata. Between 60 and 200 Wiyot men, women, and children were murdered that night. In 1998, musician Frank Black wrote and recorded a song about this event, called "Humboldt County Massacre." Tolowot is now an archaeological site, designated Gunther Island Site 67, and is a National Historic Landmark.[9]

State historic landmarks in Humboldt County include Trinidad Head, Fort Humboldt, The Old Arrow Tree, Centerville Beach Cross, Camp Curtis, the Town of Trinidad, the City of Eureka, California's first drilled oil wells in Petrolia, the Jacoby Building, the Old Indian Village of Tsurai in Trinidad, the Arcata and Mad River Railroad Company, the Humboldt Harbor Historical District, and the town of Ferndale.[9]

On February 5 and February 6, 1885, Eureka's entire Chinese population of 300 men and 20 women were expelled after a gunfight between rival Chinese gangs (tongs) resulted in the wounding of a 12 year old boy and the death of 56 year old David Kendall, a Eureka City Councilman. After the shooting, an angry mob of 600 Eurekans met and then informed the Chinese that they were no longer wanted in Eureka and would be hanged if they were to stay in town longer than 3 p.m. the next day. They were put on two steamships and shipped to San Francisco. No-one was killed in the expulsion. Another Chinese expulsion occurred during 1906 in a cannery on the Eel River, in which 23 Chinese cannery workers were expelled after local loggers objected to their presence. However, some Chinese remained in the Orleans area, where some white landowners sheltered and purchased food for the Chinese mineworkers until after racial tension passed. Chinese did not return to the coastal cities until the 1950s.[10]

Climate

The coastal zone of the county experience wet, cool winters and dry, mild foggy summers. In the winter highs range from the low 40's to high 50's (5 to 15°C), with lows in the 30's and 40's (0 to 9°C). Coastal summers are cool to mild, with highs in the 60's (16 to 21°C) and frequent fogs. Moving 20 miles (32 km) inland one can find abundant sunshine and warmth, a welcome change from the coasts foggy climes. For this very reason coastal residents sometimes prefer to head inland in the summer to take brief respite from the perennial fog which is trapped by the bordering redwood forest as it moves inland. Coastal Summer highs range from the mid-50s to upper 60's (13 to 21°C), with lows from the upper 40's to mid 50's (8 to 13°C). The highest temperatures tend to occur at Woodley Island in the low to mid 70's (21 to 24°C). The coastal zone experiences a number of frosty nights in winter and early spring, though snowfall and hard freezes are rare. Coastal winters are cool and wet. Winter rainstorms are frequent, with averages from 30 inches (760 mm) to 100 inches (2,500 mm) a year varying with elevation.

Inland areas of the county also experience wet, cool winters. Snowfall is common at elevations over 3,000 ft (910 m) throughout the winter months. Summer displays the sharpest difference between the coastal and inland climates. Inland regions of Humboldt County experience highs from the 80's to the 90's (27 to 37°C) depending on the elevation and distance from the ocean. Summer highs of 100 degrees (38°C) are common in eastern parts of the county including Orleans, Hoopa, and Willow Creek.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,052 square miles (10,495 km²), of which, 3,572 square miles (9,253 km²) of it is land and 480 square miles (1,243 km²) of it (11.84%) is water.

Located inside Humboldt County is Cape Mendocino, the westernmost point in California (longitude124 degrees, 24 minutes, 30 seconds).

Bay

Humboldt Bay, the only deep water port between San Francisco and Coos Bay, Oregon, is located on the coast at the midpoint of the county.

Rivers

Mouth of Humboldt County's Little River on the Pacific Coast.

Humboldt County's major rivers include (in order of flow-cubic meters per second-from largest to smallest):

The list of other smaller rivers and at least one large creek include the following: Van Duzen, South Fork Eel River (in both Humboldt and Mendocino), North Fork Eel River, Mattole, Salmon, Elk, Bear, and Little Rivers, and Redwood Creek.

Parks and other protected areas

Rockefeller Forest, the largest remaining Old Growth Redwood forest on earth, is located within Humboldt Redwoods State Park.

National

Park

Conservation area

Forests

Wildlife refuge

California State Parks

Cities and towns

The majority of residents live in the Eureka-Arcata-Fortuna micropolitan area, located on a coastal plain adjacent to Humboldt Bay.[11]

Incorporated cities

Unincorporated towns and areas

Indian reservations

Humboldt County has eight Indian reservations lying within its borders. Only four other counties in the United States have more: San Diego County, California; Sandoval County, New Mexico; Riverside County, California; and Mendocino County, California. The Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation is the largest in the state of California, a state that generally has very small reservations (although very numerous) relative to those in other states.

Adjacent counties

Transportation infrastructure

Major highways

Public transportation

  • Humboldt Transit Authority operates two fixed route transit bus systems:
    • Redwood Transit System provides intercity service to and within communities between Trinidad and Scotia, with occasional service to Manila and Loleta. HTA also offers service between McKinleyville or Arcata and Willow Creek and an express bus between Arcata and College of the Redwoods when classes are in session.
    • Eureka Transit Service, operated in the City of Eureka, provides local service on four scheduled routes (one hour headway) in Eureka and its adjacent unincorporated communities. Connections can be made to the Redwood Transit System at several places in Eureka.
  • Arcata and Mad River Transit System, operated by the City of Arcata with funding from Humboldt State University. A&MRTS provides fixed route local bus service on two scheduled routes (one hour headway) in Arcata and an additional route between the Valley West Neighborhood and the university when classes are in session.
  • The city of Blue Lake and the Blue Lake Rancheria operates the Blue Lake Rancheria Transit Authority. Blue Lake Rancheria Transit provides fixed route intercity transit bus service (one hour headway) between Arcata and the Blue Lake Rancheria Indian Reservation and casino and local service within the city of Blue Lake.
  • Del Norte County's Redwood Coast Transit operates fixed route intercity transit bus service between Arcata and Crescent City or Smith River.
  • Amtrak Thruway bus has stops in many towns in the region, including Eureka, Arcata, and Fortuna. These stops are not managed by Amtrak and therefore have no services beyond serving passengers. Full service is only provided at the train station in Martinez, near San Francisco.

Airports

Arcata-Eureka Airport is located in McKinleyville (north of Arcata). Commercial flights are available. Other (general aviation) airports are located at Dinsmore, Garberville, Kneeland, Murray Field (Eureka) and Rohnerville (Fortuna).

Seaport

Port of Humboldt Bay - on Humboldt Bay, California's second largest natural bay.

Agriculture

Humboldt County is known for its impressive redwood trees, and many acres of private redwood timberland make Humboldt the top timber producer in California. The lush river bottoms adjacent to the ocean are renowned for producing rich, high-quality dairy products. Somewhat more inland the warmer valleys have historically produced abundant apples and other fruit. More recently vineyards have been planted in the Trinity, Klamath, and upper Eel river valleys.

Dairy

Humboldt County is known for its quality family operated dairy farms. The Humboldt Creamery, a significant producer of high grade ice cream and other dairy products, still operates from the original headquarters located at Fernbridge adjacent to the Eel River.

Marijuana

Humboldt County is also widely known for its cultural attributes associated with the cultivation and proliferation of marijuana. Proposition 215 California Proposition 215 (1996) allows patients and caregivers who are given a doctor's recommendation to legally (State level only) grow up to 99 plants in Humboldt County.[12] David Samuels of The New Yorker describes the county as "the heartland of high-grade marijuana farming in California."[13] The 2008 independent film Humboldt County centers on the county's marijuana cultivation subculture.

Politics

Presidential election results
Year DEM GOP Others
2008 62.05% 39,692 33.94% 21,713 3.2% 1,558
2004 57.7% 37,988 39.0% 25,714 3.3% 2,184
2000 44.4% 24,851 41.5% 23,219 14.1% 7,902
1996 44.2% 24,628 35.5% 19,803 20.3% 11,326
1992 48.1% 28,854 30.5% 18,299 21.4% 12,868
1988 57.1% 29,781 41.2% 21,460 1.7% 905
1984 46.8% 25,217 51.6% 27,832 1.6% 842
1980 35.2% 17,113 49.4% 24,047 15.5% 7,532
1976 54.2% 23,500 41.6% 18,034 4.2% 1,838
1972 46.2% 21,132 48.8% 22,345 5.0% 2,286
1968 45.5% 16,476 46.2% 16,719 8.3% 3,019
1964 66.3% 25,515 33.5% 12,909 0.2% 75
1960 52.7% 20,391 46.7% 18,074 0.6% 226

Humboldt is a Democratic county in Presidential and congressional elections. The last Republican presidential candidate to win a majority in the county was Ronald Reagan, a Californian, in 1984.

Humboldt is part of California's 1st congressional district, which is held by Democrat Mike Thompson. In the state legislature, Humboldt is part of the 1st Assembly district, which is held by Democrat Wes Chesbro, and the 2nd Senate district, which is held by Democrat Pat Wiggins.

On Nov. 4, 2008 Humboldt County voted 60.1% against Proposition 8 which amended the California Constitution to ban same-sex marriages.

Area organizations

Demographics

As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 126,518 people and 51,238 households in Humboldt County, and the population density was 35 people per square mile (14/km²). By 2006, the population was projected to have increased to 131,361 by the California Department of Finance.[14] There were 55,912 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile (6/km²).[citation needed] The racial makeup of the county was 84.71% White, 0.88% Black or African American, 5.72% Native American, 1.65% Asian, 0.19% Pacific Islander, 2.45% from other races, and 4.39% from two or more races. 6.49% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 13.3% were of German, 10.7% Irish, 10.3% English, 7.4% American and 5.7% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 92.1% spoke English and 4.6% Spanish as their first language.

There were 51,238 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.2% were non-families. 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.95.

In the county the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 12.4% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 97.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.6 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $31,226, and the median income for a family was $39,370. Males had a median income of $32,210 versus $23,942 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,203. About 12.9% of families and 19.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.5% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.

Educational and cultural institutions

The county is served by many school districts, including charter and private schools. All school districts are listed in a separate article.

The Lanphere Dunes, a protected coastal environment

Environment

Humboldt County contains a diversity of plant and animal species, with significant forest and coastal habitats. In coastal areas there are extensive amounts of redwood forests.[15] A prominent understory shrub is the toyon, whose northern range limit is in Humboldt County.[16]

Media

Print

The only major locally published regional daily newspaper is the Times-Standard. Owned by Media News Group since 1996, it has been in continuous publication since 1854. This national publisher also prints, locally, the Humboldt Beacon, the Redwood Times, and the Tri-City Weekly, a county-wide classified paper. It also produces Northcoast 101, an online business directory of the region. Other regional weekly and bi-weekly publications include the North Coast Journal, the McKinleyville Press, the Independent, the Arcata Eye, the Two Rivers Tribune, and The Lumberjack, a Humboldt State University student publication. Online readers may find as many as 170 Humboldt County blogs covering the region's topics in a variety of forms.

Television

Humboldt County's locally produced television stations, KIEM and KEET, are based in Eureka. KIEM produces the only local TV newscast for Humboldt County, while KEET is the only PBS station in the region. CBS and Fox affiliates KVIQ and KBVU, the latter a semi-satellite of KCVU, are based in Chico and ABC affiliate KAEF, a semi-satellite of KRCR-TV, is based in Redding. In previous decades all major networks had production capacity in Eureka.

Radio

For-profit stations include KFMI, KRED, KXGO, KHUM, KSLG, KWPT and KATA. Non-profit stations include the Hoopa Tribe's KIDE, Redway's KMUD, Humboldt State University-based KHSU and KRFH and Jefferson Public Radio's KNHM and KNHT.

Events

  • Arcata Bay Oyster Festival on the Arcata Plaza (June)
  • Azalea Festival in Mckinleyville (June)
  • Avenue of The Giants Marathon (May)
  • Blues by the bay in Eureka (July)
  • Chicken Wingfest in Eureka (September)
  • Craftsman's Days in Eureka (November)
  • College of the Redwoods Wood Fair (Summer)
  • Fourth of July Festival in Old Town Eureka (July)
  • Gay Pride in Arcata (September)
  • Godwit Days (Birding festival) in Arcata (April)
  • Humboldt County Fair in Ferndale (August)
  • Apple Harvest Festival in Fortuna (October)
  • Humboldt Film Festival (March-April)
  • Two Rivers Harvest Festival in Willow Creek(October)
  • Humboldt Redwoods Marathon (October)
  • Mushroom Fair in Eureka (November)
  • North Country Fair in Arcata (September)
  • Organic Planet Festival in Eureka (September)
  • Redwood Acres Fair in Eureka (June)
  • Redwood Coast Jazz Festival in Eureka (Last Weekend of March)
  • Redwood Run in Southern Humboldt (June)
  • Reggae on the River at Benbow in Southern Humboldt (July)
  • Reggae Rising on the Eel on the Humboldt / Mendocino County border (August)
  • Rhododendron Festival (and parade) in Eureka (April)
  • Roll on the Mattole at the Mattole Grange in Southern Humboldt (Summer)
  • Summer Arts and Music Festival at Benbow in Southern Humboldt (June)
  • Trinidad to Clam Beach Run (February)
  • Trinidad Fish Festival (June)
  • Tour of the Unknown Coast (by Bicycle) in Southern Humboldt (May)
  • Trucker's Parade around Humboldt Bay (December)
  • Westhaven Blackberry Festival (Last Sunday in July)
  • World-Championship Kinetic Sculpture Race (Memorial Day Weekend - Late May)

See also

References

  1. ^ Kerr, J.M. - The Codes of California. - 1905. - p.1043.
  2. ^ Humboldt County, California (City-Data.com)
  3. ^ Discover Humboldt Bay. - Humboldt Bay Harbor, Recreation and Conservation District. - Retrieved: 2008-07-13
  4. ^ Forestry, Forest Industry, and Forest Products Consumption in California. University of California, Davis: Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. - (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document). - Retrieved: 2008-03-30
  5. ^ Area of Old-Growth Forests in California, Oregon, and Washington. - United States Forest Service - USDA. - (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document). - Retrieved: 2007-11-18
  6. ^ Humboldt County Public Lands. - Humboldt County Community Development Services. - (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document). - Retrieved: 2007-11-19
  7. ^ Magnitude 6.5 - OFFSHORE NORTHERN CALIFORNIA, U.S.G.S. (January 9, 2010)
  8. ^ a b c d Van Kirk, Susie. - "Humboldt County: A Briefest of Histories". - Humboldt County Library. - (c/o Humboldt County Historical Society). - May 1999
  9. ^ a b c d Humboldt County State Designated Historical Landmarks. - California Historical Landmarks
  10. ^ Easthouse, Keith. - "The Chinese Expulsion: Looking Back on a Dark Episode". - North Coast Journal. - February 27, 2003. - Retrieved: 2006-11-26
  11. ^ US Census Micropolitan Areas.
  12. ^ http://www.safeaccessnow.net/humboldt.htm
  13. ^ Samuels, David. - A Reporter at Large: "Dr. Kush: How medical marijuana is transforming the weed industry". The New Yorker, July 28, 2008.
  14. ^ California State Statistical Abstract 2007.
  15. ^ Neil G. Sugihara, Jan W. Van Wagtendonk, Kevin E. Shaffer, JoAnn Fites-Kaufman, Andrea E. Thode (2006) Fire in California's Ecosystems, University of California Press, 596 pages ISBN 0-520-24605-5
  16. ^ C. Michael Hogan (2008) Toyon: Heteromeles arbutifolia, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg [1]

External links

40°48′N 123°48′W / 40.8°N 123.8°W / 40.8; -123.8


Genealogy

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Humboldt County, California
Seal of Humboldt County, California
Map
File:Map of California highlighting Humboldt County.png
Location in the state of California
Map of the USA highlighting California
California's location in the USA
Statistics
Founded 1853
Seat Eureka
Area
 - Total
 - Land
 - Water

 sq mikm²)
 sq mi ( km²)
 sq mi ( km²), 11.84%
wikipedia:Population
 - (2000)
 - Density

126518
Website: www.co.humboldt.ca.us

Humboldt County is located on the far North Coast of California. As of the 2000 census, the county had a population of 126,518. Most of this population resides in or near its county seat, Eureka, and the smaller college town of Arcata, both of which are located adjacent to Humboldt Bay. This largely rural county, situated primarily in Northern California's rugged North Coast Mountain Range, contains over forty per cent[1] of all remaining old growth Coast Redwood forests. Known for its beauty, Humboldt County features many parks and preserves devoted to the preservation of its forests and streams.

Contents

History

The original inhabitants of the area now known as Humboldt County include the Wiyot, Yurok, Hupa, Karuk, Chilula, Whilkut, and the southern Athabascans, including the Mattole and Nongatl.[2] Humboldt County was formed in 1853 from parts of Trinity County. The first recorded entry by people of European origin was a landing by the Spanish in 1775.[2]

The county derived its name from Humboldt Bay. The first recorded entry of Humboldt Bay by non-natives was an 1806 visit from a sea otter hunting party from Sitka employed by the Russian American Company.[2] The hunting party included Captain Jonathan Winship, an American, and some Aleut hunters.[2][3] The bay was not visited again by people of European origin until 1849 when Josiah Gregg's party visited.[3] In 1850, Douglas Ottinger and Hans Buhne entered the bay, naming it Humboldt in honor of the great naturalist and world explorer, Baron Alexander von Humboldt.

The area around Humboldt Bay was once solely inhabited by the Wiyot Indian tribe. One of the largest Wiyot villages, Tolowot, was located on Gunther Island (AKA Indian Island and AKA Bloody Island) in Humboldt Bay. Founded circa 900, it contains a shell midden 6 acres (24,000 m²) in size and 14 feet (4 m) deep. It was the site of the February 26, 1860 massacre of the Wiyot people that was recorded by Bret Harte, then living in Union, now called Arcata. Between 60 and 200 Wiyot men, women, and children were murdered that night. In 1998, musician Frank Black wrote and recorded a song about this event, called "Humboldt County Massacre." Tolowot is now an archaeological site, designated "Gunther Island Site 67", and is a National Historic Landmark.[3]

State historic landmarks in Humboldt County include Trinidad Head, Fort Humboldt, The Old Arrow Tree, Centerville Beach Cross, Camp Curtis, the Town of Trinidad, the City of Eureka, California's first drilled oil wells in Petrolia, the Jacoby Building, the Old Indian Village of Tsurai in Trinidad, the Arcata and Mad River Railroad Company, the Humboldt Harbor Historical District, and the town of Ferndale.[3]

On February 5 and February 6, 1885, Eureka's entire Chinese population of 300 men and 20 women were expelled after a gunfight between rival Chinese gangs (tongs) resulted in the wounding of a 12 year old boy and the death of 56 year old David Kendall, a Eureka City Councilman. After the shooting, an angry mob of 600 Eurekans met and then informed the Chinese that they were no longer wanted in Eureka and would be hanged if they were to stay in town longer than 3 p.m. the next day. They were put on two steamships and shipped to San Francisco. No-one was killed in the expulsion. Another Chinese expulsion occurred during 1906 in a cannery on the Eel River, in which 23 Chinese cannery workers were expelled after local loggers objected to their presence. However, some Chinese remained in the Orleans area, where some white landowners sheltered and purchased food for the Chinese mineworkers until after racial tension passed. Chinese did not return to the coastal cities until the 1950s.[4]

Climate

The coastal areas of the county experience wet, cool winters and dry, mild foggy summers. Winter highs usually range from the low 40s to the upper 50s, and winter lows on the coast usually range from the 40s into the 30s. The immediate coastal zone experiences a number of frosty nights in winter and early spring, though snowfall and hard freezes are rare. Winter rainstorms are frequent, with coastal areas averaging from 30 to 100 inches a year based on elevation. Summers on the coast are cool to mild with frequent fog. Yet just 10 or 20 miles inland one can find abundant sunshine and warmth. Thus coastal residents often head eastward in the summer to escape the gloomy cold summer fog. Summer highs range from the mid-50s to upper 60s, with lows in the upper 40s to mid-50s. Record highs at Woodley Island for most summer days are in the low to mid-70s.

Inland areas of the county also experience wet, cool winters. Snowfall is common at elevations over 3,000 ft. throughout the winter months. The main climatic difference between inland areas and the coast takes place in the summer months. Inland parts of Humboldt County experience average highs from the 80s to 90s depending on the elevation and distance from the ocean. 100 degree days are also common in eastern parts of the county including Orleans, Hoopa, and Willow Creek during the summer.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 10,495 km² (4,052 sq mi). 9,253 km² (3,572 sq mi) of it is land and 1,243 km² (480 sq mi) of it (11.84%) is water.

Located in Humboldt County is Cape Mendocino, the westernmost point in California, with a longitude of 124 degrees, 24 minutes and 30 seconds.

Bay

Humboldt Bay, California's second largest bay, is located on the coast at the midsection of the county. It is the center of the major cities for the county and the region.

Rivers

Mouth of Little River on the Pacific Coast of Humboldt County.

Humboldt County's major rivers include (in order of flow-cubic meters per second-from largest to smallest):

The list of other smaller rivers and at least one large creek include the following: Van Duzen, Mattole, Salmon, Elk, Bear, and Little rivers, and Redwood Creek.

Parks

National Park

Redwood National and State Parks (RNSP)

State Parks

Cities & Towns & Other places

Incorporated cities

Unincorporated towns and areas



Adjacent counties



Agriculture

Humboldt County is known for its impressive redwood trees, and many acres of private redwood timberland make Humboldt the top timber producer in California. The lush river bottoms adjacent to the ocean are renowned for producing rich, high-quality dairy products. Somewhat more inland the warmer valleys have historically produced abundant apples and other fruit. More recently vinyards have been planted in the Trinity, Klamath, and upper Eel river valleys. Humboldt County is also widely known for its high potency strains of marijuana, which are grown outdoors and increasingly indoors. Large scale "grows" are prosecuted, while others are able to grow under county guidelines for medicinal use under the auspices of California Proposition 215.

Transportation infrastructure

Major highways

Public transportation

Humboldt Transit Authority operates two fixed route transit bus systems:

  • Redwood Transit System provides intercity service to and within communities between Trinidad and Scotia, with occasional service to Manila and Loleta. HTA also offers service between McKinleyville or Arcata and Willow Creek and an express bus between Arcata and College of the Redwoods when classes are in session.
  • Eureka Transit Service provides local service on four scheduled routes (one hour headway) in Eureka and adjacent communities. Connections can be made to the Redwood Transit System at several places in Eureka.

The city of Arcata operates the Arcata and Mad River Transit System, with funding from Humboldt State University. A&MRTS provides fixed route local bus service on two scheduled routes (one hour headway) in Arcata and an additional route between the Valley West student ghetto and the university when classes are in session.

The city of Blue Lake and the Blue Lake Rancheria operates the Blue Lake Rancheria Transit Authority. Blue Lake Rancheria Transit provides fixed route intercity transit bus service (one hour headway) between Arcata and the Blue Lake Rancheria Indian Reservation and casino and local service within the city of Blue Lake.

Del Norte county's Redwood Coast Transit operates fixed route intercity transit bus service between Arcata and Crescent City or Smith River.

Airports

Arcata-Eureka Airport is located in McKinleyville (north of Arcata). Commercial flights are available. Other (general aviation) airports are located at Dinsmore, Garberville, Kneeland, Murray Field (Eureka) and Rohnerville (Fortuna).

Seaport

Port of Humboldt Bay

Government



Politics

Presidential election results
Year DEM GOP Others
2004 57.7% 37,988 39.0% 25,714 3.3% 2,184
2000 44.4% 24,851 41.5% 23,219 14.1% 7,902
1996 44.2% 24,628 35.5% 19,803 20.3% 11,326
1992 48.1% 28,854 30.5% 18,299 21.4% 12,868
1988 57.1% 29,781 41.2% 21,460 1.7% 905
1984 46.8% 25,217 51.6% 27,832 1.6% 842
1980 35.2% 17,113 49.4% 24,047 15.5% 7,532
1976 54.2% 23,500 41.6% 18,034 4.2% 1,838
1972 46.2% 21,132 48.8% 22,345 5.0% 2,286
1968 45.5% 16,476 46.2% 16,719 8.3% 3,019
1964 66.3% 25,515 33.5% 12,909 0.2% 75
1960 52.7% 20,391 46.7% 18,074 0.6% 226

Humboldt is a Democratic-leaning county in Presidential and congressional elections. The last Republican to win a majority in the county was Ronald Reagan in 1984.

Humboldt is part of California's 1st congressional district, which is held by Democrat Mike Thompson. In the state legislature, Humboldt is part of the 1st Assembly district, which is held by Democrat Patty Berg, and the 2nd Senate district, which is held by Democrat Pat Wiggins.
















Area organizations



Demographics

As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 126,518 people and 51,238 households in Humboldt County, and the population density was 14/km² (35/sq mi). By 2003, the population was projected to increase to 127,915. There were 55,912 housing units at an average density of 6/km² (16/sq mi). The racial makeup of the county was 84.71% White, 0.88% Black or African American, 5.72% Native American, 1.65% Asian, 0.19% Pacific Islander, 2.45% from other races, and 4.39% from two or more races. 6.49% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 13.3% were of German, 10.7% Irish, 10.3% English, 7.4% American and 5.7% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 92.1% spoke English and 4.6% Spanish as their first language.

There were 51,238 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.2% were non-families. 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.95.

In the county the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 12.4% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 97.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.6 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $31,226, and the median income for a family was $39,370. Males had a median income of $32,210 versus $23,942 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,203. About 12.9% of families and 19.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.5% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.

Educational and cultural institutions

The County is served by many school districts and a wide variety of schools. Most schools are under the direction of the Humboldt County Office of Education, but a few are not. The independent, private schools include St. Mary's Catholic School in Arcata and Salmon Creek Community School in rural southern Humboldt County. A complete list of Humboldt County Schools under the Humboldt County Office of Education includes charter schools and adult education.

Media

The longest-running paper is the Eureka Times-Standard, owned now by Media News Group, which has been in daily publication since 1854. Joining them in 2006 is the daily Eureka Reporter owned by local developer and conservative Republican activist Rob Arkley Jr.. Regional weekly and bi-weekly publications include the North Coast Journal, the McKinleyville Press, the Independent, The Lumberjack out of Humboldt State University, Arcata Eye the Humboldt Beacon, and the BigfootValleyNews.html Bigfoot Valley News - distributed from Weaverville, CA in the east to Mc Kinleyville CA then south to Fortuna CA. Also along HWY 96 from Willow Creek to Happy Camp, CA, primarily local coverage. Last but not least is the Hoopa People Newspaper, distributed weekly in the Klamath Trinity region and available by subscription to tribal members and other interested people.

There are also a number of tabloid circulars both on-line and in print which have a narrower focus than traditional print media. Humboldt County also has numerous zines and on-line blogs.

All of Humboldt County's television stations (KIEM, KVIQ, KAEF, KEET) are based in Eureka, although only KIEM continues to produce nightly news broadcasts originating locally.

Commercial, community and public radio continues to thrive in Humboldt County, with some stations bucking the national trend to produce local content and program a smattering of local music. For-profit stations include (KFMI, KRED, KXGO, KHUM, KSLG, KWPT and KATA). Non-profit stations include the Hoopa Tribe's KIDE, Redway's KMUD, Humboldt State University-based KHSU and KRFHand Jefferson Public Radio's KNHM and KNHT. On August 26, 2006 the Blue Ox Millworks and School of the Traditional Arts launched KKDS, a low power FM station focused on youth and community issues. There have also been a number of pirate radio stations such as Free Arcata Radio and Humboldt Free Radio, although none of these have broadcasted on a consistent basis or frequency for many years.

See also

Although the Avenue of the Giants is home to many giant Redwoods, it is not the home of the tallest tree. This distinction goes to Hyperion, a tree in Redwood National Park measuring 115.55 m [3] (379.1 feet).

Events

  • World-Championship Kinetic Sculpture Race (Memorial Day Weekend - Late May)
  • Arcata Bay Oyster Festival on the Arcata Plaza (June)
  • Blues by the bay in Eureka (July)
  • Humboldt County Fair in Ferndale (August)
  • Redwood Acres Fair in Eureka (June)
  • Redwood Coast Jazz Festival in Eureka (Last Weekend of March)
  • Reggae on the River on the Eel in Southern Humboldt (August)
  • Rhododendron Festival (and parade) in Eureka (April)
  • Roll on the Mattole at the Mattole Grange in Southern Humboldt (Summer)

References

  1. ^ United States Department of Agriculture, Area of Old-Growth Forests in California, Oregon, and Washington, URL retrieved November 18, 2007
  2. ^ a b c d Van Kirk, Susie. "Humboldt County: A Briefest of Histories" May 1999 Prepared for the Shades of Humboldt Project, Humboldt County Library Humboldt County Historical Society
  3. ^ a b c d CA Historical Landmarks List of Humboldt County State Designated Historical Landmarks
  4. ^ Easthouse, K. (2003, February 27). The Chinese Expulsion. Retrieved November 26, 2006 from http://www.northcoastjournal.com/022703/cover0227.html

External links

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Humboldt County, California. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
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This article uses material from the "Humboldt County, California" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.







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